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{{About |the U.S. state of Oregon}}{{pp-pc1}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|state of the United States of America}}{{Use mdy dates|date=November 2017}}{{Use American English|date=November 2017}}

| anthem = Oregon, My Oregon| Former = Oregon TerritorySalem, Oregon>SalemPortland, Oregon>Portland| LargestMetro = Portland metropolitan area| population_demonym = OregonianKate Brown (D)}}Beverly Clarno (R)}}| Lieutenant Governor_alt = Secretary of StateLegislative Assembly}}Oregon State Senate>State SenateOregon House of Representatives>House of RepresentativesRon Wyden (D)}}{{nowrap|Jeff Merkley (D)}}| Representative = 4 Democrats 1 Republican| postal_code = OR| TradAbbreviation = Ore.California, Idaho, Nevada,Washington (state)>WashingtonDe jure: noneHTTP://DAILYEMERALD.COM/2007/01/30/ENGLISH-AS-OREGONS-OFFICIAL-LANGUAGE-IT-COULD-HAPPEN/ FIRST = CALVIN NEWSPAPER = OREGON DAILY EMERALD >DATE = JANUARY 30, 2007, May 8, 2007, De facto: Pacific Northwest English| area_rank = 9th| area_total_sq_mi = 98,381| area_total_km2 = 254,806| area_land_sq_mi = 95,997| area_land_km2 = 248,849| area_water_sq_mi = 2,384| area_water_km2 = 6,177| area_water_percent = 2.4| population_rank = 27th| 2010Pop = 4,190,713 (2018)| population_density_rank = 39th| 2010DensityUS = 39.9| 2010Density = 15.0TITLE=MEDIAN ANNUAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME, December 9, 2016, | IncomeRank = 21st| AdmittanceOrder = 33rd| AdmittanceDate = February 14, 1859Pacific Time Zone>Pacific| utc_offset1 = -08:00Pacific Daylight Time>PDT| utc_offset1_DST = -07:00| timezone1_location = primaryMountain Time Zone>Mountain| utc_offset2 = -07:00Mountain Daylight Time>MDT| utc_offset2_DST = -06:00Malheur County, Oregon>Malheur County| Latitude = 42° N to 46° 18′ N| Longitude = 116° 28′ W to 124° 38′ W| width_mi = 400| width_km = 640| length_mi = 360| length_km = 580Mount HoodRC2244ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 24, 2011, HTTP://EGSC.USGS.GOV/ISB/PUBS/BOOKLETS/ELVADIST/ELVADIST.HTML>TITLE=ELEVATIONS AND DISTANCES IN THE UNITED STATESUNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY>YEAR=2001URL-STATUS=DEADARCHIVEDATE=OCTOBER 15, 2011, Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.| elevation_max_ft = 11,249| elevation_max_m = 3,428.8| elevation_ft = 3,300| elevation_m = 1,000| elevation_min_point = Pacific Ocean| elevation_min_ft = 0| elevation_min_m = 0| iso_code = US-OR| website =}}

Oregon ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Oregon.ogg|ˈ|É’r|ɪ|É¡|É™n}} {{Respell|ORR|ih|gÉ™n}})LPD, 3, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho. The parallel 42° north delineates the southern boundary with California and Nevada.Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders, explorers, and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at {{convert|98000|sqmi|km2}}, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U.S. state. The capital, Salem, is the second most populous city in Oregon, with 169,798 residents. Portland, with 647,805, ranks as the 26th among U.S. cities. The Portland metropolitan area, which also includes the city of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 25th largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,453,168.Oregon is one of the most geographically diverse states in the U.S.,{{Sfn|Jewell|McRae|2014|p=4}} marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At {{convert|11249|ft|m}}, Mount Hood, a stratovolcano, is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. The state is also home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath {{convert|8.9|km2|acre|abbr=on|order=flip}} of the Malheur National Forest.WEB, Beale, Bob,weblink Humungous fungus: world's largest organism?, Environment & Nature News, ABC, April 10, 2003, December 9, 2016, Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is largely powered by various forms of agriculture, fishing, and hydroelectric power. Oregon is also the top timber producer of the contiguous United States, and the timber industry dominated the state's economy in the 20th century. Technology is another one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel. Sportswear company Nike, Inc., headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $30.6 billion.WEB,weblink Financial Statements for Nike, Inc., Google Finance, April 17, 2017,


File:2014-07-06 14 49 35 View north along Harney County Route 201 (Fields-Denio Road) at the end of Nevada State Route 292 (Denio Road) at the Oregon border in Denio, Nevada.JPG|thumb|right|Oregon border welcome sign at Denio, NevadaDenio, NevadaThe earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins. The term "orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y Baja California (1598){{Sfn|Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transportes|1988|p=149}} written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo Montezuma and made reference to the Columbia River when the Spanish explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are also two other sources with Spanish origins, such as the name Oregano, which grows in the southern part of the region. It is most probable that the American territory was named by the Spaniards, as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo del Oregón" (which is situated in the province of Ciudad Real), also considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j".{{Sfn| Johnson |1904 | p=51}}Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain. The term referred to the then-mythical River of the West (the Columbia River). By 1778, the spelling had shifted to Oregon.WEB,weblink Oregon Blue Book: Oregon Almanac: Mountains to National Wildlife Refuges, In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote:The rout{{sic}} from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, and from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon...Where does the name "Oregon" come from? from the online edition of the Oregon Blue Book.One theory is that the name comes from the French word ouragan ("windstorm" or "hurricane"), which was applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds on the lower Columbia River, or perhaps from firsthand French experience with the Chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota and flow west through the Great Plains.JOURNAL, Elliott, T.C., June 1921, The Origin of the Name Oregon, Oregon Historical Quarterly, XXIII, 2, 0030-4727, 1714620,weblink 99–100, Google Books, {{Open access}}Joaquin Miller explained in Sunset magazine, in 1904, how Oregon's name was derived:The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Ouve água—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given probably by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, and it literally, in a large way, means cascades: 'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood to understand entirely the full meaning of the name Ouve a água, Oregon.JOURNAL,weblink Miller, Joaquin, The Sea of Silence, Sunset, XIII, 5, September 1904, 395–396, Google Books, {{Open access}}Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink (Wisconsin) River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon".According to the Oregon Tourism Commission, present-day Oregonians {{IPAc-en|ËŒ|É’|r|áµ»|ˈ|É¡|oÊŠ|n|i|É™|n|z}}WEB,weblink Oregon, September 14, 2006, Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, pronounce the state's name as "or-uh-gun, never or-ee-gone".WEB,weblink Oregon Fast Facts, Travel Oregon,weblink" title="">weblink March 23, 2012, dead, mdy-all, After being drafted by the Detroit Lions in 2002, former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joey Harrington distributed "Orygun" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state.Banks, Don (April 21, 2002). "Harrington confident about Detroit QB challenge". Sports Illustrated.NEWS, Bellamy, Ron, See no evil, hear no evil,weblink June 1, 2011, The Register-Guard, October 6, 2003, The stickers are sold by the University of Oregon Bookstore.WEB, Yellow/Green ORYGUN Block Letter Outside Decal,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, December 8, 2010, UO Duck Store, August 3, 2011,


