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{{About|the Canadian province}}{{Use Canadian English|date=August 2019}}{{Use mdy dates|date=August 2019}}{{short description|Province of Canada}}{{more citations needed|date=February 2019}}

English language>EnglishABOUT ONTARIO/LANGUAGE>URL=HTTPS://WWW.ONTARIO.CA/PAGE/ABOUT-ONTARIOPUBLISHER=QUEEN'S PRINTER FOR ONTARIO, Trillium grandiflorum>White trilliumPinus strobus>Eastern white pine|Bird = Common loon|Capital = Toronto|Country = Canada|LargestCity = Toronto|LargestMetro = Greater Toronto AreaACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 3, 2013WORK=COLLINS ENGLISH DICTIONARY – COMPLETE AND UNABRIDGEDURL-STATUS=LIVEARCHIVEDATE=OCTOBER 4, 2013, |Premier = Doug FordProgressive Conservative Party of Ontario>Progressive Conservative|Viceroy = Elizabeth Dowdeswell|ViceroyType = Lieutenant Governor|Legislature = Legislative Assembly of Ontario|PostalAbbreviation = ONList of K postal codes of Canada>K List of L postal codes of Canada List of M postal codes of Canada>M List of N postal codes of Canada List of P postal codes of Canada>P|AreaRank = 4th|area_footnotes = |TotalArea_km2 = 1076395|LandArea_km2 = 917741|WaterArea_km2 = 158654|PercentWater = 14.8|PopulationRank = 1st|Population = 13448494PUBLISHER=STATISTICS CANADA ACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 8, 2017 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170211082232/HTTP://WWW12.STATCAN.GC.CA/CENSUS-RECENSEMENT/2016/DP-PD/HLT-FST/PD-PL/TABLE.CFM?LANG=ENG&T=101&SR=1&S=3&O=D#TPOPDWELL, February 11, 2017, Canada 2016 Census>2016|Population_est = 14566547|Pop_est_as_of = 2019 Q3PUBLISHER=STATISTICS CANADA ACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 29, 2018 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160619182727/HTTP://WWW5.STATCAN.GC.CA/CANSIM/A26?LANG=ENG&RETRLANG=ENG&ID=0510005&PASER=&PATTERN=&STBYVAL=1&P1=1&P2=31&TABMODE=DATATABLE&CSID=, June 19, 2016, |DensityRank = 3rd|Density_km2 = 14.8|GDP_year = 2015PUBLISHER=STATISTICS CANADA ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 26, 2017 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120919211233/HTTP://WWW.STATCAN.GC.CA/TABLES-TABLEAUX/SUM-SOM/L01/CST01/ECON15-ENG.HTM, September 19, 2012, |GDP_rank = 1st|GDP_per_capita = C$55,322|GDP_per_capita_rank = 7th|AdmittanceOrder = 1st, with Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick|AdmittanceDate = July 1, 1867 }}Ontario is a province of Canada.BOOK,weblink Ontario, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th, 2003, 978-0-87779-809-5, New York, New YorkMerriam-Webster, Inc., live, registration, Ontario is located in the geographic eastern half of Canada, but it has historically and politically been considered to be part of Central Canada (along with Manitoba). Located in Central Canada, it is Canada's most populous province, with 38.3 percent of the country's population, and is the second-largest province in total area.WEB,weblink Ontario Fact Sheet May 2016, Government of Ontario, Ministry of, Finance,, June 7, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink June 13, 2016, WEB,weblink Ontario is the largest province in the country by population, Statistics Canada, January 5, 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 10, 2008, Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included.WEB,weblink Land and freshwater area, by province and territory., Statistics Canada, February 1, 2005, August 5, 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 19, 2012, It is home to the nation's capital city, Ottawa, and the nation's most populous city, Toronto,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink July 24, 2005, Population of census metropolitan areas (2001 Census boundaries), Statistics Canada, January 5, 2007, which is also Ontario's provincial capital.Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, and Quebec to the east and northeast, and to the south by the U.S. states of (from west to east) Minnesota, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. Almost all of Ontario's {{convert|2700|km|0|abbr=on}} border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the westerly Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system. These include Rainy River, Pigeon River, Lake Superior, St. Marys River, Lake Huron, St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, Detroit River, Lake Erie, Niagara River, Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario. There is only about {{convert|1|km|1|abbr=on}} of land border, made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border.WEB
, Canada/United States International Boundary Commission
, St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes
, Presentation at 2006 IBRU Conference, p. 21
, Durham University
, 2006
, May 6, 2014,
Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into two regions, Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario. The great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation.


The province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from ', a Huron (Wyandot) word meaning "great lake",BOOK, Marianne Mithun, The Languages of Native North America,weblink June 7, 2001, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-29875-9, 312, or possibly ', which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages.WEB,weblink Last Paragraph–second–last sentence, About Canada Ontario, Study Canada, The name "Ontario" is generally thought to be derived from the Iroquois word Skanadario, meaning "beautiful water", April 23, 2011, live, July 6, 2011, Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes.WEB, Lakes and Rivers,weblink Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, March 23, 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink March 23, 2014,


{{See also|List of census divisions of Ontario|Geography of Canada|List of protected areas of Ontario|l3=List of parks and protected areas of Ontario}}File:BlackRiver1.JPG|thumb|Typical landscape of the Canadian Shield at Queen Elizabeth II Wildlands Provincial Park, located in Central OntarioCentral OntarioThe province consists of three main geographical regions: Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands, particularly within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and also above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south. The highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at {{convert|693|m|ft|0}} above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over {{convert|500|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County.The Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been largely replaced by agriculture, industrial and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is Niagara Falls, part of the Niagara Escarpment. The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario covers approximately 87% of the province's surface area; conversely Southern Ontario contains 94% of the population.Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario (near Windsor and Detroit, Michigan) that is the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend slightly farther. All are south of 42°N â€“ slightly farther south than the northern border of California.


