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Odisha
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{{Short description|State in Eastern India}}{{Use Indian English|date=August 2019}}{{Use dmy dates|date=March 2013}}







factoids
Clockwise from top: Jagannath Temple, Puri, Chilka Lake, Mahanadi river, Sun Temple of Konark Sun Temple>Konarka, Udayagiri and Khandagiri Jain Caves| image_map = IN-OR.svg20.27region:IN-OR_type:adm1st|display=inline,title}}| coor_pinpoint = Bhubaneswar| coordinates_footnotes = | subdivision_type = CountryIndia}}| established_title = Statehood| established_date = 1 April 1936 (Utkala Dibasa)List of Indian districts>Districts| parts_style = paraList of districts of Odisha>30| seat_type = Capital| seat = Bhubaneswar| seat1_type = Largest cityBhubaneswarCITIES HAVING POPULATION 1 LAKH AND ABOVE, CENSUS 2011 GOVERNMENT OF INDIA >URL=HTTP://WWW.CENSUSINDIA.GOV.IN/2011-PROV-RESULTS/PAPER2-VOL2/DATA_FILES/INDIA2/TABLE_2_PR_CITIES_1LAKH_AND_ABOVE.PDF ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20141125040030/HTTP://WWW.CENSUSINDIA.GOV.IN/2011-PROV-RESULTS/PAPER2-VOL2/DATA_FILES/INDIA2/TABLE_2_PR_CITIES_1LAKH_AND_ABOVE.PDF DEAD-URL=NO, dmy-all, | government_footnotes = Government of Odisha}}List of Governors of Odisha>GovernorGaneshi LalGANESHI LAL SWORN IN AS NEW GOVERNOR OF ODISHAWORK=BUSINESS STANDARDDATE=29 MAY 2018ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20181129142229/HTTPS://WWW.BUSINESS-STANDARD.COM/ARTICLE/PTI-STORIES/GANESHI-LAL-SWORN-IN-AS-NEW-GOVERNOR-OF-ODISHA-118052901160_1.HTMLDEAD-URL=NO, dmy-all, List of Chief Ministers of Odisha>Chief MinisterNaveen Patnaik (Biju Janata Dal>BJD)Odisha Legislative Assembly>LegislatureUnicameral (List of constituencies of Odisha Legislative Assembly>147 seats)List of Constituencies of the Lok Sabha#Odisha>Parliamentary constituencyLok Sabha; 10 Rajya SabhaOUR PARLIAMENT LOK SABHA >PUBLISHER=GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACCESSDATE=2 FEBRUARY 2015 ARCHIVE-DATE=3 FEBRUARY 2015 DF=DMY-ALL, List of High Courts of India>High Court| leader_name4 = Orissa High Court, Cuttack, Odisha| unit_pref = Metric| area_footnotes = | area_total_km2 = 155,707| area_note = List of states and territories of India by area>8th| elevation_footnotes = | elevation_m = | population_footnotes = | population_total = 45989232| population_as_of = 2018| population_rank = 11th| population_density_km2 = auto| population_note = Odia people>Odia| GDP Nominal = Indian Standard Time>IST| utc_offset1 = +05:30IN-OR)(2017–18)}}LAST=DATE=1 MARCH 2019MINISTRY OF STATISTICS AND PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA>ARCHIVE-URL=, 9 June 2019, List of Indian states and union territories by GDP>Total4.16|lc}}List of Indian states and union territories by GDP per capita>Per capita80991}}Human Development Index>HDIWEBSITE=GLOBAL DATA LAB ACCESSDATE=25 SEPTEMBER 2018 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180923120638/HTTPS://HDI.GLOBALDATALAB.ORG/AREADATA/SHDI/ DEAD-URL=NO, dmy-all, (medium)| blank1_name_sec1 = HDI rankList of Indian states and territories by Human Development Index>25th (2015)Literacy in India>LiteracyCENSUS OF INDIA >PAGE=110 ACCESSDATE=5 AUGUST 2015 ARCHIVE-DATE=6 JULY 2015 DF=DMY-ALL, Official language}}Odia language>OdiaREPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES: 47TH REPORT (JULY 2008 TO JUNE 2010) >PAGES=122–126 URL=HTTP://NCLM.NIC.IN/SHARED/LINKIMAGES/NCLM47THREPORT.PDF DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=13 MAY 2012, dmy-all, weblink}}







factoids
| official_name = Odisha}}Odisha ({{IPAc-en|ə|ˈ|d|ɪ|s|ə}},WEB, Odisha (əˈdɪsə), Collins English Dictionary,weblink 2 February 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150206035739weblink">weblink 6 February 2015, no, dmy-all, The 'sha' spelling comes about from the historical or Sanskritic letter śa (ଶ), however all Odia sibilants today are realised as sa (ସ). {{IPAc-en|ɒ|ˈ|r|ɪ|s|ə|,_|ɔː|-|,_|oʊ|-}};BOOK, Jones, Daniel, Daniel Jones (phonetician), Roach, Peter, Hartmann, James, Setter, Jane, 2003, 1917, English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 3-12-539683-2, , {{IPA-or|oɽɪˈsaː|pron|Pronunciation of the Odia language word "Odisha".ogg}}; formerly known as Orissa) is one of the 28 states of India. Located in eastern India, it is surrounded by the states of West Bengal to the northeast, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and northwest, and Andhra Pradesh to the south. Odisha has {{convert|485|km}} of coastline along the Bay of Bengal on its east, from Balasore to Ganjam.WEB, Coastal security, Odisha Police,weblink 1 February 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150206043803weblink">weblink 6 February 2015, no, dmy-all, It is the 8th largest state by area, and the 11th largest by population. The state also has the third largest population of Scheduled Tribes in India.WEB,weblink ST & SC Development, Minorities & Backward Classes Welfare Department:: Government of Odisha, www.stscodisha.gov.in, 10 December 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180901131912weblink">weblink 1 September 2018, yes, dmy-all, OdiaNEWS, 24 March 2011, Orissa's new name is Odisha, The Times of India,weblink 24 March 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160105110846weblink">weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, is the official and most widely spoken language, spoken by 36.6 million according to the 2016 Census.NEWS, 14 March 2010, Indiaspeak: English is our 2nd language, The Times of India,weblink 3 February 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150324145827weblink">weblink 24 March 2015, no, dmy-all, The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha.WEB, Detail History of Orissa,weblink Government of Odisha,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061112195307weblink">weblink 12 November 2006, The modern state of Odisha was established on 1 April 1936, as a province in British India, and consisted predominantly of Odia-speaking regions. 1 April is celebrated as Utkala Dibasa.NEWS, Utkala Dibasa hails colours, flavours of Odisha,weblink 1 February 2015, The Times of India, 2 April 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150708211533weblink">weblink 8 July 2015, no, dmy-all, The region is also known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana".WEB, The National Anthem of India,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120124230152weblink">weblink no, 24 January 2012, Columbia University, 1 February 2015, Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c. 1135,BOOK, Rabindra Nath Chakraborty, National Integration in Historical Perspective: A Cultural Regeneration in Eastern India,weblink 30 November 2012, 1985, Mittal Publications, 17–, GGKEY:CNFHULBK119,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130515095045weblink">weblink 15 May 2013, no, dmy-all, after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948. Thereafter, Bhubaneswar became the capital of Odisha.BOOK, Ravi Kalia, Bhubaneswar: From a Temple Town to a Capital City,weblink 2 February 2015, 1994, SIU Press, 978-0-8093-1876-6, 23,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, The economy of Odisha is the 16th-largest state economy in India with {{INRConvert|4.16|lc}} in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of {{INRConvert|81|k}}. Odisha ranks 25th among Indian states in human development index.