{{See also|List of regions of Oregon}}File:Crater Lake - panoramio.jpg|thumb|right|Crater LakeCrater LakeOregon is {{convert|295|mi|km|0}} north to south at longest distance, and {{convert|395|mi|km|0}} east to west. With an area of {{convert|98381|sqmi|km2}}, Oregon is slightly larger than the United Kingdom. It is the ninth largest state in the United States.Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density (geographies ranked by total population). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 11, 2013. Oregon's highest point is the summit of Mount Hood, at {{convert|11249|ft|m|0}}, and its lowest point is the sea level of the Pacific Ocean along the Oregon Coast.WEB, April 29, 2005,weblink Elevations and Distances in the United States, U.S Geological Survey, November 7, 2006, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 15, 2011, Oregon's mean elevation is {{convert|3300|ft|m|0}}. Crater Lake National Park is the state's only national park and the site of Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States at {{convert|1943|ft|m|0}}.WEB, Crater Lake National Park, U.S. National Park Service,weblink November 22, 2006, Oregon claims the D River as the shortest river in the world,WEB,weblink D River State Recreation Site, Oregon Parks and Recreation Department, May 11, 2007, though the state of Montana makes the same claim of its Roe River.WEB,weblink World's Shortest River, Travel Montana, May 11, 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 2, 2007, mdy-all, Oregon is also home to Mill Ends Park (in Portland),WEB,weblink Mill Ends Park, Portland Parks and Recreation, May 11, 2007, the smallest park in the world at {{convert|452|sqin|m2|2}}.Oregon is split into eight geographical regions. In Western Oregon: Oregon Coast (west of the Coast Range), the Willamette Valley, Rogue Valley, Cascade Range and Klamath Mountains; and in Central and Eastern Oregon: the Columbia Plateau, the High Desert, and the Blue Mountains.Oregon lies in two time zones. Most of Malheur County is in the Mountain Time Zone, while the rest of the state lies in the Pacific Time Zone.

Geology and terrain

{{See also|Geology of Oregon|List of rivers in Oregon|List of Oregon mountain ranges|List of Oregon state parks}}File:Mt. Hood (8081466807).jpg|thumb|left|Mount HoodMount HoodWestern Oregon's mountainous regions, home to three of the most prominent mountain peaks of the United States including Mount Hood, were formed by the volcanic activity of the Juan de Fuca Plate, a tectonic plate that poses a continued threat of volcanic activity and earthquakes in the region. The most recent major activity was the 1700 Cascadia earthquake. Washington's Mount St. Helens erupted in 1980, an event visible from northern Oregon and affecting some areas there.NEWS, Oregon volcano may be warming up for an eruption, Christian Science Monitor, March 27, 1980, Ray, Dewey,weblink October 31, 2010, The Columbia River, which forms much of Oregon's northern border, also played a major role in the region's geological evolution, as well as its economic and cultural development. The Columbia is one of North America's largest rivers, and one of two rivers to cut through the Cascades (the Klamath River in southern Oregon is the other). About 15,000 years ago, the Columbia repeatedly flooded much of Oregon during the Missoula Floods; the modern fertility of the Willamette Valley is largely the result. Plentiful salmon made parts of the river, such as Celilo Falls, hubs of economic activity for thousands of years.Today, Oregon's landscape varies from rain forest in the Coast Range to barren desert in the southeast, which still meets the technical definition of a frontier. Oregon's geographical center is further west than any of the other 48 contiguous states (although the westernmost point of the lower 48 states is in Washington). Central Oregon's geographical features range from high desert and volcanic rock formations resulting from lava beds. The Oregon Badlands Wilderness is in this region of the state.JOURNAL, Congressional Record Vol. 155 Part 1: Proceedings and Debates of the 111th Congress: First Session, Government Printing Office, 935,weblink Google Books, {{Open access}}

Flora and fauna

Typical of a western state, Oregon is home to a unique and diverse array of wildlife. Roughly 60 percent of the state is covered in forest, while the areas west of the Cascades are more densely populated by forest, making up around 80 percent of the landscape. Some 60 percent of Oregon's forests are within federal land.WEB,weblink, Oregon's Forests: Some Facts and Figures, Forest Figures, September 2009, May 30, 2017, Oregon is the top timber producer of the lower 48 states.WEB, Forest Land Protection Program,weblink Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, November 7, 2016, NEWS, Oregon is top timber producer in worst year,weblink Mail Tribune, September 17, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink March 2, 2014, dead, mdy-all, File:Antilocapra americana.jpg|thumb|right|Pronghorn antelope in Fort Rock ]] Moose have not always inhabited the state but came to Oregon in the 1960s; the Wallowa Valley herd numbered about 60 {{as of|2013|lc=y}}.NEWS, Oregon's only moose herd thriving, up to about 60,weblink The Oregonian, September 1, 2013, Gray wolves were extirpated from Oregon around 1930 but have since found their way back; most reside in northeast Oregon, with two packs living in the south-central part.WEB, Wolves in Oregon,weblink ODFW, February 4, 2014, Although their existence in Oregon is unconfirmed, reports of grizzly bears still turn up, and it is probable some still move into eastern Oregon from Idaho.WEB, Moose enter Oregon, so are grizzlies next?,weblink Tri City Herald, November 1, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 6, 2014, mdy-all, Oregon is home to what is considered the largest single organism in the world, an Armillaria solidipes fungus beneath the Malheur National Forest of eastern Oregon.Oregon has three national park sites: Crater Lake National Park in the southern part of the Cascades, John Day Fossil Beds National Monument east of the Cascades, and Lewis and Clark National and State Historical Parks on the north coast.WEB, Crater Lake National Park,weblink National Park Service, February 22, 2014, WEB, John Day Fossil Beds National Monument,weblink National Park Service, February 22, 2014,