{{See also|Climate of Ontario}}File:Ontario Köppen.svg|thumb|left|275px|Köppen climate types of Ontario]]Ontario's climate varies by season and location.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink March 23, 2013, The Canada Country Study: Climate Impacts and Adaptation: Ontario Region Executive Summary, Environment Canada, January 29, 2013, Three air sources affect it: cold, dry, arctic air from the north (dominant factor during the winter months, and for a longer part of the year in far northern Ontario); Pacific polar air crossing in from the western Canadian Prairies/US Northern Plains; and warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean.WEB, David, Baldwin, Joseph, Desloges, Lawrence, Band,weblink Physical Geography of Ontario, UBC Press, March 25, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 17, 2007, mdy-all, The effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend mainly on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental.Ontario has three main climatic regions:
  • The surrounding Great Lakes greatly influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter, the release of heat stored by the lakes moderates the climate near the shores.WEB,weblink Natural Processes in the Great Lakes, US Environmental Protection Agency, March 25, 2013, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 2, 2013, mdy-all, This gives parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario (generally south of a line from Sarnia–Toronto) have a moderate humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa), similar to the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States. The region has warm to hot, humid summers and cold winters. Annual precipitation ranges from {{convert|750|-|1000|mm|in|abbr=on}} and is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes, making for abundant snow in some areas. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was hit by more than a metre of snow within 48 hours.NEWS,weblink CBC News, Snowstorm shuts down London, Ont, December 8, 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink March 8, 2014,
  • The next climatic region is Central and Eastern Ontario, which has a moderate humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb). This region has warm and sometimes hot summers with colder, longer winters, ample snowfall (even in regions not directly in the snowbelts) and annual precipitation similar to the rest of Southern Ontario.
File:Lake Effect Snow on Earth.jpg|thumb|Cold northwesterly wind over the Great Lakes creating lake-effect snow. Lake-effect snow most frequently occurs in the snowbeltsnowbeltIn the northeastern parts of Ontario, extending south as far as Kirkland Lake, the cold waters of Hudson Bay depress summer temperatures, making it cooler than other locations at similar latitudes. The same is true on the northern shore of Lake Superior, which cools hot humid air from the south, leading to cooler summer temperatures. Along the eastern shores of Lake Superior and Lake Huron winter temperatures are slightly moderated but come with frequent heavy lake-effect snow squalls that increase seasonal snowfall totals to upwards of {{convert|3|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} in some places. These regions have higher annual precipitation, in some places over {{convert|100|cm|in|abbr=on}}.
  • The northernmost parts of Ontario â€“ primarily north of 50°N â€“ have a subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc) with long, severely cold winters and short, cool to warm summers with dramatic temperature changes possible in all seasons. With no major mountain ranges blocking sinking Arctic air masses, temperatures of {{convert|-40|C|abbr=on}} are not uncommon; snow remains on the ground for sometimes over half the year. Snow accumulation can be high in some areas. Precipitation is generally less than {{convert|70|cm|in|abbr=on}} and peaks in the summer months in the form of rain or thunderstorms.
Severe thunderstorms peak in summer. London, in Southern (Southwestern) Ontario, has the most lightning strikes per year in Canada, averaging 34 days of thunderstorm activity per year. In a typical year, Ontario averages 11 confirmed tornado touchdowns. However, over the last 4 years,{{When|date=July 2016}} it has had upwards of 20 tornado touchdowns per year, with the highest frequency in the Windsor-Essex â€“ Chatham Kent area, though few are very destructive (the majority between F0 to F2 on the Fujita scale). Ontario had a record 29 tornadoes in both 2006 and 2009. Tropical depression remnants occasionally bring heavy rains and winds in the south, but are rarely deadly. A notable exception was Hurricane Hazel which struck Southern Ontario centred on Toronto, in October 1954.{|class="wikitable sortable" |+Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations in Ontario!City!July (°C)!July (°F)!January (°C)!January (°F)Windsor, Ontario>Windsor (Windsor International Airport)HTTP://CLIMATE.WEATHER.GC.CA/CLIMATE_NORMALS/RESULTS_1981_2010_E.HTML?STNID=4716&LANG=E&DCODE=1&PROVINCE=ONT&PROVBUT=GO&MONTH1=0&MONTH2=12 >TITLE = WINDSOR A, ONTARIO PUBLISHER = ENVIRONMENT CANADA URL-STATUS=LIVE ARCHIVEDATE = APRIL 13, 2014 |31/19Niagara Falls, Ontario>Niagara Falls (NPCSH)ENVIRONMENT CANADA >URL = HTTP://CLIMATE.WEATHER.GC.CA/CLIMATE_NORMALS/RESULTS_1981_2010_E.HTML?STNID=4659&LANG=E&DCODE=0&PROVINCE=ONT&PROVBUT=GO&MONTH1=0&MONTH2=12 WORK = CANADIAN CLIMATE NORMALS 1981–2010 URL-STATUS=LIVE ARCHIVEDATE = APRIL 13, 2014 |30/18Toronto (The Annex)HTTP://CLIMATE.WEATHER.GC.CA/CLIMATE_NORMALS/RESULTS_1981_2010_E.HTML?STNID=5051&LANG=E&DCODE=0&PROVINCE=ONT&PROVBUT=GO&MONTH1=0&MONTH2=12 PUBLISHER= ENVIRONMENT CANADA DATE= FEBRUARY 13, 2014 URL-STATUS=LIVE ARCHIVEDATE= APRIL 3, 2016 |30/20Midland, Ontario>Midland (Water Pollution Control Plant)ENVIRONMENT CANADA >URL = HTTP://CLIMATE.WEATHER.GC.CA/CLIMATE_NORMALS/RESULTS_1981_2010_E.HTML?STNID=4474&LANG=E&STATIONNAME=MIDLAND&SEARCHTYPE=CONTAINS&STNNAMESUBMIT=GO&DCODE=5&DISPBACK=1 WORK = CANADIAN CLIMATE NORMALS 1981–2010 URL-STATUS=LIVE ARCHIVEDATE = MAY 17, 2017 |25/8Ottawa (Ottawa Macdonald–Cartier International Airport)ENVIRONMENT CANADA TITLE = OTTAWA MACDONALD CARTIER INT'L A, ONTARIO ACCESSDATE = MAY 8, 2014 ARCHIVEURL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140509001426/HTTP://CLIMATE.WEATHER.GC.CA/CLIMATE_NORMALS/RESULTS_1981_2010_E.HTML?STNID=4337&LANG=E&DCODE=1&PROVINCE=ONT&PROVBUT=GO&MONTH1=0&MONTH2=12 DF = MDY-ALL, 27/16 80/60 −6/−14 22/6Greater Sudbury>Sudbury (Sudbury Airport)ENVIRONMENT CANADA >URL = HTTP://CLIMATE.WEATHER.GC.CA/CLIMATE_NORMALS/RESULTS_1981_2010_E.HTML?STNID=4132&LANG=E&DCODE=1&PROVINCE=ONT&PROVBUT=GO&MONTH1=0&MONTH2=12 WORK = CANADIAN CLIMATE NORMALS 1981–2010 URL-STATUS=LIVE ARCHIVEDATE = APRIL 13, 2014 |18/0Emo, Ontario>Emo (Emo Radbourne)ENVIRONMENT CANADA >URL = HTTP://CLIMATE.WEATHER.GC.CA/CLIMATE_NORMALS/RESULTS_1981_2010_E.HTML?STNID=3928&LANG=E&STATIONNAME=EMO&SEARCHTYPE=CONTAINS&STNNAMESUBMIT=GO&DCODE=0 WORK = CANADIAN CLIMATE NORMALS 1981–2010 URL-STATUS=LIVE ARCHIVEDATE = JUNE 4, 2016 |15/–9Thunder Bay (Thunder Bay International Airport)ENVIRONMENT CANADA TITLE = THUNDER BAY A FORMAT=CSV |18/−5Kenora (Kenora Airport)ENVIRONMENT CANADATITLE = KENORA AIRPORTACCESSDATE = APRIL 9, 2014URL-STATUS=LIVEARCHIVEDATE = APRIL 13, 2014|12/−5Moosonee (UA)ENVIRONMENT CANADA TITLE = MOOSONEE UA ACCESSDATE = APRIL 9, 2014 ARCHIVEURL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140413160113/HTTP://CLIMATE.WEATHER.GC.CA/CLIMATE_NORMALS/RESULTS_1981_2010_E.HTML?STNID=4168&LANG=E&DCODE=0&PROVINCE=ONT&PROVBUT=GO&MONTH1=0&MONTH2=12 DF = MDY-ALL, 23/9 73/48 −14/–26 8/–15


Pre European contact

Prior to the arrival of the Europeans,BOOK,weblink Aboriginal Ontario;, 9781554880638, Rogers, Edward S., Smith, Donald B., 1994-09-01, the region was inhabited by Algonquian (Ojibwe, Cree and Algonquin) in the northern/western portions, and Iroquois and Wyandot (Huron) people more in the south/east.WEB,weblink About Ontario; History: Government of Ontario, January 5, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink September 3, 2007, During the 17th century, the Algonquians and Hurons fought the Beaver Wars against the Iroquois.WEB,weblink Digital History, June 26, 2004, June 7, 2016, unfit,weblink" title="">weblink June 26, 2004,

European contact

File:1755 Bellin Map of the Great Lakes - Geographicus - GreatLakes-bellin-1755.jpg|left|thumb|A 1755 map of the Pays d'en Haut region of New FranceNew FranceThe French explorer Étienne Brûlé explored part of the area in 1610–12.ENCYCLOPAEDIA,weblink Étienne Brûlé, Encyclopædia Britannica, January 5, 2007, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 7, 2008, The English explorer Henry Hudson sailed into Hudson Bay in 1611 and claimed the area for England.Samuel de Champlain reached Lake Huron in 1615, and French missionaries began to establish posts along the Great Lakes. French settlement was hampered by their hostilities with the Iroquois, who allied themselves with the British.WEB,weblink About Ontario; History; French and British Struggle for Domination, Government of Ontario, January 5, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink September 5, 2007, From 1634 to 1640, Hurons were devastated by European infectious diseases, such as measles and smallpox, to which they had no immunity.WEB,weblink Archived copy, September 26, 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 3, 2009, By 1700, the Iroquois had seceded from Ontario and the Mississaugas of the Ojibwa had settled the north shore of Lake Ontario. The remaining Huron settled north of Quebec.The British established trading posts on Hudson Bay in the late 17th century and began a struggle for domination of Ontario with the French. After the French of New France were defeated during the Seven Years' War, the two powers awarded nearly all of France's North American possessions (New France) to Britain in the 1763 Treaty of Paris, including those lands of Ontario not already claimed by Britain. The British annexed the Ontario region to Quebec in 1774.WEB,weblink The Quebec Act of 1774,, January 15, 2007, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 7, 2007, File:United Empire Loyalist Statue in Hamilton, Ontario.jpg|thumb|A monument in Hamilton commemorating the United Empire Loyalists, a group of settlers who fled the United States during or after the American RevolutionAmerican RevolutionThe first European settlements were in 1782–1784 when 5,000 American loyalists entered what is now Ontario following the American Revolution.ENCYCLOPAEDIA,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, Ontario, 115,, June 7, 2016, The Kingdom of Great Britain granted them {{convert|200|acre|abbr=on}} land and other items with which to rebuild their lives. The British also set up reservations in Ontario for the Mohawks who had fought for the British and had lost their land in New York state. Other Iroquois, also displaced from New York were resettled in 1784 at the Six Nations reserve at the west end of Lake Ontario. The Mississaugas, displaced by European settlements, would later move to Six Nations also.The population of Canada west of the St. Lawrence-Ottawa River confluence substantially increased during this period, a fact recognized by the Constitutional Act of 1791, which split Quebec into the Canadas: Upper Canada southwest of the St. Lawrence-Ottawa River confluence, and Lower Canada east of it. John Graves Simcoe was appointed Upper Canada's first Lieutenant governor in 1793.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink August 29, 2007, The Constitutional Act of 1791, January 15, 2007,