Etymology

{{See also|History of Odisha#Historical names of Odisha}}The term "Odisha" is derived from the ancient Prakrit word "Odda Visaya" (also "Udra Bibhasha" or "Odra Bibhasha") as in the Tirumalai inscription of Rajendra Chola I, which is dated to 1025.BOOK, Patel, C.B, Origin and Evolution of the Name ODISA, April 2010, I&PR Department, Government of Odisha, Bhubaneswar, 28, 29, 30,weblink 19 June 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150619163833weblink">weblink 19 June 2015, yes, dmy-all, Sarala Das, who translated the Mahabharata into the Odia language in the 15th century, calls the region 'Odra Rashtra' as Odisha. The inscriptions of Kapilendra Deva of the Gajapati Kingdom (1435–67) on the walls of temples in Puri call the region Odisha or Odisha Rajya.BOOK, Pritish Acharya, National Movement and Politics in Orissa, 1920–1929,weblink 3 February 2015, 11 March 2008, SAGE Publications, 978-81-321-0001-0, 19,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, The name of the state was changed from Orissa to Odisha, and the name of its language from Oriya to Odia, in 2011, by the passage of the Orissa (Alteration of Name) Bill, 2010 and the Constitution (113th Amendment) Bill, 2010 in the Parliament. After a brief debate, the lower house, Lok Sabha, passed the bill and amendment on 9 November 2010.NEWS, Amid clash, House passes Bills to rename Orissa, its language,weblink 2 February 2015, The Hindu, 9 November 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151017164642weblink">weblink 17 October 2015, no, dmy-all, On 24 March 2011, Rajya Sabha, the upper house of Parliament, also passed the bill and the amendment.NEWS, Parliament passes bill to change Orissa's name,weblink 2 February 2015, NDTV, 24 March 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150203144151weblink">weblink 3 February 2015, no, dmy-all,

History

File:The Specific Angel of Lingaraj Temple, Bhubaneswar.jpg|thumb|200px|left|Lingaraja TempleLingaraja TemplePrehistoric Acheulian tools dating to Lower Paleolithic era have been discovered in various places in the region, implying an early settlement by humans.BOOK, An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology, 1990, BRILL, 24,weblink Amalananda Ghosh, 29 October 2012,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, Kalinga has been mentioned in ancient texts like Mahabharata, Vayu Purana and Mahagovinda Suttanta.BOOK, An Introduction to Epic Philosophy: Epic Period, History, Literature, Pantheon, Philosophy, Traditions, and Mythology, Volume 3, 2004, Genesis Publishing, 784,weblink Subodh Kapoor, 10 November 2012, Finally Srutayudha, a valiant hero, was son Varuna and of the river Parnasa.,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, BOOK, Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna, 1946, Motilal Banarsidass Pub., 46,weblink Devendrakumar Rajaram Patil, 15 November 2015,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, The Sabar people of Odisha have also been mentioned in the Mahabharata.WEB, Dance bow (1965.3.5),weblink Pitt Rivers Museum, 4 February 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150202160400weblink">weblink 2 February 2015, no, dmy-all, BOOK, Rabindra Nath Pati, Family Planning,weblink 2 February 2015, 1 January 2008, APH Publishing, 978-81-313-0352-8, 97,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, Baudhayana mentions Kalinga as not yet being influenced by Vedic traditions, implying it followed mostly tribal traditions.BOOK, Suhas Chatterjee, Indian Civilization And Culture,weblink 11 February 2013, 1 January 1998, M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd., 978-81-7533-083-2, 68,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130515091723weblink">weblink 15 May 2013, no, dmy-all, File:Hathigumpha.JPG|thumb|200px|right|Hathigumpha on the Udayagiri Hills built in c. 150 BCE]]File:Shanti Stupa, Dhauli 01.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Shanti Stupa at Dhauli is the location where Kalinga WarKalinga WarAshoka of the Mauryan dynasty conquered Kalinga in the bloody Kalinga War in 261 BCE,BOOK, A History of India, 2004, Routledge, 66,weblink Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermund, 12 November 2012,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, which was the eighth year of his reign.BOOK, Mookerji Radhakumud, Asoka,weblink 6 August 2015, 1995, Motilal Banarsidass, 978-81-208-0582-8, 214,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, According to his own edicts, in that war about 100,000 people were killed, 150,000 were captured and more were affected. The resulting bloodshed and suffering of the war is said to have deeply affected Ashoka. He turned into a pacifist and converted to Buddhism.BOOK, Sailendra Nath Sen, Ancient Indian History and Civilization,weblink 6 August 2015, 1 January 1999, New Age International, 978-81-224-1198-0, 153,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, By c. 150 BCE, emperor Kharavela, who was possibly a contemporary of Demetrius I of Bactria,BOOK, Austin Patrick Olivelle Alma Cowden Madden Centennial Professor in Liberal Arts University of Texas, Between the Empires : Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE,weblink 3 February 2015, 19 June 2006, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-977507-1, 78,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, conquered a major part of the Indian sub-continent. Kharavela was a Jain ruler. He also built the monastery atop the Udayagiri hill.BOOK, Reddy, Indian Hist (Opt),weblink 3 February 2015, 1 December 2006, Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 978-0-07-063577-7, A254,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, Subsequently, the region was ruled by monarchs, such as SamudraguptaBOOK, Indian History,weblink 3 February 2015, Allied Publishers, 978-81-8424-568-4, 74,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, and Shashanka.BOOK, Ronald M. Davidson, Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement,weblink 3 February 2015, 13 August 2013, Columbia University Press, 978-0-231-50102-6, 60,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, It was also a part of Harsha's empire.BOOK, R. C. Majumdar, Outline of the History of Kalinga,weblink 3 February 2015, 1996, Asian Educational Services, 978-81-206-1194-8, 28,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, Later, the kings of the Somavamsi dynasty began to unite the region. By the reign of Yayati II, c. 1025 CE, they had integrated the region into a single kingdom. Yayati II is supposed to have built the Lingaraj temple at Bhubaneswar. They were replaced by the Eastern Ganga dynasty. Notable rulers of the dynasty were Anantavarman Chodaganga, who began re-construction on the present-day Shri Jagannath Temple in Puri (c. 1135), and Narasimhadeva I, who constructed the Konark temple (c. 1250).BOOK, Roshen Dalal, The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths,weblink 3 February 2015, 18 April 2014, Penguin Books Limited, 978-81-8475-396-7, 559,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, BOOK, Indian History,weblink 3 May 2013, Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 978-0-07-132923-1, 2,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140101141813weblink">weblink 1 January 2014, no, dmy-all, The Eastern Ganga Dynasty was followed by the Gajapati Kingdom. The region resisted integration into the Mughal empire until 1568, when it was conquered by Sultanate of Bengal.BOOK, Sen, Sailendra, A Textbook of Medieval Indian History, Primus Books, 2013, 978-93-80607-34-4, 121–122, Mukunda Deva, who is considered the last independent king of Kalinga, was defeated and was killed in battle by a rebel Ramachandra Bhanja. Ramachandra Bhanja himself was killed by Bayazid Khan Karrani.BOOK, Orissa General Knowledge,weblink 3 February 2015, Bright Publications, 978-81-7199-574-5, 27,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, In 1591, Man Singh I, then governor of Bihar, led an army to take Odisha from the Karranis of Bengal. They agreed to treaty because their leader Qutlu Khan Lohani had recently died. But, they then broke the treaty by attacking the temple town of Puri. Man Singh returned in 1592 and pacified the region.BOOK, L.S.S. O'Malley, Bengal District Gazetteer : Puri,weblink 3 February 2015, 1 January 2007, Concept Publishing Company, 978-81-7268-138-8, 33,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, In 1751, the Nawab of Bengal Alivardi Khan ceded the region to the Maratha Empire.The British had occupied the Northern Circars, comprising the southern coast of Odisha, as a result of the 2nd Carnatic War by 1760, and incorporated them into the Madras Presidency gradually.BOOK, Sailendra Nath Sen, An Advanced History of Modern India,weblink 3 February 2015, 2010, Macmillan India, 978-0-230-32885-3, 32,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, In 1803, the British ousted the Marathas from the Puri-Cuttack region of Odisha during the Second Anglo-Maratha War. The northern and western districts of Odisha were incorporated into the Bengal Presidency.BOOK, harv, Devi, Bandita, Some Aspects of British Administration in Orissa, 1912–1936,weblink January 1992, Academic Foundation, 978-81-7188-072-0, 14, 5 December 2016,weblink 21 December 2016, no, dmy-all, The Orissa famine of 1866 caused an estimated 1 million deaths.BOOK, William A. Dando, Food and Famine in the 21st Century [2 volumes],weblink 3 February 2015, 13 February 2012, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-59884-731-4, 47,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, Following this, large-scale irrigation projects were undertaken.BOOK, J. K. Samal, Pradip Kumar Nayak, Makers of Modern Orissa: Contributions of Some Leading Personalities of Orissa in the 2nd Half of the 19th Century,weblink 3 February 2015, 1 January 1996, Abhinav Publications, 978-81-7017-322-9, 32,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, There was a view among some sections of population that Odia was not a separate language rather a dialect of Bengali.This view ultimately precipitated Odia nationalism.A Comparative Grammar of the Modern Indo-Aryan Languages, Vol. I, 1872, pp. 117-18. In 1903, the Utkal Sammilani organisation was founded to demand the unification of Odia-speaking regions into one state.BOOK, K.S. Padhy, Indian Political Thought,weblink 3 February 2015, 30 July 2011, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., 978-81-203-4305-4, 287,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, On 1 April 1912, the Bihar and Orissa Province was formed.BOOK, Usha Jha, Land, Labour, and Power: Agrarian Crisis and the State in Bihar (1937–52),weblink 3 February 2015, 1 January 2003, Aakar Books, 978-81-87879-07-7, 246,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, On 1 April 1936, Bihar and Orissa were split into separate provinces.BOOK, Bandita Devi, Some Aspects of British Administration in Orissa, 1912–1936,weblink 3 February 2015, 1 January 1992, Academic Foundation, 978-81-7188-072-0, 214,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, The new province of Orissa came into existence on a linguistic basis during the British rule in India, with Sir John Austen Hubback as the first governor.NEWS, Hubback's memoirs: First Governor Of State Reserved Tone Of Mild Contempt For Indians,weblink 3 February 2015, The Telegraph (India), 29 November 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150204200041weblink">weblink 4 February 2015, no, dmy-all, Following India's independence, on 15 August 1947, 27 princely states signed the document to join Orissa.BOOK, B. Krishna, India's Bismarck, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel,weblink 3 February 2015, 2007, Indus Source, 978-81-88569-14-4, 243–244,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all,