File:Oregon Köppen.svg|thumb|left|Köppen climate types in Oregon]]Most of Oregon has a generally mild climate, though there is significant variation given the variety of landscapes across the state.BOOK, Oregon, Hamilton, John, 14, ABDO, 2016, 978-1-680-77443-6, The state's western region (west of the Cascade Range) has an oceanic climate, populated by dense evergreen mixed forests. Western Oregon's climate is heavily influenced by the Pacific Ocean; the western third of Oregon is very wet in the winter, moderately to very wet during the spring and fall, and dry during the summer. The relative humidity of Western Oregon is high except during summer days, which are semi-dry to semi-humid; Eastern Oregon typically sees low humidity year-round.The state's southwestern portion, particularly the Rogue Valley, has a Mediterranean climate with drier and sunnier winters and hotter summers, similar to Northern California.WEB,weblink Oregon State University, Rogue Valley Weather and Climate, Jones, Gregory V., December 9, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink December 20, 2016, dead, mdy-all, Oregon's northeastern portion has a steppe climate, and its high terrain regions have a subarctic climate. Like Western Europe, Oregon, and the Pacific Northwest in general, is considered warm for its latitude, and the state has far milder winters at a given elevation than comparable latitudes elsewhere in North America, such as the Upper Midwest, Ontario, Quebec and New England.WEB,weblink Desert Research Institute, Climate of Oregon, December 10, 2016, However, the state ranks fifth for coolest summer temperatures of any state in the country, after Maine, Idaho, Wyoming, and Alaska.WEB, Current Results, Osborn, Liz,weblink December 23, 2017, Coldest States in America, The eastern two thirds of Oregon, which largely comprise high desert, have cold, snowy winters and very dry summers. Much of the east is semiarid to arid like the rest of the Great Basin, though the Blue Mountains are wet enough to support extensive forests. Most of Oregon receives significant snowfall, but the Willamette Valley, where 60 percent of the population lives,WEB,weblink Ground-Water Hydrology of the Willamette Basin, Oregon, U.S. Geological Survey, Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5168, Conlon T.D., Wozniak, K.C., Woodcock, D., Herrera, N.B., Fisher, B.J., Morgan, D.S., Lee, K.K., Hinkle, S.R., yes, 2005, February 19, 2015, has considerably milder winters for its latitude and typically only sees light snowfall.Oregon's highest recorded temperature is {{convert|119|F|C}} at Pendleton on August 10, 1898, and the lowest recorded temperature is {{convert|-54|F|C}} at Seneca on February 10, 1933.{{Sfn|Boone|2004|p=9}}


Humans have inhabited the area that is now Oregon for at least 15,000 years. In recorded history, mentions of the land date to as early as the 16th century. During the 18th and 19th centuries, European powers – and later the United States – quarreled over possession of the region until 1846, when the U.S. and Great Britain finalized division of the region. Oregon became a state on February 14, 1859, and {{as of|2015|lc=y}} is home to over 4 million residents.

Earliest inhabitants

{{See also|Native American peoples of Oregon|Kennewick Man}}File:Paul Shoaway, Umatilla Indian, in ceremonial dress, Washington (4951753872).jpg|thumb|right|Paul Shoaway, a Native of the Umatilla tribe in the Columbia PlateauColumbia PlateauWhile there is considerable evidence that Paleo-Indians inhabited the region, the oldest evidence of habitation in Oregon was found at Fort Rock Cave and the Paisley Caves in Lake County. Archaeologist Luther Cressman dated material from Fort Rock to 13,200 years ago,{{Sfn|Robbins|2005}} and there is evidence supporting inhabitants in the region at least 15,000 years ago.WEB,weblink The Los Angeles Times, Who was first? New info on North America's earliest residents, July 12, 2012, Maugh II, Thomas H., November 8, 2016, By 8000 BC there were settlements throughout the state, with populations concentrated along the lower Columbia River, in the western valleys, and around coastal estuaries.During the prehistoric period, the Willamette Valley region was flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from then Lake Missoula, located in what would later become Montana. These massive floods occurred during the last glacial period and filled the valley with {{convert|300|to|400|ft|m}} of water.{{Sfn|Allen|Burns|Sargent|2009|pages=175–189}}By the 16th century, Oregon was home to many Native American groups, including the Chinook, Coquille (Ko-Kwell), Bannock, Chasta, Kalapuya, Klamath, Klickitat, Molalla, Nez Perce, Takelma, Killamuk, Neah-kah-nie, Umatilla, and Umpqua.WEB, Oregon History: Great Basin, Oregon Blue Book, Oregon State Archives, September 2, 2007,weblink WEB, Oregon History: Northwest Coast, Oregon Blue Book, Oregon State Archives, September 2, 2007,weblink WEB, Oregon History: Columbia Plateau, Oregon Blue Book, Oregon State Archives, September 2, 2007,weblink {{Sfn|Carey|1922|p=47}}