Upper Canada

File:Push on, brave York volunteers(large).jpg|thumb|left|Depiction of the Battle of Queenston Heights, during the War of 1812. Upper CanadaUpper CanadaAmerican troops in the War of 1812 invaded Upper Canada across the Niagara River and the Detroit River, but were defeated and pushed back by the British, Canadian fencibles and militias, and First Nations warriors. However, the Americans eventually gained control of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. The 1813 Battle of York saw American troops defeat the garrison at the Upper Canada capital of York. The Americans looted the town and burned the Upper Canada Parliament Buildings during their brief occupation. The British would burn the American capital of Washington, D.C. in 1814.After the War of 1812, relative stability allowed for increasing numbers of immigrants to arrive from Europe rather than from the United States. As was the case in the previous decades, this immigration shift was encouraged by the colonial leaders. Despite affordable and often free land, many arriving newcomers, mostly from Britain and Ireland, found frontier life with the harsh climate difficult, and some of those with the means eventually returned home or went south. However, population growth far exceeded emigration in the following decades. It was a mostly agrarian-based society, but canal projects and a new network of plank roads spurred greater trade within the colony and with the United States, thereby improving previously damaged relations over time.Meanwhile, Ontario's numerous waterways aided travel and transportation into the interior and supplied water power for development. As the population increased, so did the industries and transportation networks, which in turn led to further development. By the end of the century, Ontario vied with Quebec as the nation's leader in terms of growth in population, industry, arts and communications.WEB,weblink ARCHIVED – People – Virtual Vault – Library and Archives Canada,, June 7, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink March 21, 2016, File:Montgomery's Tavern.jpg|thumb|In 1837, an armed insurrection was fought in the colony, before being crushed by British authorities and Canadian volunteer units.]]Unrest in the colony began to chafe against the aristocratic Family Compact who governed while benefiting economically from the region's resources, and who did not allow elected bodies power. This resentment spurred republican ideals and sowed the seeds for early Canadian nationalism. Accordingly, rebellion in favour of responsible government rose in both regions; Louis-Joseph Papineau led the Lower Canada Rebellion and William Lyon Mackenzie, first Toronto mayor,WEB, Biography – MACKENZIE, WILLIAM LYON – Volume IX (1861–1870), Dictionary of Canadian Biography,weblink led the Upper Canada Rebellion. In Upper Canada, the rebellion was quickly a failure. William Lyon Mackenzie escaped to the United States, where he declared the Republic of Canada on Navy Island on the Niagara River.WEB, William Lyon Mackenzie, The Canadian Encyclopedia,weblink

Canada West

File:Canada upper lower map.PNG|thumb|A map highlighting the Canadas, with Upper Canada in orange, and Lower Canada in green. In 1841, the two colonies were united to form the Province of CanadaProvince of CanadaAlthough both rebellions were put down in short order, the British government sent Lord Durham to investigate the causes. He recommended self-government be granted and Lower and Upper Canada be re-joined in an attempt to assimilate the French Canadians. Accordingly, the two colonies were merged into the Province of Canada by the Act of Union 1840, with the capital at Kingston, and Upper Canada becoming known as Canada West.WEB, Canada West – historical region, Canada,weblink Encyclopedia Britannica, en, Parliamentary self-government was granted in 1848. There were heavy waves of immigration in the 1840s, and the population of Canada West more than doubled by 1851 over the previous decade. As a result, for the first time, the English-speaking population of Canada West surpassed the French-speaking population of Canada East, tilting the representative balance of power.An economic boom in the 1850s coincided with railway expansion across the province, further increasing the economic strength of Central Canada. With the repeal of the Corn Laws and a reciprocity agreement in place with the United States, various industries such as timber, mining, farming and alcohol distilling benefited tremendously.A political stalemate between the French- and English-speaking legislators, as well as fear of aggression from the United States during and immediately after the American Civil War, led the political elite to hold a series of conferences in the 1860s to effect a broader federal union of all British North American colonies. The British North America Act took effect on July 1, 1867, establishing the Dominion of Canada, initially with four provinces: Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario. The Province of Canada was divided into Ontario and Quebec so that each linguistic group would have its own province. Both Quebec and Ontario were required by section 93 of the British North America Act to safeguard existing educational rights and privileges of Protestant and the Catholic minority. Thus, separate Catholic schools and school boards were permitted in Ontario. However, neither province had a constitutional requirement to protect its French- or English-speaking minority. Toronto was formally established as Ontario's provincial capital.


File:DENT(1881) 1.375 OLIVER MOWAT.jpg|left|upright|thumb|Oliver Mowat, Premier of OntarioPremier of OntarioOnce constituted as a province, Ontario proceeded to assert its economic and legislative power. In 1872, the lawyer Oliver Mowat became Premier of Ontario and remained as premier until 1896. He fought for provincial rights, weakening the power of the federal government in provincial matters, usually through well-argued appeals to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. His battles with the federal government greatly decentralized Canada, giving the provinces far more power than John A. Macdonald had intended. He consolidated and expanded Ontario's educational and provincial institutions, created districts in Northern Ontario, and fought to ensure that those parts of Northwestern Ontario not historically part of Upper Canada (the vast areas north and west of the Lake Superior-Hudson Bay watershed, known as the District of Keewatin) would become part of Ontario, a victory embodied in the Canada (Ontario Boundary) Act, 1889. He also presided over the emergence of the province into the economic powerhouse of Canada. Mowat was the creator of what is often called Empire Ontario.Beginning with Sir John A. Macdonald's National Policy (1879) and the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway (1875–1885) through Northern Ontario and the Canadian Prairies to British Columbia, Ontario manufacturing and industry flourished. However, population increase slowed after a large recession hit the province in 1893, thus slowing growth drastically but for only a few years. Many newly arrived immigrants and others moved west along the railway to the Prairie Provinces and British Columbia, sparsely settling Northern Ontario.Mineral exploitation accelerated in the late 19th century, leading to the rise of important mining centres in the northeast, such as Sudbury, Cobalt and Timmins. The province harnessed its water power to generate hydro-electric power and created the state-controlled Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, later Ontario Hydro. The availability of cheap electric power further facilitated the development of industry. The Ford Motor Company of Canada was established in 1904. General Motors Canada was formed in 1918. The motor vehicle industry became the most lucrative industry for the Ontario economy during the 20th century.In July 1912, the Conservative government of Sir James Whitney issued Regulation 17 which severely limited the availability of French-language schooling to the province's French-speaking minority. French Canadians reacted with outrage, journalist Henri Bourassa denouncing the "Prussians of Ontario". The regulation was eventually repealed in 1927.File:Raid at elk lake.jpg|thumb|Law enforcement confiscate stores of alcohol in Elk Lake in an effort to enforce prohibitionprohibitionInfluenced by events in the United States, the government of Sir William Hearst introduced prohibition of alcoholic drinks in 1916 with the passing of the Ontario Temperance Act. However, residents could distill and retain their own personal supply, and liquor producers could continue distillation and export for sale, allowing this already sizeable industry to strengthen further. Ontario became a hotbed for the illegal smuggling of liquor and the biggest supplier into the United States, which was under complete prohibition. Prohibition in Ontario came to an end in 1927 with the establishment of the Liquor Control Board of Ontario under the government of Howard Ferguson. The sale and consumption of liquor, wine, and beer are still controlled by some of the most extreme laws in North America to ensure strict community standards and revenue generation from the alcohol retail monopoly are upheld. In April 2007, Ontario Member of Provincial Parliament Kim Craitor suggested local brewers should be able to sell their beer in local corner stores; however, the motion was quickly rejected by Premier Dalton McGuinty.The post-World War II period was one of exceptional prosperity and growth. Ontario has been the recipients of most immigration to Canada, largely immigrants from war-torn Europe in the 1950s and 1960s and following changes in federal immigration law, a massive influx of non-Europeans since the 1970s. From a largely ethnically British province, Ontario has rapidly become culturally very diverse.File:Immigrant Family Toronto.jpg|left|thumb|A monument commemorating the immigrant family in Toronto. The province saw a large number of migrants settle in Ontario in the decades following World War IIWorld War IIThe nationalist movement in Quebec, particularly after the election of the Parti Québécois in 1976, contributed to driving many businesses and English-speaking people out of Quebec to Ontario, and as a result, Toronto surpassed Montreal as the largest city and economic centre of Canada. {{citation needed|reason=it's not clear that many businesses were driven away to Ontario, and it's not clear that this led to Toronto becoming the largest city. Other factors were arguably more important.|date=November 2014}} Depressed economic conditions in the Maritime Provinces have also resulted in de-population of those provinces in the 20th century, with heavy migration into Ontario.{{citation needed|reason=what is considered here heavy migration. do we have numbers?|date=November 2014}}Ontario's official language is English, although there exists a number of French-speaking communities across Ontario.WEB, About Ontario,weblink February 28, 2016, Queen's Printer for Ontario, live,weblink March 5, 2016, French-language services are made available for communities with a sizeable French-speaking population; a service that is ensured under the French Language Services Act of 1989.