Geography

File:Chahata near mahanadi river.jpg|thumb|left|200px|Mahanadi riverMahanadi riverOdisha lies between the latitudes 17.780N and 22.730N, and between longitudes 81.37E and 87.53E. The state has an area of 155,707 km2, which is 4.87% of total area of India, and a coastline of 450 km.WEB, Geography of Odisha,weblink Know India, Government of India, 3 February 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150204220248weblink">weblink 4 February 2015, no, dmy-all, In the eastern part of the state lies the coastal plain. It extends from the Subarnarekha River in the north to the Rushikulya river in the south. The lake Chilika is part of the coastal plains. The plains are rich in fertile silt deposited by the six major rivers flowing into the Bay of Bengal: Subarnarekha, Budhabalanga, Baitarani, Brahmani, Mahanadi and Rushikulya. The Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI), a Food and Agriculture Organization-recognised rice gene bank and research institute, is situated on the banks of Mahanadi in Cuttack.WEB, Cuttack,weblink Government of Odisha, 6 August 2015, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121206115854weblink">weblink 6 December 2012, dmy, File:Mahanadi-river-delta.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Satellite view of the Mahanadi river delta ]]Three-quarters of the state is covered in mountain ranges. Deep and broad valleys have been made in them by rivers. These valleys have fertile soil and are densely populated. Odisha also has plateaus and rolling uplands, which have lower elevation than the plateaus. The highest point in the state is Deomali at 1,672 metres. The other high peaks are: Sinkaram (1,620 m), Golikoda (1,617 m), and Yendrika (1,582 metres).BOOK, Socio-economic Profile of Rural India (series II).: Eastern India (Orissa, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh),weblink 4 February 2015, 2011, Concept Publishing Company, 978-81-8069-723-4, 73,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all,

Climate

The state experiences four meteorological seasons: winter (January to February), pre-monsoon season (March to May), south-west monsoon season (June to September) and north east monsoon season (October–December). However, locally the year is divided into six traditional seasons (or rutus): Grishma (summer), Barsha (rainy season), Sharata (autumn), Hemanta (winter),Sheeta(cool season) and Basanta (spring), .{|class="wikitable"!colspan="13"|Mean Temp and Precipitation of Selected Weather StationsWEB, Monthly mean maximum & minimum temperature and total rainfall based upon 1901–2000 data,weblink India Meteorological Department, 6 February 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150413020426weblink">weblink 13 April 2015, dmy, !!colspan="3"|Bhubaneswar(1952–2000)!colspan="3"|Balasore(1901–2000)!colspan="3"|Gopalpur(1901–2000)!colspan="3"|Sambalpur(1901–2000)!!Max (C)!Min (C)!Rainfall (mm)!Max (C)!Min (C)!Rainfall (mm)!Max (C)!Min (C)!Rainfall (mm)!Max (C)!Min (C)!Rainfall (mm)January>|14.2February>|28.0March>|20.9April>|14.2May>|22.7June>|218.9July>|459.0August>|487.5September>|243.5October>|56.6November>|17.6December>|4.8

