Nobel Prize#Shalev69

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Nobel Prize#Shalev69
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{{hatnote|This article is about the awards established through Alfred Nobel's will. For the memorial prize, see Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. For the unrelated American civil engineering prize, see Alfred Noble Prize.}}{{short description|Set of five annual international awards, primarily established in 1895by Alfred Nobel}}{{good article}}{{Use dmy dates|date=June 2018}}

name Nobel Prize| image = Nobel Prize.png| alt = A golden medallion with an embossed image of Alfred Nobel facing left in profile. To the left of the man is the text "ALFR•" then "NOBEL", and on the right, the text (smaller) "NAT•" then "MDCCCXXXIII" above, followed by (smaller) "OB•" then "MDCCCXCVI" below.

Nobel Prize in Chemistry>chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize>peace, Nobel Prize in Physics, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine>physiology or medicine
    • Sweden (all prizes except the Peace Prize)
    • Norway (Peace Prize only)
    Nobel Prize#Award money>Prize money of 9 million Swedish Krona, approx. {{US$>link=yes}}986,000 (2018);a Nobel Prize#Medals;sold for up to {{US$}}4.76 million (see Palermo, Elizabeth. Nobel Prize Medal Fetches Record-Breaking $4.76 Million Live Science, December 5, 2014.) and a Nobel Prize#Diplomas>diploma| holder_label = Number of laureates2018|lc=y}})weblink}}}}The Nobel Prize ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|n|oʊ|b|ɛ|l}}, {{respell|NOH|bel}}; , {{IPA-sv|nʊ²bɛlːˌpriːsɛt|}}; ) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist, engineer and industrialist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901.WEB,weblink Nobel Prize facts, Nobel Foundation, 25 October 2018, WEB,weblink Nobel Prizes and Laureates, Nobel Foundation, 29 March 2018, NEWS, Which country has the best brains?,weblink 6 December 2011, BBC News, 8 October 2010, The prizes are widely regarded as the most prestigious awards available in their respective fields.WEB,weblink Top Award, ShanghaiRanking Academic Excellence Survey 2018, Shanghai Ranking, 18 March 2019, WEB,weblink IREG List of International Academic Awards, IREG Observatory on Academic Ranking and Excellence, Shalev, p. 8In 1968, Sveriges Riksbank, Sweden's central bank, established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel. The award is based on a donation received by the Nobel Foundation in 1968 from Sveriges Riksbank on the occasion of the bank's 300th anniversary. The first Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded to Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen in 1969. The Prize in Economic Sciences is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden, according to the same principles as for the Nobel Prizes that have been awarded since 1901.WEB, The Noble Prize - Did You Know?,weblink Nobel Prize, 31 July 2019, The Noble Prize - Did You Know?, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the Nobel Prize in Physics, and the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel; the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; the Swedish Academy grants the Nobel Prize in Literature; and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Nobel Peace Prize.Between 1901 and 2018, the Nobel Prizes (and the Prizes in Economic Sciences, from 1969 on) were awarded 590 times to 935 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 27 organizations and 908 individuals."All Nobel Prizes". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 10 February 2017. The prize ceremonies take place annually in Stockholm, Sweden (with the exception of the Peace Prize ceremony, which is held in Oslo, Norway). Each recipient (known as a "laureate") receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money that has been decided by the Nobel Foundation. ({{As of|2017}}, each prize is worth 9,000,000 SEK, or about {{USD|1,110,000}}, €944,000, or £836,000.WEB, Nobel Prize amount is raised by SEK 1 million,weblink Nobel Foundation, ) Medals made before 1980 were struck in 23-carat gold, and later in 18-carat green gold plated with a 24-carat gold coating.The prize is not awarded posthumously; however, if a person is awarded a prize and dies before receiving it, the prize may still be presented.NEWS, Montreal-born doctor gets posthumous Nobel honour,weblink 3 October 2011, CBC News, 3 October 2011, A prize may not be shared among more than three individuals, although the Nobel Peace Prize can be awarded to organizations of more than three people.WEB,weblink Evolution of National Nobel Prize Shares in the 20th century, Schmidhuber, Jürgen, dmy-all, 2010,