Territorial evolution

Until 1763, most of Ontario was considered part of New France by French claim. Rupert's Land, defined as the drainage basin of Hudson Bay, was claimed by Britain, and included much of today's Northern Ontario. The British defeated the armies of the French colony and its indigenous allies in the French and Indian War, part of the Seven Years' War global conflict. Concluding the war, the peace treaty between the European powers, known as the Treaty of Paris 1763, assigned almost all of France's possessions in North America to Britain, including parts that would later become Ontario not already part of Rupert's Land. Britain established the first Province of Quebec, encompassing contemporary Quebec and southern Ontario.After the American War of Independence, the first reserves for First Nations were established. These are situated at Six Nations (1784), Tyendinaga (1793) and Akwesasne (1795). Six Nations and Tyendinaga were established by the British for those indigenous groups who had fought on the side of the British, and were expelled from the new United States. Akwesasne was a pre-existing Mohawk community and its borders were formalized under the 1795 Jay Treaty.In 1788, while part of the Province of Quebec, southern Ontario was divided into four districts: Hesse, Lunenburg, Mecklenburg, and Nassau. In 1792, the four districts were renamed: Hesse became the Western District, Lunenburg became the Eastern District, Mecklenburg became the Midland District, and Nassau became the Home District. Counties were created within the districts.By 1798, there were eight districts: Eastern, Home, Johnstown, London, Midland, Newcastle, Niagara, and Western. By 1826, there were eleven districts: Bathurst, Eastern, Gore, Home, Johnstown, London, Midland, Newcastle, Niagara, Ottawa, and Western. By 1838, there were twenty districts: Bathurst, Brock, Colbourne, Dalhousie, Eastern, Gore, Home, Huron, Johnstown, London, Midland, Newcastle, Niagara, Ottawa, Prince Edward, Simcoe, Talbot, Victoria, Wellington, and Western.In 1849, the districts of southern Ontario were abolished by the Province of Canada, and county governments took over certain municipal responsibilities. The Province of Canada also began creating districts in sparsely populated Northern Ontario with the establishment of Algoma District and Nipissing District in 1858.File:Canada provinces evolution 2.gif|thumb|alt=When Canada was formed in 1867 its provinces were a relatively narrow strip in the southeast, with vast territories in the interior. It grew by adding British Columbia in 1871, P.E.I. in 1873, the British Arctic Islands in 1880, and Newfoundland in 1949; meanwhile, its provinces grew both in size and number at the expense of its territories.|Evolution of the borders of Ontario since the Canadian ConfederationCanadian ConfederationThe borders of Ontario, its new name in 1867, were provisionally expanded north and west. When the Province of Canada was formed, its borders were not entirely clear, and Ontario claimed eventually to reach all the way to the Rocky Mountains and Arctic Ocean. With Canada's acquisition of Rupert's Land, Ontario was interested in clearly defining its borders, especially since some of the new areas in which it was interested were rapidly growing. After the federal government asked Ontario to pay for construction in the new disputed area, the province asked for an elaboration on its limits, and its boundary was moved north to the 51st parallel north.BOOK, Report on the Boundaries of the Province of Ontario, Mills, David, Hunter, Rose & Co., Toronto, 347,weblink 1877, September 14, 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink November 7, 2011, The northern and western boundaries of Ontario were in dispute after Canadian Confederation. Ontario's right to Northwestern Ontario was determined by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in 1884 and confirmed by the Canada (Ontario Boundary) Act, 1889 of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. By 1899, there were seven northern districts: Algoma, Manitoulin, Muskoka, Nipissing, Parry Sound, Rainy River, and Thunder Bay. Four more northern districts were created between 1907 and 1912: Cochrane, Kenora, Sudbury and Timiskaming.WEB, Early Districts and Counties 1788–1899, Archives of Ontario, September 5, 2006, November 29, 2006,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 30, 2010,


(File:Canada Ontario Density 2016.png|thumb|right|Population density of Ontario){{Historical populations|title = Historical populations|type = Canada|align = right|width =|state =|shading =|percentages =|footnote = Source: Statistics Canada95200413960911620851192692221143212182947Canada 1911 Census>1911|25272922933662343168337876554597542540493362360926960870770310582644658625107910169510084885Canada 1996 Census>1996|10753573Canada 2001 Census>2001|11410046Canada 2006 Census>2006|12160282Canada 2011 Census>2011|12851821Canada 2016 Census>2016|13448494}}In the 2016 census, Ontario had a population of 13,448,494 living in 5,169,174 of its 5,598,391 total dwellings, a 4.6 percent change from its 2011 population of 12,851,821. With a land area of {{convert|908607.67|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}, it had a population density of {{Pop density|13448494|908607.67|km2|sqmi|prec=1}} in 2016.WEB, Statistics Canada,weblink Census Profile, 2016 Census Ontario [Province] and Canada [Country],, January 24, 2019, The percentages given below add to more than 100 per cent because of dual responses (e.g., "French and Canadian" response generates an entry both in the category "French Canadian" and in the category "Canadian").The majority of Ontarians are of English or other European descent including large Scottish, Irish and Italian communities. Slightly less than 5 per cent of the population of Ontario is Franco-Ontarian, that is those whose native tongue is French, although those with French ancestry account for 11 per cent of the population. In relation to natural increase or inter-provincial migration, immigration is a huge population growth force in Ontario, as it has been over the last two centuries. More recent sources of immigrants with large or growing communities in Ontario include South Asians, Caribbeans, Latin Americans, Europeans, Asians, and Africans. Most populations have settled in the larger urban centres.In 2011, 25.9 per cent of the population consisted of visible minorities and 2.4 per cent of the population was Indigenous, mostly of First Nations and Métis descent. There was also a small number of Inuit people in the province. The number of Aboriginal people and visible minorities has been increasing at a faster rate than the general population of Ontario.WEB,weblink Archived copy, December 26, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 3, 2013,


In 2011, the largest religious denominations in Ontario were the Roman Catholic Church (with 31.4% of the population), the United Church of Canada (7.5%), and the Anglican Church (6.1%). 23.1% of Ontarians had no religious affiliation, making it the second-largest religious grouping in the province after Roman Catholics.WEB,weblink National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011, Statistics Canada, May 8, 2013, May 29, 2013, live,weblink" title="">weblink November 12, 2013, The major religious groups in Ontario in 2011 were:{|class="wikitable"!Religion!People!% style="text-align:right;"! style="text-align:center;" |Total ||12,651,795 ||100   style="text-align:right;"Catholic Church >|31.4 style="text-align:right;"No religious affiliation 2,927,790 23.1 style="text-align:right;"Protestantism >|21.1 style="text-align:right;"Other Christians 1,224,300 9.7 style="text-align:right;"Muslim 581,950 4.6 style="text-align:right;"Hindu 366,720 2.9 style="text-align:right;"Orthodox Christianity >|2.4 style="text-align:right;"Jewish 195,540 1.5 style="text-align:right;"Sikh 179,765 1.4 style="text-align:right;"Buddhist 163,750 1.3 style="text-align:right;"Other religions 68,985 0.5In Ontario, Catholics are represented by the Assembly of Catholic Bishops of OntarioWEB, Accueil,weblink Assembly of Catholic Bishops of Ontario, fr-FR, and the Anglican Protestants by the Ecclesiastical Province of Ontario.WEB, Welcome to the Ecclesiastical Province of Ontario,weblink, en, The Ecclesiastical Province covers most of the geographical province of Ontario


{{see also|Franco-Ontarian}}(File:Welcome to Point Pelee National Park, Leamington, Ontario, Canada (21152506973).jpg|alt=|thumb|English and French displayed on the Point Pelee National Park welcome sign. Communities with sizeable Francophone populations are able to receive provincial services in French.)The principal language of Ontario is English, the province's de facto official language,WEB,weblink The Legal Context of Canada's Official Languages, Site for Language Management in Canada, University of Ottawa, February 4, 2016, dead,weblink December 21, 2016, with approximately 97.2 per cent of Ontarians having proficiency in the language, although only 69.5 per cent of Ontarians reported English as their mother tongue in the 2016 Census.WEB,weblink Census Profile, 2016 Census - Ontario - Language Profile,, Stat Canada, 7 September 2019, 9 August 2019, English is one of two official languages of Canada, with the other being French. Approximately 4.3 per cent of Ontarians reported French as their mother tongue, although 11.5 per cent reported having proficiency in French. Approximately 11.2 per cent of the Ontarians reported being bilingual in both official languages of Canada. Approximately 2.5 per cent of Ontarians have no proficiency in either English or French.Franco-Ontarians are concentrated in the northeastern, eastern, and extreme Southern parts of the province, where under the French Language Services Act,WEB, Office of the French Language Services Commissioner of Ontario – Law,weblink, provincial government services are required to be available in French if at least 10 per cent of a designated area's population report French as their native language or if an urban centre has at least 5,000 francophones.Other languages spoken by residents include Arabic, Bengali, Cantonese, Dutch, German, Greek, Gujarati, Hindi, Italian, Korean, Malayalam, Mandarin, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Russian, Sinhalese, Somali, Spanish, Tagalog, Tamil, Tibetan, Ukrainian, Urdu, and Vietnamese.WEB,weblink 2011 Census of Canada: Topic-based tabulations, Government of Canada, Statistics, Canada,, June 7, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink July 4, 2016,