Biodiversity

According to a Forest Survey of India report released in 2012, Odisha has 48,903 km2 of forests which cover 31.41% of the state's total area. The forests are classified into: dense forest (7,060 km2), medium dense forest (21,366 km2), open forest (forest without closed canopy; 20,477 km2) and scrub forest (4,734 km2). The state also has bamboo forests (10,518 km2) and mangroves (221 km2). The state is losing its forests to timber smuggling, mining, industrialisation and grazing. There have been attempts at conservation and reforestation.NEWS, Study shows Odisha forest cover shrinking,weblink 5 February 2015, The Times of India, 16 February 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151017164642weblink">weblink 17 October 2015, no, dmy-all, Due to the climate and good rainfall, Odisha's evergreen and moist forests are suitable habitats for wild orchids. Around 130 species have been reported from the state.BOOK, Underutilized and Underexploited Horticultural Crops,weblink 5 February 2015, 1 January 2007, New India Publishing, 978-81-89422-60-8, 116,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, 97 of them are found in Mayurbhanj district alone. The Orchid House of Nandakanan Biological Park hosts some of these species.NEWS, Orchid House a haven for nature lovers,weblink 5 February 2015, The Telegraph (India), 23 August 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150205133023weblink">weblink 5 February 2015, no, dmy-all, Simlipal National Park is a protected wildlife area and tiger reserve spread over 2,750 km2 of the northern part of Mayurbhanj district. It has 1078 species of plants, including 94 orchids. The sal tree is the primary tree species there. The park has 55 mammals, including barking deer, Bengal tiger, common langur, four-horned antelope, Indian bison, Indian elephant, Indian giant squirrel, Indian leopard, jungle cat, sambar deer, and wild boar. There are 304 species of birds in the park, such as the common hill myna, grey hornbill, Indian pied hornbill and Malabar pied hornbill. It also has 60 species of reptiles, notable among which are the king cobra and tricarinate hill turtle. There is also a mugger crocodile breeding program in nearby Ramtirtha.WEB, Similipal Tiger Reserve,weblink World Wide Fund for Nature, India, 5 February 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150205152048weblink">weblink 5 February 2015, no, dmy-all, The Chandaka Elephant Sanctuary is a 190 km2 protected area near the capital city, Bhubaneswar. However, urban expansion and over-grazing have reduced the forests and are driving herds of elephants to migration. In 2002, there were about 80 elephants. But by 2012, their numbers had been reduced to 20. Many of the animals have migrated toward the Barbara reserve forest, Chilika, Nayagarh district, and Athagad. Some elephants have died in conflicts with villagers, while some have died during migration from being electrocuted by power lines or hit by trains. Outside the protected area, they are killed by poachers.NEWS, Banished from their homes,weblink 5 February 2015, The Pioneer (newspaper), The Pioneer, 29 August 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120904034144weblink">weblink 4 September 2012, NEWS, Away from home, Chandaka elephants face a wipeout,weblink The New Indian Express, 23 August 2013, 5 February 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150205151829weblink">weblink 5 February 2015, no, dmy-all, Besides elephants, the sanctuary also has Indian leopards, jungle cats and chitals.BOOK, Sharad Singh Negi, Biodiversity and Its Conservation in India,weblink 5 February 2015, 1 January 1993, Indus Publishing, 978-81-85182-88-9, 242,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, The Bhitarkanika National Park in Kendrapara District covers 650 km2, of which 150 km2 are mangroves. The Gahiramatha beach in Bhitarkanika is the world's largest nesting site for olive ridley sea turtles.BOOK, Venkatesh Salagrama, Trends in Poverty and Livelihoods in Coastal Fishing Communities of Orissa State, India,weblink 5 February 2015, 2006, Food & Agriculture Org., 978-92-5-105566-3, 16–17,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, Other major nesting grounds for the turtle in the state are Rushikulya, in Ganjam district,NEWS, Olive Ridley turtles begin mass nesting,weblink 5 February 2015, The Hindu, 12 February 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151017164643weblink">weblink 17 October 2015, no, dmy-all, and the mouth of the Devi river.NEWS, Mass nesting of Olive Ridleys begins at Rushikulya beach,weblink 5 February 2015, The Hindu, 15 March 2004,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151017164642weblink">weblink 17 October 2015, no, dmy-all, The Bhitarkanika sanctuary is also noted for its large population of salt-water crocodiles.NEWS, Bhitarkanika Park to be Closed for Crocodile Census,weblink 5 February 2015, The New Indian Express, 3 December 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150205162831weblink">weblink 5 February 2015, no, dmy-all, In winter, the sanctuary is also visited by migratory birds. Among the species of birds spotted in the sanctuary are the black-crowned night heron, darter, grey heron, Indian cormorant, Oriental white ibis, purple heron, and sarus crane.NEWS, Bird Count Rises in Bhitarkanika,weblink 5 February 2015, The New Indian Express, 14 September 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150205162754weblink">weblink 5 February 2015, no, dmy-all, The possibly endangered horseshoe crab is also found in this region.NEWS, Concern over dwindling horseshoe crab population,weblink 5 February 2015, The Hindu, 8 December 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151017164642weblink">weblink 17 October 2015, no, dmy-all, Chilika Lake is a brackish water lagoon on the east coast of Odisha with an area of 1,105 km2. It is connected to the Bay of Bengal by a 35-km-long narrow channel and is a part of the Mahanadi delta. In the dry season, the tides bring in salt water. In the rainy season, the rivers falling into the lagoon decrease its salinity.BOOK, Pushpendra K. Agarwal, Vijay P. Singh, Hydrology and Water Resources of India,weblink 5 February 2015, 16 May 2007, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-1-4020-5180-7, 984,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, Birds from places like the Caspian Sea, Lake Baikal, other parts of Russia, Central Asia, South-East Asia, Ladakh and the Himalayas migrate to the lagoon in winter.NEWS, Number of birds visiting Chilika falls but new species found,weblink 5 February 2015, The Hindu, 9 January 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140831173859weblink">weblink 31 August 2014, no, dmy-all, Among the birds spotted there are Eurasian wigeon, pintail, bar-headed goose, greylag goose, flamingo, mallard and Goliath heron.NEWS, Chilika registers sharp drop in winged visitors,weblink 5 February 2015, The Hindu, 13 January 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151017164642weblink">weblink 17 October 2015, no, dmy-all, NEWS, Two new species of migratory birds sighted in Chilika Lake,weblink 5 February 2015, The Hindu, 8 January 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151017164642weblink">weblink 17 October 2015, no, dmy-all, The lagoon also has a small population of the endangered Irrawaddy dolphins.NEWS, Dolphin population on rise in Chilika Lake,weblink 5 February 2015, The Hindu, 18 February 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151017164642weblink">weblink 17 October 2015, no, dmy-all, The state's coastal region has also had sightings of finless porpoise, bottlenose dolphin, humpback dolphin and spinner dolphin in its waters.NEWS, Maiden Dolphin Census in State's Multiple Places on Cards,weblink 5 February 2015, The New Indian Express, 20 January 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150123131044weblink">weblink 23 January 2015, no, dmy-all, Satapada is situated close to the northeast cape of Chilika Lake and Bay of Bengal. It is famous for dolphin watching in their natural habitat. There is a tiny island en-route for watching dolphins, where tourists often take a short stop. Apart from that, this island is also home for tiny red crabs.File:Nandankanan19.jpg|thumb|left|200px|White tiger in the Nandankanan ZooFile:Irrawaddy dolphin-Orcaella brevirostris by 2eight.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Irrawaddy dolphins can be found in Chilika (Note: This is a picture taken from Cambodia.) File:Vanda tessellata Orchi 001.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Vanda tessellata, one of the orchids found in OdishaJOURNAL, P.K. Dash, Santilata Sahoo, Subhasisa Bal, Ethnobotanical Studies on Orchids of Niyamgiri Hill Ranges, Orissa, India, Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 2008, 12, 70–78,weblink 5 February 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150205133643weblink">weblink 5 February 2015, no, dmy-all, File:Black tailed Goodwit at Chilika I5 IMG 9350.jpg|thumb|left|200px|Birds at Chilika LakeFile:Bhitarkanika Mangroves Flora and Fauna 03.JPG|thumb|left|200px|Crocodile in Bhitarkanika National Park