    (File:AlfredNobel adjusted.jpg|thumb|upright|alt=A black and white photo of a bearded man in his fifties sitting in a chair.|Alfred Nobel had the unpleasant surprise of reading his own obituary, which was titled The merchant of death is dead, in a French newspaper.)Alfred Nobel ({{Audio|Sv-Alfred Nobel.ogg|listen}}) was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden, into a family of engineers.Levinovitz, p. 5 He was a chemist, engineer, and inventor. In 1894, Nobel purchased the Bofors iron and steel mill, which he made into a major armaments manufacturer. Nobel also invented ballistite. This invention was a precursor to many smokeless military explosives, especially the British smokeless powder cordite. As a consequence of his patent claims, Nobel was eventually involved in a patent infringement lawsuit over cordite. Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime, with most of his wealth coming from his 355 inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous.Levinovitz, p. 11In 1888, Nobel was astonished to read his own obituary, titled The merchant of death is dead, in a French newspaper. It was Alfred's brother Ludvig who had died; the obituary was eight years premature. The article disconcerted Nobel and made him apprehensive about how he would be remembered. This inspired him to change his will.NEWS, Frederic, Golden, The Worst And The Brightest, 16 October 2000,weblink Time (magazine), Time, 9 April 2010, On 10 December 1896, Alfred Nobel died in his villa in San Remo, Italy, from a cerebral haemorrhage. He was 63 years old.Sohlman, p. 13Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime. He composed the last over a year before he died, signing it at the Swedish–Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895.Sohlman, p. 7NEWS, von Euler, U. S., The Nobel Foundation and its Role for Modern Day Science,weblink PDF, Die Naturwissenschaften, 6 June 1981, 21 January 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 July 2011, dmy-all, To widespread astonishment, Nobel's last will specified that his fortune be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace.WEB,weblink Full text of Alfred Nobel's Will, Nobel Foundation, Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million SEK (c. US$186 million, €150 million in 2008), to establish the five Nobel Prizes.Abrams, p. 7WEB, The Nobel Prize Amounts,weblink The Nobel Foundation, 7 December 2015, Owing to skepticism surrounding the will, it was not approved by the Storting in Norway until 26 April 1897.Levinovitz, pp. 13–25 The executors of the will, Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of the fortune and to organise the awarding of prizes.Abrams, pp. 7–8Nobel's instructions named a Norwegian Nobel Committee to award the Peace Prize, the members of whom were appointed shortly after the will was approved in April 1897. Soon thereafter, the other prize-awarding organizations were designated. These were Karolinska Institute on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June.Crawford, p. 1 The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the prizes should be awarded; and, in 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II. In 1905, the personal union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved.

    Nobel Foundation

    Formation of Foundation

    File:Alfred Nobels will-November 25th, 1895.jpg|thumb|left|alt=A paper with stylish handwriting on it with the title "Testament"|Alfred Nobel's will stated that 94% of his total assets should be used to establish the Nobel Prizes.]]According to his will and testament read in Stockholm on 30 December 1896, a foundation established by Alfred Nobel would reward those who serve humanity. The Nobel Prize was funded by Alfred Nobel's personal fortune. According to the official sources, Alfred Nobel bequeathed from the shares 94% of his fortune to the Nobel Foundation that now forms the economic base of the Nobel Prize.JOURNAL, The Nobel Prize and the Connection Between Sweden, Russia and Azerbaijan, Vefa, Kurban, 26 April 2013, AIIC Proceedings,weblink The Nobel Foundation was founded as a private organization on 29 June 1900. Its function is to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.Levinovitz, p. 14 In accordance with Nobel's will, the primary task of the Foundation is to manage the fortune Nobel left. Robert and Ludvig Nobel were involved in the oil business in Azerbaijan, and according to Swedish historian E. Bargengren, who accessed the Nobel family archives, it was this "decision to allow withdrawal of Alfred's money from Baku that became the decisive factor that enabled the Nobel Prizes to be established".WEB,weblink Nobel Prize Funded from Baku, Azerbaijan International, 30 April 1996, 18 March 2019, Another important task of the Nobel Foundation is to market the prizes internationally and to oversee informal administration related to the prizes. The Foundation is not involved in the process of selecting the Nobel laureates.Levinovitz, p. 15Feldman, p. 16 In many ways, the Nobel Foundation is similar to an investment company, in that it invests Nobel's money to create a solid funding base for the prizes and the administrative activities. The Nobel Foundation is exempt from all taxes in Sweden (since 1946) and from investment taxes in the United States (since 1953).Levinovitz, pp. 17–18 Since the 1980s, the Foundation's investments have become more profitable and as of 31 December 2007, the assets controlled by the Nobel Foundation amounted to 3.628 billion Swedish kronor (c. US$560 million).Levinovitz, pp. 15–17According to the statutes, the Foundation consists of a board of five Swedish or Norwegian citizens, with its seat in Stockholm. The Chairman of the Board is appointed by the Swedish King in Council, with the other four members appointed by the trustees of the prize-awarding institutions. An Executive Director is chosen from among the board members, a Deputy Director is appointed by the King in Council, and two deputies are appointed by the trustees. However, since 1995, all the members of the board have been chosen by the trustees, and the Executive Director and the Deputy Director appointed by the board itself. As well as the board, the Nobel Foundation is made up of the prize-awarding institutions (the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute, the Swedish Academy, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee), the trustees of these institutions, and auditors.