Ontario is Canada's leading manufacturing province, accounting for 52% of the total national manufacturing shipments in 2004.WEB, Government of Ontario, Ontario Facts: Overview,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink January 29, 2007, January 5, 2007, Ontario's largest trading partner is the American state of Michigan. {{As of |2012 |April}}, Moody's bond-rating agency rated Ontario debt at AA2/stable,WEB,weblink Moody's downgrades Ontario credit rating, April 26, 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink April 6, 2014, while S&P rated it AA-.WEB,weblink April 25, 2012, Toronto Star, S&P downgrades Ontario's credit outlook, live,weblink October 10, 2017, mdy-all, Dominion Bond Rating Service rated it AA(low) in January 2013.WEB,weblink Credit agency praises Ontario but holds back on rating boost, January 14, 2013,, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 3, 2013, Long known as a bastion of Canadian manufacturing and financial solvency, Ontario's public debt-to-GDP ratio is projected to be 37.2% in fiscal year 2019–2020, compared to 26% in 2007–2008.WEB
, Canadian Federal and Provincial Fiscal Tables
, February 28, 2018
, Economic Forecasts & Special Reports
, Royal Bank of Canada
, March 2, 2019
, live
,weblink" title="">weblink
, January 22, 2014
, mdy-all
, Mining and the forest products industry, notably pulp and paper, are vital to the economy of Northern Ontario. As of 2011, roughly 200,000 ha are clearcut each year; herbicides for hardwood suppression are applied to a third of the total.BOOK, Frontline Forestry Research Applications - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) On the Use of Herbicides in Canadian Forestry - Technical Note #112, 2011, Natural Resources Canada - Canadian Forestry Service,weblink There has been controversy over the Ring of Fire mineral deposit, and whether the province can afford to spend CAD$2.25 billion on a road from the Trans-Canada Highway near Kenora to the deposit, currently valued at CAD$60 billion.WEB,weblink Cliffs' pullout forces Ontario action in Ring of Fire mining area, The Globe and Mail, live,weblink" title="">weblink July 1, 2016, (File:ESSAR Steel Algoma Inc..JPG|alt=|left|thumb|Algoma Steel factory in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario.)An abundance of natural resources, excellent transportation links to the North American heartland and the inland Great Lakes making ocean access possible via container ships, have all contributed to making manufacturing the principal industry of the province, found mainly in the Golden Horseshoe region, which is the largest industrialized area in Canada, the southern end of the region being part of the North American Rust Belt. Important products include motor vehicles, iron, steel, food, electrical appliances, machinery, chemicals, and paper.Hamilton is the largest steel manufacturing city in Canada followed closely by Sault Ste. Marie, and Sarnia is the centre for petrochemical production. Construction employed more than 6.5% of the province's work force in June 2011.weblink" title="">"Employment by major industry groups, seasonally adjusted, by province (monthly) – (Ontario)", June 2011, Statistics Canada Ontario's steel industry was once centered in Hamilton. Hamilton harbour, which can be seen from the QEW Skyway bridge, is an industrial wasteland; U.S. Steel-owned Stelco announced in the autumn of 2013 that it would close in 2014, with the loss of 875 jobs. The move flummoxed a union representative, who seemed puzzled why a plant with capacity of 2 million tons per annum would be shut while Canada imported 8 million tons of steel the previous year.WEB,weblink U.S. Steel ends an era in Hamilton, The Globe and Mail, live,weblink" title="">weblink May 16, 2017, Algoma Steel maintains a plant in Sault Ste Marie.File:Oakville Assembly.jpg|thumb|A worker at the Oakville Assembly installs a battery in an automobile. The automotive industry is a contributor to the economy of Ontarioeconomy of OntarioOntario surpassed Michigan in car production, assembling 2.696 million vehicles in 2004. Ontario has Chrysler plants in Windsor and Bramalea, two GM plants in Oshawa and one in Ingersoll, a Honda assembly plant in Alliston, Ford plants in Oakville and St. Thomas and Toyota assembly plants in Cambridge and Woodstock. However, as a result of steeply declining sales, in 2005, General Motors announced massive layoffs at production facilities across North America, including two large GM plants in Oshawa and a drive train facility in St. Catharines, that resulted in 8,000 job losses in Ontario alone. In 2006, Ford Motor Company announced between 25,000 and 30,000 layoffs phased until 2012; Ontario was spared the worst, but job losses were announced for the St Thomas facility and the Windsor Casting plant. However, these losses will be offset by Ford's recent announcement of a hybrid vehicle facility slated to begin production in 2007 at its Oakville plant and GM's re-introduction of the Camaro which will be produced in Oshawa. On December 4, 2008 Toyota announced the grand opening of the RAV4 plant in Woodstock,WEB,weblink Toyota's opening a new chapter in Woodstock's industrial history,, October 17, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink June 11, 2012, dead, and Honda also plans to add an engine plant at its facility in Alliston. Despite these new plants coming online, Ontario has not yet fully recovered following massive layoffs caused by the global recession; its unemployment rate was 7.3% in May 2013,WEB,weblink Archived copy, July 18, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 7, 2011, compared to 8.7 percent in January 2010WEB,weblink Archived copy, July 18, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 6, 2011, and approximately 6% in 2007. In September 2013, the Ontario government committed CAD$70.9 million to the Ford plant in Oakville, while the federal government committed CAD$71.1mn, to secure 2,800 jobs.WEB,weblink Feds, Ontario invest $142M in Oakville Ford plant,, June 7, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink July 13, 2016, The province has lost 300,000 manufacturing jobs in the decade from 2003, and the Bank of Canada noted that "while the energy and mining industries have benefitted from these movements, the pressure on the manufacturing sector has intensified, since many firms in this sector were already dealing with growing competition from low-cost economies such as China."WEB,weblink Ontario has to learn to live with high dollar, David Crane, February 20, 2012,, live,weblink October 10, 2017, WEB,weblink November 24, 2013, Toronto Star, Fergus plant closing shows Ontario's decline, live,weblink October 10, 2017, mdy-all, File:Toronto, Financial District - panoramio.jpg|alt=|thumb|Toronto's Financial District. The district serves as the centre for Canada's financial services.]]Toronto, the capital of Ontario, is the centre of Canada's financial services and banking industry. Neighbouring cities are home to product distribution, IT centres, and manufacturing industries. Canada's Federal Government is the largest single employer in the National Capital Region, which centres on the border cities of Ontario's Ottawa and Quebec's Gatineau."Federal government employment, wages and salaries, by census metropolitan area – (Employment)", 2006–2010 {{webarchive|url= |date=October 25, 2011 }}, Statistics Canada"Labour force characteristics, unadjusted, by census metropolitan area (3 month moving average) – (Ottawa-Gatineau (Ont.-Que.), Ottawa (Ont.)-Gatineau (Que.), Ontario part, Ottawa (Ont.)-Gatineau (Que.), Quebec part)", 2010/2011 {{webarchive|url= |date=November 7, 2011 }}, Statistics CanadaThe information technology sector is important, particularly in the Silicon Valley North section of Ottawa, home to Canada's largest technology park."ECanada’s largest tech park, Kanata North, about to roar", Feb 2017, The Wedge IT is also important in the Waterloo Region, where the headquarters of BlackBerry is located.WEB,weblink The quantum computing revolution: BlackBerry billionaire Mike Lazaridis is betting on tech that hasn't been invented … yet, Joseph Brean, December 7, 2013, National Post, live,weblink December 15, 2013, Tourism contributes heavily to the economy of Central Ontario, peaking during the summer months owing to the abundance of fresh water recreation and wilderness found there in reasonable proximity to the major urban centres. At other times of the year, hunting, skiing and snowmobiling are popular. This region has some of the most vibrant fall colour displays anywhere on the continent, and tours directed at overseas visitors are organized to see them. Tourism also plays a key role in border cities with large casinos, among them Windsor, Cornwall, Sarnia and Niagara Falls, the latter of which attracts millions of US and other international visitors.WEB, Ontario, Ministry of Economic Development and Trade, November 29, 2006,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink October 24, 2006,