Government and politics

File:ORISSA SECRETARIAT.jpg|thumb|200px|Odisha State Secretariat building in BhubaneswarBhubaneswarAll states in India are governed by a parliamentary system of government based on universal adult franchise.BOOK, Chandan Sengupta, Stuart Corbridge, Democracy, Development and Decentralisation in India: Continuing Debates,weblink 15 February 2015, 28 October 2013, Routledge, 978-1-136-19848-9, 8,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, The main parties active in the politics of Odisha are the Biju Janata Dal, the Indian National Congress and Bhartiya Janata Party. Following the Odisha State Assembly Election in 2014, the Naveen Patnaik-led Biju Janata Dal stayed in power for the fifth consecutive term.

Legislative assembly

The Odisha state has a unicameral legislature.BOOK, Ada W. Finifter, Political Science,weblink 15 February 2015, FK Publications, 978-81-89597-13-9, 94,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, The Odisha Legislative Assembly consists of 147 elected members,NEWS, BJD's landslide victory in Odisha, wins 20 of 21 Lok Sabha seats,weblink 18 March 2015, IBNLive, 17 May 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140908125021weblink">weblink 8 September 2014, no, dmy-all, and special office bearers such as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, who are elected by the members. Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker, or by the Deputy Speaker in the Speaker's absence.BOOK, Rajesh Kumar, Universal's Guide to the Constitution of India,weblink 18 March 2015, Universal Law Publishing, 978-93-5035-011-9, 107–110,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, Executive authority is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister, although the titular head of government is the Governor of Odisha. The governor is appointed by the President of India. The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the Chief Minister by the governor, and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the governor on the advice of the Chief Minister. The Council of Ministers reports to the Legislative Assembly.BOOK, Ramesh Kumar Arora, Rajni Goyal, Indian Public Administration: Institutions and Issues,weblink 18 March 2015, 1995, New Age International, 978-81-7328-068-9, 205–207,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, The 147 elected representatives are called Members of the Legislative Assembly, or MLAs. One MLA may be nominated from the Anglo-Indian community by the governor.BOOK, Subhash Shukla, Issues in Indian Polity,weblink 18 March 2015, 2008, Anamika Pub. & distributors, 978-81-7975-217-3, 99,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, The term of the office is for five years, unless the Assembly is dissolved prior to the completion of the term.The judiciary is composed of the Odisha High Court, located at Cuttack, and a system of lower courts.

Subdivisions

Odisha Has been divided into 30 districts. These 30 districts have been placed under three different revenue divisions to streamline their governance. The divisions are North, South and Central, with their headquarters at Sambalpur, Berhampur and Cuttack respectively. Each division consists of ten districts, and has as its administrative head a Revenue Divisional Commissioner (RDC).WEB, About Department,weblink Revenue & Disaster Management Department, Government of Odisha, 27 March 2015, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121206115854weblink">weblinkrevenue/web/Aboutus.asp?GL=1&PL=1, 6 December 2012, dmy, The position of the RDC in the administrative hierarchy is that between that of the district administration and the state secretariat.BOOK, Laxmikanth, Governance In India, https:books.google.com/books?id=DY1CAQAAQBAJ&pg=SA6-PA17, 27 March 2015, McGraw-Hill Education (India) Pvt Limited, 978-0-07-107466-7, 6–17,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, The RDCs report to the Board of Revenue, which is headed by a senior officer of the Indian Administrative Service.(File:Orissa State map.svg|thumb|400px|Map of districts of Odisha){|class="wikitable" style="text-align: left;"weblink Revenue & Disaster Management Department, Government of Odisha, 27 March 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130821033240weblink">weblink 21 August 2013, dmy, !Northern Division (HQ – Sambalpur)!Central Division (HQ – Cuttack)!Southern Division (HQ – Berhampur)| Each district is governed by a Collector and District Magistrate, who is appointed from the Indian Administrative Service.BOOK, Siuli Sarkar, Public Administration in India,weblink 11 August 2015, 9 November 2009, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., 978-81-203-3979-8, 117,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, BOOK, Public Administration Dictionary,weblink 11 August 2015, 2012, Tata McGraw Hill Education, 978-1-259-00382-0, 263,weblink 5 January 2016, no, dmy-all, The Collector and District Magistrate is responsible for collecting the revenue and maintaining law and order in the district. Each District is separated into Sub-Divisions, each governed by a Sub-Collector and Sub-Divisional Magistrate. The Sub-Divisions are further divided into Tahasils. The Tahasils are headed by Tahasildar. Odisha has 58 Sub-Divisions, 317 Tahasils and 314 Blocks. Blocks consists of Panchayats (village councils) and town municipalities.The capital and largest city of the state is Bhubaneswar. The other major cities are Cuttack, Rourkela,Berhampur and Sambalpur. Municipal Corporations in Odisha include Bhubaneswar, Cuttack, Berhampur, Sambalpur and Rourkela.Other municipalities of Odisha include Angul, Balangir, Balasore, Barbil, Bargarh, Baripada, Belpahar, Bhadrak, Bhawanipatna, Biramitrapur, Boudh, Byasanagar, Chhatrapur, Deogarh, Dhenkanal, Gopalpur, Gunupur, hinjilicut, Jagatsinghpur, Jajpur, Jeypore, Jharsuguda, Joda, Kendrapara, Kendujhar, Khordha, Konark, Koraput, Malkangiri, Nabarangpur, Nayagarh, Nuapada, Paradeep, Paralakhemundi, Phulbani, Puri, Rajgangpur, Rayagada, Sonepur, Sundargarh, Talcher and Umerkote.{{Largest cities| name = Largest cities of Odisha| class = nav| country = OdishaList of cities in Odisha>2011 Census| list_by_pop = List of cities in Odisha| div_name = District| div_link = List of districts of Odisha{{!}}District| city_1 = Bhubaneswar| div_1 = Khurda district{{!}}Khurda| pop_1 = 881,988| img_1 = Bhubaneswar skyline.jpg| city_2 = Cuttack| div_2 = Cuttack district{{!}}Cuttack| pop_2 = 658,986| img_2 = Train passing through a bridge in cuttack.JPG| city_3 = Rourkela| div_3 = Sundargarh district{{!}}Sundargarh| pop_3 = 552,970| img_3 = Suraksha Path Bridge near IG Park Rourkela.jpg| city_4 = Brahmapur, Odisha{{!}}Brahmapur| div_4 = Ganjam district{{!}}Ganjam| pop_4 = 355,823| img_4 = Platform RainyDay.JPG| city_5 = Sambalpur| div_5 = Sambalpur district{{!}}Sambalpur| pop_5 = 270,331| city_6 = Puri| div_6 = Puri district{{!}}Puri| pop_6 = 201,026| city_7 = Balasore| div_7 = Balasore district{{!}}Balasore| pop_7 = 144,373| city_8 = Bhadrak| div_8 = Bhadrak district{{!}}Bhadrak| pop_8 = 121,338| city_9 = Baripada| div_9 = Mayurbhanj district{{!}}Mayurbhanj| pop_9 = 116,874| city_10 = Balangir| div_10 = Balangir district{{!}}Balangir| pop_10 = 98,238}}Auxiliary authorities known as panchayats, for which local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs in rural areas.