European and pioneer settlement

File:Monument near Coos Bay, Oregon, of Francis Drake's first North American Encounter.jpg|thumb|left|Monument near Coos Bay, Oregon, of Francis Drake's first North American Encounter. Plaque by Oregon State Parks and Oregon Historical SocietyOregon Historical SocietyThe first Europeans to visit Oregon were Spanish explorers led by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, who sighted southern Oregon off the Pacific coast in 1543.{{Sfn|Hemming|2008|pages=140–141}} Sailing Golden Hind in search of the Strait of Anian, the English explorer and privateer Sir Francis Drake briefly sought shelter anchoring at South Cove, Cape Arago, just south of Coos Bay, Oregon, before sailing for what is now California.JOURNAL, Drake's First Landfall, Pacific Discovery, California Academy of Sciences, Edward Von der Porten, Edward, Von der Porten, 28, 1, January 1975, 28–30, {{Sfn|Johnson|1904|p=39}} Exploration was retaken routinely in 1774, starting with the expedition of the frigate Santiago by Juan José Pérez Hernández (see Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest), and the coast of Oregon became a valuable trading route to Asia. In 1778, British captain James Cook also explored the coast.{{Sfn|Johnson|1904|pages=64–65}}French Canadian and métis trappers and missionaries arrived in the eastern part of the state in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, many having travelled as members of Lewis and Clark and the 1811 Astor expeditions. Some stayed permanently, including Étienne Lussier, believed to be the first European farmer in the state of Oregon. The evidence of this French Canadian presence can be found in the numerous names of French origin in that part of the state, including Malheur Lake and the Malheur River, the Grande Ronde and Deschutes rivers, and the city of La Grande.File:Franchere fort astoria 1813.jpg|thumb|left|Fort Astoria, as established by John Jacob AstorJohn Jacob AstorThe Lewis and Clark Expedition travelled through northern Oregon also in search of the Northwest Passage. They built their winter fort in 1805–06 at Fort Clatsop, near the mouth of the Columbia River, staying at the encampment from December until March.{{Sfn|Ambrose|1997|p=326}}British explorer David Thompson also conducted overland exploration. In 1811, while working for the North West Company, Thompson became the first European to navigate the entire Columbia River.{{Sfn|Johnson|1904|pages=145–146}} Stopping on the way, at the junction of the Snake River, he posted a claim to the region for Great Britain and the North West Company. Upon returning to Montreal, he publicized the abundance of fur-bearing animals in the area.{{Sfn|Johnson|1904|p=146}}Also in 1811, New Yorker John Jacob Astor financed the establishment of Fort Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia River as a western outpost to his Pacific Fur Company;{{Sfn|Loy|Allan|Buckley|Meacham|2001|pages=12–13}} this was the first permanent European settlement in Oregon.(File:Oregoncountry2.png|thumb|upright=1.218|Map of Oregon Country, 1818–46)In the War of 1812, the British gained control of all Pacific Fur Company posts. The Treaty of 1818 established joint British and American occupancy of the region west of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. By the 1820s and 1830s, the Hudson's Bay Company dominated the Pacific Northwest from its Columbia District headquarters at Fort Vancouver (built in 1825 by the district's chief factor, John McLoughlin, across the Columbia from present-day Portland).In 1841, the expert trapper and entrepreneur Ewing Young died leaving considerable wealth and no apparent heir, and no system to probate his estate. A meeting followed Young's funeral, at which a probate government was proposed.{{Sfn|Johnson|1904|p=221}} Doctor Ira Babcock of Jason Lee's Methodist Mission was elected supreme judge.{{Sfn|Johnson|1904|p=207}} Babcock chaired two meetings in 1842 at Champoeg, (halfway between Lee's mission and Oregon City), to discuss wolves and other animals of contemporary concern. These meetings were precursors to an all-citizen meeting in 1843, which instituted a provisional government headed by an executive committee made up of David Hill, Alanson Beers, and Joseph Gale.{{Sfn|Johnson|1904|p=226}} This government was the first acting public government of the Oregon Country before annexation by the government of the United States. It was succeeded by a Second Executive Committee, made up of Peter G. Stewart, Osborne Russell,and William J. Bailey, and this committee was itself succeeded by George Abernethy, who was the first and only Governor of Oregon under the provisional government.Also in 1841, Sir George Simpson, governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, reversed the Hudson's Bay Company's long-standing policy of discouraging settlement because it interfered with the lucrative fur trade.{{Sfn|Johnson|1904|p=215}} He directed that some 200 Red River Colony settlers be relocated to HBC farms near Fort Vancouver, (the James Sinclair expedition), in an attempt to hold Columbia District.Starting in 1842–43, the Oregon Trail brought many new American settlers to the Oregon Country. For some time, it seemed that Britain and the United States would go to war for a third time in 75 years (see Oregon boundary dispute), but the border was defined peacefully in 1846 by the Oregon Treaty. The border between the United States and British North America was set at the 49th parallel.{{Sfn|Johnson|1904|p=273}} The Oregon Territory was officially organized on August 13, 1848.{{Sfn|Johnson|1904|p=285}}Settlement increased with the Donation Land Claim Act of 1850 and the forced relocation of the native population to Indian reservations in Oregon.


In December 1844, Oregon passed its Black Exclusion Law, which prohibited African Americans from entering the territory while simultaneously prohibiting slavery. Slave owners who brought their slaves with them were given three years before they were forced to free them. Any African Americans in the region after the law was passed were forced to leave, and those who did not comply were arrested and beaten. They received no less than twenty and no more than thirty-nine stripes across their bare back. If they still did not leave, this process could be repeated every six months.JOURNAL, McClintock, Thomas C., James Saules, Peter Burnett, and the Oregon Black Exclusion Law of June 1844, The Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 86, 3, July 1, 1995, 122, Slavery played a major part in Oregon's history and even influenced its path to statehood. The territory's request for statehood was delayed several times, as members of Congress argued among themselves whether the territory should be admitted as a "free" or "slave" state. Eventually politicians from the south agreed to allow Oregon to enter as a "free" state, in exchange for opening slavery to the southwest United States.JOURNAL, Mahoney, Barbara, Oregon Voices: Oregon Democracy: Asahel Bush, Slavery, and the Statehood Debate, Oregon Historical Quarterly, 110, 2, July 1, 2009, 202, Oregon was admitted to the Union on February 14, 1859. Founded as a refuge from disputes over slavery, Oregon had a "whites only" clause in its original state Constitution.{{Sfn|McLagan|1980|p=28}} At the outbreak of the American Civil War, regular U.S. troops were withdrawn and sent east. Volunteer cavalry recruited in California were sent north to Oregon to keep peace and protect the populace. The First Oregon Cavalry served until June 1865.


(File:Portland Oregon waterfront 1898.tif|thumb|right|Downtown Portland in 1898)Beginning in the 1880s, the growth of railroads expanded the state's lumber, wheat, and other agricultural markets, and the rapid growth of its cities.WEB, Architectural Fashions and Industrial Pragmatism, 1865–1900,weblink Engeman, Richard H., 2005, The Oregon History Project, Oregon Historical Society, June 17, 2016, Due to the abundance of timber and waterway access via the Willamette River, Portland became a major force in the lumber industry of the Pacific Northwest, and quickly became the state's largest city. It would earn the nickname "Stumptown",WEB, End of the Oregon Trail Interpretive Center, From Robin's Nest to Stumptown,weblink February 1, 2013, March 7, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 12, 2013, and would later become recognized as one of the most dangerous port cities in the United States due to racketeering and illegal activities at the turn of the 20th century.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, The Shanghai Tunnels, Kennedy, Sarah, September 26, 2014, In 1902, Oregon introduced direct legislation by the state's citizens through initiatives and referenda, known as the Oregon System.{{Sfn|Evans|1966| p=156}}On May 5, 1945, six civilians were killed by a Japanese balloon bomb that exploded on Gearhart Mountain near Bly.WEB,weblink On This Day: Japanese WWII Balloon Bomb Kills 6 in Oregon, Finding Dulcinea, May 5, 2011, April 9, 2017, WEB,weblink US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Mitchell Monument Historic Site, December 9, 2016, They remained the only people on American soil whose deaths were attributed to an enemy balloon bomb explosion during World War II. The bombing site is now located in the Mitchell Recreation Area.Industrial expansion began in earnest following the 1933–37 construction of the Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. Hydroelectric power, food, and lumber provided by Oregon helped fuel the development of the West, although the periodic fluctuations in the U.S. building industry have hurt the state's economy on multiple occasions. Portland in particular experienced a population boom between 1900 and 1930, tripling in size; the arrival of World War II also provided the northwest region of the state with an industrial boom, where Liberty ships and aircraft carriers were constructed.WEB, Home Front Boom, William, Toll, 2003,weblink Oregon Historical Society, October 30, 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 9, 2011, During the 1970s, the Pacific Northwest was particularly affected by the 1973 oil crisis, with Oregon suffering a substantial shortage.WEB,weblink The Atlantic, America in the 1970s: The Pacific Northwest, Taylor, Alan, July 26, 2013, November 8, 2016, In 1994, Oregon became the first U.S. state to legalize physician-assisted suicide through the Oregon Death with Dignity Act. A measure to legalize recreational use of marijuana in Oregon was approved on November 4, 2014, making Oregon only the second state at the time to have legalized gay marriage, physician-assisted suicide, and recreational marijuana.WEB,weblink The Oregonian, Gay marriage, marijuana legalization measures show strong support in new Oregon poll, Mapes, Jeff, May 8, 2014, April 9, 2017,