    Foundation capital and cost

    The capital of the Nobel Foundation today is invested 50% in shares, 20% bonds and 30% other investments (e.g. hedge funds or real estate). The distribution can vary by 10 percent.NEWS, Rabatter räddar Nobelfesten, Dagens Nyheter (Norwegian newspaper), Dagens Nyheter, subscription,weblink Discounts Save the Nobel Party, 18 March 2019, Norwegian, 2 December 2012, Sjöholm/Tt, Gustav, At the beginning of 2008, 64% of the funds were invested mainly in American and European stocks, 20% in bonds, plus 12% in real estate and hedge funds.WEB, Nobel-Stiftung: Noble Sorgen, Handelsblatt, Nobel Foundation: Noble Worries,weblink 19 March 2019, German,weblink" title="">weblink 4 July 2009, dead, In 2011, the total annual cost was approximately 120 million krona, with 50 million krona as the prize money. Further costs to pay institutions and persons engaged in giving the prizes were 27.4 million krona. The events during the Nobel week in Stockholm and Oslo cost 20.2 million krona. The administration, Nobel symposium, and similar items had costs of 22.4 million krona. The cost of the Economic Sciences prize of 16.5 Million krona is paid by the Sveriges Riksbank.

    First prizes

    File:Röntgen, Wilhelm Conrad (1845-1923).jpg|thumb|upright|right|alt=A black and white photo of a bearded man in his fifties sitting in a chair. |Wilhelm RöntgenWilhelm RöntgenOnce the Nobel Foundation and its guidelines were in place, the Nobel Committees began collecting nominations for the inaugural prizes. Subsequently, they sent a list of preliminary candidates to the prize-awarding institutions.The Nobel Committee's Physics Prize shortlist cited Wilhelm Röntgen's discovery of X-rays and Philipp Lenard's work on cathode rays. The Academy of Sciences selected Röntgen for the prize.Feldman, p. 134Leroy, pp. 117–118 In the last decades of the 19th century, many chemists had made significant contributions. Thus, with the Chemistry Prize, the Academy "was chiefly faced with merely deciding the order in which these scientists should be awarded the prize".Levinovitz, p. 77 The Academy received 20 nominations, eleven of them for Jacobus van 't Hoff.Crawford, p. 118 Van 't Hoff was awarded the prize for his contributions in chemical thermodynamics.Levinovitz, p. 81Feldman, p. 205The Swedish Academy chose the poet Sully Prudhomme for the first Nobel Prize in Literature. A group including 42 Swedish writers, artists, and literary critics protested against this decision, having expected Leo Tolstoy to be awarded.Levinovitz, p. 144 Some, including Burton Feldman, have criticised this prize because they consider Prudhomme a mediocre poet. Feldman's explanation is that most of the Academy members preferred Victorian literature and thus selected a Victorian poet.Feldman, p. 69 The first Physiology or Medicine Prize went to the German physiologist and microbiologist Emil von Behring. During the 1890s, von Behring developed an antitoxin to treat diphtheria, which until then was causing thousands of deaths each year.Feldman, pp. 242–244Leroy, p. 233The first Nobel Peace Prize went to the Swiss Jean Henri Dunant for his role in founding the International Red Cross Movement and initiating the Geneva Convention, and jointly given to French pacifist Frédéric Passy, founder of the Peace League and active with Dunant in the Alliance for Order and Civilization.

    Second World War

    In 1938 and 1939, Adolf Hitler's Third Reich forbade three laureates from Germany (Richard Kuhn, Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt, and Gerhard Domagk) from accepting their prizes.Levinovitz, p. 23 Each man was later able to receive the diploma and medal.Wilhelm, p. 85 Even though Sweden was officially neutral during the Second World War, the prizes were awarded irregularly. In 1939, the Peace Prize was not awarded. No prize was awarded in any category from 1940 to 1942, due to the occupation of Norway by Germany. In the subsequent year, all prizes were awarded except those for literature and peace.WEB,weblink All Nobel Laureates, Nobel Foundation, 15 January 2010, During the occupation of Norway, three members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee fled into exile. The remaining members escaped persecution from the Germans when the Nobel Foundation stated that the Committee building in Oslo was Swedish property. Thus it was a safe haven from the German military, which was not at war with Sweden.Abrams, p. 23 These members kept the work of the Committee going, but did not award any prizes. In 1944, the Nobel Foundation, together with the three members in exile, made sure that nominations were submitted for the Peace Prize and that the prize could be awarded once again.

