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Nun (letter)

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Nun (letter)
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{{Phoenician glyph|letname=Nun|previouslink=Mem|previousletter=Mem|nextlink=Samekh|nextletter=Samekh|archar=|sychar=ܢܢ|hechar={{Hebrew|נ,ן}}|amchar=nun|gechar=ነ|phchar=nun|grchar=Ν|lachar=N|cychar=Н|ipa=n|num=14|gem=50}}Nun is the fourteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Nūn (File:Phoenician_nun.svg|10px), Hebrew Nun {{Hebrew|נ}}, Aramaic Nun (File:Nun.svg|10 px), Syriac Nūn ܢܢ, and Arabic Nūn (in abjadi order). It is the third letter in Thaana (), pronounced as "nonou". In all languages, it represents the alveolar nasal /n/.The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek nu (Ν), Etruscan (File:EtruscanN-01.svg|6px|N), Latin N, and Cyrillic Н.

Origins

Nun is believed to be derived from an Egyptian hieroglyph of a snake (the Hebrew word for snake, nachash begins with a Nun and snake in Aramaic is nun) or eel. Some have hypothesized a hieroglyph of fish in water as its origin (in Arabic, {{transl|ar|DIN|nūn}} means large fish or whale). The Phoenician letter was named {{Transl|sem|nūn}} "fish", but the glyph has been suggested to descend from a hypothetical Proto-Canaanite {{Transl|sem|naḥš}} "snake", based on the name in Ethiopic, ultimately from a hieroglyph representing a snake, I10(see Middle Bronze Age alphabets). {{Transl|sem|Naḥs}} in modern Arabic literally means "bad luck". The cognate letter in Ge'ez and descended Semitic languages of Ethiopia is nehas, which also means "brass".

Arabic nūn









factoids
|unicode=|alphanumber=|number=|usageperiod=|children=|equivalents=|associates=|direction=Right-to-left}}The letter is named {{transl|ar|DIN|nūn}}, and is written is several ways depending in its position in the word:{{Arabic alphabet shapes|ن}}Some examples on its uses in Modern Standard Arabic:Nūn is used as a suffix indicating present-tense plural feminine nouns; for example hiya taktub ("she writes") becomes hunna taktabna ("they [feminine] write").Nūn is also used as the prefix for first-person plural imperfective/present tense verbs. Thus huwwa yaktub ("he writes") → naḥnu naktub ("we write").The Arabic letter nūn became associated with the spray-painting of nūn for Nasrani (i.e. "Nazarene", an Arabic term for Christians used by Muslims) on the gateposts of Christian houses in Isis-held areas of Iraq.Euronews 22 July 2014 "Over the weekend, while the world’s gaze was on Gaza and Syria, the situation of Christians in northern Iraq took a sharp turn for the worse, with thousands forced to flee their homes. ... In Mosul, IS militants marked with a spray-painted ن (the Arabic letter for “N”) all Christian property to be seized after the ultimatum."

Saraiki nūn

It is retroflex nasal consonantal sound symbol, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is {{angbr IPA|ɳ}}, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is n`. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of an en (the letter used for the corresponding alveolar consonant). It is similar to {{angbr IPA|ɲ}}, the letter for the palatal nasal, which has a leftward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the left stem, and to {{angbr IPA|ŋ}}, the letter for the velar nasal, which has a leftward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the right stem.Saraiki uses the letter ⟨ݨ⟩ for {{IPAslink|ɳ}}. It is a compound of nūn and rre (⟨ڑ⟩). For example:
کݨ مݨ، چھݨ چھݨ، ونڄݨ۔

Social media campaign (2014)