Economy

Macro-economic trend

Odisha is experiencing steady economic growth. The impressive growth in gross domestic product of the state has been reported by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Odisha's growth rate is above the national average.WEB,weblink GDP growth: Most states grew faster than national rate in 2012–13, The Financial Express, 2013-12-12, 2012-05-23,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131215183438weblink">weblink 15 December 2013, no, dmy-all, The central Government's Urban Development Ministry has recently announced the names of 20 cities selected to be developed as smart cities. The state capital Bhubaneswar is the first city in the list of smart Cities released in January 2016, a pet project of the Indian Government. The announcement also marked with sanction of Rs 50,802 crore over the five years for development.WEB,weblink Bhubaneswar leads Govt's Smart City list, Rs 50,802 crore to be invested over five years, 2016-01-29, The Indian Express, 2016-03-21,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160318020954weblink">weblink 18 March 2016, no, dmy-all,

Industrial development

Odisha has abundant natural resources and a large coastline. Odisha has emerged as the most preferred destination for overseas investors with investment proposals.WEB,weblink Indian states that attracted highest FDI, Rediff, 2012-08-29, 2014-04-08,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140408212658weblink">weblink 8 April 2014, no, dmy-all, It contains a fifth of India's coal, a quarter of its iron ore, a third of its bauxite reserves and most of the chromite.File:One_of_the_iron_ore_mines_in_Keonjhar_district.jpg|thumb|One of the iron ore mines in Keonjhar district ]]Rourkela Steel PlantWEB,weblink Rourkela Steel Plant, Sail.co.in, 2012-05-23, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120531085659weblink">weblink 31 May 2012, was the first integrated steel plant in the public sector in India, built with collaboration of Germany.File:ROURKELA STEEL PLANT.JPG|thumb|upright|Rourkela Steel PlantRourkela Steel PlantArcelor-Mittal has also announced plans to invest in another mega steel project amounting to $10 billion. Russian major Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Company (MMK) plans to set up a 10 MT steel plant in Odisha, too. Bandhabahal is a major area of open cast coal mines in Odisha. The state is attracting an unprecedented amount of investment in aluminium, coal-based power plants, petrochemicals, and information technology as well. In power generation, Reliance Power (Anil Ambani Group) is putting up the world's largest power plant with an investment of US$13 billion at Hirma in Jharsuguda district.WEB,weblink Reliance to invest Rs 60,000-cr for Orissa power plant, dna, 31 August 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140903141606weblink">weblink 3 September 2014, no, dmy-all, In 2009 Odisha was the second top domestic investment destination with Gujarat first and Andhra Pradesh in third place according to an analysis of ASSOCHAM Investment Meter (AIM) study on corporate investments. Odisha's share was 12.6 percent in total investment in the country. It received investment proposal worth {{Indian rupee}}. 2,00,846 crore during the last year. Steel and power were among the sectors which attracted maximum investments in the state.WEB,weblink Gujarat, Odisha and Andhra top 3 Domestic Investment Destinations of 2009, Assocham, 21 January 2010, 2010-07-18,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110723170222weblink">weblink 23 July 2011, yes, dmy,

Transportation

Odisha has a network of roads, railways, airports and seaports. Bhubaneswar is well connected by air, rail and road with the rest of India. Some highways are getting expanded to four lanes.WEB,weblink NH 42, Odishalinks.com, 16 June 2004, 2010-07-18,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101125170225weblink">weblink 25 November 2010, yes, dmy, Plans for metro rail connecting Bhubaneshwar and Cuttack, a journey of 30 km, have also started.WEB,weblink Odisha plans metro, signs contract for detailed project report preparation, The Times of India, 16 January 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140831124032weblink">weblink 31 August 2014, no, dmy-all,

Air

Odisha has a total of two operational airports, 17 airstrips and 16 helipads.WEB,weblink Ten-year roadmap for State's civil aviation, dailypioneer.com, 2012, at present there are 17 airstrips and 16 helipads in Odisha,, 5 August 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130530180524weblink">weblink 30 May 2013, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141015115504weblink">weblink yes, 15 October 2014, 10-year roadmap set up to boost Odisha civil aviation, odishanow.in, 2012, Odisha has 17 airstrips and 16 helipads., 5 August 2012, WEB,weblink Odisha initiate steps for intra and inter state aviation facilities, news.webindia123.com, 2012, Odisha has 17 airstrips and 16 helipads, 5 August 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150113150837weblink">weblink 13 January 2015, no, dmy-all, The airport at Jharsuguda was upgraded to a full-fledged domestic airport in May 2018.NEWS, J'suguda Airport fit for 320 Airbus flight,weblink The Pioneer (newspaper), The Pioneer, 2 August 2018, 11 September 2018, The government of Odisha also plans five greenfield airports at Angul, Dhamra, Kalinganagar, Paradip and Rayagada in an effort to boost intra-state and inter-state civil aviation. Existing aerodromes at Barbil, Gopalpur, Jharsuguda and Rourkela were also to be upgraded.NEWS,weblink Odisha plans five new airports, The Hindu Business Line, 14 August 2012, 14 May 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131103100632weblink">weblink 3 November 2013, no, dmy-all, Air Odisha, is Odisha's sole air charter company based in Bhubaneswar.{{div col|colwidth=30em}} {{div col end}}

Seaports

File:GOPALPUR PORT ODISHA LIGHT HOUSE PC NISTHA RANJAN DASH.jpg|right|thumb|Gopalpur Port ]]Odisha has a coastline of 480 Kilometers. It has one major port at Paradip and few minor ports. some of them are:BOOK, Division, P., INDIA 2019: A REFERENCE ANNUAL, Publications Division Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, 978-81-230-3026-5,weblink 2019-07-16, 701, BOOK, India. Parliament. Rajya Sabha, Parliamentary Debates: Official Report, Council of States Secretariat, v. 227, nos. 18-20, 2012,weblink 2019-07-16,

Railways

(File:Bbrailhq.jpg|right|thumb|East Coast Railway headquarters, Bhubaneswar)Major cities of Odisha are well connected to all the major cities of India by direct daily trains and weekly trains. Most of the railway network in Odisha lies under the jurisdiction of the East Coast Railway (ECoR) with headquarters at Bhubaneswar and some parts under South Eastern Railway and South East Central Railway.

