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{{short description|Day of new year in the Persian calendar}}{{Redirect|Novruz|settlement in Sirdaryo Region, Uzbekistan|Navruz, Uzbekistan}}{{other uses2|Nowruz}}

|type = National, ethnic, international|image = Wheatgrass.jpg|caption = Growing wheatgrass is one of the most common traditional preparations for Nowruz.|nickname = |observedby = *Iran Equinox>*Equinox>*Equinox>*Equinox>*Equinox>*Equinox>*Equinox>*Equinox>*|frequency = annual|significance = New Year holiday}}

Nowruz ( {{transl|fa|Nowruz}}, {{IPA-fa|nouˈɾuːz|}}; literally "new day") is the Iranian New Year,WEB, Culture of Iran: No-Rooz, The Iranian New Year at Present Times,weblink, 1 February 2016, BOOK, Stausberg, Michael, Sohrab-Dinshaw Vevaina, Yuhan, The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Zoroastrianism, 2015, John Wiley & Sons, 978-1118786277, 494–495,weblink The Iranian festivals: Nowruz and Mehregan, also known as the Persian New Year,WEB, NOWRUZ,weblink Encyclopaedia Iranica, Nowruz, "New Day", is a traditional ancient festival which celebrates the starts of the Persian New Year., BOOK, Melton, J. Gordon, Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations [2 volumes], 2011, ABC-CLIO, 978-1598842067, 620,weblink Nowruz, an ancient spring festival of Persian origin (and the Zoroastrian New Year's day)..., which is celebrated worldwide by various ethno-linguistic groups.Despite its Iranian and Zoroastrian origins, Nowruz has been celebrated by diverse communities. It has been celebrated for over 3,000 years in Western Asia, Central Asia, the Caucasus, the Black Sea Basin, and the Balkans.WEB,weblink General Assembly Recognizes 21 March as International Day of Nowruz, Also Changes to 23–24 March Dialogue on Financing for Development – Meetings Coverage and Press Releases, UN, 20 March 2017, BOOK,weblink Iran: U. S. Concerns and Policy Responses, Kenneth Katzman, DIANE Publishing, 2010, 24 February 2015, 9781437918816, BOOK,weblink General Assembly Fifty-fifth session 94th plenary meeting Friday, 9 March 2001, 10 a.m. New York, United Nations General Assembly, 9 March 2001, 2010-04-06, BOOK,weblink Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations [2 volumes]: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations, J. Gordon Melton, ABC-CLIO, 13 September 2011, 24 February 2015, 9781598842067, WEB,weblink Nowrooz, a Persian New Year Celebration, Erupts in Iran â€“ Yahoo! News, Yahoo News, 2010-03-16, 6 April 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 2010-03-22, yes, WEB,weblink U.S. mulls Persian New Year outreach, The Washington Times, 2010-03-19, 2010-04-06, WEB,weblink National holidays and key dates in the Kurdistan Region's history, 16 February 2015, Kurdistan Regional Government, Historical Dictionary of the Kurds, Michael M. Gunter.BOOK, Jaclyn, Michael, Nowruz Curriculum Text, Harvard University, It is a secular holiday for most celebrants that is enjoyed by people of several different faiths, but remains a holy day for Zoroastrians,BOOK,weblink Xenophon and His World: Papers from a Conference Held in Liverpool in July 1999, 1 July 1999, 17 March 2010, 9783515083928, Azoulay, Vincent, Bahais,WEB,weblink Welcome to the Baha'i New Year, Naw-Ruz!, 2016-03-21,, en-US, 2019-03-15, and some Muslim communities.BOOK,weblink Muslim Women, Domestic Violence, and Psychotherapy: Theological and Clinical Issues, Isgandarova, Nazila, 2018-09-03, Routledge, 9780429891557, en, WEB,weblink Navroz, 2018-03-21, the.Ismaili, en, 2019-03-14, Nowruz is the day of the vernal equinox, and marks the beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere. It marks the first day of the first month (Farvardin) of the Iranian calendar.WEB, What Is Norooz? Greetings, History And Traditions To Celebrate The Persian New Year,weblink International Business Times, 1 February 2016, It usually occurs on March 21 or the previous or following day, depending on where it is observed. The moment the Sun crosses the celestial equator and equalizes night and day is calculated exactly every year, and families gather together to observe the rituals.


The first day of the Iranian calendar falls on the March equinox, the first day of spring, around 21 March. In the 11th century CE the Iranian calendar was reformed in order to fix the beginning of the calendar year, i.e. Nowruz, at the vernal equinox. Accordingly, the definition of Nowruz given by the Iranian scientist Tusi was the following: "the first day of the official New Year [Nowruz] was always the day on which the sun entered Aries before noon."R. Abdollahy, Calendars ii. Islamic period, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. 4, London & New York, 1990. Nowruz is the first day of Farvardin, the first month of the Iranian solar calendar.In the Shahenshahi and Kadmi calendars, which do not account for leap years, the New Year's Day has drifted ahead by over 200 days. Followers of those calendars (some Zoroastrians in Pakistan and India) celebrate the spring equinox as Jamshed-i Nouroz, with New Year's Day then being celebrated in July–August as Pateti, the day of penitence".{{citation needed|date=June 2015}}The word {{transl|fa|Nowruz}} is a combination of Persian words now, () and ruz (). Pronunciation varies among Persian dialects, with Eastern dialects using the pronunciation {{IPA-fa|næuˈɾoːz|IPA}}, western dialects {{IPA-fa|nouˈɾuːz|IPA}}, and Tehranis {{IPA-fa|noːˈɾuːz|IPA}}. A variety of spelling variations for the word nowruz exist in English-language usage, including novruz, nowruz, nauruz and newroz.Random House dictionary (unabridged), 2006 (according to, Shadi, "Is the Persian New Year spelled Norouz, Nowruz, or Nauruz?", The Georgia Straight, March 17, 2010.