{{see also|Christians#Arabic terms|Persecution of Christians by ISIL|Sectarianism and minorities in the Syrian Civil War#Christians}}After the fall of Mosul, ISIL demanded Assyrian Christians in the city to convert to Islam, pay tribute, or face execution.WEB,weblink BBC News - Iraqi Christians flee after Isis issue Mosul ultimatum, BBC News, 13 February 2015, ISIL begun marking homes of Christian residents with the letter nÅ«n for Nassarah ("Christian").NEWS, August 7, 2014, Iraqi Christians flee after Isis issue Mosul ultimatum,weblink BBC News,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140724045752weblink">weblink July 24, 2014, August 7, 2014, NEWS, Loveluck, Louisa, August 7, 2014, Christians flee Iraq's Mosul after Islamists tell them: convert, pay or die,weblink The Daily Telegraph, The Telegraph,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140730003543weblink">weblink July 30, 2014, August 7, 2014, Thousands of Christians, Yazidis (the latter whom were given only the choice of conversion or death) and other, mostly Shi'a, Muslims (whom ISIL consider to be apostates) abandoned their homes and land.In response to the persecution of Christians and Yazidis by ISIL, an international social media campaign was launched to raise global awareness of the plight of religious minorities in Mosul, making use of the letter (nun)—the mark that ISIL troops spray painted on properties owned by Christians.WEB,weblink A Christian Genocide Symbolized by One Letter, National Review Online, Some Christians changed their profile pictures on Facebook and Twitter to pictures of the letter as a symbol of support.WEB,weblink #Ù†: How an Arabic letter was reclaimed to support Iraq’s persecuted Christians, euronews, The letter , in relation to this social media campaign, is being called the "Mark of the Nazarene" from {{transl|ar|DIN|naá¹£rānÄ«}} (; plural {{transl|ar|DIN|naṣārā}} ), a normative Arabic term disparagingly used by ISIL to brand Christians.The word naṣārā comes from Classical Arabic. The more common term used to refer to Christians in Modern Standard Arabic is masihi (, plural ), whereas the Quranic naṣārā may now be used to mean foreigners of European origin regardless of religion.WEB,weblink 2 [English] "Nasara, ISIS, and Darija" استخدام "نصارى" بالدارجة, mazyanbizaf.com,

Hebrew Nun{|classwikitable style"text-align:center;"

!colspan=6|Orthographic variants!rowspan=2|positioninword!colspan=3|Various print fonts!rowspan=2|CursiveHebrew!rowspan=2|Rashiscript!|Serif !! Sans-serif !! Monospacednon finalנננ(File:Hebrew letter Nun handwriting.svg|22px)(File:Hebrew letter Nun-nonfinal Rashi.png|35px)finalןןן(File:Hebrew letter Nun-final handwriting.svg|22px)(File:Hebrew letter Nun-final Rashi.png|35px)Hebrew spelling:

Pronunciation

Nun represents an alveolar nasal, (IPA: {{IPA|/n/}}), like the English letter N.

Variations

Nun, like Kaph, Mem, Pe, and Tzadi, has a final form, used at the end of words. Its shape changes from נ to ן.There are also nine instances of an inverted nun (׆) in the Tanakh.

Significance

In gematria, Nun represents the number 50. Its final form represents 700 but this is rarely used, Tav and Shin (400+300) being used instead.As in Arabic, nun as an abbreviation can stand for neqevah, feminine. In medieval Rabbinic writings, Nun Sophit (Final Nun) stood for "Son of" (Hebrew ben or ibn).Nun is also one of the seven letters which receive a special crown (called a tag: plural tagin ) when written in a Sefer Torah. See Tag (Hebrew writing), Shin, Ayin, Teth, Gimmel, Zayin, and Tzadi.In the game of dreidel, a rolled Nun passes play to the next player with no other action.

Character encodings

{{charmapname1=Hebrew Letter Nunname2=Hebrew Letter Final Nunname3=Arabic Letter Nunname4=Syriac Letter Nunname5=Samaritan Letter Nun}}{{charmapname1=Ugaritic Letter Nunname2=Imperial Aramaic Letter Nunname3=Phoenician Letter Nun}}

See also

Notes

{{commons category|× }}{{reflist}}{{Hebrew language}}{{Arabic language}}{{Northwest Semitic abjad}}

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