Cities and towns

{{further|List of cities and unincorporated communities in Oregon}}Oregon's population is largely concentrated in the Willamette Valley, which stretches from Eugene in the south (home of the University of Oregon) through Corvallis (home of Oregon State University) and Salem (the capital) to Portland (Oregon's largest city).WEB,weblink 2010 Census Redistricting Data, March 15, 2011, U.S. Census Bureau, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 21, 2011, Astoria, at the mouth of the Columbia River, was the first permanent English-speaking settlement west of the Rockies in what is now the United States. Oregon City, at the end of the Oregon Trail, was the Oregon Territory's first incorporated city, and was its first capital from 1848 until 1852, when the capital was moved to Salem. Bend, near the geographic center of the state, is one of the ten fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the United States.50 Fastest-Growing Metro Areas Concentrated in West and South. {{webarchive|url= |date=April 1, 2013 }} U.S. Census Bureau 2005. Retrieved October 16, 2007.{{Better source|date=June 2017}} In southern Oregon, Medford is a rapidly growing metro area and is home to the Rogue Valley International-Medford Airport, the state's third-busiest airport. To the south, near the California border, are the communities of Ashland and Grants Pass. Eastern Oregon is very sparsely populated, but is home to Hermiston, which with a population of 18,000 is the largest and fastest growing city in the region.WEB,weblink Portland State University Population Research Center, {{Largest cities| name = Largest cities| country = OregonWEBSITE=BIGGEST US CITIESACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 23, 2019, | list_by_pop = List of cities in Oregon| class = nav| div_name =| div_link = Counties of Oregon{{!}}County| city_1 = Portland, Oregon{{!}}Portland| div_1 = Multnomah County, Oregon{{!}}MultnomahWEBSITE=WWW.CENSUS.GOV, | img_1 = The Willamette.jpg| city_2 = Salem, Oregon{{!}}Salem| div_2 = Marion County, Oregon{{!}}Marion| pop_2 = 169,798| img_2 = Oregon Capitol 2.jpg| city_3 = Eugene, Oregon{{!}}Eugene| div_3 = Lane County, Oregon{{!}}Lane| pop_3 = 168,916| img_3 = Eugene Oregon from Skinner Butte.JPG| city_4 = Gresham, Oregon{{!}}Gresham| div_4 = Multnomah County, Oregon{{!}}Multnomah| pop_4 = 111,053| img_4 = Gresham Carnegie Library-1.jpg| city_5 = Hillsboro, Oregon{{!}}Hillsboro| div_5 = Washington County, Oregon{{!}}Washington| pop_5 = 106,894| img_5 = Downtown Hillsboro Oregon looking east.JPG| city_6 = Beaverton, Oregon{{!}}Beaverton| div_6 = Washington County, Oregon{{!}}Washington| pop_6 = 97,514| img_6 = Cedar Hills Blvd and Walker Road Beaverton.JPG| city_7 = Bend, Oregon{{!}}Bend| div_7 = Deschutes County, Oregon{{!}}Deschutes| pop_7 = 94,520| img_7 = Downtown Bend.jpg| city_8 = Medford, Oregon{{!}}Medford| div_8 = Jackson County, Oregon{{!}}Jackson| pop_8 = 81,780| img_8 = Medford Oregon.jpg| city_9 = Springfield, Oregon{{!}}Springfield| div_9 = Lane County, Oregon{{!}}Lane| pop_9 = 62,353| img_9 = Eugene and Springfield from Mount Pisgah.JPG| city_10 = Corvallis, Oregon{{!}}Corvallis| div_10 = Benton County, Oregon{{!}}Benton| pop_10 = 57,961| img_10 = Fittongreen.jpg}}