Timing Accuracy

missing image!
- Earth-lighting-equinox EN.png -
upright=0.7|Illumination of the Earth by the Sun on the day of equinox.
Nowruz's timing in Iran is based on Solar Hijri algorithmic calendar, which is based on precise astronomical observations, and moreover use of sophisticated intercalation system, which makes it more accurate than its European counterpart, the Gregorian calendar.WEB,weblink Iranian Calendar,, 2019-03-24, Each 2820 year great grand cycle contains 2137 normal years of 365 days and 683 leap years of 366 days, with the average year length over the great grand cycle of 365.24219852. This average is just 0.00000026 (2.6×10−7) of a day shorter than Newcomb's value for the mean tropical year of 365.24219878 days, but differs considerably more from the mean vernal equinox year of 365.242362 days, which means that the new year, intended to fall on the vernal equinox, would drift by half a day over the course of a cycle.{{br}}

Charshanbe Suri

Charshanbe Suri}}File:Chaharshanbe Suri Lozupone NYC 2016 1.png|thumb|right|Charshanbe Suri in New York CityNew York CityCharshanbe Suri (; ; ) is a prelude to the New Year.NEWS,weblink The Celebration of Spring in Iran, Lezgee, Hoda, 20 March 2015, Nevertheless, the most important curtain-raiser to Norouz is Chaharshanbe Soori which is a fire festival held on the eve of the last Wednesday of the calendar year. This festival is full of special customs and rituals, especially jumping over fire., In Iran, it is celebrated on the eve of the last Wednesday before Nowruz. It is usually celebrated in the evening by performing rituals such as jumping over bonfires and lighting off firecrackers and fireworks.NEWS,weblink Call for Safe Yearend Celebration, 12 March 2017, Financial Tribune, The ancient tradition has transformed over time from a simple bonfire to the use of firecrackers..., NEWS,weblink Light It Up! Iranians Celebrate Festival of Fire, 19 March 2014, NBC News, In Azerbaijan, where the preparation for Novruz usually begins a month earlier, the festival is held every Tuesday during four weeks before the holiday of Novruz. Each Tuesday, people celebrate the day of one of the four elements â€“ water, fire, earth and wind.WEB,weblink International Day of Nowruz- 21 March,, 2010-03-17, 2010-04-06, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 2011-05-13, On the holiday eve, the graves of relatives are visited and tended.WEB,weblink Azerbaijani traditions,, 1918-05-28, 2010-04-06, Iranians sing the poetic line "my yellow is yours, your red is mine" () to the fire during the festival, asking the fire to take away ill-health and problems and replace them with warmth, health, and energy. Trail mix and berries are also served during the celebration.Spoon banging () is a tradition observed on the eve of Charshanbe Suri, similar to the Halloween custom of trick-or-treating. In Iran, people wearing disguises and go door-to-door banging spoons against plates or bowls and receive packaged snacks. In Azerbaijan, children slip around to their neighbors' homes and apartments on the last Tuesday prior to Novruz, knock at the doors, and leave their caps or little basket on the thresholds, hiding nearby to wait for candies, pastries and nuts.The ritual of jumping over fire has continued in Armenia in the feast of Trndez, which is a feast of purification in the Armenian Apostolic Church and the Armenian Catholic Church, celebrated forty days after Jesus's birth.Marshall, Bonnie C.: Tashjian, Virginia A, The Flower of Paradise and Other Armenian Tales Libraries Unlimited 2007 p. xxii

Sizdah bedar

Sizdebedar}}In Iran, the Nowruz holidays last thirteen days. On the thirteenth day of the New Year, Iranians leave their houses to enjoy nature and picnic outdoors, as part of the Sizdebedar ceremony. The greenery grown for the Haft-sin setting is thrown away, particularly into a running water. It is also customary for young single people, especially young girls, to tie the leaves of the greenery before discarding it, expressing a wish to find a partner. Another custom associated with Sizdah bedar is the playing of jokes and pranks, similar to April Fools' Day"April Fools' Day 2016: how did the tradition originate and what are the best pranks?". Emily Allen and Juliet Eysenck. Telegraph. 17 March 2016.

History and origin

Ancient roots

File:Nowruz Zoroastrian.jpg|thumb|Bas-reliefBas-relief There exist various foundation myths for Nowruz in Iranian mythology.The Shahnameh credits the foundation of Nowruz to the mythical Iranian King Jamshid, who saves mankind from a winter destined to kill every living creature.Moazami, M. "The Legend of the Flood in Zoroastrian Tradition." Persica 18: 55–74, (2002) Document Details Jamshid may symbolise the transition of the Proto-Iranians from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to animal husbandry and a more settled life.{{citation needed|date=April 2016}} To defeat the killer winter, Jamshid constructed a throne studded with gems. He had demons raise him above the earth into the heavens; there he sat, shining like the Sun. The world's creatures gathered and scattered jewels around him and proclaimed that this was the New Day (Now Ruz). This was the first day of Farvardin, which is the first month of the Iranian calendar.BOOK, Shahnameh:a new translation by Dick Davis, Viking Adult, 2006. p. 7, 978-0670034857, Firdawsī, 2006, Although it is not clear whether Proto-Indo-Iranians celebrated a feast as the first day of the calendar, there are indications that Iranians may have observed the beginning of both autumn and spring, respectively related to the harvest and the sowing of seeds, for the celebration of the New Year. Mary Boyce and Frantz Grenet explain the traditions for seasonal festivals and comment: "It is possible that the splendor of the Babylonian festivities at this season led the Iranians to develop their own spring festival into an established New Year feast, with the name Navasarda "New Year" (a name which, though first attested through Middle Persian derivatives, is attributed to the Achaemenian period)." Since the communal observations of the ancient Iranians appear in general to have been seasonal ones, and related to agriculture, "it is probable that they traditionally held festivals in both autumn and spring, to mark the major turning points of the natural year."A History of Zoroastrianism: Under the AchaemeniansBy Mary Boyce, Frantz Grenet. Brill, 1982{{ISBN|90-04-06506-7|978-90-04-06506-2}}, pp. 3–4Nowruz is partly rooted in the tradition of Iranian religions, such as Mithraism and Zoroastrianism. In Mithraism, festivals had a deep linkage with the Sun's light. The Iranian festivals such as Mehrgan (autumnal equinox), Tirgan, and the eve of Chelle ye Zemestan (winter solstice) also had an origin in the Sun god (Surya). Among other ideas, Zoroastrianism is the first monotheistic religion that emphasizes broad concepts such as the corresponding work of good and evil in the world, and the connection of humans to nature. Zoroastrian practices were dominant for much of the history of ancient Iran. In Zoroastrianism, the seven most important Zoroastrian festivals are the six Gahambar festivals and Nowruz, which occurs at the spring equinox. According to Mary Boyce,Encyclopædia Iranica, "Festivals: Zoroastrian" Boyce, Mary {{webarchive |url= |date=January 11, 2012 }} "It seems a reasonable surmise that Nowruz, the holiest of them all, with deep doctrinal significance, was founded by Zoroaster himself"; although there is no clear date of origin.Boyce, M. "Festivals. i. Zoroastrian". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Between sunset on the day of the sixth Gahambar and sunrise of Nowruz, Hamaspathmaedaya (later known, in its extended form, as Frawardinegan; and today known as Farvardigan) was celebrated. This and the Gahambars are the only festivals named in the surviving text of the Avesta.The 10th-century scholar Biruni, in his work Kitab al-Tafhim li Awa'il Sina'at al-Tanjim, provides a description of the calendars of various nations. Besides the Iranian calendar, various festivals of Greeks, Jews, Arabs, Sabians, and other nations are mentioned in the book. In the section on the Iranian calendar, he mentions Nowruz, Sadeh, Tirgan, Mehrgan, the six Gahambars, Farvardigan, Bahmanja, Esfand Armaz and several other festivals. According to him, "It is the belief of the Iranians that Nowruz marks the first day when the universe started its motion."برگرفته از: "گنجينه‌ي سخن"، تأليف دكتر ذبيح الله صفا، انتشارات اميركبير، 1370، جلد يكم، ص 292 The Persian historian Gardizi, in his work titled Zayn al-Akhbār, under the section of the Zoroastrians festivals, mentions Nowruz (among other festivals) and specifically points out that Zoroaster highly emphasized the celebration of Nowruz and Mehrgan.Gardīzī, Abu Saʿīd ʿAbd-al-Ḥayy b. Żaḥḥāk b. Maḥmūd in Encyclopedia Iranica by C. Edmund Bosworth  Iranica on lineTārīkh-i Gardīzī / taʾlīf, Abū Saʻīd ʻAbd al-Ḥayy ibn Zahāk ibn Maḥmūd Gardīzī ; bih taṣḥīḥ va taḥshiyah va taʻlīq, ʻAbd al-Ḥayy Ḥabībī. Tihrān : Dunyā-yi Kitāb, 1363 [1984 or 1985]. excerpt from p. 520:

Achaemenid period

File:Persepolis stairs of the Apadana relief.jpg|thumb|right|A bas-relief at the Apadana, Persepolis, depicting ArmeniansArmeniansAlthough the word Nowruz is not recorded in Achaemenid inscriptions, there is a detailed account by Xenophon of a Nowruz celebration taking place in Persepolis and the continuity of this festival in the Achaemenid tradition.Christopher Tuplin; Vincent Azoulay, Xenophon and His World: Papers from a Conference Held in Liverpool in July 1999, Published by Franz Steiner Verlag, 2004, {{ISBN|3-515-08392-8}}, p. 148. Nowruz was an important day during the Achaemenid Empire ({{nowrap|c. 550–330 BCE}}). Kings of the different Achaemenid nations would bring gifts to the King of Kings. The significance of the ceremony was such that King Cambyses II's appointment as the king of Babylon was legitimized only after his participation in the referred annual Achaemenid festival.BOOK, Reading Hosea in Achaemenid Yehud, Trotter, James M., Continuum International Publishing Group, 2001, 108,weblink 978-1-84127-197-2, It has been suggested that the famous Persepolis complex, or at least the palace of Apadana and the Hundred Columns Hall, were built for the specific purpose of celebrating a feast related to Nowruz.In 539 BCE, the Jews came under Iranian rule, thus exposing both groups to each other's customs. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, the story of Purim as told in the Book of Esther is adapted from an Iranian novella about the shrewdness of harem queens, suggesting that Purim may be an adoption of Iranian New Year.WEB
, The Judaic tradition " Jewish myth and legend " Sources and development " Myth and legend in the Persian period
, Encyclopædia Britannica
, 2009-03-21,
A specific novella is not identified and Encyclopædia Britannica itself notes that "no Jewish texts of this genre from the Persian period are extant, so these new elements can be recognized only inferentially". Purim is celebrated within a few weeks of Nowruz as the date of Purim is based on a lunar calendar, while Nowruz occurs at the spring equinox. It is possible that the Jews and Iranians of the time may have shared or adopted similar customs for these holidays.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Hastings, James, John Alexander, Selbie, Louis Herbert, Gray, 10, 506, Purim, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics,weblink 1919,

Arsacid and Sassanid periods

Nowruz was the holiday of Arsacid dynastic empires who ruled Iran (248 BCE–224 CE) and the other areas ruled by the Arsacid dynasties outside of Parthia (such as the Arsacid dynasties of Armenia and Iberia). There are specific references to the celebration of Nowruz during the reign of Vologases I (51–78 CE), but these include no details.WEB
, Rezakhani
, Khodadad
, Nowruz in History
, 2008-03-21
, yes
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 2004-04-11
, Before Sassanids established their power in Western Asia around 300 CE, Parthians celebrated Nowruz in autumn, and the first of Farvardin began at the autumn equinox. During the reign of the Parthian dynasty, the spring festival was Mehrgan, a Zoroastrian and Iranian festival celebrated in honor of Mithra.John R. Hinnells, "Mithraic studies: proceedings", Edition: illustrated, Published by Manchester University Press ND, 1975, {{ISBN|0-7190-0536-1|978-0-7190-0536-7}}, p. 307
Extensive records on the celebration of Nowruz appear following the accession of Ardashir I, the founder of the Sasanian Empire (224–651 CE). Under the Sassanid emperors, Nowruz was celebrated as the most important day of the year. Most royal traditions of Nowruz, such as royal audiences with the public, cash gifts, and the pardoning of prisoners, were established during the Sassanid era and persisted unchanged until modern times.