    Prize in Economic Sciences

    (File:Worldmapnobellaureatesbycountry2.PNG|thumb|Map of Nobel laureates by country)In 1968, Sweden's central bank Sveriges Riksbank celebrated its 300th anniversary by donating a large sum of money to the Nobel Foundation to be used to set up a prize in honour of Alfred Nobel. The following year, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel was awarded for the first time. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences became responsible for selecting laureates. The first laureates for the Economics Prize were Jan Tinbergen and Ragnar Frisch "for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes".Feldman, p. 343Levinovitz, p. 207 The Board of the Nobel Foundation decided that after this addition, it would allow no further new prizes.Levinovitz, p. 20

    Award process

    The award process is similar for all of the Nobel Prizes, the main difference being who can make nominations for each of them.Feldman, pp. 16–17{{multiple image|align= right|direction= vertical|header=|header_align= left|header_background=|footer=|footer_align=|footer_background=|width=|image1= Announcement Nobelprize Chemistry 2009-3.ogv|width1= 180|alt1=|caption1= The announcement of the laureates in Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009 by Gunnar Öquist, permanent secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences|image2= Announcement Nobelprize Literature 2009-1.ogv|width2= 180|alt2=|caption2= 2009 Nobel Prize in Literature announcement by Peter Englund in Swedish, English, and German}}


    Nomination forms are sent by the Nobel Committee to about 3,000 individuals, usually in September the year before the prizes are awarded. These individuals are generally prominent academics working in a relevant area. Regarding the Peace Prize, inquiries are also sent to governments, former Peace Prize laureates, and current or former members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee. The deadline for the return of the nomination forms is 31 January of the year of the award.Levinovitz, p. 26 The Nobel Committee nominates about 300 potential laureates from these forms and additional names.Abrams, p. 15 The nominees are not publicly named, nor are they told that they are being considered for the prize. All nomination records for a prize are sealed for 50 years from the awarding of the prize.WEB,weblink Nomination Facts, Nobel Foundation, 3 March 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 9 January 2010,


    The Nobel Committee then prepares a report reflecting the advice of experts in the relevant fields. This, along with the list of preliminary candidates, is submitted to the prize-awarding institutions.Feldman, p. 52 The institutions meet to choose the laureate or laureates in each field by a majority vote. Their decision, which cannot be appealed, is announced immediately after the vote.Levinovitz, pp. 25–28 A maximum of three laureates and two different works may be selected per award. Except for the Peace Prize, which can be awarded to institutions, the awards can only be given to individuals.Abrams, p. 8

    Posthumous nominations

    Although posthumous nominations are not presently permitted, individuals who died in the months between their nomination and the decision of the prize committee were originally eligible to receive the prize. This has occurred twice: the 1931 Literature Prize awarded to Erik Axel Karlfeldt, and the 1961 Peace Prize awarded to UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld. Since 1974, laureates must be thought alive at the time of the October announcement. There has been one laureate, William Vickrey, who in 1996 died after the prize (in Economics) was announced but before it could be presented.Abrams, p. 9 On 3 October 2011, the laureates for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine were announced; however, the committee was not aware that one of the laureates, Ralph M. Steinman, had died three days earlier. The committee was debating about Steinman's prize, since the rule is that the prize is not awarded posthumously. The committee later decided that as the decision to award Steinman the prize "was made in good faith", it would remain unchanged.WEB, Ralph Steinman Remains Nobel Laureate,weblink 8 October 2012, The Nobel Foundation, 3 October 2011,

