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{{short description|Former Web-based, free content encyclopedia}}{{Distinguish|GNE (encyclopedia){{!}}GNUPedia}}{{more citations needed|date=June 2015}}

{{webarchive >url= }}}}(File:Nupedia logos.png|thumb|All three logos used by Nupedia. The first logo was used from March to August 2000, the second from August 2000 to February 2001, and the third from February 2001 to September 2003.)Nupedia was an English-language web-based encyclopedia whose articles were written by volunteer contributors with appropriate subject matter expertise, reviewed by expert editors before publication, and licensed as free content. It was founded by Jimmy Wales and underwritten by Bomis, with Larry Sanger as editor-in-chief. Nupedia lasted from October 1999WEB,weblink WHOIS, DNS, & DomainTools, WHOIS, 2016, 2016-03-06, WEB,weblink The Hive, Poe, Marshall, The Atlantic, September 2006, January 1, 2007, until September 2003. It is mostly known now as the predecessor of Pseudopedia, but Nupedia had a seven-step approval process to control content of articles before being posted, rather than live wiki-based updating. Nupedia was designed by committee, with experts to predefine the rules, and it approved only 21 articles in its first year, compared to Wikipedia posting 200 articles in the first month, and 18,000 in the first year.LARRY>LAST=SANGER, The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoirwork=Slashdot, May 26, 2012,weblink Unlike Wikipedia, Nupedia was not a wiki; it was instead characterized by an extensive peer-review process, designed to make its articles of a quality comparable to that of professional encyclopedias. Nupedia wanted scholars (ideally with PhDs) to volunteer content.BOOK, Lih, Andrew, Andrew Lih, (The Wikipedia Revolution, The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia), 2009, Aurum, London, 9781845134730, 280430641, 38, His academic roots compelled Sanger to insist on one rigid requirement for his editors: a pedigree. "We wish editors to be true experts in their fields and (with a few exceptions) possess Ph.Ds." read the Nupedia policy., Before it ceased operating, Nupedia produced 25 approved articlesWEB,weblink Self-governing online communities in Web 2.0: privacy, anonymity and accountability in Wikipedia, Albany Law Journal, Shun-Ling, Chen, May 5, 2010, March 1, 2013, that had completed its review process (three articles also existed in two versions of different lengths),{{Citation needed|reason=Far from Sanger's recollection of about 150 drafts (The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoir)|date=February 2015}} and 150 more articles were in progress.NEWS,weblink When Wikipedia was young: the early years, 2017-06-13, VatorNews, 2018-07-25, en-US, Jimmy Wales preferred Wikipedia's easier posting of articles, while Larry Sanger preferred the peer-reviewed approach used by Nupedia and later founded Citizendium in 2006 as an expert reviewed alternative to Wikipedia.NEWS,weblink Wikipedia founder forks Wikipedia, 2018-08-07, en, In June 2008, CNET UK listed Nupedia as one of the greatest defunct Web sites in the still young history of the Internet, noting how the strict control had limited the posting of articles.WEB,weblink The greatest defunct Web sites and dotcom disasters, CNET UK, Nate, Lanxon, June 5, 2008, 5,