After the Muslim conquest

(File:Chehel_Sotoun_عمارت_چهل_ستون_اصفهان_22.jpg|200px|thumb|right|Shah Abbas and his courtiers celebrating Nowruz.)Nowruz, along with the mid-winter celebration Sadeh, survived the Muslim conquest of Persia of 650 CE. Other celebrations such as the Gahambars and Mehrgan were eventually side-lined or only observed by Zoroastrians. Nowruz became the main royal holiday during the Abbasid period.Following the demise of the caliphate and the subsequent re-emergence of Iranian dynasties such as the Samanids and Buyids, Nowruz became an even more important event. The Buyids revived the ancient traditions of Sassanian times and restored many smaller celebrations that had been eliminated by the caliphate. The Iranian Buyid ruler 'Adud al-Dawla (r. 949–983) customarily welcomed Nowruz in a majestic hall, decked with gold and silver plates and vases full of fruit and colorful flowers.WEB,weblink A. Shapur Shahbazi, "Nowruz: In the Islamic period",, 2013-03-27, The King would sit on the royal throne, and the court astronomer would come forward, kiss the ground, and congratulate him on the arrival of the New Year. The king would then summon musicians and singers, and invited his friends to gather and enjoy a great festive occasion.Later Turkic and Mongol invaders did not attempt to abolish Nowruz.

Contemporary era

Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, Iran was the only country that officially observed the ceremonies of Nowruz. When the Caucasian and Central Asian countries gained independence from the Soviets, they also declared Nowruz as a national holiday.Nowruz was added to the UNESCO List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2010.Novruz, Nowrouz, Nooruz, Navruz, Nauroz, Nevruz: Inscribed in 2009 on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, UNESCO.Noruz and Iranian radifs registered on UNESCO list, Tehran Times, 1 October 2009, International Day of NowruzPersian music, Nowruz make it into UN heritage list, Press TV, 1 October 2009, PressTV.irNowruz became international, in Persian, BBC Persian, Wednesday, 30 September 2009, To commemorate the UN recognition, Iran unveiled a commemorative postage stamp during the first International Nowruz Celebrations in Tehran on Saturday, 27 March 2010.Iran issues stamp celebrating Int'l Day of Nowruz, PRESS TV, 28 Mar 2010

Holiday customs

{{more citations needed|section|date=March 2018}}(File:Festive decoration 5.jpg|thumb)

House cleaning and shopping

House cleaning, or shaking the house () is commonly done before the arrival of Nowruz. People start preparing for Nowruz with a major spring cleaning of their homes and by buying new clothes to wear for the New Year, as well the purchase of flowers. The hyacinth and the tulip are popular and conspicuous.Parsis adorn their houses with different auspicious symbols; namely, stars, butterflies, birds and fish; and on the day of Navroz, they dress in their new and best clothes and put on gold and silver kushtis and caps. They decorate the doors and windows with garlands of roses and jasmine, and use colored powders for creating patterns known as rangoli on their steps and thresholds. Fish and floral motifs are a favourite among rangolis and considered highly auspicious.{{citation needed|date=June 2015}}

Visiting family and friends

During the Nowruz holidays, people are expected to make short visits to the homes of family, friends and neighbours. Typically, the young people will visit their elders first, and the elders return their visit later. Visitors are offered tea and pastries, cookies, fresh and dried fruits and mixed nuts or other snacks. Many Iranians throw large Nowruz parties in as a way of dealing with the long distances between groups of friends and family.


(File:7SEEN 89.jpg|200px|thumb|right|A Haft-sin table.)Typically, before the arrival of Nowruz, family members gather around the Haft-sin table and await the exact moment of the March equinox to celebrate the New Year.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Navruz, Encyclopedia of Islam, Juan Eduardo, Campo, Infobase Publishing, 2009, 524–525, 9781438126968, NEWS,weblink Tehran Times, Noruz, manifestation of culture of peace, friendship among societies, April 7, 2018, Traditionally, the Haft-sin (, seven foods beginning with the letter sin (س‎)) are: File:White house haft seen.jpg|200px|thumb|right|A 2008 White HouseWhite HouseThese items are also known to have astrological correlations to planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Sun, and Moon.{{citation needed|date=March 2017}} The Haft-sin table may also include a mirror, candles, painted eggs, a bowl of water, goldfish, coins, hyacinth, and traditional confectioneries. A "book of wisdom" such as the Quran, Bible, Avesta, the {{transl|fa|Šāhnāme}} of Ferdowsi, or the {{transl|fa|divān}} of Hafez may also be included. Haft-sin's origins are not clear. The practice is believed to have been popularized over the past 100 years.NEWS,weblink Nowruz: Persian New Year's Table Celebrates Spring Deliciously, NPR, 2018-03-13, en,

Haft MÄ“wa

In Afghanistan, people prepare Haft MÄ“wa (, ) for Nauruz, a mixture of seven different dried fruits and nuts (such as raisins, Persian olives, pistachios, hazelnuts, prunes, walnut, and almonds) served in syrup.


(File:Xonça DSC 0116.JPG|200px|thumb|right|A Khoncha setting.)Khoncha () is the traditional display of Novruz in the Republic of Azerbaijan. It consists of a big silver or copper tray, with a tray of green, sprouting wheat (samani) in the middle and a dyed egg for each member of the family arranged around it. The table should be with at least seven dishes.

Amu Nowruz and Haji Firuz

File:Amu Nowruz.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Amu NowruzAmu Nowruz In Iran, the traditional heralds of the festival of Nowruz are Amu Nowruz and Haji Firuz, who appear in the streets to celebrate the New Year.Amu Nowruz brings children gifts, much like his counterpart Santa Claus.NEWS, Haji Firooz & Amoo Norooz – The Persian Troubadour & Santa Claus,weblink Persian Mirror, 15 November 2004, 3 March 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 25 February 2010, He is the husband of Nane Sarma, with whom he shares a traditional love story in which they can meet each other only once a year.Thus Speaks Mother Simorq, p. 151Iranica: Pir-e Zan He is depicted as an elderly silver-haired man with a long beard carrying a walking stick, wearing a felt hat, a long cloak of blue canvas, a sash, giveh, and linen trousers.Amu Nowruz {{webarchive|url= |date=2016-03-04 }}, Fazlollah Mohtadi, Shiraz University Centre for Children's Literature StudiesFile:Haji Firuz on the road.jpg|thumb|right|Haji Firuz performers on a road to TehranTehranHaji Firuz, a character with his face and hands covered in soot, clad in bright red clothes and a felt hat, is the companion of Amu Nowruz. He dances through the streets while singing and playing a tambourine. In the traditional songs, he introduces himself as a serf trying to cheer people whom he refers to as his lords.Faces around the World: A Cultural Encyclopedia of the Human Face By Margo DeMello – Black Face, p. 28