File:Waterloo, Canada (Unsplash v1ar8e1dOjg).jpg|thumb|Aerial view of farms in Waterloo. A significant portion of the land in Southern OntarioSouthern OntarioOnce the dominant industry, agriculture occupies a small percentage of the population. However, much of the land in southern Ontario is given over to agriculture. As the following table shows, while the number of individual farms has steadily decreased and their overall size has shrunk at a lower rate, greater mechanization has supported increased supply to satisfy the ever-increasing demands of a growing population base; this has also meant a gradual increase in the total amount of land used for growing crops.{{Ontario Farming Stats}}File:Wine grapes nearing harvest in Ontario-also example of trellis wire.jpg|thumb|left|Wine grapes growing in the Niagara Peninsula, a major Canadian wineCanadian wineCommon types of farms reported in the 2001 census include those for cattle, small grains and dairy. The fruit- and grape-growing industry is primarily on the Niagara Peninsula and along Lake Erie, where tobacco farms are also situated. Market vegetables grow in the rich soils of the Holland Marsh near Newmarket. The area near Windsor is also very fertile. The Heinz plant in Leamington was taken over in these autumn of 2013 by Warren Buffett and a Brazilian partner, following which it put 740 people out of work.WEB,weblink Heinz closes Leamington plant, 740 people out of work, November 15, 2013,, live,weblink" title="">weblink November 24, 2013, Government subsidies followed shortly; Premier Kathleen Wynne offered CAD$200,000 to cushion the blow, and promised that another processed-food operator would soon be found.WEB,weblink Wynne offers $200K to help Leamington in wake of Heinz closure, Toronto, live,weblink" title="">weblink November 25, 2013, On December 10, 2013, Kellogg's announced layoffs for more than 509 workers at a cereal manufacture plant in London.WEB,weblink Kellogg's Ontario plant closing a casualty of changing tastes, The Globe and Mail, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 20, 2017, The area defined as the Corn Belt covers much of the southwestern area of the province, extending as far north as close to Goderich, but corn and soy are grown throughout the southern portion of the province. Apple orchards are a common sight along the southern shore of Nottawasaga Bay (part of Georgian Bay) near Collingwood and along the northern shore of Lake Ontario near Cobourg. Tobacco production, centred in Norfolk County, has decreased, allowing an increase in alternative crops such as hazelnuts and ginseng. The Ontario origins of Massey Ferguson, once one of the largest farm-implement manufacturers in the world, indicate the importance agriculture once{{citation needed|date=September 2015}} had to the Canadian economy.File:Greenbelt Ottawa.jpg|thumb|A sign that marks the Ottawa Greenbelt, an initiative that aims to protect the surrounding farmland, and limit urban sprawl]]Southern Ontario's limited supply of agricultural land is going out of production at an increasing rate. Urban sprawl and farmland severances contribute to the loss of thousands of acres of productive agricultural land in Ontario each year. Over 2,000 farms and {{convert|150000|acre|abbr=on}} of farmland in the GTA alone were lost to production in the two decades between 1976 and 1996. This loss represented approximately 18%". of Ontario's Class 1 farmland being converted to urban purposes. In addition, increasing rural severances provide ever-greater interference with agricultural production.NEWS, New bill could open Greenbelt to development, critics say,weblink 14 September 2019, CityNews, Rogers Digital Media, 7 December 2018, In an effort to protect the farmland and green spaces of the National Capital Region, and Greater Toronto Area, the FederalWEB, Ottawa’s Greenbelt Master Plan,weblink Faculty of Environmental Design The University of Calgary, 15 September 2019, 15 September 2019, and Provincial Governments introduced greenbelts around OttawaWEB, 120 years of Capital building,weblink National Capital Commission, 14 September 2019, 2019, and the Golden Horseshoe, limiting urban development in these areas.WEB, Ontario’s Greenbelt,weblink Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, Government of Ontario, 14 September 2019, 27 August 2019,


{{See also|Energy policy of Canada|Renewable energy in Canada|Smart grid}}Ontario's rivers make it rich in hydroelectric energy.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink February 18, 2007, Ontario is rich in hydroelectricity, especially areas near the Niagara River, Ontario Facts, February 2, 2007, In 2009, Ontario Power Generation generated 70 percent of the province's electricity, of which 51 percent is nuclear, 39% is hydroelectric and 10% is fossil-fuel derived.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink February 26, 2011, Ontario Power Generation: Power Generation,, February 23, 2011, By 2025, nuclear power is projected to supply 42%, while fossil-fuel-derived generation is projected to decrease slightly over the next 20 years. Much of the newer power generation coming online in the last few years is natural gas or combined-cycle natural gas plants. OPG is not, however, responsible for the transmission of power, which is under the control of Hydro One. File:Frenchman's Bay and the Pickering Nuclear Plant -a.jpg|thumb|left|The Pickering Nuclear Generating Station is one of three nuclear power stations in Ontario.]]Despite its diverse range of power options, problems related to increasing consumption, lack of energy efficiency and aging nuclear reactors, Ontario has been forced in recent years to purchase power from its neighbours Quebec and Michigan to supplement its power needs during peak consumption periods. Ontario's basic domestic rate in 2010 was 11.17 cents per kWh; by contrast. Quebec's was 6.81.WEB,weblink Accueil – Consultations prébudgétaires 2016–2017, Consultations prébudgétaires 2016–2017 – Ministère des Finances du Québec, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 29, 2011, In December 2013, the government projected a 42 percent hike by 2018, and 68 percent by 2033.WEB,weblink Ontario projects steady rise in electricity costs for next 20 years, The Globe and Mail, live,weblink" title="">weblink May 4, 2017, Industrial rates are projected to rise by 33% by 2018, and 55% in 2033.The Green Energy and Green Economy Act, 2009 (GEA), takes a two-pronged approach to commercializing renewable energy; first, it aims to bring more renewable energy sources to the province; and secondly, it aims to adopt more energy-efficiency measures to help conserve energy. The bill envisaged appointing a Renewable Energy Facilitator to provide "one-window" assistance and support to project developers to facilitate project approvals.WEB
, Ontario Unveils Green Energy and Green Economy Act, 2009
, October 17, 2010
, live
,weblink" title="">weblink
, November 13, 2013
, mdy-all
, The approvals process for transmission projects would also be (wikt:streamline|streamlined) and (for the first time in Ontario) the bill would enact standards for renewable energy projects. Homeowners would have access to incentives to develop small-scale renewables such as low- or no-interest loans to finance the capital cost of renewable energy generating facilities like solar panels.File:Adam Beck Complex.jpg|thumb|The Sir Adam Beck Hydroelectric Generating Stations is a hydroelectric plant located in Niagara Falls.]]Ontario is home to Niagara Falls, which supplies a large amount of electricity to the province. The Bruce Nuclear Generating Station, the largest operational nuclear power plant in the world, is also in Ontario and uses 8 CANDU reactors to generate electricity for the province.Ontario had the most wind energy capacity of the country with 4,900 MW of power (41% of Canada capacity).WEB, Renewable energy facts,weblink, Canada Natural Resources, October 6, 2017,

Government, law and politics

{{Further|Monarchy in Ontario|Executive Council of Ontario|Local government in Ontario}}The British North America Act 1867 section 69 stipulated "There shall be a Legislature for Ontario consisting of the Lieutenant Governor and of One House, styled the Legislative Assembly of Ontario." The assembly currently has 124 seats (increased from 107 as of the 42nd Ontario general election) representing ridings elected in a first-past-the-post system across the province.File:Ontario Legislative Building, Toronto, South view 20170417 1.jpg|thumb|The Ontario Legislative Building at Queen's Park. The building serves as the meeting place for the Legislative Assembly of OntarioLegislative Assembly of OntarioThe legislative buildings at Queen's Park are the seat of government. Following the Westminster system, the leader of the party holding the most seats in the assembly is known as the "Premier and President of the Council" (Executive Council Act R.S.O. 1990). The Premier chooses the cabinet or Executive Council whose members are deemed ministers of the Crown.Although the Legislative Assembly Act (R.S.O. 1990) refers to "members of the assembly", the legislators are now commonly called MPPs (Members of the Provincial Parliament) in English and députés de l'Assemblée législative in French, but they have also been called MLAs (Members of the Legislative Assembly), and both are acceptable. The title of Prime Minister of Ontario, correct in French (le Premier ministre), is permissible in English but now generally avoided in favour of the title "Premier" to avoid confusion with the Prime Minister of Canada.