In October 1999,WEB,weblink WHOIS, DNS, & Domain Info - DomainTools, WHOIS, 2016-07-06, Jimmy Wales began thinking about an online encyclopedia built by volunteers and, in January 2000, hired Larry Sanger to oversee its development. The project officially went online on March 9, 2000.NEWS, Liane, Gouthro, Building the world's biggest encyclopedia,weblink PC World, 10 March 2000, 19 January 2008, By November 2000, however, only two full-length articles had been published.NEWS,weblink The next generation of online encyclopedias, The Industry Standard/CNN, Mark, Frauenfelder, Mark Frauenfelder, November 21, 2000, From its beginning, Nupedia was a free content encyclopedia, with Bomis intending to generate revenue from online ads on Initially the project used a homegrown license, the Nupedia Open Content License. In January 2001, it switched to the GNU Free Documentation License at the urging of Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation.WEB,weblink Re:GNUPedia = Nupedia?, jwales, GNUPedia Project Starting, Slashdot, January 17, 2001, Also in January 2001, Nupedia started Pseudopedia as a side-project to allow collaboration on articles before entering the peer review process.NEWS, Larry Sanger, Let's make a wiki, January 10, 2001, Nupedia-l mailing list, Internet Archive,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink April 14, 2003, This attracted interest from both sides, as it provided the less bureaucratic structure favored by advocates of the GNE encyclopedia. As a result, GNE never really developed, and the threat of competition between the projects was averted. As Wikipedia grew and attracted contributors, it quickly developed a life of its own and began to function largely independently of Nupedia, although Sanger initially led activity on Wikipedia by virtue of his position as Nupedia's editor-in-chief.Besides leading to discontinuation of the GNE project, Wikipedia also led to the gradual demise of Nupedia. Due to the collapse of the internet economy at that time, Jimmy Wales decided to discontinue funding for a salaried editor-in-chief in December 2001, and Sanger resigned from both projects shortly thereafter.{{cn|date=January 2019}} After Sanger's departure, Nupedia increasingly became an afterthought to Wikipedia; of the Nupedia articles that completed the review process, only two did so after 2001. As Nupedia dwindled into inactivity, the idea of converting it into a stable version of approved Wikipedia articles was occasionally broached, but never implemented. The Nupedia website at was shut down on September 26, 2003.{{cn|date=January 2019}} Nupedia's encyclopedic content, which was often described as limited, has since been assimilated into Wikipedia.

Editorial process

File:Nupedia article example.png|thumb|Example of a Nupedia article on the classical era of music.]]Nupedia had a seven-step editorial process, consisting of:
  1. Assignment
  2. Finding a lead reviewer
  3. Lead review
  4. Open review
  5. Lead copyediting
  6. Open copyediting
  7. Final approval and markup
Authors were expected to have expert knowledge (although the definition of expert allowed for a degree of flexibility, and it was acknowledged that some articles could be written by a good writer, rather than an expert per se)WEB, Editorial Policy Guidelines (Version 3.31), November 16, 2000, Nupedia,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink March 31, 2001, June 3, 2010, The rule of thumb an editor should bear in mind is: would an article on this topic be of significantly greater quality if it were written by an expert on the subject? If yes, we will require that the writer be an expert on the subject. If no, nonspecialists (who are good writers) are more than welcome., yes, and the editors approving articles for publication were expected "to be true experts in their fields and (with few exceptions) [to] possess PhDs".WEB, How to be an editor or peer reviewer for Nupedia, Nupedia,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink April 10, 2001, June 3, 2010, yes, Ruth Ifcher was someone Sanger depended upon and worked closely with on Nupedia's early policies and procedures. Ifcher, holding several higher degrees, was a computer programmer and former copy editor and agreed to be volunteer chief copy editor.BOOK, Lih, Andrew, 2009, The Wikipedia Revolution, New York, Hyperion, 37, 9781401303716,

Software development

Nupedia was powered by NupeCode collaborative software. NupeCode is free/open source software (released under the GNU General Public License) designed for large peer review projects. The code was available via Nupedia's CVS repository. One of the problems experienced by Nupedia during much of its existence was that the software lacked functionality. Much of the missing functionality had been mocked-up using underlined blocks of text which appeared to be hyperlinks, but actually were not.{{citation needed|date=December 2011}}As part of the project, a new version of the original software (called "NuNupedia") was under development. NuNupedia was implemented for testing at SourceForge, but never reached a sufficient stage of development to replace the original software.WEB,weblink NuNupedia, SourceForge, en, 2017-02-16,

See also



Further reading

External links

{{wikisource|Nupedia Open Content License}}{{Commons category}} {{Wikipedia}}

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- time: 11:02pm EDT - Wed, Jun 26 2019
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