In the folklore of Afghanistan, Kampirak and his retinue pass village by village distributing gathered charities among people. He is an old bearded man wearing colorful clothes with a long hat and rosary who symbolizes beneficence and the power of nature yielding the forces of winter. The tradition is observed in central provinces, specially Bamyan and Daykundi.WEB, Ayub, Arvin, نوروز و چالش‌های سیاسی و مذهبی در افغانستان,weblink BBC Persian, London, 2010-03-23,


(File:Traditional costume for Nowruz.JPG|200px|thumb|right|Traditional costume for Nawrız in Kazakhstan.)The festival of Nowruz is celebrated by many groups of people in the Black Sea basin, the Balkans, the Caucasus, Western Asia, central and southern Asia, and by Iranians worldwide.NEWS, Rostami, Hoda, Yek Jahan Noruz, Saman (Publication of Iranian National Tax Administration), 23, 17 March 2007, Places where Nowruz is a public holiday include:File:Celebration of Nowruz shared by several countries, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Turkey..jpg|200px|thumb|right|Traditional dancing during a Nowruz festival in ParisParis{{div col|colwidth=30em}}
  • AfghanistanWEB, Key Afghan, US leadership plant trees for Farmer's Day, Lt. j.g. Keith Goodsell,weblink United States Central Command, March 7, 2011, 2012-12-03,
  • Albania
  • Azerbaijan (five days)WEB,weblink, BBC, 2010-04-06,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-02-01, yes, WEB,weblink Azerbaijan 2010 Bank Holidays,, 6 April 2010,
  • GeorgiaWEB,weblink Nowruz Declared as National Holiday in Georgia, Civil.Ge, 1 July 2001, 6 April 2010,
  • Iran (thirteen days)WEB,weblink Iran (Islamic Republic of) 2010 Bank Holidays,, 6 April 2010,
  • Iraqi KurdistanWEB,weblink Iraq 2010 Bank Holidays,, 6 April 2010,
  • Kazakhstan (four days)WEB,weblink Celebrating Nowruz in Central Asia,, 23 March 2007, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 23 May 2007,
  • Kosovo
  • KyrgyzstanWEB,weblink Norouz in Kyrgyzstan,, 26 March 2006, 6 April 2010, WEB,weblink Kyrgyzstan 2010 Bank Holidays,, 6 April 2010,
  • Bayan-Ölgii, MongoliaWEB, Discover Bayan-Olgii,weblink
  • Tajikistan (four days)WEB,weblink Tajikistan 2010 Bank Holidays,, 6 April 2010, WEB,weblink Turkmen President Urges Youth To Read 'Rukhnama', RFERL, 20 March 2006, 6 April 2010,
  • Turkmenistan (two days)WEB,weblink Turkmenistan 2010 Bank Holidays,, 6 April 2010,
  • UzbekistanWEB,weblink Uzbekistan 2010 Bank Holidays,, 6 April 2010,
{{col div end}}The Parliament of Canada, on 30 March 2009, by unanimous consent, passed a bill to add Nowruz to the national calendar of Canada.WEB,weblink Canada parliament recognizes 'Nowruz Day', 20 March 2015, 3 April 2009, Press TV, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2013, WEB,weblink Bill c-342, 4 April 2009, House of Commons of Canada, Nowruz is celebrated by Kurdish people in IraqNEWS,weblink In pictures: Norouz â€“ New Year festival, BBC News, 21 March 2006, 6 April 2010, and Turkey,WEB,weblink Clashes erupt at Turkey's Dita e Verës. spring festival, Daily Star, 22 March 2006, 6 April 2010, as well as by the Iranis, Shias and Parsis in the Indian subcontinent and diaspora.Nowruz is also celebrated by Iranian communities in Europe and the Americas, including Los Angeles, Toronto, Cologne and London.WEB,weblink, BBC, 6 April 2010, But because Los Angeles is prone to devastating fires, there are very strict fire codes in the city. Usually, Iranians living in Southern California go to the beaches to celebrate the event where it is permissible to build fires.WEB,weblink Novruz... Celebration That Would Not Die,, 13 March 1990, 6 April 2010, On 15 March 2010, the House of Representatives of the United States passed the Nowruz Resolution (H.Res. 267), by a 384–2 vote,House Passes Historic Norooz (sic) Resolution, National Iranian American Council, 15 March 2010. "Recognizing the cultural and historical significance of Nowruz, ... ."Legislative Digest,, H.Res. 267. {{webarchive|url= |date=2014-03-20 }}


Nowruz marks Afghanistan's New Year's Day with the Solar Hijri Calendar as their official calendar.In Afghanistan, the festival of Gul-i-Surkh (, ) is the principal festival for Nauruz. It is celebrated in Mazar-i-Sharif during the first 40 days of the year, when red tulips grow in the green plains and over the hills surrounding the city. People from all over the country travel to Mazar-i-Sharif to attend the Nauruz festivals. Buzkashi tournaments are held during the Gul-i-Surkh festival in Mazar-i-Sharif, Kabul and other northern Afghan cities.Jahenda Bala ( ) is celebrated on the first day of the New Year.Malthe Conrad Bruun, Universal geography, or A description of all the parts of the world, Vol. II., London 1822, p. 282 It is a religious ceremony performed at the Blue Mosque of Mazar-i-Sharif by raising a special banner resembling the Derafsh Kaviani royal standard. It is attended by high-ranking government officials such as the Vice-President, Ministers, and Provincial Governors and is the biggest recorded Nawroz gathering, with up to 200,000 people from all over Afghanistan attending.In the festival of Dehqān ( ), also celebrated on the first day of the New Year, farmers walk in the cities as a sign of encouragement for the agricultural production. In recent years, this activity only happens in Kabul and other major cities where the mayor and other governmental officials attend.During the first two weeks of the New Year, the citizens of Kabul hold family picnics in Istalif, Charikar and other green places where redbuds grow.During the Taliban regime of 1996–2001, Nauruz was banned as "an ancient pagan holiday centered on fire worship".WEB,weblink Bush Sends Nowruz Greetings to Afghans, American Embassy Press Section, 2002-03-20, 2010-04-06, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 2010-02-02,