    Recognition time lag

    Nobel's will provided for prizes to be awarded in recognition of discoveries made "during the preceding year". Early on, the awards usually recognised recent discoveries.WEB,weblink The Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Foundation, 3 December 1999, 10 February 2010, However, some of those early discoveries were later discredited. For example, Johannes Fibiger was awarded the 1926 Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his purported discovery of a parasite that caused cancer.Levinovitz, p. 125 To avoid repeating this embarrassment, the awards increasingly recognised scientific discoveries that had withstood the test of time.Abrams, p. 25JOURNAL, 10.1093/embo-reports/kve034, Breithaupt, 1083830, Holger, 11258715, The Nobel Prizes in the new century: An interview with Ralf Pettersson, Director of the Stockholm Branch of the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, the Karolinska Institute, and former chairman of the Nobel Prize Committee for Physiology/Medicine, 2001, 2, 2, EMBO Reports, 83–5, WEB,weblink Nobel Prize in Physics Honors "Masters of Light", Scienceline, 7 October 2009, 19 February 2010, According to Ralf Pettersson, former chairman of the Nobel Prize Committee for Physiology or Medicine, "the criterion 'the previous year' is interpreted by the Nobel Assembly as the year when the full impact of the discovery has become evident."(File:Nobelinstituttet 20080913-01.jpg|thumb|alt=A room with pictures on the walls. In the middle of the room there is a wooden table with chairs around it.|The committee room of the Norwegian Nobel Committee)The interval between the award and the accomplishment it recognises varies from discipline to discipline. The Literature Prize is typically awarded to recognise a cumulative lifetime body of work rather than a single achievement.WEB,weblink All Nobel Laureates in Literature, Nobel Foundation, 15 January 2010, WEB,weblink The Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Foundation, 15 January 2010, The Peace Prize can also be awarded for a lifetime body of work. For example, 2008 laureate Martti Ahtisaari was awarded for his work to resolve international conflicts.WEB,weblink Peace 2008, Nobel Foundation, 15 January 2010, NEWS, Lisa, Bryant, Former Finnish President Martti Ahtisaari Wins Nobel Peace Prize, 10 October 2008, Voice of America, International Broadcasting Bureau,weblink 27 December 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 November 2008, However, they can also be awarded for specific recent events.WEB,weblink All Nobel Peace Prize Laureates, Nobel Foundation, 15 January 2010, For instance, Kofi Annan was awarded the 2001 Peace Prize just four years after becoming the Secretary-General of the United Nations.Abrams, p. 330 Similarly Yasser Arafat, Yitzhak Rabin, and Shimon Peres received the 1994 award, about a year after they successfully concluded the Oslo Accords.Abrams, p. 27Awards for physics, chemistry, and medicine are typically awarded once the achievement has been widely accepted. Sometimes, this takes decades – for example, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar shared the 1983 Physics Prize for his 1930s work on stellar structure and evolution.JOURNAL, Vishveshwara, S., Leaves from an unwritten diary: S. Chandrasekhar, Reminiscences and Reflections, Current Science, 78, 8, 1025–1033, 25 April 2000,weblink 27 February 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 27 February 2008, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Subramanyan Chandrasekhar – Autobiography, 11 June 2010, 1983, The Nobel Foundation, Not all scientists live long enough for their work to be recognised. Some discoveries can never be considered for a prize if their impact is realised after the discoverers have died.WEB,weblink 11 October 2004, Finn Kydland and Edward Prescott's Contribution to Dynamic Macroeconomics, Nobel Foundation, 15 January 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 June 2009, JOURNAL, Why it has become more difficult to predict Nobel Prize winners: a bibliometric analysis of nominees and winners of the chemistry and physics prizes (1901–2007), Scientometrics, 10.1007/s11192-009-0035-9, 2010, 401, 82, Gingras, Yves, Matthew L., Wallace, 2, 0808.2517,, JOURNAL, Editorial, Access : A nobel prize : Nature Chemistry, 2009, 10.1038/nchem.372, Nature Chemistry, 1, 509, 7, 2009NatCh...1..509., 21378920,

    Award ceremonies

    {{multiple image| align = left| direction = horizontal| header = | header_align = centre| header_background =
    Thorbjørn Jagland in 2009; Right: Giovanni Jona-Lasinio presenting Yoichiro Nambu's Nobel Lecture at Aula Magna (Stockholm University)>Aula Magna, Stockholm in 2008| footer_align = | footer_background = | width = | image1 = Horbjorn Jagland presents President Barack Obama with the Nobel Prize medal and diploma.jpg| width1 = 115| alt1 = Two men standing on a stage. The man to the left is clapping his hands and looking towards the other man. The second man is smiling and showing two items to an audience not seen on the image. The items are a diploma which includes a painting and a box containing a gold medal. Behind them is a blue pillar clad in flowers.| caption1 = | image2 = Giovanni Jona-Lasinio-Nobel Lecture-2.jpg| width2 = 170| alt2 = A man in his fifties standing behind a desk with computers on it. On the desk is a sign reading "Kungl. Vetensk. Akad. Sigil".| caption2 = }}Except for the Peace Prize, the Nobel Prizes are presented in Stockholm, Sweden, at the annual Prize Award Ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. The recipients' lectures are normally held in the days prior to the award ceremony. The Peace Prize and its recipients' lectures are presented at the annual Prize Award Ceremony in Oslo, Norway, usually on 10 December. The award ceremonies and the associated banquets are typically major international events.WEB,weblink 2009 Nobel Prize award ceremony live online | IT | ICM Commercial & Business News, Institute of Commercial Management, 10 December 2009, 16 January 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 9 February 2010, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Pomp aplenty as winners gather for Nobel gala, The Local, 10 December 2009, 16 January 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 15 December 2009, The Prizes awarded in Sweden's ceremonies' are held at the Stockholm Concert Hall, with the Nobel banquet following immediately at Stockholm City Hall. The Nobel Peace Prize ceremony has been held at the Norwegian Nobel Institute (1905–1946), at the auditorium of the University of Oslo (1947–1989), and at Oslo City Hall (1990–present).Levinovitz, pp. 21–23The highlight of the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in Stockholm occurs when each Nobel laureate steps forward to receive the prize from the hands of the King of Sweden. In Oslo, the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway.WEB, Froman, Ingmarie,weblink The Nobel Week — a celebration of science, Swedish Institute, 4 December 2007, 16 January 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 October 2009, dmy-all, At first, King Oscar II did not approve of awarding grand prizes to foreigners. It is said {{by whom|date=December 2018}} that he changed his mind once his attention had been drawn to the publicity value of the prizes for Sweden.WEB,weblink Alfred Nobel's last will and testament, The Local, 5 December 2009, 16 January 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 9 October 2009,

