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Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
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{{pp-30-500|small=yes}}{{short description|International organisation}}{{redirect|OIC}}{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2012}}







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{{native name>fr|Organisation de la coopération islamique}}|common_name = OIC|linking_name = the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation|image_flag = Flag of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.svg|image_coat = Emblem of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.svg|alt_coat = Logo of the OIC|motto = "To safeguard the interests and ensure the progress and well-being of Muslims"|image_map = OIC vector map.svg|map_width = 275px#41A317darkblue#FF0000|Suspended states}}|org_type = Religious|membership_type = MembershipMember states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation>57 member states|admin_center_type = Administrative centre (Headquarters){{flagdeco|Saudi Arabia}} Jeddah, Saudi Arabia}}|languages_type = Official languagesArabic language>English language>French}}Secretary-General}}|leader_name1 = Yousef Al-Othaimeen|established_event1 = Charter signed|established_date1 = 25 September 1969established_date2= |official_website = www.oic-oci.org|population_estimate = 1.81 billion|population_estimate_year = 2018|GDP_PPP = $27.949 trillion|GDP_PPP_rank = |GDP_PPP_year =2019 |GDP_PPP_per_capita = $19,451|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = |GDP_nominal =$9.904 trillion|GDP_nominal_rank = |GDP_nominal_year =2019 |GDP_nominal_per_capita =$9,361 |GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = |Gini_year = |Gini_change = |Gini = |Gini_ref =HDI_change = increase |HDI = 0.672 |HDI_ref = HDI_rank=122ndarea_km2=today=}}{{Life in the OIC}}(File:Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Jeddah.jpg|thumb|Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Head-office Building, Jeddah )The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; ; ) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.8 billion as of 2015 with 53 countries being Muslim-majority countries. The organisation states that it is "the collective voice of the Muslim world" and works to "safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony".The OIC has permanent delegations to the United Nations and the European Union. The official languages of the OIC are Arabic, English, and French.

History

Al-Aqsa fire

On 21 August 1969 a fire was started in the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. Amin al-Husseini, the former Mufti of Jerusalem, called the arson a "Jewish crime" and called for all Muslim heads of state to convene a summit.BOOK, Ciment, James, Hill, Kenneth, Encyclopedia of Conflicts Since World War II, Volume 1, Routledge., 185–6,weblink 18 November 2017, (The fire, which "destroyed part of the old wooden roof and a 800-year-old pulpit"WEB, LIEBER, DOV, PA, Hamas [allege] Jews planned 1969 burning of Al-Aqsa Mosque,weblink Times of Israel, 17 November 2017, 22 August 2017, was blamed on the mental illness of the perpetrator — Australian Christian fundamentalist Denis Michael Rohan — by Israel, and on Zionists and Zionism in general by the Islamic conference.)

Islamic Conference

On 25 September 1969, an Islamic Conference, a summit of representatives of 24 Muslim majority countries (most of the representatives being heads of state), was held in Rabat, Morocco.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131030064136weblink">About OIC. Oic-oci.org. Retrieved on 2014-11-07. A resolution was passed stating that "Muslim government would consult with a view to promoting among themselves close cooperation and mutual assistance in the economic, scientific, cultural and spiritual fields, inspired by the immortal teachings of Islam."Six months later in March 1970, the First Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers was held in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.WEB, The organization "Islamic Conference" (OIC),weblink elibrary, 17 November 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170103234029weblink">weblink 3 January 2017, dead, dmy-all, In 1972, the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC, now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation) was founded.Esposito, 1998, p.164.While the al-Aqsa fire is regarded as one of the catalysts for the formation of the OIC, many Muslims have aspired to a pan-Islamic institution that would serve the common political, economic, and social interests of the ummah (Muslim community) since the 19th century. In particular, the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the Caliphate after World War I left a vacuum.

Goals

(File:Flag of OIC.svg|thumb|200px|Old flag of the OIC)According to its charter, the OIC aims to preserve Islamic social and economic values; promote solidarity amongst member states; increase cooperation in social, economic, cultural, scientific, and political areas; uphold international peace and security; and advance education, particularly in the fields of science and technology.The emblem of the OIC contains three main elements that reflect its vision and mission as incorporated in its new Charter. These elements are: the Kaaba, the Globe, and the Crescent.On 5 August 1990, 45 foreign ministers of the OIC adopted the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam to serve as a guidance for the member states in the matters of human rights in as much as they are compatible with the Sharia, or Quranic Law.WEB,weblink Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, 5 August 1990, U.N. GAOR, World Conf. on Hum. Rts., 4th Sess., Agenda Item 5, U.N. Doc. A/CONF.157/PC/62/Add.18 (1993) [English translation], University of Minnesota, 5 August 1990, 25 March 2011, In March 2008, the OIC conducted a formal revision of its charter. The revised charter set out to promote human rights, fundamental freedoms, and good governance in all member states. The revisions also removed any mention of the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam. Within the revised charter, the OIC has chosen to support the Charter of the United Nations and international law, without mentioning the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.WEB, OIC Charter,weblink 8 December 2015, Ch 1, Art 1, Sect 7,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150911151816weblink">weblink 11 September 2015, dead, dmy-all,