Law and government

{{See also|Government of Oregon}}File:OregonCapitolTop.jpg|thumb|right| Golden Pioneer atop the Oregon State CapitolOregon State CapitolA writer in the Oregon Country book A Pacific Republic, written in 1839, predicted the territory was to become an independent republic. Four years later, in 1843, settlers of the Willamette Valley voted in majority for a republic government.Allen, Cain (2006). "A Pacific Republic". The Oregon History Project. Oregon Historical Society. Retrieved June 17, 2016. The Oregon Country functioned in this way until August 13, 1848, when Oregon was annexed by the United States and a territorial government was established. Oregon maintained a territorial government until February 14, 1859, when it was granted statehood.{{Sfn|Johnson|1904|p=296}}Oregon state government has a separation of powers similar to the federal government. It has three branches: Governors in Oregon serve four-year terms and are limited to two consecutive terms, but an unlimited number of total terms. Oregon has no lieutenant governor; in the event that the office of governor is vacated, Article V, Section 8a of the Oregon Constitution specifies that the Secretary of State is first in line for succession.WEB, Constitution of Oregon (Article V), 2007, Oregon Blue Book, State of Oregon,weblink March 12, 2008, The other statewide officers are Treasurer, Attorney General, Superintendent, and Labor Commissioner. The (wikt:Biennial|biennial) Oregon Legislative Assembly consists of a thirty-member Senate and a sixty-member House. The state supreme court has seven elected justices, currently including the only two openly gay state supreme court justices in the nation. They choose one of their own to serve a six-year term as Chief Justice.The debate over whether to move to annual sessions is a long-standing battle in Oregon politics, but the voters have resisted the move from citizen legislators to professional lawmakers. Because Oregon's state budget is written in two-year increments and, there being no sales tax, state revenue is based largely on income taxes, it is often significantly over- or under-budget. Recent legislatures have had to be called into special session repeatedly to address revenue shortfalls resulting from economic downturns, bringing to a head the need for more frequent legislative sessions. Oregon Initiative 71, passed in 2010, mandates the legislature to begin meeting every year, for 160 days in odd-numbered years, and 35 days in even-numbered years.{|class="infobox" style="width: 22em;align:left"! colspan="2" style="font-size: 100%; text-align: center;" | Federally recognized tribes in Oregon| Burns Paiute Tribe| Confederated Tribes of Coos, Lower Umpqua and Siuslaw Indians| Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde| Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians| Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs| Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation| Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians| Klamath Tribes| Coquille Indian TribeOregonians have voted for the Democratic presidential candidate in every election since 1988. In 2004 and 2006, Democrats won control of the state Senate, and then the House. Since the late 1990s, Oregon has been represented by four Democrats and one Republican in the U.S. House of Representatives. Since 2009, the state has had two Democratic U.S. senators, Ron Wyden and Jeff Merkley. Oregon voters have elected Democratic governors in every election since 1986, most recently electing Kate Brown over Republican Bud Pierce in a 2016 special election for a two-year term, and re-electing her for a full four-year term over Republican Knute Buehler in 2018.The base of Democratic support is largely concentrated in the urban centers of the Willamette Valley. The eastern two-thirds of the state beyond the Cascade Mountains typically votes Republican; in 2000 and 2004, George W. Bush carried every county east of the Cascades. However, the region's sparse population means that the more populous counties in the Willamette Valley usually outweigh the eastern counties in statewide elections.In the 2002 general election, Oregon voters approved a ballot measure to increase the state minimum wage automatically each year according to inflationary changes, which are measured by the consumer price index (CPI).WEB, ORS 653.025,weblink State of Oregon, In the 2004 general election, Oregon voters passed ballot measures banning same-sex marriageWEB,weblink November 2, 2004, General Election Abstract of Votes: STATE MEASURE NO. 36, PDF, Oregon Secretary of State, November 17, 2008, and restricting land use regulation.WEB, Bradbury, Bill, Bill Bradbury, Official Results â€“ November 6, 2007 Special Election, Elections Division, Oregon Secretary of State, November 6, 2007,weblink December 27, 2008, In the 2006 general election, voters restricted the use of eminent domain and extended the state's discount prescription drug coverage.WEB, November 7, 2006, general election abstracts of votes: state measure no. 39,weblink State of Oregon, PDF, March 12, 2011,

Federal representation

Like all U.S. states, Oregon is represented by two senators. Since the 1980 census, Oregon has had five congressional districts. After Oregon was admitted to the Union, it began with a single member in the House of Representatives (La Fayette Grover, who served in the 35th United States Congress for less than a month). Congressional apportionment increased the size of the delegation following the censuses of 1890, 1910, 1940, and 1980. A detailed list of the past and present Congressional delegations from Oregon is available.The United States District Court for the District of Oregon hears federal cases in the state. The court has courthouses in Portland, Eugene, Medford, and Pendleton. Also in Portland is the federal bankruptcy court, with a second branch in Eugene.WEB,weblink United States Bankruptcy Court, District of Oregon, U.S. Courts, December 14, 2008, Oregon (among other western states and territories) is in the 9th Court of Appeals. One of the court's meeting places is at the Pioneer Courthouse in downtown Portland, a National Historic Landmark built in 1869.


{{See also|Political party strength in Oregon}}{| class="wikitable" style="float:right; margin:1em; font-size:95%;"Gubernatorial election resultsWEB,weblink General Election Results – Oregon, United States Election Atlas, November 18, 2016, Leip, David, style="background:lightgrey;"! Year! Democratic! Republican195034.0% 171,75066.0% 334,160195443.1% 244,17056.9% 322,522195844.7% 267,93455.3% 331,900196241.6% 265,35954.2% 345,497196644.7% 305,00855.3% 377,346197044.2% 293,89255.6% 369,964197457.7% 444,81242.1% 324,751197845.1% 409,41154.9% 498,452198235.9% 374,31661.4% 639,841198651.9% 549,45647.9% 506,989199045.7% 508,74940.0% 444,646199451.0% 622,08342.4% 517,874199864.4% 717,06130.0% 334,001200249.0% 618,00446.2% 581,785200650.7% 699,78642.8% 589,748201049.3% 716,52547.8% 694,287201449.9% 733,23044.1% 648,542201650.6% 985,02743.4% 845,609201850.1% 934,49843.7% 814,988{| class="wikitable" style="float:right; margin:1em; font-size:95%;"Presidential election results style="background:lightgrey;"! Year! Democratic! Republican195238.9% 270,57960.5% 420,815195644.8% 329,20455.3% 406,393196047.3% 367,40252.6% 408,060196463.7% 501,01736.0% 282,779196843.8% 358,86649.8% 408,433197242.3% 392,76052.5% 486,686197647.6% 490,40747.8% 492,1201980 38.7% 456,890 48.3% 571,044198443.7% 536,47955.9% 685,700198851.3% 616,20646.6% 560,126199242.5% 621,31432.5% 475,757199647.2% 649,64139.1% 538,152200047.0% 720,34246.5% 713,5772004 51.4% 943,16347.2% 866,831200856.8% 1,037,29140.4% 738,475201254.3% 970,34342.2% 754,095201650.1% 1,002,10639.1% 782,403File:United States presidential election in Oregon, 2016.svg|thumb|left|TreemapTreemap(File:Oregon voter reg 1950-2006.png|thumb|left|Party registration in Oregon, 1950–2006{{legend|purple|total}}{{legend|red|Democratic Party}}{{legend|yellow|Republican Party}}{{legend|green|non-affiliated and minor parties}})File:Oregon party registration by county.svg|thumb|left|Party registration by county (October 2018):{{legend|#becbff|2=Democrat >= 30%}}{{legend|#a5b0ff|2=Democrat >= 40%}}{{legend|#7996e2|2=Democrat >= 50%}}{{legend|#ffc8cd|2=Republican >= 30%}}{{legend|#ffb2b2|2=Republican >= 40%}}{{legend|#e27f7f|2=Republican >= 50%}}{{legend|#aaffaa|2=Unaffiliated— Non-Hispanic White| 31,998 (70.8%)| 32,338 (71.0%)| 32,147 (70.4%)| 31,057 (68.2%)| 29,232 (67.0%)Asian Americans>Asian| 2,696 (6.0%)| 2,811 (6.2%)| 2,895 (6.3%)| 2,354 (5.2%)| 2,376 (5.4%)African Americans>Black| 1,331 (2.9%)| 1,333 (2.9%)| 1,463 (3.2%)| 944 (2.1%)| 994 (2.3%)Native Americans in the United States>American Indian| 909 (2.0%)| 778 (1.7%)| 813 (1.8%)| 427 (0.9%)| 429 (1.0%)Pacific Islands Americans>Pacific Islander| ...| ...| ...| 315 (0.7%)| 300 (0.7%)Hispanic and Latino Americans>Hispanic (of any race)| 8,448 (18.7%)| 8,524 (18.7%)| 8,518 (18.6%)| 8,467 (18.6%)| 8,275 (19.0%)| Total| 45,155 (100%)| 45,556 (100%)| 45,655 (100%)| 45,535 (100%)| 43,631 (100%)
  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Future projections