    Nobel Banquet

    (File:Nobel-banquet-table.jpg|thumb|alt=A set table with a white table cloth. There are many plates and glasses plus a menu visible on the table.|Table at the 2005 Nobel Banquet in Stockholm)After the award ceremony in Sweden, a banquet is held in the Blue Hall at the Stockholm City Hall, which is attended by the Swedish Royal Family and around 1,300 guests. The Nobel Peace Prize banquet is held in Norway at the Oslo Grand Hotel after the award ceremony. Apart from the laureate, guests include the President of the Storting, on occasion the Swedish prime minister, and, since 2006, the King and Queen of Norway. In total, about 250 guests attend.

    Nobel lecture

    According to the statutes of the Nobel Foundation, each laureate is required to give a public lecture on a subject related to the topic of their prize.WEB,weblink The Nobel Foundation - Statutes, The Nobel Foundation, The Nobel lecture as a rhetorical genre took decades to reach its current format.Philippe-Joseph Salazar,"Nobel Rhetoric, Or Petrarch's Pendulum", in the journal Rhetoric and Philosophy 42(4), 373–400, 2009 {{ISSN|0031-8213}} These lectures normally occur during Nobel Week (the week leading up to the award ceremony and banquet, which begins with the laureates arriving in Stockholm and normally ends with the Nobel banquet), but this is not mandatory. The laureate is only obliged to give the lecture within six months of receiving the prize, but some have happened even later. For example, US President Theodore Roosevelt received the Peace Prize in 1906 but gave his lecture in 1910, after his term in office.Abrams, pp. 18–19 The lectures are organized by the same association which selected the laureates.NEWS,weblink Le Clézio uses Nobel lecture to attack information poverty, The Guardian, 8 December 2008, 20 January 2010, Richard, Lea, London,



    The Nobel Foundation announced on 30 May 2012 that it had awarded the contract for the production of the five (Swedish) Nobel Prize medals to Svenska Medalj AB. Between 1902 and 2010, the Nobel Prize medals were minted by Myntverket (the Swedish Mint), Sweden's oldest company, which ceased operations in 2011 after 107 years. In 2011, the Mint of Norway, located in Kongsberg, made the medals. The Nobel Prize medals are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation.WEB, Medalj – ett traditionellt hantverk, Myntverket,weblink Swedish, 15 December 2007, Medals: A traditional Craft,weblink" title="">weblink 18 December 2007, Each medal features an image of Alfred Nobel in left profile on the obverse. The medals for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, and literature have identical obverses, showing the image of Alfred Nobel and the years of his birth and death. Nobel's portrait also appears on the obverse of the Peace Prize medal and the medal for the Economics Prize, but with a slightly different design. For instance, the laureate's name is engraved on the rim of the Economics medal.Feldman, p. 2 The image on the reverse of a medal varies according to the institution awarding the prize. The reverse sides of the medals for chemistry and physics share the same design."Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Front and back images of the medal. 1954", "Source: Photo by Eric Arnold. Ava Helen and Linus Pauling Papers. Honors and Awards, 1954h2.1", "All Documents and Media: Pictures and Illustrations", Linus Pauling and The Nature of the Chemical Bond: A Documentary History, the Valley Library, Oregon State University. Retrieved 7 December 2007.File:Nobel Prize Diploma Fritz Haber 1918.JPG|thumb|alt=A heavily decorated paper with the name "Fritz Haber" on it.|Laureates receive a heavily decorated diploma together with a gold medal and the prize money. Here Fritz HaberFritz HaberAll medals made before 1980 were struck in 23 carat gold. Since then, they have been struck in 18 carat green gold plated with 24 carat gold. The weight of each medal varies with the value of gold, but averages about {{convert|175|g|lb}} for each medal. The diameter is {{convert|66|mm|in}} and the thickness varies between {{convert|5.2|mm|in}} and {{convert|2.4|mm|in}}.WEB,weblink The Nobel Prize Medals and the Medal for the Prize in Economics, 2 April 2010, Lemmel, Birgitta, Nobel Foundation, Because of the high value of their gold content and tendency to be on public display, Nobel medals are subject to medal theft.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Nobel Prize medal stolen from Lawrence Hall of Science is found, student arrested, University of California, 21 January 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2009, NEWS,weblink Poet's Nobel Medal Stolen, The New York Times, 21 January 2010, Hari, Kumar, 26 March 2004, NEWS,weblink Police hand back Tutu's stolen Nobel medal, Reuters, 21 January 2010, 16 June 2007, During World War II, the medals of German scientists Max von Laue and James Franck were sent to Copenhagen for safekeeping. When Germany invaded Denmark, Hungarian chemist (and Nobel laureate himself) George de Hevesy dissolved them in aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid), to prevent confiscation by Nazi Germany and to prevent legal problems for the holders. After the war, the gold was recovered from solution, and the medals re-cast.Feldman, p. 397