Refugees

According to the UNHCR, OIC countries hosted 18 million refugees by the end of 2010. Since then OIC members have absorbed refugees from other conflicts, including the uprising in Syria. In May 2012, the OIC addressed these concerns at the "Refugees in the Muslim World" conference in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.NEWS, OIC to hold conference on refugees in Muslim world in Turkmenistan,weblink Zaman (newspaper), Zaman, 24 April 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120503181729weblink">weblink 3 May 2012, dmy-all,

New name and emblem

On 28 June 2011 during the 38th Council of Foreign Ministers meeting (CFM) in Astana, Kazakhstan, the organisation changed its name from Organisation of the Islamic Conference (; ) to its current name.WEB,weblink OIC RIGHTLY CHANGES ITS NAME,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141023092323weblink">weblink 23 October 2014, Pakistan Observer, The OIC also changed its logo at this time.

Member states

{{Supranational Islamic Bodies|align=right|size=700px}}The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation has 57 members, 56 of which are also member states of the United Nations, the exception being Palestine. Some members, especially in West Africa and South America, are – though with large Muslim populations – not necessarily Muslim majority countries. A few countries with significant Muslim populations, such as Russia and Thailand, sit as Observer States.The collective population of OIC member states is over 1.9 billion as of 2018.

Africa

{hide}columns-list|colwidth=22em|
  • {{flag|Algeria{edih}
  • {{flag|Benin}}
  • {{flag|Burkina Faso}}
  • {{flag|Cameroon}}
  • {{flag|Chad}}
  • {{flag|Comoros}}
  • {{flag|Djibouti}}
  • {{flag|Egypt}}
  • {{flag|Gabon}}
  • {{flag|Gambia}}
  • {{flag|Guinea}}
  • {{flag|Guinea-Bissau}}
  • {{flag|Ivory Coast}}
  • {{flag|Libya}}
  • {{flag|Mali}}
  • {{flag|Mauritania}}
  • {{flag|Morocco}}
  • {{flag|Mozambique}}
  • {{flag|Niger}}
  • {{flag|Nigeria}}
  • {{flag|Senegal}}
  • {{flag|Sierra Leone}}
  • {{flag|Somalia}}
  • {{flag|Sudan}}
  • {{flag|Togo}}
  • {{flag|Tunisia}}
  • {{flag|Uganda}}
}}

Asia

{hide}columns-list|colwidth=22em|
  • {{flag|Afghanistan{edih}
  • {{flag|Azerbaijan}}
  • {{flag|Bahrain}}
  • {{flag|Bangladesh}}
  • {{flag|Brunei}}
  • {{flag|Indonesia}}
  • {{flag|Iran}}
  • {{flag|Iraq}}
  • {{flag|Jordan}}
  • {{flag|Kazakhstan}}
  • {{flag|Kuwait}}
  • {{flag|Kyrgyzstan}}
  • {{flag|Lebanon}}
  • {{flag|Malaysia}}
  • {{flag|Maldives}}
  • {{flag|Oman}}
  • {{flag|Pakistan}}
  • {{flag|Palestine}}
  • {{flag|Qatar}}
  • {{flag|Saudi Arabia}}
  • {{flag|Syria}} (Suspended)WEB, Alsharif, Asma, Organization of Islamic Cooperation suspends Syria, U.S., 16 August 2012,weblink 16 February 2019,
  • {{flag|Tajikistan}}
  • {{flag|Turkey}}
  • {{flag|Turkmenistan}}
  • {{flag|United Arab Emirates}}
  • {{flag|Uzbekistan}}
  • {{flag|Yemen}}
}}

Europe

{hide}columns-list|colwidth=22em|
  • {{flag|Albania{edih}
}}

South America

{hide}columns-list|colwidth=22em|
  • {{flag|Guyana{edih}
  • {{flag|Suriname}}
}}

Positions

The Parliamentary Union of the OIC Member States (PUOICM) was established in Iran in 1999, and its head office is situated in Tehran. Only OIC members are entitled to membership in the union.WEB,weblink وب سایتهای ایرنا - Irna, 23 March 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120217191642weblink">weblink 17 February 2012, dmy-all, On 27 June 2007, then-United States President George W. Bush announced that the United States would establish an envoy to the OIC. Bush said of the envoy, "Our special envoy will listen to and learn from representatives from Muslim states, and will share with them America's views and values."NEWS, Bush to Name Envoy to Islamic Conference,weblink 2 June 2007, Ben, Feller, The Guardian, London,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071202125420weblink">weblink 2 December 2007, dead, dmy-all, {{As of|June 2015}}, Arsalan Suleman is acting special envoy. He was appointed on 13 February 2015.WEB,weblink Arsalan Suleman, US Department of State, 3 July 2015, In an investigation of the accuracy of a series of chain emails, Snopes.com reported that during the October 2003{{spaced ndash}}April 2004 session of the General Assembly, 17 individual members of the OIC voted against the United States 88% of the time.WEB,weblink United Condemnations, Snopes, 3 December 2007, 18 July 2012, The OIC, on 28 March 2008, joined the criticism of the film Fitna by Dutch lawmaker Geert Wilders, which features disturbing images of violent acts juxtaposed with alleged verses from the Quran.NEWS,weblink CNN, Muslims condemn Dutch lawmaker's film, 20 May 2010, In March 2015, the OIC announced its support for the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen against the Shia Houthis.NEWS,weblink Arab News, OIC supports military action in Yemen, 27 March 2015,