Since the extinction during the 19th century, Nowruz is not celebrated by Armenians and is not a public holiday in Armenia. However, it is celebrated in Armenia by tens of thousands of Iranian tourists who visit Armenia with relative ease.NEWS, Katrandjian, Olivia, Booze and relative freedom lure Iranians to Christian enclave to the north,weblink Los Angeles Times, 16 May 2010, The influx of tourists from Iran accelerated since around 2010–11.NEWS, Smbatian, Hasmik, Iranians Flock To Armenia On Norouz Holiday,weblink Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 23 March 2011, NEWS, Mkrtchyan, Gayane, Nowruz in Armenia: Many Iranians again prefer Yerevan for spending their New Year holiday,weblink ArmeniaNow, 22 March 2011, In 2010 alone, around 27,600 Iranians spent Nowruz in capital Yerevan.NEWS, Katrandjian, Olivia, Postcard from Armenia,weblink PBS, 16 May 2010, In 2015, President Serzh Sargsyan sent a letter of congratulations to Kurds living in Armenia and to the Iranian political leadership on the occasion of Nowruz.NEWS, President Sargsyan: Happy Nowruz to Armenia's Kurds and Iran,weblink Hetq Online, 21 March 2015,


File:Novruz003.jpg|200px|thumb|right|Folk dancers in BakuBaku In Azerbaijan, Novruz celebrations go on for several days and inclued festive public dancingfolk music, and sporting competitions. In rural areas, crop holidays are also marked.WEB,weblink Studentsoftheworld â€“ Azeri Traditions, Students of the World, 6 April 2010, Communities of the Azeri diaspora also celebrate Nowruz in the US, CanadaWEB, Nowruz Holiday,weblink Azeri America, 24 December 2018, and IsraelWEB, Open air celebrations at Nowruz Bayram in Israel,weblink Vestnik Kavkaza, 11 March 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 25 December 2015,


In Bangladesh, Shia Muslims in Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi and Khulna continue to celebrate it regularly. However, tradition goes back to historical East Bengal's link to the Mughal Empire; the empire celebrated the festival for 19 days with pomp and gaiety.{{Citation|last=Koch|first=Ebba|title=THE MUGHAL AUDIENCE HALL:: A SOLOMONIC REVIVAL OF PERSEPOLIS IN THE FORM OF A MOSQUE|date=2011|journal=Royal Courts in Dynastic States and Empires|pages=313–338|editor-last=Duindam|editor-first=Jeroen|series=A Global Perspective|publisher=Brill|doi=10.1163/j.ctt1w8h2rh.19|editor2-last=Artan|editor2-first=Tülay|editor3-last=Kunt|editor3-first=Metin|jstor=10.1163/j.ctt1w8h2rh.19}}WEB,weblink Nauroz Then and Now, 2015-03-20, Rana Safvi, en-US, 2019-03-19, Shia Muslims in Bangladesh have been seen spraying water around their home and drinking that water to keep themselves protected from diseases. A congregation to seek divine blessing is also arranged. Members of the Nawab family of Dhaka used to celebrate it amid pomp and grounder. In the evening, they used to float thousands of candle lights in nearby ponds and water bodies. Bengali poet Kazi Nazrul Islam portrayed a vivid sketch of the festival highlighting its various aspects. In his poem, he described it as a platform of exposing a youth's physical and mental beauty to another opposite one for conquering his or her heart.BOOK,weblink Banglapedia - National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Rofique, Rafiqul Islam, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh,


Traditionally, Nowruz is celebrated mainly in China's Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region by the Uyghurs, Chinese Tajik, Salar, and Kazakh ethnicities.


Nowruz is not celebrated by Georgians, but it has been a public holiday in Georgia since 2010. It is widely celebrated by the country's large Azerbaijani minority (~7% of the total population)WEB,weblink Spring is in the air: Novruz in Tbilisi, 25 September 2015, as well as by Iranians living in Georgia.WEB,weblink Iranians in Georgia celebrate Nowruz, 25 September 2015, Every year, large festivities are held in the capital Tbilisi, as well as in areas with a significant number of Azerbaijanis, such as the Kvemo Kartli, Kakheti, Shida Kartli, and Mtskheta-Mtianeti regions. Georgian politicians have attended the festivities in the capital over the years, and have congratulated the Nowruz-observing ethnic groups and nationals in Georgia on the day of Nowruz.WEB,weblink Nowruz Byram to be Celebrated in Tbilisi today, 25 September 2015, WEB,weblink Public Defender congratulates Georgian citizens of Azeri Origin with Nowruz Bairam, 25 September 2015,


Tradition of Nowruz in Northern India dates back to the Mughal Empire; the festival was celebrated for 19 days with pomp and gaiety in the realm.{{Citation|last=Koch|first=Ebba|title=THE MUGHAL AUDIENCE HALL:: A SOLOMONIC REVIVAL OF PERSEPOLIS IN THE FORM OF A MOSQUE|date=2011|journal=Royal Courts in Dynastic States and Empires|pages=313–338|editor-last=Duindam|editor-first=Jeroen|series=A Global Perspective|publisher=Brill|doi=10.1163/j.ctt1w8h2rh.19|editor2-last=Artan|editor2-first=Tülay|editor3-last=Kunt|editor3-first=Metin|jstor=10.1163/j.ctt1w8h2rh.19}}WEB,weblink Nauroz Then and Now, 2015-03-20, Rana Safvi, en-US, 2019-03-19, However, it further goes back to the Parsi Zoroastrian community in Western India, who migrated to the Indian subcontinent from Persia during the Muslim conquest of Persia of 636–651 CE. In the Princely State of Hyderabad, Nowruz (Nauroz) was one of the four holidays where the Nizam would hold a public Darbar, along with the two official Islamic holidays and the sovereign's birthday.BOOK,weblink Medieval Andhra: A Socio-Historical Perspective, Pandey, Alpana, 2015, Partridge Publishing, 978-1482850178, en, Prior to Asaf Jahi rule in Hyderabad, the Qutb Shahi dynasty celebrated Nowruz with a ritual called Panjeri, and the festival was celebrated by all with great grandeur.BOOK,weblink Medieval Andhra: A Socio-Historical Perspective, Pandey, Alpana, 2015-08-11, Partridge Publishing, 9781482850178, en, Kazi Nazrul Islam, during the Bengal renaissance, portrayed the festival with vivid sketch and poems, highlighting its various aspects.BOOK,weblink Banglapedia - National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Rofique, Rafiqul Islam, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh,


File:Painting Nowruz eggs in Tehran.jpg|200px|thumb|right|Painting huge eggs for Nowruz in TehranTehranNowruz is two-week celebration that marks the beginning of the New Year in Iran's official Solar Hejri calendar.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Encyclopædia Iranica, Calendars, The solar Hejrī (Š. = Šamsī) and Šāhanšāhī calendars, July 4, 2017, NEWS,weblink Iran's festive drink and drugs binge, March 27, 2009, BBC World News, The celebration includes four public holidays from the first to the fourth day of Farvardin, the first month of the Iranian calendar, usually beginning on 21 March.WEB,weblink Iran Public Holidays 2017, Mystery of Iran, July 6, 2017, On the Eve of Nowruz, the fire festival Chaharshanbe Suri is celebrated.NEWS,weblink Divided views on Iran's new year, BBC World News, March 20, 2009, Following the 1979 Revolution, some radical elements from the Islamic government attempted to suppress Nowruz,NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Ayatollahs Aside, Iranians Jump for Joy at Spring, Michael Slackman, March 20, 2006, considering it a pagan holiday and a distraction from Islamic holidays. Nowruz has been politicized, with political leaders making annual Nowruz speeches.NEWS,weblink The politicization of Nowruz, Iran’s new year, The Washington Post, Jason Rezaian, March 21, 2013,


File:Newroz Istanbul(5).jpg|thumb|right|200px|Newroz in Istanbul, TurkeyTurkeyFile:Celebrating Nowruz in Mariwan.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Kurds celebrating Newruz in MariwanMariwanNewroz is largely considered as a potent symbol of Kurdish identity in Turkey, even if there are some Turks (including Turkmens) celebrating the festival. The Kurds of Turkey celebrate this feast between 18th till 21 March. Kurds gather into fairgrounds mostly outside the cities to welcome spring. Women wear colored dresses and spangled head scarves and young men wave flags of green, yellow and red, the historic colors of Kurdish people. They hold this festival by lighting fire and dancing around it.WEB,weblink Kurdistan turco,, 2010-04-06, Newroz has seen many bans in Turkey and can only be celebrated legally since 1992 after the ban on the Kurdish language was lifted. But also afterwards Newroz celebrations could be banned and lead to confrontations with the Turkish authority. In Cizre, Nusyabin and Şırnak celebrations turned violent as Turkish police forces fired in the celebrating crowds.BOOK, Identität, Ethnizität und Nationalismus in Kurdistan, Richter, Fabian, 2016, LIT Verlag Münster, 978-3643132345, 55, de, Newroz celebrations are usually organized by Kurdish cultural associations and pro-Kurdish political parties. Thus, the Democratic Society Party was a leading force in the organisation of the 2006 Newroz events throughout Turkey. In recent years, the Newroz celebration gathers around 1 million participants in Diyarbakır, the biggest city of the Kurdish dominated Southeastern Turkey. As the Kurdish Newroz celebrations in Turkey often are theater for political messages, the events are frequently criticized for being political rallies rather than cultural celebrations.Until 2005, the Kurdish population of Turkey could not celebrate their New Year openly.Zaki Chehab, Inside the resistance: the Iraqi insurgency and the future of the Middle East, Published by Nation Books, 2005, {{ISBN|1-56025-746-6}}, p. 198 "Thousands of people have been detained in Turkey, as the authorities take action against suspected supporters of the Kurdish rebel movement, the PKK.NEWS,weblink Turkish police arrest thousands, BBC News, 1999-03-22, 2013-03-27, The holiday is now official in Turkey after international pressure on the Turkish government to lift culture bans. Turkish government renamed the holiday Nevroz in 1995.Marianne Heiberg, Brendan O'Leary, John Tirman. Terror, Insurgency, and the State: Ending Protracted Conflicts, p. 337. In the recent years, limitations on expressions of Kurdish national identity, including the usage of Kurdish in the public sphere, have been considerably relaxed.On 21 March 2013, PKK leader Abdullah Ocalan called for a ceasefire through a message that was released in Diyarbakır during the Newroz celebrations.WEB, Turkey Kurds: PKK chief Ocalan calls for ceasefire,weblink BBC News, 21 March 2013, In Syria, the Kurds dress up in their national dress and celebrate the New Year.BOOK, The Kurds, Philip G., Kreyenbroek, Sperl, Stefan Sperl, Routledge, 1991, 978-0-415-07265-6, According to Human Rights Watch, the Kurds have had to struggle to celebrate Newroz, and in the past the celebration has led to violent oppression, leading to several deaths and mass arrests.WEB, Syria: Mass arrests of Syrian Kurds and fear of torture and other ill-treatment,weblink 16 March 2004, 10 March 2007, Amnesty International,weblink" title="">weblink 2006-11-19, The Syrian Arab Ba'athist government stated in 2004 that the Newroz celebrations will be tolerated as long as they do not become political demonstrations.BOOK, The Kurds: Culture and Language Rights, Kerim, Yildiz, Fryer, Georgina, Kurdish Human Rights Project, 2004, 978-1-900175-74-6, During the Newroz celebrations in 2008, three Kurds were shot dead by Syrian security forces.WEB,weblink Three Kurds killed in Syria shooting, human rights group says – Middle East, Monsters And Critics, 20 March 2017, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 21 March 2012, NEWS,weblink Police kill three Kurds in northeast Syria â€“ group, 21 March 2008, Reuters, In March 2010, an attack by Syrian police left 2 or 3 people killed, one of them a 15-year-old girl, and more than 50 people wounded.weblink The Rojava revolution of 2012 and the subsequent establishment of the de-facto Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria saw Kurdish civil rights greatly expand, and Newroz is now celebrated freely in most Kurdish areas of Syria except for Efrin, where the ritual is no longer allowed since the 2018 occupation by Turkish-backed rebel groups.WEB,weblink Turkey bans Newroz celebrations for Syrian Kurds in Afrin, Arab, The New, alaraby, en, 2019-04-12, Kurds in the diaspora also celebrate the New Year; for example, Kurds in Australia celebrate Newroz, not only as the beginning of the new year, but also as the Kurdish National Day. The Kurds in Finland celebrate the new year as a way of demonstrating their support for the Kurdish cause.BOOK, Kurdish Diasporas: A Comparative Study of Kurdish Refugee Communities, Osten, Wahlbeck, Palgrave Macmillan, 1999, 978-0-312-22067-9, Also in London, organizers estimated that 25,000 people celebrated Newroz during March 2006.WEB, London celebrates Newroz: The Kurdish New Year,weblink 2007-03-10, March 2006, The Londoner, yes,weblink" title="">weblink September 30, 2007,