Projections from the U.S. Census Bureau show Oregon's population increasing to 4,833,918 by 2030, an increase of 41.3% compared to the state's population of 3,421,399 in 2000.WEB,weblink Interim Projections of the Total Population for the United States and States: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2030, U.S. Census Bureau, April 21, 2005, PDF, August 18, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 15, 2010, mdy-all, The state's own projections forecast a total population of 5,425,408 in 2040.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, May 17, 2004, State and County Population Forecasts and Components of Change, 2000 to 2040, Oregon Department of Administrative Services, Office of Economic Analysis, April 2004, August 25, 2010, mdy-all,


Primary and secondary

In the 2013–2014 school year, the state had 567,000 students in public primary and secondary schools.WEB,weblink Oregon Blue Book, Oregon Almanac: Native Americans to shoes, oldest, November 6, 2016, There were 197 public school districts, served by 19 education service districts.In 2016, the largest school districts in the state were:WEB,weblink Niche, 2016 Largest School Districts in Oregon, November 7, 2016, Portland Public Schools, comprising 47,323 students; Salem-Keizer School District, comprising 40,565 students; Beaverton School District, comprising 39,625 students; Hillsboro School District, comprising 21,118 students; and North Clackamas School District, comprising 17,053 students.

Colleges and universities

{{See also|List of colleges and universities in Oregon|Oregon Office of University Coordination}}File:Johnson Hall, University of Oregon (2014).JPG|thumb|right|Johnson Hall at the University of OregonUniversity of OregonFile:Memorial Union at Oregon State University.jpg|thumb|left|The Memorial Union at Oregon State UniversityOregon State UniversityEspecially since the 1990 passage of Measure 5, which set limits on property tax levels, Oregon has struggled to fund higher education. Since then, Oregon has cut its higher education budget and now ranks 46th in the country in state spending per student. However, 2007 legislation funded the university system far beyond the governor's requested budget though still capping tuition increases at 3% per year.NEWS, Higher education gets higher priority,weblink February 5, 2016, Daily Emerald, June 29, 2007, Eugene, OR, Oregon supports a total of seven public universities and one affiliate. It is home to three public research universities: The University of Oregon (UO) in Eugene and Oregon State University (OSU) in Corvallis, both classified as research universities with very high research activity, and Portland State University which is classified as a research university with high research activity.WEB,weblink New Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education Website Coming in January 2015, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, October 8, 2014, November 22, 2014, UO is the state's highest nationally-ranked and most selectiveWEB,weblink US News & World Report, Colleges in Oregon, December 7, 2016, public university by U.S. News & World Report and Forbes.WEB,weblink US News & World Report, University of Oregon, December 8, 2016, OSU is the state's only land-grant university, has the state's largest enrollment for fall 2014,NEWS, Enrollment: UO falls, OSU gains,weblink Register-Guard, Dietz, Diane, November 11, 2014, December 30, 2016, and is the state's highest ranking university according to Academic Ranking of World Universities, Washington Monthly, and QS World University Rankings.WEB,weblink Top 500 World Universities, October 3, 2012, OSU receives more annual funding for research than all other public higher education institutions in Oregon combined.WEB,weblink Oregon State University, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 22, 2015, mdy-all, The state's urban Portland State University has Oregon's second largest enrollment.The state has three regional universities: Western Oregon University in Monmouth, Southern Oregon University in Ashland, and Eastern Oregon University in La Grande. The Oregon Institute of Technology has its campus in Klamath Falls. The quasi-public Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) includes medical, dental, and nursing schools, and graduate programs in biomedical sciences in Portland and a science and engineering school in Hillsboro. The state also supports 17 community colleges.File:Winter storm, January 2017, southeast Portland, Oregon - 26.jpg|thumb|right|Eliot Hall at Reed CollegeReed CollegeOregon is home to a wide variety of private colleges, the majority of which are located in the Portland area. The University of Portland and Marylhurst University are both Catholic universities located in or near Portland, affiliated with the Congregation of Holy Cross, and the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary, respectively. Reed College, a rigorous liberal arts college in Portland, was ranked by Forbes as the 52nd best college in the country in 2015.WEB,weblink Forbes, Reed College, September 11, 2015, Other private institutions in Portland include Concordia University; Lewis & Clark College; Multnomah University; Portland Bible College; Warner Pacific College; Cascade College; the National University of Natural Medicine; and Western Seminary, a theological graduate school. Pacific University is in the Portland suburb of Forest Grove. There are also private colleges further south in the Willamette Valley. McMinnville is home to Linfield College, while nearby Newberg is home to George Fox University. Salem is home to two private schools: Willamette University (the state's oldest, established during the provisional period) and Corban University. Also located near Salem is Mount Angel Seminary, one of America's largest Roman Catholic seminaries. The state's second medical school, the College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific, Northwest, is located in Lebanon. Eugene is home to three private colleges: Northwest Christian University, New Hope Christian College, and Gutenberg College.