Israeli–Palestinian conflict

The OIC supports a two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.The OIC has called for boycott of Israeli products in effort to pressure Israel into ending the occupation of the Palestinian territories.WEB,weblink OIC calls for ban on Israeli products, WEB,weblink islamic office for the boycott of israel, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151005225104weblink">weblink 5 October 2015, dmy-all, There was a meeting in Conakry in 2013. Secretary-General Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu said that foreign ministers would discuss the possibility of cutting ties with any state that recognised Jerusalem as the capital of Israel or that moves its embassy to its environs.WEB,weblink Middle East Monitor, OIC proposes severing ties with countries that recognise Jerusalem as Israel's capital, 10 February 2014, 22 November 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131124002510weblink">weblink 24 November 2013, dead, dmy-all, In December 2017, the extraordinary meeting held to response Donald Trump's decision on recognizing Jerusalem, resulting "Istanbul Declaration on Freedom for Al Quds."http://www.mfa.gov.tr/site_media/html/oic-extraordinary-summit-istanbul-declaration-on-freedom-for-al-quds.pdfIn September 2019, the OIC condemned Benjamin Netanyahu's plans to annex the eastern portion of the occupied West Bank known as the Jordan Valley.NEWS, UN condemns Israeli PM's West Bank annexation plans,weblink CBC News, 11 September 2019,

Relationship with India

{{Further information|Islam in India}}Islam is the second-largest religion in India after Hinduism, with roughly 15% of the country's population or 201 million people identifying as adherents of Islam (2018 estimate).WEB,weblink Religion Data - Population of Hindu / Muslim / Sikh / Christian - Census 2011 India, www.census2011.co.in, 2017-07-28, NEWS,weblink Muslim population growth slows, The Hindu, 2017-07-28, en, NEWS,weblink India has 72.8% Hindus, 18 to 20% Muslims, says 2011 census data on religion, 2017-08-26, Firstpost, 2017-07-28, en-US, It makes India the country with the largest Muslim population outside Muslim-majority countries. However, India's relationship with Pakistan has always been tense and has a direct impact on India-OIC relations, with Pakistan being a founding member of the OIC. India has pushed for the OIC to accept India as a member, arguing that about 11% of all Muslims worldwide live in India. Pakistan opposes India's entry into the OIC.WEB, Raymond, Chickrie,weblink Eight Countries Seek OIC Membership, Caribbean Muslims, 23 January 2011, 29 November 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120118195555weblink">weblink 18 January 2012, dead, dmy-all, WEB,weblink {{-', Pak will match India weapons{{'-}}|work=The Indian Express|date=3 July 2005|accessdate=29 November 2011}}The reason for opposition to India's entry into the OIC cited by Pakistan is due to the human rights issues and problems faced by the Kashmiris in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.JOURNAL, Orakzai, S., 2010, Organisation of The Islamic Conference and Conflict Resolution: Case Study of the Kashmir Dispute. Pakistan Horizon, 63(2), 83, 24711087, India has pushed against the OIC for referring to the state of Jammu and Kashmir as "occupied by India".WEB, Wahab, Siraj,weblink OIC urged to press India on Kashmir issue, Arab News, 30 June 2011, 25 July 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110726132323weblink">weblink 26 July 2011, The Muslim world has been supporting Pakistan rather than India in case of dissentions between the two. However, the role of the OIC concerning the Kashmir issue is that India has the largest Muslim minority and those people have shown desire to join the OIC. While the First Islamic Summit held in 1969 in Rabat did not have the issue of the Kashmir people, granting the 60 million Muslims living in India membership in the OIC was discussed. The head of the Indian delegation, the then ambassador to Morocco, even addressed the gathering. While General Yahya Khan of Pakistan did agree, he showed his extreme displeasure at the induction of non muslim representative. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmad, who was to head the Indian delegation was on his way to Rabata. Yahya Khan took a stand against India and threatened to boycott summit which caused a major controversy. As such Indo-Pak differences led Islamabad to keep India out for the final session of the 1969 conference and all summits thereafter.NEWS,weblink Why not India in OIC, Kjaleej Times, 10 October 2009, 1 March 2019, Abdulaziz, Sager, A suicide attack on Indian Forces on 14 February 2019, followed by Indian Air Strikes subsequently led to a military stand off between India and Pakistan.Indian Foreign Minister Sushma Swaraj was invited in OIC.NEWS,weblink India’s ‘global stature’ and ‘islamic component’ help it get OIC invite, 25 February 2019, 1 March 2019, Economic Times, Pakistan rejected this development and demanded the expulsion of India from the summit citing Kashmir issue and Indian violation of airspace of Pakistan, while India has stated that it has proofs for its strikes in the form of SAR imagery.NEWS,weblink Indian Airforce Force official statement, Gupta, Kriti, 2 March 2019, India Times, 5 March 2019, JOURNAL, Orakzai, S., 2010, Organisation of The Islamic Conference and Conflict Resolution: Case Study of the Kashmir Dispute. Pakistan Horizon, 63(2), 88, 24711087, OIC called emergency meeting of Kashmir contact group on Pakistan's request, the meeting was held on 26 February 2019.WEB,weblink OIC calls emergency meeting of Kashmir contact group on Pakistan's request, Siddiqui, Naveed, 2019-02-25, DAWN.COM, en, 2019-02-25, OIC advised restraint to Pakistan and India.NEWS,weblink OIC slams strikes, advises India and Pakistan restraint, 27 February 2019, 1 March 2019, Times of India, For the first time in five decades, the United Arab Emirates invited foreign minister of India Sushma Swaraj to attend the inaugural plenary 46th meeting of OIC foreign ministers held in Abu Dhabi on 1 and 2 March overruling strong objections by Pakistan.NEWS,weblink India invited as 'guest of honour' to OIC meet, Sushma Swaraj to attend, Live Mint, 24 February 2019, 1 March 2019, Elizabeth, Roche, Pakistan boycotted the meet objecting to the invitation to India. Swaraj addressed the meet raising concern for spreading terrorism.