Followers of the Zoroastrian faith include Nowruz in their religious calendar, as do followers of other faiths.NEWS, Mogul, Priyanka Mogul, Nowruz 2016: Who are Persia's Zoroastrians and why is their festival being celebrated in India?,weblink 13 February 2017, International Business Times, March 18, 2016, Shia literature refers to the merits of the day of Nowruz; the Day of Ghadir took place on Nowruz; and the fatwas of major Shia scholarsWEB,weblink Nowruz in the Twelver Shi'a faith,, 20 March 2017, recommend fasting. Nowruz is also a holy day for Sufis, Bektashis, Ismailis, Alawites,WEB,weblink But they also celebrate some of the same festivals as the Christians, like Christmas and Epiphany, as well as Nauruz, which originally is the Zoroastrian New Year.,, 2010-04-06, Alevis, Babis and adherents of the Bahá'í Faith.WEB,weblink The Baha'i Calendar, 19 March 2007, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 2006-09-28,

Bahá'í Faith

Naw-Rúz is one of nine holy days for adherents of the Bahá'í Faith worldwide. It is the first day of the Bahá'í calendar, occurring on the vernal equinox around March 21.WEB, Naw-Ruz: The Bahá'í New Year, John, Walbridge, 2004-07-11,weblink 2007-03-14, The Bahá'í calendar is composed of 19 months, each of 19 days,BOOK, Esslemont, J.E., 1980, Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era, 5th, Bahá'í Publishing Trust, Wilmette, Illinois, US, 978-0-87743-160-2,weblink 178–179, and each of the months is named after an attribute of God; similarly each of the nineteen days in the month also are named after an attribute of God. The first day and the first month were given the attribute of Bahá, an Arabic word meaning splendour or glory, and thus the first day of the year was the day of Bahá in the month of Bahá.WEB, Dale E., Lehman, 18 March 2000, 14 March 2007, A New Year Begins, Planet Bahá'í,weblink yes,weblink" title="">weblink 27 September 2007, Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, explained that Naw-Rúz was associated with the Most Great Name of God, and was instituted as a festival for those who observed the Nineteen day fast.BOOK, Bahá'í Prayers, Bahá'í Publishing Trust, Wilmitte, IL, 1991, 261, Bahá'u'lláh, BOOK, Bahá'u'lláh, 1873, 1992, The Kitáb-i-Aqdas: The Most Holy Book, Bahá'í Publishing Trust, Wilmette, Illinois, US, 978-0-85398-999-8,weblink 25, The day is also used to symbolize the renewal of time in each religious dispensation.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Encyclopædia Iranica, 1989, Bahai Calendar and Festivals, Dennis, MacEoin, `Abdu'l-Bahá, Bahá'u'lláh's son and successor, explained that significance of Naw-Rúz in terms of spring and the new life it brings. He explained that the equinox is a symbol of the messengers of God and the message that they proclaim is like a spiritual springtime, and that Naw-Rúz is used to commemorate it.JOURNAL, Star of the West, 4, 4, `Abdu'l-Bahá, 1913-03-21, 1, republished in BOOK, Shoghi, Effendi, The Universal House of Justice, Hornby, Helen, 1983, Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í Reference File, Bahá'í Publishing Trust, New Delhi, India, 978-81-85091-46-4,weblink As with all Bahá'í holy days, there are few fixed rules for observing Naw-Rúz, and Bahá'ís all over the world celebrate it as a festive day, according to local custom. Persian Bahá'ís still observe many of the Iranian customs associated with Nowruz such as the Haft-sin, but American Bahá'í communities, for example, may have a potluck dinner, along with prayers and readings from Bahá'í scripture.

Twelver and Ismaili Shia

Along with Ismailis,WEB,weblink Nowruz Persian New Year – Eid Mubarak! | Ismaili Web Amaana, 15 March 2013, Ismaili Web Amaana, 22 March 2017, WEB,weblink Navroz, The Ismaili, 12 May 2011, 18 March 2010, Alawites and Alevis, the Twelver Shia also hold the day of Nowruz in high regard.It has been said that Musa al-Kadhim, the seventh Twelver Shia imam, has explained Nowruz and said: "In Nowruz God made a covenant with His servants to worship Him and not to allow any partner for Him. To welcome, His messengers and obey their rulings. This day is the first day that the fertile wind blow and the flowers on the earth appeared. The archangel Gabriel appeared to the Prophet, and it is the day that Abraham broke the idols. The day Prophet Muhammad held Ali on his shoulders to destroy the Quraishie's idols in the house of God, the Kaaba."WEB, March 2012,weblink Nowruz in Islam, Islamic Centre of England, 22 March 2017, Mireskandari, Anousheh, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 24 March 2016, The day upon which Nowruz falls has been recommended as a day of fasting for Twelver Shia Muslims by Shia scholars, including Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei, Ruhollah KhomeiniTahrir al Wasila, by Ayatollah Khomeini, Vol. 1, pp. 302–303 and Ali al-Sistani.Islamic Laws, by Ali al-Sistani, under the section; "Mustahab Fasts" The day also assumes special significance for Shias as it has been said that it was on 16 March 632 AD that the first Shia Imam, Ali, assumed the office of caliphate.The Shia Imami Ismaili muslims around the globe celebrate the Nawruz as a religious festival. Special prayers and Majalis are arranged in Jamatkhanas. Special foods are cooked and people share best wishes and prayers with each other. In Gilgit Baltistan Nawruz is being celebrated officially.

See also





External links

{{Commons category|Nowruz}}

{{Nowruz}}{{Zoroastrian Calendar}}{{Intangible Heritage Azerbaijan}}{{Intangible Heritage Iran}}

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