File:Exterior view, Osgoode Hall - Toronto, Canada - DSC00382.jpg|thumb|left|Osgoode Hall houses several courts, including the Court of Appeal for Ontario, the appellate courtappellate courtOntario has grown, from its roots in Upper Canada, into a modern jurisdiction. The old titles of the chief law officers, the Attorney-General and the Solicitor-General, remain in use. They both are responsible to the Legislature. The Attorney-General drafts the laws and is responsible for criminal prosecutions and the administration of justice, while the Solicitor-General is responsible for law enforcement and the police services of the province. The Municipal Act, 2001 (Ontario)Municipal Act, 2001, S.O. 2001, c. 25 is the main statute governing the creation, administration and government of municipalities in the Canadian province of Ontario, other than the City of Toronto. After being passed in 2001, it came into force on January 1, 2003, replacing the previous Municipal Act.Municipal Act, 1990 R.S.O. 1990, c. M.45 Effective January 1, 2007, the Municipal Act, 2001 (the Act) was significantly amended by the Municipal Statute Law Amendment Act, 2006 (Bill 130).WEB,weblink AMO - How Municipal Government Works,, 2019-05-14, WEB,weblink Law Document English View, 2014-07-24,, en, 2019-05-14,


Ontario has numerous political parties which run for election. The four main parties are the centre-right Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario, the social democratic Ontario New Democratic Party (NDP), the centre-left Ontario Liberal Party and the Ontario Green Party. The Progressive Conservatives, Liberals and New Democrats have each governed the province, while the Greens elected their first-ever member to the Legislative Assembly in 2018.The 2018 provincial election resulted in a Progressive Conservative majority under Doug Ford, who was sworn in to office on June 29.

Urban areas

{{See also|Golden Horseshoe|National Capital Region (Canada)|Detroit–Windsor}}Statistics Canada's measure of a "metro area", the Census Metropolitan Area (CMA), roughly bundles together population figures from the core municipality with those from "commuter" municipalities.WEB, Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations, 2006 and 2001 censuses – 100% data, Statistics Canada, November 5, 2008, April 1, 2009,weblink live,weblink" title="">weblink May 4, 2009, {|class="wikitable" "!CMA (largest other included municipalities in brackets)!2001!2006!2011!2016!% Change style="text-align:right;"Toronto CMA (Mississauga, Brampton)|4,682,897 |5,113,149 |5,583,064 |5,928,040|6.2 style="text-align:right;"Ottawa CMA (Gatineau, Clarence-Rockland)|1,067,800 |1,130,761 |1,254,919 |1,323,783|4.4 style="text-align:right;"Hamilton, Ontario CMA (Burlington, Ontario>Burlington, Grimsby)|662,401 |692,911 |721,053 |747,545|3.7 style="text-align:right;"Kitchener, Ontario CMA (Cambridge, Ontario>Cambridge, Waterloo)|414,284 |451,235 |496,383 |523,894|5.5 style="text-align:right;"London, Ontario CMA (St. Thomas, Ontario>St. Thomas, Strathroy-Caradoc)|435,600 |457,720 |474,786 |494,069|4.1 style="text-align:right;"St. Catharines CMA (Niagara Falls, Welland)|377,009 |390,317 |392,184 |406,074|3.5 style="text-align:right;"Oshawa CMA (Whitby, Clarington)|296,298 |330,594 |356,177 |379,848|6.6 style="text-align:right;"Windsor, Ontario CMA (Lakeshore, Ontario>Lakeshore, LaSalle)|307,877 |323,342 |319,246 |329,144|3.1 style="text-align:right;"Barrie CMA (Innisfil, Springwater)|148,480 |177,061 |187,013 |197,059|5.4 style="text-align:right;"Greater Sudbury CMA (Whitefish Lake 6, Ontario>Whitefish Lake, Wanapitei Reserve)|155,601 |158,258 |160,770 |164,689|1.0 style="text-align:right;"Kingston CMA|146,838 |152,358 |159,561 |161,175|1.0
  • Parts of Quebec (including Gatineau) are included in the Ottawa CMA. The population of the Ottawa CMA, in both provinces, is shown.

Ten largest municipalities by populationWEB,weblink Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2006 and 2001 censuses – 100% data, Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of Population, March 13, 2007, March 13, 2007, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 12, 2007, {|class="wikitable sortable" "
!Municipality!2001!2006!2011!2016 style="text-align:right;"Toronto|2,481,494|2,503,281|2,615,060|2,731,571 style="text-align:right;"Ottawa|774,072|812,129|883,391|934,243 style="text-align:right;"Mississauga|612,925|668,549|713,443|721,599 style="text-align:right;"Brampton|325,428|433,806|523,911|593,638 style="text-align:right;"Hamilton|490,268|504,559|519,949|536,917 style="text-align:right;"London|336,539|352,395|366,151|383,822 style="text-align:right;"Markham|208,615|261,573|301,709|328,996 style="text-align:right;"Vaughan|182,022|238,866|288,301|306,233 style="text-align:right;"Kitchener|190,399|204,668|219,153|233,222 style="text-align:right;"Windsor|209,218|216,473|210,891|217,188


In Canada, education falls under provincial jurisdiction. Publicly funded elementary and secondary schools are administered by the Ontario Ministry of Education, while colleges and universities are administered by the Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities. The Minister of Education is Stephen Lecce, and the Minister of Training, Colleges and Universities is Ross Romano.

Higher education

{{See also|List of colleges in Ontario|List of universities in Ontario}}Higher education in Ontario includes postsecondary education and skills training regulated by the Ministry of Training, Colleges, and Universities and provided by universities, colleges of applied arts and technology, and private career colleges.WEB,weblink Role of the Ministry, Government of, Ontario,, June 7, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink June 18, 2016, The minister is Merrilee Fullerton. The ministry administers laws covering 22 public universities,WEB,weblink Universities,, June 7, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink June 2, 2016, 24 public colleges (21 Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology (CAATs) and three Institutes of Technology and Advanced Learning (ITALs)),WEB,weblink Find a School,, June 7, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink June 18, 2016, 17 privately funded religious universities,WEB,weblink Private Universities,, June 7, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink July 3, 2016, and over 500 private career colleges.WEB,weblink Private Career Colleges (PCCs),, June 7, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink June 16, 2016, The Canadian constitution provides each province with the responsibility for higher education and there is no corresponding national federal ministry of higher education.WEB,weblink Consolidated federal laws of canada, Access to Information Act, Legislative Services, Branch,, June 7, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink May 27, 2016, Within Canadian federalism the division of responsibilities and taxing powers between the Ontario and Canadian governments creates the need for co-operation to fund and deliver higher education to students. Each higher education system aims to improve participation, access, and mobility for students. There are two central organizations that assist with the process of applying to Ontario universities and colleges: the Ontario Universities' Application Centre and Ontario College Application Service. While application services are centralized, admission and selection processes vary and are the purview of each institution. Admission to many Ontario postsecondary institutions can be highly competitive. Upon admission, students may get involved with regional student representation with the Canadian Federation of Students, the Canadian Alliance of Student Associations, the Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliance, or through the College Student Alliance in Ontario.


Songs and slogans

File:1983 Ontario license plate SAM♔000 sample.jpg|thumb|An Ontario licence plate with the slogan Yours to Discover, at the bottom of the plate]]In 1973 the first slogan to appear on licence plates in Ontario was "Keep It Beautiful". This was replaced by "Yours to Discover" in 1982,WEB,weblink Ontario,, February 24, 2007, May 6, 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink April 22, 2009, apparently inspired by a tourism slogan, "Discover Ontario", dating back to 1927.WEB,weblink | Library | University of Waterloo,, May 6, 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink May 27, 2009, Plates with the French equivalent, "Tant à découvrir", were made available to the public beginning in May 2008.WEB,weblink New French Slogan Licence Plate for Passenger Vehicles, Government of Ontario, June 10, 2010, July 29, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 28, 2010, (From 1988 to 1990,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink August 8, 2007, Official Ontario Road Maps Produced 1971–2006,, October 17, 2010, "Ontario Incredible"JOURNAL, Measuring the Returns to Tourism Advertising, David W., Butterfield, Kenneth R., Deal, Atif A., Kubursi, Journal of Travel Research, 37, 1, 12–20, 1998, 10.1177/004728759803700102, gave "Yours to Discover" a brief respite.)In 2007, a new song replaced "A Place to Stand" after four decades. "There's No Place Like This" is featured in television advertising, performed by Ontario artists including Molly Johnson, Brian Byrne, Keshia Chanté,WEB,weblink There's more to discover in Ontario,, October 17, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 10, 2008, {{better source|date=February 2014}} as well as Tomi Swick and Arkells.