Cartoons of Muhammad

Cartoons of Muhammad, published in a Danish newspaper in September 2005, were found offensive by a number of Muslims. Third Extraordinary Session of the Islamic Summit Conference in December 2005 condemned publication of the cartoons, resulting in broader coverage of the issue by news media in Muslim countries. Subsequently, violent demonstrations throughout the Islamic world resulted in several deaths.NEWS, How a meeting of leaders in Mecca set off the cartoon wars around the world, The Independent, 10 February 2006,weblink London, Daniel, Howden, David, Hardaker, Stephen, Castle, 14 July 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080708204534weblink">weblink 8 July 2008, dmy-all,

Human rights

OIC created the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam. While proponents claim it is not an alternative to the UDHR, but rather complementary to it, Article 24 states that "all the rights and freedoms stipulated in this Declaration are subject to the Islamic Shari'ah" and Article 25 follows with "the Islamic Shari'ah is the only source of reference for the explanation or clarification of any of the articles of this Declaration." Attempts to have it adopted by the United Nations Human Rights Council have met increasing criticism, because of its contradiction of the UDHR, including from liberal Muslim groups."Human Rights Brief" United Nations Update {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090325023127weblink |date=25 March 2009 }} Accessed 10 March 2009. Critics of the CDHR state bluntly that it is "manipulation and hypocrisy," "designed to dilute, if not altogether eliminate, civil and political rights protected by international law" and attempts to "circumvent these principles [of freedom and equality]."Fatema Mernissi: Islam and Democracy, Cambridge 2002, Perseus Books, p. 67.Ann Mayer, "An Assessment of Human Rights Schemes," in Islam and Human Rights, p. 175. Westview 1999, Westview Press.Robert Carle: "Revealing and Concealing: Islamist Discourse on Human Rights," Human rights review, vol:6, No 3 April–June 2005.Human Rights Watch says that OIC has "fought doggedly" and successfully within the United Nations Human Rights Council to shield states from criticism, except when it comes to criticism of Israel. For example, when independent experts reported violations of human rights in the 2006 Lebanon War, "state after state from the OIC took the floor to denounce the experts for daring to look beyond Israeli violations to discuss Hezbollah's as well." OIC demands that the council "should work cooperatively with abusive governments rather than condemn them." HRW responds that this works with those who are willing to cooperate; others exploit the passivity.How to Put U.N. Rights Council Back on Track Human Rights Watch, 2 November 2006.The UN Human Rights Council Human Rights Watch Testimony Delivered to the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 25 July 2007.The OIC has been criticised for failing to discuss the treatment of ethnic minorities within member countries, such as the oppression of the Kurds in Syria and Turkey, the Ahwaz in Iran, the Hazaras in Afghanistan, the 'Al-Akhdam' in Yemen, or the Berbers in Algeria.BOOK,weblink Multicultural Odysseys: Navigating the New International Politics of Diversity, Oxford University Press, New York, 978-0-19-928040-7, 2007, 308, Will, Kymlicka, 25 March 2011, Along with the revisions of the OIC's charter in 2008, the member states created the Independent Permanent Human Rights Commission (IPHRC). The IPHRC is an advisory body, independent from the OIC, composed of eighteen individuals from a variety of educational and professional backgrounds. The IPHRC has the power to monitor human rights within the member states and facilitates the integration of human rights into all OIC mandates. The IPHRC also aids in the promotion of political, civil, and economic rights in all member states.JOURNAL, CISMAS, I., 2011, Statute of the OIC independent permanent human rights commission, introductory note. International Legal Materials, 50(6), 1148–1160., 10.5305/intelegamate.50.6.1148, In September 2017, the Independent Human Rights Commission (IPHRC) of the OIC strongly condemned the human rights violations against the Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar.WEB,weblink OIC condemns abuses against Rohingya in Myanmar, Arab News, 5 September 2017, In December 2018, the OIC raised the issue of China's Xinjiang re-education camps and human rights abuses against the Uyghur Muslim minority.NEWS, A wall of silence around China's oppression of its Muslim minority is starting to crumble,weblink Business Insider, 2 March 2019,