{{See also|Sports in Portland, Oregon}}File:Portland Trail Blazers, Dec. 26, 2013.jpg|thumb|left|The Moda Center (formerly the Rose Garden) during a Portland Trail BlazersPortland Trail BlazersFile:Portland Thorns 2017-04-15 10.jpg|thumb|right|Providence Park during a Portland Thorns FCPortland Thorns FCOregon is home to three major professional sports teams: the Portland Trail Blazers of the NBA, the Portland Thorns of the NWSL and the Portland Timbers of MLS."MLS awards team to Portland for 2011." {{webarchive|url= |date=March 27, 2009 }} Portland Timbers, March 20, 2009.Until 2011, the only major professional sports team in Oregon was the Portland Trail Blazers of the National Basketball Association. From the 1970s to the 1990s, the Blazers were one of the most successful teams in the NBA in terms of both win-loss record and attendance.WEB,weblink Bleacher Report, Ranking the Top 25 Players in Portland Trail Blazers History, Wieranga, Jay, August 31, 2013, December 28, 2016, In the early 21st century, the team's popularity declined due to personnel and financial issues, but revived after the departure of controversial players and the acquisition of new players such as Brandon Roy and LaMarcus Aldridge.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, October 28, 2006, Blazers stalled until bad apples go, Smith, Sam, October 18, 2006, January 15, 2008, MSN, MSNBC, NEWS,weblink Oden's loss hurts, but team in good hands, January 15, 2008, CBS, News, Mejia, Tony, October 13, 2007, The Blazers play in the Moda Center in Portland's Lloyd District, which also is home to the Portland Winterhawks of the junior Western Hockey League.WEB,weblink Venues, January 15, 2008, Rose Quarter, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 13, 2014, mdy-all, The Portland Timbers play at Providence Park, just west of downtown Portland. The Timbers have a strong following, with the team regularly selling out its games.WEB, Wahl, Grant,weblink 2014 MLS Ambition Rankings: Toronto FC rises to No. 1 | Planet Futbol –,, March 14, 2014, April 22, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 21, 2014, mdy-all, The Timbers repurposed the formerly multi-use stadium into a soccer-specific stadium in fall 2010, increasing the seating in the process.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, July 19, 2006, Teams and Events, January 15, 2008, PGE Park, The Timbers operate Portland Thorns FC, a women's soccer team that has played in the National Women's Soccer League since the league's first season in 2013. The Thorns, who also play at Providence Park, have won two league championships, in the inaugural 2013 season and also in 2017, and have been by far the NWSL's attendance leader in each of the league's seasons.Eugene, Salem and Hillsboro have minor-league baseball teams: the Eugene Emeralds, the Salem-Keizer Volcanoes, and the Hillsboro Hops all play in the Single-A Northwest League."Northwest League". Minor League Baseball. Retrieved January 15, 2008. Portland has had minor-league baseball teams in the past, including the Portland Beavers and Portland Rockies, who played most recently at Providence Park when it was known as PGE Park.The Oregon State Beavers and the University of Oregon Ducks football teams of the Pac-12 Conference meet annually in the Civil War. Both schools have had recent success in other sports as well: Oregon State won back-to-back college baseball championships in 2006 and 2007,Beseda, Jim (August 12, 2010). "Oregon State baseball: Coach Pat Casey praises ex-Beaver Darwin Barney". The Oregonian (Portland, OR). Retrieved October 8, 2010. winning a third in 2018;NEWS,weblink Oregon State baseball closes out unfinished business with 2018 College World Series championship, June 28, 2018,, July 4, 2018, en, and the University of Oregon won back-to-back NCAA men's cross country championships in 2007 and 2008.NEWS, Associated Press, January 8, 2009,weblink Oregon men, Washington women win titles, ESPN, October 8, 2010,

Sister regions

  • Fujian Province, {{flagu|People's Republic of China}} – 1984WEB, PDF, Van Winkle, Teresa, June 2008,weblink Background brief on international trade, Oregon Legislature, July 21, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 9, 2008, mdy-all,
  • Taiwan Province, {{flagdeco|ROC}} Republic of China (Taiwan) – 1985
  • Toyama Prefecture, {{flagu|Japan}} – 1991WEB,weblink Governor's mission to Asia will stress trade and cultural ties, Secretary of State, October 24, 1995, April 2, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink July 7, 2012, dead, mdy-all,
  • Jeollanam-do Province, {{flagdeco|ROK}} Republic of Korea (South Korea) – 1996
  • Iraqi Kurdistan, {{flagu|Iraq}} – 2005WEB, Oregon Legislature,weblink Senate Concurrent Resolution, Oregon Laws, 2005, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 11, 2011, mdy-all,

See also




  • BOOK, Allen, John Elliott, Burns, Marjorie, Sargent, Sam C., Cataclysms on the Columbia, 2009, Ooligan Press, harv, 978-1-932010-31-2,
  • BOOK, Ambrose, Stephen E., Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and the Opening of the American West,weblink registration, 1997, Simon & Schuster, New York, 978-0-684-82697-4, harv, 1st Touchstone,
  • BOOK, Boone, Mary, Uniquely Oregon, Chicago, Illinois, Heinemann Library, 2004, harv, 978-1-4034-4659-6,
  • BOOK, Carey, Charles Henry,weblink History of Oregon: Volume 1, Pioneer Historical Publishing Co., 1922, harv,
  • BOOK, Evans, Tony Howard, Oregon Progressive Reform, 1902–1914, 1966, University of California Press,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Hemming, John, Atlas of Exploration, Oxford University Press, 2008, harv, 978-0-19-534318-2,
  • BOOK, Jewell, Judy, McRae, W.C., 2014, Moon Oregon, Moon Travel, 978-1-61238-756-7, harv,
  • BOOK, Johnson, Sidona V., 1904, A.C. McClurg & Co., Chicago, A Short History of Oregon, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Loy, Willam G., Allan, Stuart, Aileen R., Buckley, James E., Meacham, Atlas of Oregon, University of Oregon Press, 2001, 978-0-87114-101-9, harv,
  • BOOK, McLagan, Elizabeth, A Peculiar Paradise: A History of Blacks in Oregon, 1778–1940, Georgian Press, 1980, 978-0-9603408-2-8, harv,
  • BOOK, Robbins, William G., Oregon: This Storied Land, Oregon Historical Society Press, 2005, 978-0-87595-286-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transportes, Historia de las comunicaciones y los transportes en México, 1988, Spanish, 5, Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transportes, harv,
{{ref end}}

External links

{{Sister project links|voy=Oregon}} Government Tourism and recreation History and culture Maps and geology {{clear}}{hide}Geographic Location (8-way)
| Northwest =
| North = {{flag|Washington{edih}
| Northeast =
| West = Pacific Ocean
| Centre = {{flag|Oregon}}: Outline • Index
| East = {{flag|Idaho}}
| Southwest = Pacific Ocean{{flag|Hawaii}}
| South = {{flag|California}} and {{flag|Nevada}}
| Southeast =
}}{{Navboxes|title = Topics related to OregonBeaver State|list ={{Oregon|expanded}}{{Oregon cities and mayors of 100,000 population}}{{Protected areas of Oregon}}{{Western United States}}{{United States political divisions}}|state=expanded}}{{Coord|display=title|44|N|120.5|W|region:US-OR_type:adm1st_scale:5000000}}{{Authority control}}

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Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott