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Node.js
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{{short description|Server-side JavaScript framework}}{{primary sources|date=September 2015}}







factoids
| latest release version = 12.2.0ACCESSDATE=30 APRIL 2019VIA=GITHUB, | latest preview version = 11.10.0ACCESSDATE=15 FEBRUARY 2019VIA=GITHUB, C (programming language)>C, C++, JavaScriptLinux, macOS, Microsoft Windows, SmartOS, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, IBM AIXHTTPS://GITHUB.COM/NODEJS/NODE/BLOB/MASTER/BUILDING.MDWEBSITE=GITHUB, Runtime system>Run-time environmentMIT licenseNODE/LICENSE AT MASTERWEBSITE=GITHUBACCESSDATE=17 SEPTEMBER 2018WEBSITE=OPEN SOURCE INITIATIVEDATE=17 SEPTEMBER 2018, }}Node.js is an open-source, cross-platform JavaScript run-time environment that executes JavaScript code outside of a browser. Node.js lets developers use JavaScript to write command line tools and for server-side scripting—running scripts server-side to produce dynamic web page content before the page is sent to the user's web browser. Consequently, Node.js represents a "JavaScript everywhere" paradigm,WEB,weblink JavaScript Everywhere and the Three Amigos (Into the wild BLUE yonder!), gcuomo, 24 October 2013, www.ibm.com, unifying web application development around a single programming language, rather than different languages for server- and client-side scripts.Though .js is the standard filename extension for JavaScript code, the name "Node.js" does not refer to a particular file in this context and is merely the name of the product. Node.js has an event-driven architecture capable of asynchronous I/O. These design choices aim to optimize throughput and scalability in web applications with many input/output operations, as well as for real-time Web applications (e.g., real-time communication programs and browser games).WEB,weblink What You Need To Know About Node.js, 2013-11-07, Laurent Orsini, readwrite,weblink 2013-11-07, 2016-01-22, The Node.js distributed development project, governed by the Node.js Foundation,WEB,weblink Node.js Foundation - Node.js, 4 July 2015, is facilitated by the Linux Foundation's Collaborative Projects program.WEB,weblink Linux Foundation Collaborative Projects, 4 July 2015, Corporate users of Node.js software include GoDaddy,Why GoDaddy's Nodejitsu deal is great for Node.js, VentureBeat, February 10, 2015 Groupon,WEB, Geitgey, Adam, I-Tier: Dismantling the Monoliths,weblink Groupon, 30 April 2014, 30 October 2013, IBM,WEB,weblink IBM Bluemix, 4 July 2015, LinkedIn,WEB,weblink You'll never believe how LinkedIn built its new iPad app, VentureBeat, May 2, 2012, May 10, 2012, WEB,weblink Blazing fast node.js: 10 performance tips from LinkedIn Mobile, 7 April 2015, Microsoft,NEWS,weblink Here's why you should be happy that Microsoft is embracing Node.js, The Guardian, November 9, 2011, May 10, 2012, London, Matthew, Baxter-Reynolds, WEB,weblink WebMatrix - Front End Web Developers take note (ASP.NET, PHP, node.js and more), 2 August 2014, Netflix,Node.js in Flames November 19, 2014 PayPal,WEB,weblink Clash of the Titans: Releasing the Kraken, NodeJS @paypal, fluentconf.com, May 28, 2013, September 11, 2013, WEB,weblink All such companies and their products in which Node.js is used, 2 August 2014, Rakuten, SAP,WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140515000000*weblink">weblink SAP AppBuilder, March 10, 2014, SAP,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140212112431weblink">weblink February 12, 2014, October 10, 2018, Voxer,The Node Ahead: JavaScript leaps from browser into future, The Register, March 1, 2011 Walmart,WEB,weblink Why Walmart is using Node.js, VentureBeat, January 24, 2012, May 10, 2012, and Yahoo!.WEB,weblink Why You Really Need (A) node.js development services, codebrahma, January 10, 2018, January 10, 2018,

History

(File:Ryan Dahl.jpg|thumb|left|Ryan Dahl, creator of Node.js, in 2010)Node.js was written initially by Ryan Dahl in 2009,WEB, About Node.js, and why you should add Node.js to your skill set?,weblink Training.com, Training.com, 23 October 2016, training.com, about thirteen years after the introduction of the first server-side JavaScript environment, Netscape's LiveWire Pro Web.NEWS,weblink Netscape opens intranet attack, CNET, 2017-04-20, en, The initial release supported only Linux and Mac OS X. Its development and maintenance was led by Dahl and later sponsored by Joyent.WEB,weblink Joyent and Node, Ryan Dahl, Google Groups, 2010-11-09, 2015-02-05, Dahl criticized the limited possibilities of the most popular web server in 2009, Apache HTTP Server, to handle a lot of concurrent connections (up to 10,000 and more) and the most common way of creating code (sequential programming), when code either blocked the entire process or implied multiple execution stacks in the case of simultaneous connections.WEB,weblink PHP 7 vs Node.js? They Can Be Partners, Not Competitors For a Developer!, 21 December 2016, Dahl demonstrated the project at the inaugural European JSConf on November 8, 2009.Sams Teach Yourself Node.js in 24 Hours, Sams Publishing, 05-Sep-2012WEB,weblink Ryan Dahl at JSConf EU 2009, WEB,weblink Ryan Dahl at JSConf EU 2009 Video, Node.js combined Google's V8 JavaScript engine, an event loop, and a low-level I/O API.Professional Node.js: Building JavaScript Based Scalable Software, John Wiley & Sons, 01-Oct-2012In January 2010, a package manager was introduced for the Node.js environment called npm.WEB,weblink Earliest releases of npm, GitHub, 27 July 2016, The package manager makes it easier for programmers to publish and share source code of Node.js libraries and is designed to simplify installation, updating, and uninstallation of libraries.In June 2011, Microsoft and Joyent implemented a native Windows version of Node.js.WEB,weblink Porting Node to Windows With Microsoft's Help, 17 April 2016, The first Node.js build supporting Windows was released in July 2011.In January 2012, Dahl stepped aside, promoting coworker and npm creator Isaac Schlueter to manage the project.WEB, urlgroups.google.com/forum/#!topic/nodejs/hfajgpvGTLY, New gatekeeper, Dahl, Ryan, 26 October 2013, In January 2014, Schlueter announced that Timothy J. Fontaine would lead the project.WEB, https:nodejs.org/en/blog/uncategorized/tj-fontaine-new-node-lead/, The Next Phase of Node.js, Schlueter, Isaac, January 15, 2014, 21 January 2014, In December 2014, Fedor Indutny started io.js, a fork of Node.js. Due to the internal conflict over Joyent's governance, io.js was created as an open governance alternative with a separate technical committee.WEB,weblink Why io.js Decided to Fork Node.js, JavaWorld, Dec 4, 2014, Dec 15, 2014, Krill, Paul, Q&A: Why io.js decided to fork Node.js, Infoworld Tech Watch Unlike Node.js,WEB,weblink Issue 3692: function suddenly becomes undefined, V8 JavaScript Engine Issues, Ben Noordhuis, Nov 12, 2014, 2 February 2015, the authors planned to keep io.js up-to-date with the latest releases of the Google V8 JavaScript engine.WEB,weblink State of io.js, January 28, 2015, 2 February 2015, Mikeal, Rogers, In February 2015, the intent to form a neutral Node.js Foundation was announced. By June 2015, the Node.js and io.js communities voted to work together under the Node.js Foundation.WEB,weblink Node.js Foundation Advances Community Collaboration, Announces New Members and Ratified Technical Governance, 4 July 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150624075643weblink">weblink 24 June 2015, In September 2015, Node.js v0.12 and io.js v3.3 were merged back together into Node v4.0.WEB,weblink Node.js Foundation Combines Node.js and io.js Into Single Codebase in New Release, 28 Jan 2016, This merge brought V8 ES6 features into Node.js and a long-term support release cycle.WEB,weblink io.js and Node.js merge, 27 June 2015, As of 2016, the io.js website recommends that developers switch back to Node.js and that no further releases of io.js are planned due to the merge.Io.js, JavaScript I/O, "io.js has merged with the Node.js project again. There won't be any further io.js releases. All of the features in io.js are available in Node.js v4 and above."

Overview

Node.js allows the creation of Web servers and networking tools using JavaScript and a collection of "modules" that handle various core functionality.Smashing Node.js: JavaScript Everywhere, John Wiley & Sons, 14-Aug-2012 Modules are provided for file system I/O, networking (DNS, HTTP, TCP, TLS/SSL, or UDP), binary data (buffers), cryptography functions, data streams, and other core functions.Modules, Nodejs Website Node.js's modules use an API designed to reduce the complexity of writing server applications.Node.js Essentials, Packt Publishing, 10-Nov-2015Though initially the module system was based on commonjs module pattern, the recent introduction of modules in the ECMAScript specification has shifted the direction of using ECMAScript Modules in Node.js by default instead.NEWS,weblink How to import/export ES6 modules in Node - Wisdom Geek, 2018-06-19, Wisdom Geek, 2018-06-20, en-US, Node.js is officially supported on Linux, {{nowrap|macOS}} and Microsoft Windows 7 and Server 2008 (and later) by the team. There's also tier 2 support for SmartOS and IBM AIX. And experimental support for FreeBSD; OpenBSD also works, and e.g. LTS versions available for IBM i (AS/400).WEB,weblink Installing Node.js via package manager, Foundation, Node js, Node.js, en, 2019-05-19, The provided source code may also be built on similar operating systems to those officialy supported or be modified by third parties to support others such as NonStopWEB,weblink bomBora - Node.js for NonStop, Infrasoft, 14 August 2015, and Unix servers. Alternatively, it can be written with CoffeeScriptWEB,weblink CoffeeScript on Node.js, O'Reilly Media, Inc., April 15, 2013, May 17, 2015, (a JavaScript alternative), Dart or TypeScript (strongly typed forms of JavaScript), or any other language that can compile to JavaScript.WEB,weblink List of languages that compile to JS, October 19, 2017, Node.js is primarily used to build network programs such as Web servers.Node.js for PHP Developers, O'Reilly Media, Inc., 2013 The most significant difference between Node.js and PHP is that most functions in PHP block until completion (commands only execute after previous commands finish), while Node.js functions are non-blocking (commands execute concurrently or even in parallel,WEB,weblink Node.js's cluster module, October 19, 2017, WEB,weblink Node.js's child_process module, October 19, 2017, and use callbacks to signal completion or failure).

Platform architecture

Node.js brings event-driven programming to web servers, enabling development of fast web servers in JavaScript. Developers can create scalable servers without using threading, by using a simplified model of event-driven programming that uses callbacks to signal the completion of a task. Node.js connects the ease of a scripting language (JavaScript) with the power of Unix network programming.Node.js was built on the Google V8 JavaScript engine since it was open-sourced under the BSD license. It is proficient with internet fundamentals such as HTTP, DNS, TCP. JavaScript was also a well-known language, making Node.js accessible to the web development community.

Industry support

There are thousands of open-source libraries for Node.js, most of them hosted on the npm website. The Node.js developer community has two main mailing lists and the IRC channel #node.js on freenode. There are multiple developer conferences and events that support the Node.js community including NodeConf, Node Interactive and Node Summit as well as a number of regional events.The open-source community has developed web frameworks to accelerate the development of applications. Such frameworks include Connect, Express.js, Socket.IO, Feathers.js, Koa.js, Hapi.js, Sails.js, Meteor, Derby, and many others.Express.js Guide: The Comprehensive Book on Express.js, Azat Mardan, 28-May-2014 Various packages have also been created for interfacing with other languages or runtime environments such as Microsoft .NET.Edge.js bridges the gap between Node.js and .NET, TechRepublic, Tony Patton, July 1, 2014Modern desktop IDEs provide editing and debugging features specifically for Node.js applications. Such IDEs include Atom, Brackets, JetBrains WebStorm,Node.js, WebStorm supports integration with the Node.js runtime environment, WebStorm HelpRunning and Debugging Node.js, WebStorm Help Microsoft Visual Studio (with Node.js Tools for Visual Studio,WEB,weblink Node.js Tools for Visual Studio, 1 Feb 2016, or TypeScript with Node definitions,soywiz/typescript-node-definitions TypeScript's typings for some popular node.js modules, GitHubDefinitelyTyped, GitHubThe repository for high quality TypeScript type definitions {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160203083254weblink |date=February 3, 2016 }}ImageBoard, A Node.js + Express + MongoDB application built using TypeScript on the server, TypeScript Samples) NetBeans,WEB,weblink Node.js takes center stage in NetBeans 8.1, Paul, Krill, InfoWorld, 2015-11-10, Nodeclipse Enide StudioNodeclipse, Enide -- Node.JS development in Eclipse, Nodeclipse Website (Eclipse-based), and Visual Studio Code.Hello Visual Studio Code (with NodeJS), Channel 9, MicrosoftNode.js Applications with VS Code, Visual Studio CodeCertain online web-based IDEs also support Node.js, such as Codeanywhere, Codenvy, Cloud9 IDE, Koding, and the visual flow editor in Node-RED.

Releases {| class"wikitable sortable" style"float:right; text-align:center; margin-left:1em; margin-right:0"

!Release!Code name!Release date!LTS status!Active LTS start!Maintenance start!Maintenance endo|v0.10.x}}|| 2013-03-11o|End-of-life}}| -| 2015-10-01| 2016-10-31o|v0.12.x}}|| 2015-02-06o|End-of-life}}| -| 2016-04-01| 2016-12-31o|4.x}}| Argon| 2015-09-08o|End-of-life}}| 2015-10-01| 2017-04-01| 2018-04-30o|5.x}}|| 2015-10-29| No LTSN/A| 2016-06-30o|6.x}}| Boron| 2016-04-26o|End-of-life}}| 2016-10-18| 2018-04-30| 2019-04-30o|7.x}}|| 2016-10-25| No LTSN/A| 2017-06-30co|8.x}}| Carbon| 2017-05-30co|Maintenance}}| 2017-10-31TITLE=NODE 8 RESCHEDULE, | 2019-12-31o|9.x}}|| 2017-10-01| No LTSN/A| 2018-06-30co|10.x}}| Dubnium| 2018-04-24c|Active}}| 2018-10-30| 2020-04-01| 2021-04-01co|11.x}}|| 2018-10-23| No LTSN/A| 2019-06-30c|12.x}}| Erbium| 2019-04-23p|Pending}}| 2019-10-22| 2021-04-01| 2022-04-01New major releases of Node.js are cut from the GitHub master branch every six months. Even-numbered versions are cut in April and odd-numbered versions are cut in October. When a new odd version is released, the previous even version undergoes transition to Long Term Support (LTS), which gives that version 18 months of active support from the date it is designated LTS. After these 18 months expire, an LTS release receives an additional 12 months of maintenance support. An active version receives non-breaking backports of changes a few weeks after they land in the current release. A maintenance release only receives critical fixes and documentation updates.WEB,weblink nodejs/Release, GitHub, en, 2018-05-03, The LTS Working Group manages strategy and policy in collaboration with the Technical Steering Committee of the Node.js Foundation.

Technical details

{{Technical|section|date=August 2015}}Node.js is a JavaScript runtime environment that processes incoming requests in a loop, called the event loop.

Threading

Node.js operates on a single thread event loop, using non-blocking I/O calls, allowing it to support tens of thousands of concurrent connections without incurring the cost of thread context switching.WEB,weblink Node.js w/1M concurrent connections!, caustik's blog, The design of sharing a single thread among all the requests that use the observer pattern is intended for building highly concurrent applications, where any function performing I/O must use a callback. To accommodate the single-threaded event loop, Node.js uses the libuv library—which, in turn, uses a fixed-sized thread pool that handles some of the non-blocking asynchronous I/O operations.A thread pool handles execution of parallel tasks in Node.js. The main thread function call posts tasks to the shared task queue, which threads in the thread pool pull and execute. Inherently non-blocking system functions such as networking translate to kernel-side non-blocking sockets, while inherently blocking system functions such as file I/O run in a blocking way on their own threads. When a thread in the thread pool completes a task, it informs the main thread of this, which in turn, wakes up and executes the registered callback. A downside of this single-threaded approach is that Node.js doesn't allow vertical scaling by increasing the number of CPU cores of the machine it is running on without using an additional module, such as cluster, StrongLoop Process Manager,WEB,weblink StrongLoop Process Manager, or pm2.WEB,weblink GitHub - Unitech/pm2: Production process manager for Node.js applications with a built-in load balancer, GitHub, However, developers can increase the default number of threads in the libuv thread pool. The server operating system (OS) is likely to distribute these threads across multiple cores.WEB,weblink On problems with threads in node.js - Future Processing, Aleksander Kasiuk, 22 April 2015, Another problem is that long lasting computations and other CPU-bound tasks freeze the entire event-loop until completion.{{citation needed|date=March 2017}}

V8

V8 is the JavaScript execution engine which was initially built for Google Chrome. It was then open-sourced by Google in 2008. Written in C++, V8 compiles JavaScript source code to native machine code instead of interpreting it in real time.Node.js uses libuv to handle asynchronous events. Libuv is an abstraction layer for network and file system functionality on both Windows and POSIX-based systems such as Linux, macOS, OSS on NonStop, and Unix.The core functionality of Node.js resides in a JavaScript library. The Node.js bindings, written in C++, connect these technologies to each other and to the operating system.

Package management

npm is the pre-installed package manager for the Node.js server platform. It installs Node.js programs from the npm registry, organizing the installation and management of third-party Node.js programs. Packages in the npm registry can range from simple helper libraries such as Lodash to task runners such as Grunt.

Unified API

Node.js can be combined with a browser, a database that supports JSON data (such as Postgres,WEB,weblink PostgreSQL: Documentation: 9.4: JSON Types, www.postgresql.org, 2016-10-20, MongoDB, or CouchDB) and JSON for a unified JavaScript development stack. With the adaptation of what were essentially server-side development patterns such as MVC, MVP, MVVM, etc., Node.js allows the reuse of the same model and service interface between client-side and server-side.

Event loop

Node.js registers with the operating system so the OS notifies it of connections and issues a callback. Within the Node.js runtime, each connection is a small heap allocation. Traditionally, relatively heavyweight OS processes or threads handled each connection. Node.js uses an event loop for scalability, instead of processes or threads.About Node.js, Node.js Website In contrast to other event-driven servers, Node.js's event loop does not need to be called explicitly. Instead callbacks are defined, and the server automatically enters the event loop at the end of the callback definition. Node.js exits the event loop when there are no further callbacks to be performed.

Project governance

In 2015, various branches of the greater Node.js community began working under the vendor-neutral Node.js Foundation. The stated purpose of the organization "is to enable widespread adoption and help accelerate development of Node.js and other related modules through an open governance model that encourages participation, technical contribution, and a framework for long-term stewardship by an ecosystem invested in Node.js' success."WEB,weblink Node.js Foundation {{!, Node.js|last=Foundation|first=Node.js|website=nodejs.org|language=en|access-date=2017-03-08}}The Node.js Foundation Technical Steering Committee (TSC) is the technical governing body of the Node.js Foundation. The TSC is responsible for the core Node.js repo as well as dependent and adjacent projects. Generally the TSC delegates administration of these projects to working groups or committees.WEB,weblink nodejs/TSC, GitHub, en, 2017-03-08, The LTS group that manages long term supported releases is one such group. Other current groups include: Website, Streams, Build, Diagnostics, i18n, Evangelism, Docker, Addon API, Benchmarking, Post-mortem, Intl, Documentation, and Testing.WEB,weblink Working Groups {{!, Node.js|last=Foundation|first=Node.js|website=nodejs.org|language=en|access-date=2017-03-08}} In August 2017, a third of the TSC members resigned due to a dispute related to the project's code of conduct.Whittaker, Zack, After governance breakdown, Node.js leaders fight for its survival, ZDNet, August 25, 2017

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • {{citation | title = Up and Running with Node.js | date = April 2012 | last1 = Hughes-Croucher | last2 = Wilson | first1 = Tom | first2 = Mike | page = 204 | edition = First | publisher = O'Reilly Media | isbn = 978-1-4493-9858-3 }}
  • {{citation | title = Sams Teach Yourself Node.js in 24 Hours | date = September 2012 | last1 = Ornbo | first1 = George | page = 440 | edition = First | publisher = SAMS Publishing | isbn = 978-0-672-33595-2 }}
  • {{citation | title = Professional Node.js | date = October 2012 | url =weblink | last1 = Teixeira | first1 = Pedro | page = 408 | edition = First | publisher = John Wiley & Sons | isbn = 978-1-118-22754-1 }}
  • PODCAST,weblink Episode 237: Node.js, twit.tv/show/floss-weekly, TWiT.tv, Randal L. Schwartz and Aaron Newcomb, 9 January 2013, 1:08:13, 9 January 2013,
  • {{citation | title = Nodejs Programming By Example | date = July 2012 | last1 = Kurniawan | first1 = Agus | page = 67 | edition = First | publisher = PE Press }}
  • {{citation | title = Node.js Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach | date = October 2013 | last1 = Gackenheimer | first1 = Cory | page = 376 | edition = First | publisher = Apress | isbn = 978-1-4302-6058-5}}
  • {{citation | title = Building APIs with Node.js | date = February 2016 | url =weblink | last1 = Ribeiro Pereira | first1 = Caio | page = 152 | edition = First | publisher = Leanpub | isbn = }}

External links

{{Commons category}}
  • {{Official website}}
{{NodeJs}}{{JavaScript}}{{Authority control}}

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