LGBT rights

{{see also|LGBT in Islam}}In March 2012, the United Nations Human Rights Council held its first discussion of discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity, following the 2011 passage of a resolution supporting LGBT rights proposed by the Republic of South Africa.WEB,weblink List of Panel Discussions to take place during 19th session, Pakistan's representative addressed the session on behalf of the OIC, denouncing the discussion and questioning the concept of sexual orientation, which he said was being used to promote "licentious behaviour ... against the fundamental teachings of various religions, including Islam". He stated that the council should not discuss the topic again. Most Arab countries and some African ones later walked out of the session.NEWS, Islamic states, Africans walk out on UN gay panel,weblink 8 March 2012, Robert, Evans, Reuters, 18 July 2012, NEWS, Historic UN Session On Gay Rights Marked By Arab Walkout,weblink 7 March 2012, Richard, Solash, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Agence France-Presse, 18 July 2012, South Africa leads United Nations on gay rights | News | National | Mail & Guardian. Mg.co.za (2012-03-09). Retrieved on 2013-09-27.Nonetheless, OIC members Albania, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, and Sierra Leone have signed a UN Declaration supporting LGBT rights in the General Assembly.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 25 April 2014, Over 80 Nations Support Statement at Human Rights Council on LGBT Rights » US Mission Geneva. Geneva.usmission.gov. Retrieved on 2013-09-27. Whilst Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan and Turkey had legalized homosexuality.In May 2016, 57 countries including Egypt, Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates from the Organization of Islamic Cooperation requested the removal of LGBT associations from 2016 High Level Meeting on Ending AIDS, sparking protests by the United States, Canada, the European Union and LGBT communities.WEB, James Rothwell,weblink Muslim countries ban gay and transgender reps from United Nations meeting on Aids, Telegraph, 18 May 2016, 2016-05-18, NEWS, Nichols, Michelle,weblink Muslim states block gay groups from U.N. AIDS meeting; U.S. protests, Reuters, 2013-04-04, 2016-05-18,

Science and technology

{{unreferenced section|date=February 2018}}The Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) held its first science and technology summit at the level of head of state and government in Astana, Republic of Kazakhstan, on 10–11 September 2017.

Astana Declaration

The Astana Declaration is a policy guidance adopted by OIC members at the Astana Summit. The Astana Declaration commits members to increase investment in science and technology, education, eradicate extreme poverty, and implement UN Sustainable Development Goals.WEB, ASTANA DECLARATION,weblink OIC, 15 September 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170916052837weblink">weblink 16 September 2017, dead, dmy-all,

Non-state terrorism

In 1999, OIC adopted the OIC Convention on Combatting International Terrorism.WEB,weblink OIC Convention on Combating International Terrorism, OICUN, 25 March 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110718212122weblink">weblink 18 July 2011, dead, dmy-all, Human Rights Watch has noted that the definition of terrorism in article 1 describes "any act or threat of violence carried out with the aim of, among other things, imperiling people’s honour, occupying or seizing public or private property, or threatening the stability, territorial integrity, political unity or sovereignty of a state." HRW views this as vague, ill-defined and including much that is outside the generally accepted understandings of the concept of terrorism. In HRW's view, it labels, or could easily be used to label, as terrorist actions, acts of peaceful expression, association, and assembly.Organisation of the Islamic Conference: Improve and Strengthen the 1999 OIC Convention on Combating International Terrorism Human Rights Watch 11 March 2008.Legal scholar Ben Saul of University of Sydney argues that the definition is subjective and ambiguous and concludes that there is "serious danger of the abusive use of terrorist prosecutions against political opponents" and others.Ben Saul: Branding Enemies: Regional Legal Responses to Terrorism in Asia ‘’Asia-Pacific Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, 2008’’ Sydney Law School Legal Studies Research Paper No. 08/127, October 2008.Furthermore, HRW is concerned by OIC's apparent unwillingness to recognise as terrorism acts that serve causes endorsed by their member states. Article 2 reads: "Peoples' struggle including armed struggle against foreign occupation, aggression, colonialism, and hegemony, aimed at liberation and self-determination." HRW has suggested to OIC that they embrace "longstanding and universally recognised international human rights standards", a request that has as yet not led to any results.{{citation needed|date=April 2012}}Contradictions between OIC's and other UN members' understanding of terrorism has stymied efforts at the UN to produce a comprehensive convention on international terrorism.Patrick Goodenough: UN Anti-Terror Effort Bogged Down Over Terrorism Definition CNSNew, 2 September 2008. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081207195652weblink |date=7 December 2008 }}During a meeting in Malaysia in April 2002, delegates discussed terrorism but failed to reach a definition of it. They rejected, however, any description of the Palestinian fight with Israel as terrorism. Their declaration was explicit: "We reject any attempt to link terrorism to the struggle of the Palestinian people in the exercise of their inalienable right to establish their independent state with Al-Quds Al-Shrif (Jerusalem) as its capital." In fact, at the outset of the meeting, the OIC countries signed a statement praising the Palestinians and their "blessed (Wikt:intifada|intifada)." The word terrorism was restricted to describe Israel, whom they condemned for "state terrorism" in their war with the Palestinian people.The OIC's blind eye to terror The Japan Times 9 April 2002. {{dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}At the 34th Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers (ICFM), an OIC section, in May 2007, the foreign ministers termed Islamophobia "the worst form of terrorism".‘Islamophobia Worst Form of Terrorism’ Arab News 17 May 2007.

Dispute with Thailand

Thailand has responded to OIC criticism of human rights abuses in the Muslim majority provinces of Pattani, Yala, and Narathiwat in the south of the country. In a statement issued on 18 October 2005, secretary-general Ihsanoglu vocalised concern over the continuing conflict in the south that "claimed the lives of innocent people and forced the migration of local people out of their places".WEB,weblink Ihsanoglu urges OIC Member States to accord greater attention to Muslim minority issues, Patanipost.com, 25 March 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110715051741weblink">weblink 15 July 2011, He also stressed that the Thai government's security approach to the crisis would aggravate the situation and lead to continued violence.On 18–19 April 2009, the exiled Patani leader Abu Yasir Fikri (see Patani United Liberation Organisation) was invited to the OIC to speak about the conflict and present a solution to end the violence between the Thai government and the ethnically Malay Muslims living in the socioeconomically neglected south, that has been struggling against Thai assimilation policy and for self governance since it became annexed by Thailand in 1902. Fikri presented a six-point solution at the conference in Jiddah that included obtaining the same basic rights as other groups when it came to right of language, religion, and culture. He also suggested that Thailand give up its discriminatory policies against the Patani people and allow Patani to at least be allowed the same self-governing rights as other regions in Thailand already have, citing that this does not go against the Thai constitution since it has been done in other parts of Thailand and that it is a matter of political will.WEB,weblink Welcome to Patani Post! PULO President invited to speak at OIC meeting 18–19 April 2009, Patani Post, 25 March 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110316105054weblink">weblink 16 March 2011, He also criticised the Thai government’s escalation of violence by arming and creating Buddhist militia groups and questioned their intentions. He added Thai policies of not investigating corruption, murder, and human rights violations perpetrated by Bangkok-led administration and military personnel against the Malay Muslim population was an obstacle for achieving peace and healing the deep wounds of being treated as third-class citizens.WEB,weblink Thailand, Amnesty International, 25 March 2011, Thailand responded to this criticism over its policies. The Thai foreign minister, Kantathi Suphamongkhon, said: "We have made it clear to the OIC several times that the violence in the deep South is not caused by religious conflict and the government grants protection to all of our citizens no matter what religion they embrace." The Foreign Ministry issued a statement dismissing the OIC’s criticism and accusing it of disseminating misperceptions and misinformation about the situation in the southern provinces. "If the OIC secretariat really wants to promote the cause of peace and harmony in the three southern provinces of Thailand, the responsibility falls on the OIC secretariat to strongly condemn the militants, who are perpetrating these acts of violence against both Thai Muslims and Thai Buddhists."weblink {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080823154242weblink|date=23 August 2008}}WEB,weblink OIC Resolution, Patani Post, 25 March 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110715051807weblink">weblink 15 July 2011, HRWWEB,weblink Thailand, Human Rights Watch, 25 March 2011, and Amnesty International have echoed the same concerns as OIC, rebuffing Thailand's attempts to dismiss the issue.

Notable meetings

A number of OIC meetings have attracted global attention.