Demographics

File:Lifestyle of tribal folks is visible.jpg|thumb|Tribal people of KoraputKoraputAccording to the 2018 census of India, the total population of Odisha is 46,143,782, of which 21,201,678 (50.54%) are male and 20,745,680 (49.46%) are female, or 978 females per 1000 males. This represents a 13.97% increase over the population in 2001. The population density is 269 per km2.The literacy rate is 73%, with 82% of males and 64% of females being literate, according to the 2011 census.The proportion of people living below the poverty line in 2004–2005 was 57.15% which was nearly double the Indian average of 26.10%. Since 2005 the state has reduced poverty rate dramatically by 24.6 percentage points.According to current estimate proportion of people living under poverty line was 32.6% WEB, India States Briefs – Odisha, World Bank, 2016-05-31,weblink 2019-07-12, WEB, NITI Aayog report: Odisha tops in poverty reduction rate among other states, Pragativadi: Leading Odia Dailly, 2017-07-30,weblink 2019-07-12, Data of 1996–2001 showed the life expectancy in the state was 61.64 years, higher than the national value of years. The state has a birth rate of 23.2 per 1,000 people per year, a death rate of 9.1 per 1,000 people per year, an infant mortality rate of 65 per 1000 live birth and a maternal mortality rate of 358 per 1,000,000 live births. Odisha has a Human Development Index of 0.442 as of 2011.{{historical populations|11=1901|12=1,03,02,917|13=1911|14=1,13,78,875|15=1921|16=1,11,58,586|17=1931|18=1,24,91,056|19=1941|20=1,37,67,988|21=1951|22=1,46,45,946|23=1961|24=1,75,48,846|25=1971|26=2,19,44,615|27=1981|28=2,63,70,271|29=1991|30=3,16,59,736|31=2001|32=3,68,04,660|33=2011|34=4,19,74,218|percentages=pagr|footnote=source:Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901|align=right}}{|class="wikitable sortable"! !! District !! Headquarters !! Population(2011) !! Males !! Females !! Percentagedecadalgrowth2001–2011 !! Sex ratio !! Density(personsperkm2) !! Childpopulation0–6 years !! Childsexratio !! Literacy rate1Angul District>Angul>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|78.96}}2Balangir District>Balangir>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|65.50}}3Balasore District>Balasore>Baleswarstyle="text-align:right;"2317419}}style="text-align:right;"1184371}}style="text-align:right;"1133048}}style="text-align:right;"14.47}}style="text-align:right;"957}}style="text-align:right;"609}}style="text-align:right;"274432}}style="text-align:right;"941}}style="text-align:right;"80.66}}4Bargarh District>Bargarh>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|75.16}}5Bhadrak District>Bhadrak>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|83.25}}6Boudh District>Boudh>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|72.51}}7Cuttack District>Cuttack>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|84.20}}8Debagarh District>Debagarh>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|73.07}}9Dhenkanal District>Dhenkanal, India>Dhenkanalstyle="text-align:right;"1192948}}style="text-align:right;"612597}}style="text-align:right;"580351}}style="text-align:right;"11.82}}style="text-align:right;"947}}style="text-align:right;"268}}style="text-align:right;"132647}}style="text-align:right;"870}}style="text-align:right;"79.41}}10Gajapati District>Paralakhemundi>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|54.29}}11Ganjam district>Chhatrapur>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|71.88}}12Jagatsinghpur District>Jagatsinghpur>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|87.13}}13Jajpur District>Jajpur>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|80.44}}14Jharsuguda District>Jharsuguda>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|78.36}}15Kalahandi district>Bhawanipatna>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|60.22}}16Kandhamal District>Phulbani>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|65.12}}17Kendrapara District>Kendrapara>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|85.93}}18Kendujhar District>Kendujhar>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|69.00}}19Khordha District>Khordha>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|87.51}}20Koraput District>Koraput>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|49.87}}21Malkangiri District>Malkangiri>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|49.49}}22Mayurbhanj District>Baripada>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|63.98}}23Nabarangapur District>Nabarangpur>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|48.20}}24Nayagarh District>Nayagarh>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|79.17}}25Nuapada District>Nuapada>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|58.20}}26Puri District>Puri>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|85.37}}27Rayagada District>Rayagada>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|50.88}}28Sambalpur District>Sambalpur>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|76.91}}29Subarnapur District>Sonepur, Odisha>Sonepurstyle="text-align:right;"652107}}style="text-align:right;"332897}}style="text-align:right;"319210}}style="text-align:right;"20.35}}style="text-align:right;"959}}style="text-align:right;"279}}style="text-align:right;"76536}}style="text-align:right;"947}}style="text-align:right;"74.42}}30Sundargarh District>Sundergarh>{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts{{nts|74.13}}

Religion

{{Pie chart|thumb = rightWEBSITE=CENSUS OF INDIA, 2011ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150825155850/HTTP://WWW.CENSUSINDIA.GOV.IN/2011CENSUS/C-01/DDW00C-01%20MDDS.XLS, 25 August 2015, |label1 = Hinduism|color1 = Orange|value1 = 93.63|label2 = Christianity|color2 = DodgerBlue|value2 = 2.76|label3 = Islam|color3 = Green|value3 = 2.17|label4 = Sarnaism|color4 = Chartreuse|value4 = 1.14|label5 = Sikhism|color5 = DarkKhaki|value5 = 1.05|label6 = Buddhism|color6 = Gold|value6 = 0.03|label7 = Jainism|color7 = Purple|value7 = 0.02}}File:Westindischer Maler um 1550 001.jpg|250px|thumb|left|Gita GovindaGita GovindaThe majority (over 94%WEB, Census of India â€“ Socio-cultural aspects, Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs,weblink 2011-03-02, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110520054852weblink">weblink 20 May 2011, dmy-all, ) of people in the state of Odisha are Hindu and there is also a rich cultural heritage in the state. For example, Odisha is home to several Hindu figures. Sant Bhima Bhoi was a leader of the Mahima sect movement. Sarala Das, a Hindu Khandayat, was the translator of the epic Mahabharata in Odia. Chaitanya Das was a Buddhistic-Vaishnava and writer of the Nirguna Mahatmya. Jayadeva was the author of the Gita Govinda.The Odisha Temple Authorisation Act of 1948 empowered the government of Odisha to have Hindu temples open for all Hindus including the Harijans.P. 63 Case studies on human rights and fundamental freedoms: a world survey, Volume 4 By Willem Adriaan VeenhovenPerhaps the oldest scripture of Odisha is the Madala Panji from the Puri Temple believed from 1042 AD. Famous Hindu Odia scripture includes the 16th-century Bhagabata of Jagannatha Dasa.P. 77 Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 30 By Scholastic Library Publishing In the modern times Madhusudan Rao was a major Odia writer, who was a Brahmo Samajist and shaped modern Odia literature at the start of the 20th century.Madhusudan Rao By Jatindra Mohan Mohanty, Sahitya AkademiChristians in Odisha account for about 2.8% of the population while Odia Muslims account for 2.2% as per census figures of 2001. The Sikh, Buddhist and Jain communities together account for 0.1% of the population.