Notable residents

Professional sports

The province has professional sports teams in baseball, basketball, Canadian football, ice hockey, lacrosse, rugby and soccer.{|class="wikitable sortable" border=1 cellpadding=4 style="margin:1em; clear:right; border-collapse:collapse; text-align:left; font-size:100%; line-height:normal;"!Club!Sport!League!City!Stadium|Belleville Senators|Ice hockeyAmerican Hockey League>AHLBelleville, Ontario>Belleville |CAA Arena|Forge FCAssociation football>SoccerCanadian Premier League>CPLHamilton, Ontario>Hamilton|Tim Hortons Field|Hamilton Tiger-CatsCanadian football>FootballCanadian Football League>CFL|Hamilton|Tim Hortons Field|KW Titans|BasketballNational Basketball League of Canada>NBLCKitchener, Ontario>Kitchener| Kitchener Memorial Auditorium|London Lightning|Basketball| NBLCLondon, Ontario>London| Budweiser Gardens|Niagara River Lions|Basketball| NBLC| St. Catharines| Meridian Centre|Ottawa Champions|BaseballCanadian American Association of Professional Baseball>Can-Am|Ottawa|Raymond Chabot Grant Thornton ParkOttawa Fury FC>Ottawa Fury|SoccerUnited Soccer League>USL|Ottawa|TD Place Stadium|Ottawa Redblacks|Football|CFL|Ottawa|TD Place Stadium|Ottawa Senators|Ice hockeyNational Hockey League>NHL|Ottawa|Canadian Tire Centre| Raptors 905| Basketball| NBA G League|Mississauga| Paramount Fine Foods Centre| Sudbury Five| Basketball| NBLC| Greater Sudbury| Sudbury Community Arena|Toronto Argonauts|Football|CFL|Toronto|BMO Field|Toronto Blue Jays|BaseballMajor League Baseball>MLB|Toronto|Rogers Centre|Toronto FC|SoccerMajor League Soccer>MLS|Toronto|BMO Field|Toronto FC II| Soccer| USL| Toronto| Lamport Stadium|Toronto Marlies|Ice hockey|AHL|Toronto|Ricoh Coliseum|Toronto Maple Leafs|Ice hockey|NHL|Toronto|Scotiabank Arena|Toronto Raptors|BasketballNational Basketball Association>NBA|Toronto|Scotiabank Arena|Toronto Rock|LacrosseNational Lacrosse League>NLL|Toronto|Scotiabank Arena|Toronto Wolfpack|Rugby leagueChampionship (rugby league)>Championship|Toronto|Lamport Stadium|Windsor Express|Basketball|NBLCWindsor, Ontario>Windsor| WFCU Centre|York 9 FC|Soccer|CPLRegional Municipality of York>York Region|York Lions Stadium


Transportation routes in Ontario evolved from early waterway travel and First Nations paths followed by European explorers. Ontario has two major east-west routes, both starting from Montreal in the neighbouring province of Quebec. The northerly route, which was a major fur trade route, travels west from Montreal along the Ottawa River, then continues northwestward towards Manitoba. Major cities on or near the route include Ottawa, North Bay, Sudbury, Sault Ste. Marie, and Thunder Bay. The southerly route, which was driven by growth in settlements originated by the United Empire Loyalists and later other European immigrants, travels southwest from Montreal along the St. Lawrence River, Lake Ontario, and Lake Erie before entering the United States in Michigan. Major cities on or near the route include Kingston, Belleville, Peterborough, Oshawa, Toronto, Mississauga, Kitchener-Waterloo, Hamilton, London, Sarnia, and Windsor. This route was also heavily used by immigrants to the Midwestern US particularly in the late 19th century.


File:Highway 400 Seguin.jpg|thumb|Highway 400 in Seguin. The roadway forms a part of the province's 400-series highway400-series highway400-series highways make up the primary vehicular network in the south of province, and they connect to numerous border crossings with the US, the busiest being the Detroit–Windsor Tunnel and Ambassador Bridge and the Blue Water Bridge (via Highway 402). Some of the primary highways along the southern route are Highway 401, Highway 417, and Highway 400,WEB, Ontario government investing $401 million to upgrade Highway 401,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink September 14, 2007, December 20, 2006, August 6, 2002, Ministry of Transportation (Ontario), WEB,weblink GTA Economy Dinged by Every Crash on the 401 – North America's Busiest Freeway, Brian Gray, Toronto Sun, transcribed at Urban Planet, April 10, 2004, March 18, 2007, The 'phenomenal' number of vehicles on Hwy. 401 as it cuts through Toronto makes it the busiest freeway in the world..., while other provincial highways and regional roads inter-connect the remainder of the province.


{{see also|Boat building industry in Ontario}}The Saint Lawrence Seaway, which extends across most of the southern portion of the province and connects to the Atlantic Ocean, is the primary water transportation route for cargo, particularly iron ore and grain. In the past, the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River were also a major passenger transportation route, but over the past half century passenger travel has been reduced to ferry services and sightseeing cruises.


Via Rail operates the inter-regional passenger train service on the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor, along with The Canadian, a transcontinental rail service from Southern Ontario to Vancouver, and the Sudbury–White River train. Additionally, Amtrak rail connects Ontario with key New York cities including Buffalo, Albany, and New York City. Ontario Northland provides rail service to destinations as far north as Moosonee near James Bay, connecting them with the south.Freight rail is dominated by the founding cross-country Canadian National Railway and CP Rail companies, which during the 1990s sold many short rail lines from their vast network to private companies operating mostly in the south.Regional commuter rail is limited to the provincially owned GO Transit, and serves a train-bus network spanning the Golden Horseshoe region, with Union Station in Toronto serving as the transport hub.The Toronto Transit Commission operates the province's only subway and streetcar system, one of the busiest in North America. OC Transpo operates, in addition to bus service, Ontario's only light rail transit line, the O-Train in Ottawa. A light-rail metro called the Confederation Line has recently started service in September 2019 in Ottawa. It has 13 stations on {{convert|12.5|km|1|abbr=on}} and part of it runs under the city's Downtown and features three underground stations. In addition, the Ion light rail and bus rapid transit system is under construction in the province's Waterloo region.{{wide image|Ontario Northland train crosses the Missinaibi River at Mattice-Val Côté, Ontario.jpg|880px|alt=Ontario Northland freight train crossing the Missinaibi River at Mattice-Val Côté in Northern Ontario|Ontario Northland freight train crossing the Missinaibi River at Mattice-Val Côté in Northern Ontario}}

Air travel

(File:TorontoPearsonInternationalAirportTerminal1.jpg|alt=|thumb|Toronto Pearson International Airport, Terminal 1 in 2016)Important airports in the province include Toronto Pearson International Airport, which is the busiest airport in Canada,WEB,weblink Total aircraft movements by class of operation – NAV CANADA towers,, February 24, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 18, 2014, handling nearly 50 million passengers in 2018.WEB, Toronto Pearson (Enplaned + Deplaned) Passengers,weblink GTAA, February 8, 2016, March 5, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 16, 2016, Ottawa Macdonald–Cartier International Airport is Ontario's second largest airport. Toronto/Pearson and Ottawa/Macdonald-Cartier form two of the three points in Canada's busiest set of air routes (the third point being Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport).Also John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport is a Cargo Hub, reliever for Pearson, and a hub for ULCC Swoop.Most Ontario cities have regional airports, many of which have scheduled commuter flights from Air Canada Jazz or smaller airlines and charter companies â€“ flights from the mid-size cities such as Thunder Bay, Sault Ste. Marie, Sudbury, North Bay, Timmins, Windsor, London, and Kingston feed directly into larger airports in Toronto and Ottawa. Bearskin Airlines also runs flights along the northerly east-west route, connecting Ottawa, North Bay, Sudbury, Sault Ste. Marie, Kitchener and Thunder Bay directly.Isolated towns and settlements in the northern areas of the province rely partly or entirely on air service for travel, goods, and even ambulance services (MEDIVAC), since much of the far northern area of the province cannot be reached by road or rail.

See also






  • Michael Sletcher, "Ottawa", in James Ciment, ed., Colonial America: An Encyclopedia of Social, Political, Cultural, and Economic History, (5 vols., M. E. Sharpe, New York, 2006).
  • Virtual Vault, an online exhibition of Canadian historical art at Library and Archives Canada.

Further reading

  • BOOK,weblink Ontario, Beckett, Harry, Weigl Educational Publishers Limited, 2001, 978-1-894705-04-2,
  • BOOK,weblink Ontario, 1610–1985 : a political and economic history, White, Randall, Dundurn Press, 1985, 978-0-919670-98-3,
  • BOOK,weblink Ontario since Confederation : a reader, Montigny, Edgar-André, Chambers, Anne Lorene, University of Toronto Press, 2000, 978-0-8020-4444-0,
  • Celebrating One Thousand Years of Ontario's History: Proceedings of the Celebrating One Thousand Years of Ontario's History Symposium, April 14, 15 and 16, 2000. Ontario Historical Society, 2000. 343 pp.
  • Baskerville, Peter A. Sites of Power: A Concise History of Ontario. Oxford U. Press., 2005. 296 pp. (first edition was Ontario: Image, Identity and Power, 2002). weblink" title="">online review
  • Chambers, Lori, and Edgar-Andre Montigny, eds. Ontario Since Confederation: A Reader (2000), articles by scholars
  • Winfield, Mark S. Blue-Green Province: The Environment and the Political Economy of Ontario (University of British Columbia Press; 2012) 296 pages; environmental policies since 1945

External links

{{Sister project links|voy=Ontario|m=no|mw=no|species=no|n=Category:Ontario|q=no|s=no|b=Cookbook:Cuisine of Ontario|v=no}} {{Ontario}}{{Subdivisions of Ontario}}{{Ontario parks}}{{Provinces and territories of Canada}}{{Canada topics}}{{Coord|50|N|85|W|type:adm1st_scale:10000000_region:CA-ON|display=title}}{{Authority control}}

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