Ninth meeting of PUOICM

The ninth meeting of Parliamentary Union of the OIC member states (PUOICM) was held on 15 and 16 February 2007 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.weblink {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151016074912weblink|date=16 October 2015}} The speaker of Malaysia's House of Representatives, Ramli bin Ngah Talib, delivered a speech at the beginning of the inaugural ceremony. OIC secretary-general Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu said prior to the meeting that one main agenda item was stopping Israel from continuing its excavation at the Western Wall near the Al-Aqsa Mosque, Islam's third holiest site.WEB,weblink Malaysian National News Agency, Bernama, 25 March 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070929090226weblink">weblink 29 September 2007, The OIC also discussed how it might send peacekeeping troops to Muslim states, as well as the possibility of a change in the name of the body and its charter. Additionally, return of the sovereignty right to the Iraqi people along with withdrawal of foreign troops from Iraq was another one of the main issues on the agenda.weblink {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150906005234weblink|date=6 September 2015}}Pakistani Foreign Minister Khurshid Mahmud Kasuri told reporters on 14 February 2007 that the secretary general of OIC and foreign ministers of seven "like-minded Muslim countries" would meet in Islamabad on 25 February 2007 following meetings of President Musharraf with heads of key Muslim countries to discuss "a new initiative" for the resolution of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Kasuri said this would be a meeting of foreign ministers of key Muslim countries to discuss and prepare for a summit in Makkah Al Mukarramah to seek the resolution of the Arab–Israeli conflict.weblink {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081007071428weblink|date=7 October 2008}}

IPHRC Trip to Washington DC

In December 2012, the IPHRC met in Washington, DC for the first time. The IPHRC held meetings at the National Press Club, Capitol Hill and Freedom House discussing the issues of human rights defense in the OIC member states. During their roundtable discussion with Freedom House the IPHRC emphasised the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the rejection of the Cairo Declaration by the OIC.WEB,weblink Upcoming Event: Roundtable Discussion with the OIC's Human Rights Commission, Freedom House, 13 December 2012, 21 January 2013,

Observer Status dispute

The September 2014's high-level Summit of the OIC, in New York, ended without adopting any resolutions or conclusions, for the first time in several years in the modern history of the organization, due to a dispute regarding the status of one of its Observer states. Egypt, Iran and the United Arab Emirates have demanded that the OIC remove the term ‘Turkish Cypriot State’ in reference to the unrecognized Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), which has observer status within the organization. Egypt’s president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi insisted that any reference to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus or Turkish Cypriot State" was unacceptable and was ultimately the reason for the OIC not adopting any resolutions or conclusions in the 2014 summit.weblink The World Bulletin news: Egypt's Sisi demands Turkish Cypriots removed from OICweblink Egypt's Sisi tells Turks to get out of Cyprusweblink" title="https:/-/web.archive.org/web/20141012144555weblink">weblink OIC says «NO» to «Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus»

Structure and organisation

{{more citations needed|section|date=September 2017}}{{further|Parliamentary Union of the OIC Member States}}File:13. Session of the Islamic Summit Conference.jpg|thumb|350px|Session of the Islamic Summit Conference in IstanbulIstanbulThe OIC system consists of:

Islamic Summit

The largest meeting, attended by the kings and the heads of state and government of the member states, convenes every three years.{{Clarify|the last one took place when?|date=July 2011}} The Islamic Summit takes policy decisions and provide guidance on all issues pertaining to the realisation of the objectives as provided for in the Charter and consider other issues of concern to the Member States and the Ummah.Welcome to Organisation of Islamic Cooperation official website. Oic-oci.org. Retrieved on 2013-09-27. {{dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}

Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers

Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers meets once a year to examine a progress report on the implementation of its decisions taken within the framework of the policy defined by the Islamic Summit.

Secretary General

The Secretary General is elected by the Council of Foreign Ministers for a period of five years, renewable once. The Secretary-General is elected from among nationals of the Member States in accordance with the principles of equitable geographical distribution, rotation and equal opportunity for all Member States with due consideration to competence, integrity and experience.Welcome to Organisation of Islamic Cooperation official website. Oic-oci.org. Retrieved on 2013-09-27. {{dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}

Permanent Secretariat

The Permanent Secretariat is the executive organ of the Organisation, entrusted with the implementation of the decisions of the two preceding bodies, and is located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The Secretary General of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) is Dr. Yousef A. Al-Othaimeen. He received his office on, Tuesday, 29 November 2016

Subsidiary organisations

File:Five Fundamentals Gate, Islamic University of Technology.jpg|thumb|The Islamic University of Technology was set up by the OIC in BangladeshBangladesh

Specialised institutions

Affiliated institutions

Criticism

OIC has been criticised by many Muslims for its lack of real engagement and solutions for Muslim countries in crisis.WEB,weblink OIC: 40 Years of Frustrations {{!, {{!}} Al Jazeera|date=2018-08-01|website=web.archive.org|access-date=2019-06-17}} It is said to have made progress in social and academic terms but not politically.WEB,weblink OIC: 40 Years of Frustrations {{!, {{!}} Al Jazeera|date=2018-08-01|website=web.archive.org|access-date=2019-06-17}}

Secretaries-General

{| class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%; text-align:left;"Secretaries-General of the Organisation of Islamic CooperationWEB,weblink General Secretariat, www.oic-oci.org, ! No. !! Name !! Country of origin !! Took office !! Left officeTunku Abdul Rahman >Malaysia}} 1970 1974Hassan Al-Touhami >Egypt}} 1974 1975Amadou Karim Gaye >Senegal}} 1975 1979Habib Chatty >Tunisia}} 1979 1984Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada >Pakistan}} 1984 1988Hamid Algabid >Niger}} 1988 1996Azeddine Laraki >Morocco}} 1996 2000Abdelouahed Belkeziz >Morocco}} 2000 2004Ekmeleddin Ä°hsanoÄŸlu >Turkey}} 2004 2014Iyad bin Amin Madani >Saudi Arabia}} 2014 2016Yousef Al-Othaimeen >Saudi Arabia}} 2016 Current