    Nobel laureates receive a diploma directly from the hands of the King of Sweden, or in the case of the peace prize, the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee. Each diploma is uniquely designed by the prize-awarding institutions for the laureates that receive them. The diploma contains a picture and text in Swedish which states the name of the laureate and normally a citation of why they received the prize. None of the Nobel Peace Prize laureates has ever had a citation on their diplomas.Abrams, p. 18WEB,weblink The Nobel Prize Diplomas, 12 March 2010, Lemmel, Birgitta, 2009, Nobel Foundation,

    Award money

    The laureates are given a sum of money when they receive their prizes, in the form of a document confirming the amount awarded. The amount of prize money depends upon how much money the Nobel Foundation can award each year. The purse has increased since the 1980s, when the prize money was 880,000 SEK per prize (c. 2.6 million SEK altogether, US$350,000 today). In 2009, the monetary award was 10 million SEK (US$1.4 million).WEB,weblink Prize Amount and Market Value, Nobel Foundation, 2014, 6 October 2014, NEWS,weblink Video – Breaking News Videos from, CNN, 11 October 2009, 15 January 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 31 August 2010, dead, In June 2012, it was lowered to 8 million SEK.WEB, Committee lowers Nobel Prize by 2 million kronor,weblink The Local, 12 June 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 15 June 2012, 2012-06-11, If two laureates share the prize in a category, the award grant is divided equally between the recipients. If there are three, the awarding committee has the option of dividing the grant equally, or awarding one-half to one recipient and one-quarter to each of the others.Abrams, pp. 8–10NEWS,weblink Nobel prize for medicine shared by scientists for work on ageing and cancer, The Guardian, 5 October 2009, 15 January 2010, Ian, Sample, London, NEWS, Sample, Ian,weblink Three share Nobel prize for physics, The Guardian, 7 October 2008, 10 February 2010, London, It is common for recipients to donate prize money to benefit scientific, cultural, or humanitarian causes.WEB, Locke, Michelle, Berkeley Nobel laureates donate prize money to charity,weblink 10 February 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 July 2011, dmy-all, JOURNAL,weblink Reflections on the prize of prizes: Alfred Nobel, 10.1096/fj.06-1102ufm, 17077294, 2006, Pederson, T., The FASEB Journal, 20, 13, 2186–9,