Languages

{{Expand section|date=January 2019}}{{Pie chart| thumb = rightWORK=CENSUS OF INDIA 2011 PAGES=13–14 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20181114073412/HTTP://WWW.CENSUSINDIA.GOV.IN/2011CENSUS/C-16_25062018_NEW.PDF DEAD-URL=NO, dmy-all, Odia language>Odia|value1=82.70|color1 = orangeHo language>Ho|value2 = 7.90|color2= cyan|label3=Hindi|value3= 2.95|color3= purpleSantali language>Santali|value4=2.06|color4= yellow|label5=Urdu|value5=1.60|color5= greenTelugu language>Telugu|value6 =1.59|color6= blueBengali language>Bengali|value7 =1.20|color7= pink}}Odia is the official language along with English as central state communication. Odia is spoken as a native language by 82.7% of the population according to 2011 census. Other minority languages of the state are Hindi, Telugu, Santali, Kui, Urdu, Bengali and Ho.BOOK, Mahapatra, B. P., Linguistic Survey of India: Orissa, 2002, Language Division, Office of the Registrar General, Kolkata, India, 13–14,weblink 20 February 2014, PDF,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131113153328weblink">weblink 13 November 2013, no, dmy-all,

Education

(File:Utkal University Main Gate.jpg|thumb|Utkal University Main Gate){{wide image|Ravenshaw Panorama1.jpg|1100px|Panoramic View of Ravenshaw University, Cuttack}}

Educational Institutions

{{div col|colwidth=25em}} {{div col end}}Entry to various institutes of higher education especially into engineering degrees is through a centralised Odisha Joint Entrance Examination, conducted by the Biju Patnaik University of Technology (BPUT), Rourkela, since 2003, where seats are provided according to order of merit.WEB, Biju Patnaik University of Technology, Bput.org,weblink 2010-07-18,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081205233536weblink">weblink 5 December 2008, no, dmy-all, Few of the engineering institutes enroll students by through Joint Entrance Examination. For medical courses, there is a corresponding All India Pre Medical Test.

Culture

Cuisine

Odisha has a culinary tradition spanning centuries. The kitchen of the Shri Jagannath Temple, Puri is reputed to be the largest in the world, with 1,000 chefs, working around 752 wood-burning clay hearths called chulas, to feed over 10,000 people each day.BOOK, National Association on Indian Affairs, American Association on Indian Affairs, 1949, Indian Affairs,weblink 23 June 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130606204607weblink">weblink 6 June 2013, no, dmy-all, BOOK, S.P. Sharma, Seema Gupta, 3 October 2006, Fairs & Festivals of India, Pustak Mahal, 978-81-223-0951-5, 103–,weblink 23 June 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130608212537weblink">weblink 8 June 2013, no, dmy-all, The syrupy dessert Pahala rasagola made in Odisha is known throughout the world.NEWS, Mitra Bishwabijoy, 6 July 2015, Who invented the rasgulla?, Times of India,weblink 2 August 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150709071914weblink">weblink 9 July 2015, no, dmy-all, Chhenapoda is another major Odisha sweet cuisine, which originated in Nayagarh.WEB, Chhenapoda, Simply TADKA,weblink 9 January 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150109232431weblink">weblink 9 January 2015, no, dmy-all,

Dance

(File:Odissi Performance DS.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.5)(File:Sharmila Biswas, Odissi dancer.jpg|thumb|upright=0.5)Odissi (Orissi) dance and music are classical art forms. Odissi is the oldest surviving dance form in India on the basis of archaeological evidence.WEB, Odissi Kala Kendra, odissi.itgo.com,weblink 2010-07-18,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110512041730weblink">weblink 12 May 2011, no, dmy, Odissi has a long, unbroken tradition of 2,000 years, and finds mention in the Natyashastra of Bharatamuni, possibly written c. 200 BC. However, the dance form nearly became extinct during the British period, only to be revived after India's independence by a few gurus.The variety of dances includes Ghumura Dance, Chhau dance, Jhumair, Mahari dance, and Gotipua.

Tourism

File:Rath Yatra Puri 07-11027.jpg|thumb|The Rath Yatra in Jagannath Temple, PuriJagannath Temple, PuriThe Lingaraja Temple at Bhubaneswar has a {{convert|150|ft|m|adj=on}} high deula while the Jagannath Temple, Puri is about {{convert|200|ft|m}} high and dominates the skyline. Only a portion of the Konark Sun Temple, the largest of the temples of the "Holy Golden Triangle" exists today, and it is still staggering in size. It stands out as a masterpiece in Odisha architecture. Sarala Temple, regarded as one of the most spiritually elevated expressions of Shaktism is in Jagatsinghpur district. It is also one of the holiest places in Odisha and a major tourist attraction. Maa Tarini Temple situated in Kendujhar district is also a famous pilgrimage destination. Every day thousands of coconuts are given to Maa Tarini by devotees for fulfilling their wishes.BOOK, Norenzayan, Ara, 25 August 2013, Big Gods: How Religion Transformed Cooperation and Conflict, Princeton University Press, 978-1-4008-4832-4, 55–56,weblink 24 December 2015,weblink 8 February 2016, no, dmy-all, File:Maa_tarini_temple,_Ghatgoan.png|thumb|Maa tarini temple, ghatgaon ]]Odisha's varying topography â€“ from the wooded Eastern Ghats to the fertile river basin â€“ has proven ideal for evolution of compact and unique ecosystems. This creates treasure troves of flora and fauna that are inviting to many migratory species of birds and reptiles. Bhitarkanika National Park is famous for its second largest mangrove ecosystem. The bird sanctuary in Chilika Lake (Asia's largest brackish water lake) and the tiger reserve and waterfalls in Simlipal National Park are integral parts of eco-tourism in Odisha, arranged by Odisha Tourism.WEB, MTN 82:9–10 Olive ridley tagged in Odisha recovered in the coastal waters of eastern Sri Lanka, Seaturtle.org,weblink 2010-07-18,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131207034709weblink">weblink 7 December 2013, no, dmy, Daringbadi is a hill station in the Kandhamal district of Odisha.Chandipur, a calm and serene site, is mostly unexplored by tourists. The unique specialty of this beach is the ebb tides that recede up to 4 km and tend to disappear rhythmically.File:Gundichaghagi_Waterfall,_Keonjhar_During_monsoons.png|thumb|Gundichaghagi waterfall Keonjhar during monsoons]]The share of foreign tourists’ arrival in the state is below one percent of total foreign tourist arrivals at all India level.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 14 February 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170215005858weblink">weblink 15 February 2017, yes, dmy-all,

See also

References

{{Reflist}}

External links

{{Sister project links|voy=Odisha}}
Government
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120418110744weblink">Odisha Government Portal


General information
  • Odisha Encyclopædia Britannica entry
  • {{dmoz|Regional/Asia/India/Orissa/}}
  • {{osmrelation-inline|1984022}}
{{Geographic location|Centre=Odisha|North=Jharkhand|Northeast=West Bengal|East=Bay of Bengal|Southeast=Andhra Pradesh & Bay of Bengal|South=Andhra Pradesh|Southwest=Chhattisgarh|West=Chhattisgarh|Northwest=Chhattisgarh}}{{Odisha|ଓଡ଼ିଶା}}{{States and territories of India}}{{Hydrology of Odisha}}{{Authority control}}

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