Islamic Summits

{| border="1" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0" style="margin: 1em 1em 1em 0; background: #f9f9f9; border: 1px #aaa solid; border-collapse: collapse;"! Number! Date! Country! Place| 1st| 22–25 September 1969Morocco}}| RabatARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130626060300/HTTP://FORMUN.FCCSOCIETIES.ORG/WP-CONTENT/UPLOADS/2013/01/ISLAMIC_SUMMIT_1974_FORMUN_2013.PDFARCHIVE-DATE=26 JUNE 2013ACCESSDATE=1 APRIL 2013, | 22–24 February 1974Pakistan}}| LahorePUBLISHER=JANGURL-STATUS=DEADARCHIVEDATE=26 MARCH 2014, dmy-all, | 25–29 January 1981Saudi Arabia}}| Mecca & Ta’if| 4th| 16–19 January 1984Morocco}}| CasablancaPUBLISHER=IRCICAARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140326163640/HTTP://WWW.IRCICA.ORG/CONTENT/IRC529.ASPXURL-STATUS=DEAD, dmy-all, | 26–29 January 1987Kuwait}}| Kuwait CityPUBLISHER=IFRC, 6 February 2013, | 9–11 December 1991Senegal}}| Dakar| 7th| 13–15 December 1994Morocco}}| Casablanca| 23–24 March 1997Pakistan}}| Islamabad| 8th| 9–11 December 1997Iran}}| Tehran| 9th| 12–13 November 2000Qatar}}| DohaTITLE=OIC MEET IN DOHA: MUDSLINGING DOMINATED THE OIC CONFERENCE IN QATARACCESSDATE=1 APRIL 2013| 4–5 March 2003Qatar}}| Doha| 10th| 16–17 October 2003Malaysia}}| PutrajayaThird Extraordinary Session of the Islamic Summit Conference>3rd Extraordinary| 7–8 December 2005Saudi Arabia}}| MeccaTITLE=KARZAI FLIES TO SENEGAL FOR 11TH OIC SUMMITACCESSDATE=1 APRIL 2013DATE=12 MARCH 2008, Kabul, | 13–14 March 2008Senegal}}| DakarFourth Extraordinary Session of the Islamic Summit Conference>4th ExtraordinaryKNIPP>FIRST=KERSTENURL=HTTP://WWW.DW.DE/DW/ARTICLE/0,,16166602,00.HTMLNEWSPAPER=DEUTSCHE WELLE, 15 August 2012, | 14–15 August 2012Saudi Arabia}}| MeccaTITLE=ISLAMIC SUMMIT LEADERS URGE ACTION ON MALI, SYRIAACCESSDATE=6 FEBRUARY 2013DATE=6 FEBRUARY 2013ARCHIVE-DATE=9 FEBRUARY 2013, dead, | 6–7 February 2013Egypt}}| Cairo5th ExtraordinaryKARENSA>FIRST=EDOURL=HTTP://WWW.JAKARTAGLOBE.BERITASATU.COM/NEWS/OIC-EXTRAORDINARY-SUMMIT-PALESTINE-KICKS-OFF-JAKARTA/NEWSPAPER=THE JAKARTA GLOBEARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160307001855/HTTP://WWW.JAKARTAGLOBE.BERITASATU.COM/NEWS/OIC-EXTRAORDINARY-SUMMIT-PALESTINE-KICKS-OFF-JAKARTA/URL-STATUS=DEAD, dmy-all, | 6–7 March 2016Indonesia}}| JakartaACCESSDATE=2016-04-11 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160512174948/HTTPS://OIC2016ISTANBULSUMMIT.ORG/ DF=DMY-ALL, | 14–15 April 2016Turkey}}| IstanbulSixth Extraordinary Session of the Islamic Summit Conference>6th Extraordinary| 13 December 2017Turkey}}| IstanbulSeventh Extraordinary Session of the Islamic Summit Conference>7th Extraordinary| 18 May 2018Turkey}}| IstanbulLAST=COOPERATIONDATE=2019-05-19ACCESS-DATE=2019-06-17, | 31 May 2019Saudi Arabia}}| Mecca

See also

{{clear}}

References

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

  • Ankerl, Guy Coexisting Contemporary Civilisations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva, INUPress, 2000, {{ISBN|2-88155-004-5}}.
  • Al-Huda, Qamar. "Organisation of the Islamic Conference." Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. Edited by Martin, Richard C. Macmillan Reference, 2004. vol. 1 p. 394, 20 April 2008.

External links

{{Temple Mount}}{{Organisation of the Islamic Conference}}{{International power}}{{Authority control}}

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