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Nordic race
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File:MPP-Nord1.jpg|thumb|upright|Henry Keane's Man, Past and Present (1899) shows a Dane as an example of the Nordic type]]{{About|the historical race concept|the ideology|Nordicism}}{{redirect|Nordish|the English cricketer|Thomas Nordish}}The Nordic race was one of the putative sub-races into which some late-19th to mid-20th century anthropologists divided the Caucasian race. People of the Nordic type were mostly found in Northern Europe,BOOK, Hayes, Patrick J., The Making of Modern Immigration: An Encyclopedia of People and Ideas, 2012, ABC-CLIO,weblink 9780313392030, BOOK, Porterfield, Austin Larimore, Wait the Withering Rain?, 1953, Leo Potishman Foundation,weblink 15 April 2015, BOOK, Hutton, Christopher, Race and the Third Reich: Linguistics, Racial Anthropology and Genetics in the Dialectic of Volk, 2005, Polity,weblink 15 April 2015, 9780745631776, particularly among populations in the areas surrounding the Baltic Sea, such as Balts, Germanic peoples and Finnic peoples.(:File:Passing of the Great Race - Map 4.jpg)Grant, Madison (1921) The Passing of the Great Race, New York: Scribner's Sons. p.167 The psychological traits of Nordics were described as truthful, equitable, competitive, naive, reserved and individualistic.Gunther, Hans F. K., The Racial Elements of European History, translated by G. C. Wheeler, Methuen & Co. LTD, London, 1927, p. 3 Other supposed sub-races were the Alpine race, Dinaric race, Iranid race, East Baltic race, and the Mediterranean race.

Background

It was the Russian-born French anthropologist Joseph Deniker that initially proposed "nordique" (meaning simply "northern") as an "ethnic group" (a term that he coined).He defined nordique by a set of physical characteristics: The concurrence of somewhat wavy hair, light eyes, reddish skin, tall stature and a dolichocephalic skull.WEB,weblink Deniker, J., The Races of Man, nordish.net, 22 October 2017, yes,weblink 1 May 2008, Of six 'Caucasian' groups Deniker accommodated four into secondary ethnic groups, all of which he considered intermediate to the Nordic: Northwestern, Sub-Nordic, Vistula and Sub-Adriatic, respectively.Deniker, J. - Les Races de l'Europe (1899);The Races of Man (London: Walter Scott Ltd., 1900);Les Races et les Peuples de la Terre (Masson et Cie, Paris, 1926)Deniker (J.) "Essai d'une classification des races humaines, basée uniquement sur les caractères physiques". Bulletins de la Société d'anthropologie de Paris. Volume 12 Numéro 12. 1889. pp. 320-336.The notion of a distinct northern European race was also rejected by several anthropologists on craniometric grounds. Rudolf Virchow attacked the claim following a study of craniometry, which gave surprising results according to contemporary scientific racist theories on the "Aryan race." During the 1885 Anthropology Congress in Karlsruhe, Virchow denounced the "Nordic mysticism," while Josef Kollmann, a collaborator of Virchow, stated that the people of Europe, be they German, Italian, English or French, belonged to a "mixture of various races," furthermore declaring that the "results of craniology" led to "struggle against any theory concerning the superiority of this or that European race".Andrea Orsucci, "Ariani, indogermani, stirpi mediterranee: aspetti del dibattito sulle razze europee (1870–1914) {{webarchive|url=https://archive.is/20121218231754weblink |date=2012-12-18 }}, Cromohs, 1998 {{it icon}}

Ripley (1899)

American economist William Z. Ripley purported to define a "Teutonic race" in his book The Races of Europe (1899).William Z. Ripley, in The Races of Europe: A Sociological Study (New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1899) He divided Europeans into three main subcategories: Teutonic (teutonisch), Alpine and Mediterranean. According to Ripley the "Teutonic race" resided in Scandinavia, Northern France, northern Germany, Baltic states and East Prussia, northern Poland, northwest Russia, Britain, Ireland, parts of Central and Eastern Europe and was typified by light hair, light skin, blue eyes, tall stature, a narrow nose, and slender body type. Georges Vacher de Lapouge had called this race "Homo Europaeus". It was Ripley who popularized the idea of three biological European races. Ripley borrowed Deniker's terminology of Nordic (he had previously used the term "Teuton"); his division of the European races relied on a variety of anthropometric measurements, but focused especially on their cephalic index and stature.Compared to Deniker, Ripley advocated a simplified racial view and proposed a single Teutonic race linked to geographic areas where Nordic-like characteristics predominate, and contrasted these areas to the boundaries of two other types, Alpine and Mediterranean, thus reducing the 'caucasoid branch of humanity' to three distinct groups.JOURNAL, J.G., review of The Races of Europe by William Z. Ripley, The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 29, 1/2, 188–189, 1899,

Influence of Nordicism

By 1902 the German archaeologist Gustaf Kossinna identified the original Aryans (Proto-Indo-Europeans) with the north German Corded Ware culture, an argument that gained in currency over the following two decades. He placed the Indo-European Urheimat in Schleswig-Holstein, arguing that they had expanded across Europe from there.BOOK, Arvidsson, Stefan, Aryan Idols, 2006, University of Chicago Press, USA, 978-0-226-02860-6, 143, By the early 20th century this theory was well established, though far from universally accepted{{citation needed|date=May 2016}}. Sociologists were soon using the concept of a "blond race" to model the migrations of the supposedly more entrepreneurial and innovative components of European populations. By the early 20th century, Ripley's tripartite Nordic/Alpine/Mediterranean model was well established. Most 19th century race-theorists like Arthur de Gobineau, Otto Ammon, Georges Vacher de Lapouge and Houston Stewart Chamberlain preferred to speak of "Aryans," "Teutons," and "Indo-Europeans" instead of "Nordic Race". The British German racialist Houston Stewart Chamberlain considered the Nordic race to be made up of Celtic and Germanic peoples, as well as some Slavs. Chamberlain called those people Celt-Germanic peoples, and his ideas would influence Adolf Hitler's Nazi ideology.Madison Grant, in his book The Passing of the Great Race, took up Ripley's classification. He described a "Nordic" or "Baltic" type: "long skulled, very tall, fair skinned, with blond, brown or red hair and light coloured eyes. The Nordics inhabit the countries around the North and Baltic Seas and include not only the great Scandinavian and Teutonic groups, but also other early peoples who first appear in southern Europe and in Asia as representatives of Aryan language and culture."Madison Grant, "The Passing of the Great Race", Scribner's Sons, 1921, p. 167According to Grant, the "Alpine race", shorter in stature, darker in colouring, with a rounder head, predominated in Central and Eastern Europe through to Turkey and the Eurasian steppes of Central Asia and Southern Russia. The "Mediterranean race", with dark hair and eyes, aquiline nose, swarthy complexion, moderate-to-short stature, and moderate or long skull was said to be prevalent in Southern Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa.BOOK, Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860–1925, John Higham, 2002, Rutgers University Press, 978-0-8135-3123-6, 273, registration,weblink BOOK, The Early Sociology of Class, Bryan S Turner, 1998, Taylor & Francis, 978-0-415-16723-9, 241, Bryan S. Turner (sociologist), Only in the 1920s did a strong partiality for "Nordic" begin to reveal itself, and for a while the term was used almost interchangeably with Aryan.JOURNAL
, Nordic Racism
, Field
, Geoffrey G.
, Journal of the History of Ideas
, 1086-3222
, 38
, 3
, 1977
, 523–40
, 10.2307/2708681
, 2708681
, Later, however, Nordic would not be co-terminous with Aryan, Indo-European or Germanic.Anna Bramwell. 1985. Blood and Soil: Richard Walther Darré and Hitler's "Green Party". Abbotsbrook, England: The Kensal Press. {{ISBN|0-946041-33-4}}, p. 39&40For example, the later Nazi minister for Food, Richard Walther Darré, who had developed a concept of the German peasantry as Nordic race, used the term 'Aryan' to refer to the tribes of the Iranian plains.

Gunther (1922)

File:Rassenkarte von Europa.jpg|right|250px|thumb|Hans F. K. Günther's map, from 1922, with the Nordic race shown in bright red; light brown indicates the Dinaric race; light blue indicates the Mediterranean race; yellow, the Mongolian race.]]In Rassenkunde des deutschen Volkes (Racial Science of the German People), published 1922, Hans F. K. Günther identified five principal European races instead of three, adding the East Baltic race (related to the Alpine race) and Dinaric race (related to the Nordic race) to Ripley's categories. This work was influential in Ewald Banse's publication of Die Rassenkarte von Europa in 1925 which combined research by Joseph Deniker, William Z. Ripley, Madison Grant, Otto Hauser, Hans F. K. Günther, Eugen Fischer and Gustav Kraitschek.Gunther concluded that Germany was one of the most racially diverse nations of Europe and that all racial groups, in varying distributions, could be found in any European nation. Gunther argued Jews are a nationality and not a race, comprising several racial groups including Nordics, but predominantly Hither Asiatic and Oriental.Gunther, Hans F. K., The Racial Elements of European History, translated by G. C. Wheeler, Methuen & Co. LTD, London, 1927

Coon (1939)

Carleton Coon in his book of 1939 The Races of Europe subdivided the Nordic race into three main types, "Corded", "Danubian" and "Keltic", besidesa "Neo-Danubian" type"de-Corded Nordic (and hence Danubian) prototype brachycephalized by Ladogan admixture." Plate 31: Neo-Danubians {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100514211003weblink |date=2010-05-14 }} and a variety ofNordic types altered by Upper Palaeolithic or Alpine admixture.WEB,weblink Plate 32: Nordics Altered by Northwestern European Upper Palaeolithic Mixture: I, altervista.org, 22 October 2017, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100901075651weblink">weblink 1 September 2010, WEB,weblink Plate 33: Nordics Altered by Northwestern European Upper Palaeolithic Mixture: II, altervista.org, 22 October 2017, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100901075656weblink">weblink 1 September 2010, WEB,weblink Plate 34: Nordics Altered by Mixture with Southwestern Borreby and Alpine Elements, altervista.org, 22 October 2017, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100901075701weblink">weblink 1 September 2010, "Exotic Nordics" are morphologically Nordic types that occur in places distant from the northwestern European center of Nordic concentration.examples from eastern Russia, Albania, Portugal and North Africa; Plate 30: Exotic Nordics {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100514210958weblink |date=2010-05-14 }}Coon takes the Nordics to be a partially depigmented branch of the greater Mediterranean racial stock. He suggests that the Nordic type emerged as a result of a mixture of "the Danubian Mediterranean strain with the later Corded element". Hence his two main Nordic types show Corded and Danubian predominance, respectively .WEB,weblink Plate 27: The Nordic Race: Examples of Corded Predominance, altervista.org, 22 October 2017, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100414194158weblink">weblink 14 April 2010, The third "Keltic" or "Hallstatt" type Coon takes to have emerged in the European Iron Age, in Central Europe, where it was subsequently mostly replaced, but "found a refuge in Sweden and in the eastern valleys of southern Norway."WEB,weblink The Nordic Race: Hallstatt and Keltic Iron Age Types, altervista.org, 22 October 2017, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100901075646weblink">weblink 1 September 2010, Coon further recognizes the following terminology of earlier authors:WEB,weblink Coon (1939), "Appendix II.: Glossary", altervista.org, 22 October 2017, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101001080000weblink">weblink 1 October 2010,
  • Fenno-Nordic, "a hypothetical eastern branch of the Nordic race"
  • Noric, "a blond, Dinaricized Nordic"
  • Osterdal type, "the classic Iron Age Nordic, as found today in the eastern valleys of Norway"
  • Sub-Nordic, "a racial group which would fall partly in the East Baltic and partly in the Neo-Danubian categories"
  • Trønderlagen type or Trønder type, "a variety of Nordic with an excessive Corded element and Upper Palaeolithic mixture"
  • Anglo-Saxon type, "a sub-type of Nordic which contains unreduced Upper Palaeolithic mixture"
Coon's (1939) theory that the Nordic race was a depigmentated variation of the greater Mediterranean racial stock was also supported by his mentor Earnest Albert Hooton who in the same year published Twilight of Man, which notes: "The Nordic race is certainly a depigmented offshoot from the basic long-headed Mediterranean stock. It deserves separate racial classification only because its blond hair (ash or golden), its pure blue or grey eyes".Twilight of Man, Earnest Albert Hooton, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1939 p. 77.Melville Jacobs, Bernhard Joseph Stern. General anthropology. Barnes & Noble, 1963. P. 57. A 1990s study by Ulrich Mueller found that depigmentation of Nordic peoples around the Baltic Sea likely occurred due to vitamin D deficiency amongst peoples living there 10,000-30,000 years ago who had a lack of access to vitamin D foods such as dairy products at the time. Depigmentation allowed greater amount of ultraviolet B light to be absorbed through the skin to synthesize to produce vitamin D.R. Hegselmann, Ulrich Mueller, Klaus G. Troitzsch. Modelling and Simulation in the Social Sciences from the Philosophy of Science Point of View. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996. Pp. 118-Nordicism was subject to substantial criticism. Carleton Steven Coon in his work The Races of Europe (1939) subscribed to depigmentation theory that claimed that Nordic race's light-coloured skin was the result of depigmentation from their ancestors of the Mediterranean race.

Post-World War II theories

The depigmentation theory received notable support from later anthropologists, thus in 1947 Melville Jacobs noted: "To many physical anthropologists Nordic means a group with an especially high percentage of blondness, which represent a depigmentated Mediterranean".Outline of Physical Anthropology, 1947, p. 49. In her work Races of Man (1963, 2nd Ed. 1965) Sonia Mary Cole went further to argue that the Nordic race belongs to the "brunette Mediterranean" Caucasoid division but that it differs only in its higher percentage of blonde hair and light eyes. The Harvard anthropologist Claude Alvin Villee, Jr. also was a notable proponent of this theory, writing: "The Nordic division, a partially depigmised branch of the Mediterranean group."Biology, 1972, Saunders, p. 786. Collier's Encyclopedia as late as 1984 contains an entry for this theory, citing anthropological support.Collier's Encyclopedia'', Vol. 9, William Darrach Halsey, Emanuel Friedman, Macmillan Educational Co., 1984, p. 412. In his work The Races and Peoples of Europe (1977) the Swedish anthropologist Bertil Lundman introduced the term "Nordid" to describe the Nordic race, described as follows:Some forensic scientists, pathologists and anthropologists up to the 1990s continued to use the tripartite division of Caucasoids: Nordic, Alpine and Mediterranean, based on their cranial anthropometry. The anthropologist Wilton M. Krogman for example identified Nordic racial crania in his work "The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine" (1986) as being "dolichochranic"."The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine", Wilton Marion Krogman, M. YaÅŸar Ä°ÅŸcan, C.C. Thomas, 1986, p. 270, p. 489.In his work "Forensic Pathology", published in 1991, Bernard Knight, a Professor of Forensic Pathology, also uses the tripartite model and identifies the Nordic race based on its dolichocephalic skull shape."Forensic Pathology", Bernard Knight, Oxford University Press, 30 May 1991. Forensic anthropologists of the 21st century however no longer continue to use the tripartite division of Caucasoids, but instead only recognise Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid through analysis of skeletal remains and not subraces of these racial groups.JOURNAL, Racial Identification in the Skull and Teeth, Totem: The University of Western Ontario, Journal of Anthropology, 8, 1, 2000, Article 4,weblink The 2014 edition of The World Factbook, produced by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States, describes Spain's population as a "composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types".WEB, The World Factbook,weblink CIA, 17 November 2017, CIA,

See also

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References

Notes{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060612055642weblink">Examples of Nordics (plates 27-30 and 32-34) from Carleton Coon's weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060615030503weblink">The Races of Europe
{{Historical definitions of race|state=collapsed}}

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