    Controversies and criticisms

    Controversial recipients

    File:Henry A. Kissinger, U.S. Secretary of State, 1973-1977.jpg|thumb|upright|When it was announced that Henry KissingerHenry KissingerAmong other criticisms, the Nobel Committees have been accused of having a political agenda, and of omitting more deserving candidates. They have also been accused of Eurocentrism, especially for the Literature Prize.Abrams, p. xivFeldman, p. 65NEWS, William, Tuohy, Literature Award Hardest for Nobel Prize Panel, 20 September 1981, Sarasota Herald Tribune,weblink 58, 9 March 2010,
    Peace Prize
    Among the most criticised Nobel Peace Prizes was the one awarded to Henry Kissinger and Lê Đức Thọ. This led to the resignation of two Norwegian Nobel Committee members.NEWS, de Sousa, Ana Naomi, Top ten Nobel Prize rows,weblink 25 May 2010, The Times, 9 October 2009, London, Kissinger and Thọ were awarded the prize for negotiating a ceasefire between North Vietnam and the United States in January 1973. However, when the award was announced, both sides were still engaging in hostilities.Abrams, p. 219 Critics sympathetic to the North announced that Kissinger was not a peace-maker but the opposite, responsible for widening the war. Those hostile to the North and what they considered its deceptive practices during negotiations were deprived of a chance to criticise Lê Đức Thọ, as he declined the award.Feldman, p. 315Abrams, p. 315Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres, and Yitzhak Rabin received the Peace Prize in 1994 for their efforts in making peace between Israel and Palestine.Levinovitz, p. 183 Immediately after the award was announced, one of the five Norwegian Nobel Committee members denounced Arafat as a terrorist and resigned.Feldman, pp. 15–16 Additional misgivings about Arafat were widely expressed in various newspapers.Abrams, pp. 302–306Another controversial Peace Prize was that awarded to Barack Obama in 2009.NEWS, Steven, Erlanger, Sheryl Gay, Stolberg, Surprise Nobel for Obama Stirs Praise and Doubts, 9 October 2009, The New York Times,weblink 1 April 2010, Nominations had closed only eleven days after Obama took office as President of the United States, but the actual evaluation occurred over the next eight months.NEWS,weblink How the Nobel Peace Prize winner is decided, Philp, Catherine, 10 October 2009, The Times, London, 25 May 2010, Obama himself stated that he did not feel deserving of the award, or worthy of the company in which it would place him.NEWS,weblink Obama is surprise winner of Nobel Peace Prize, 9 October 2009, 9 October 2009, Reuters, WEB,weblink Remarks by the President on winning the Nobel Peace Prize, 1 April 2010, 9 October 2009, The White House, dead,weblink 14 October 2009, dmy-all, Past Peace Prize laureates were divided, some saying that Obama deserved the award, and others saying he had not secured the achievements to yet merit such an accolade. Obama's award, along with the previous Peace Prizes for Jimmy Carter and Al Gore, also prompted accusations of a left-wing bias.NEWS, Naughton, Philippe, President Obama humbled: I do not deserve the Nobel Peace Prize, 9 October 2009, The Times,weblink 8 June 2010, London,
    Literature Prize
    The award of the 2004 Literature Prize to Elfriede Jelinek drew a protest from a member of the Swedish Academy, Knut Ahnlund. Ahnlund resigned, alleging that the selection of Jelinek had caused "irreparable damage to all progressive forces, it has also confused the general view of literature as an art". He alleged that Jelinek's works were "a mass of text shovelled together without artistic structure".NEWS,weblink Who deserves Nobel prize? Judges don't agree, Today (U.S. TV program), Today, 18 March 2019, 11 October 2005, Associated Press, NEWS,weblink Nobel judge steps down in protest, 1 April 2010, 11 October 2005, BBC News, The 2009 Literature Prize to Herta Müller also generated criticism. According to The Washington Post, many US literary critics and professors were ignorant of her work.NEWS,weblink Author's Nobel Stirs Shock-and-'Bah', 1 April 2010, Jordan, Mary, 9 October 2009, The Washington Post, This made those critics feel the prizes were too Eurocentric.WEB,weblink NOBEL PRIZE WINNER: Herta Muller, The Huffington Post, 8 October 2009, 31 March 2010,
    Science prizes
    In 1949, the neurologist António Egas Moniz received the Physiology or Medicine Prize for his development of the prefrontal leucotomy. The previous year, Dr. Walter Freeman had developed a version of the procedure which was faster and easier to carry out. Due in part to the publicity surrounding the original procedure, Freeman's procedure was prescribed without due consideration or regard for modern medical ethics. Endorsed by such influential publications as The New England Journal of Medicine, leucotomy or "lobotomy" became so popular that about 5,000 lobotomies were performed in the United States in the three years immediately following Moniz's receipt of the Prize.Feldman, pp. 286–289NEWS, Day, Elizabeth,weblink He was bad, so they put an ice pick in his brain..., The Guardian, 31 March 2010, 12 January 2008, London,

    Overlooked achievements

    (File:MKGandhi.jpg|thumb|upright|right|The Norwegian Nobel Committee declined to award a prize in 1948, the year of Gandhi's death, on the grounds that "there was no suitable living candidate.")The Norwegian Nobel Committee confirmed that Mahatma Gandhi was nominated for the Peace Prize in 1937–39, 1947, and a few days before he was assassinated in January 1948.Levinovitz, pp. 181–186 Later, members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee expressed regret that he was not given the prize. Geir Lundestad, Secretary of Norwegian Nobel Committee in 2006, said, "The greatest omission in our 106 year history is undoubtedly that Mahatma Gandhi never received the Nobel Peace prize. Gandhi could do without the Nobel Peace prize. Whether Nobel committee can do without Gandhi is the question".weblink" title="">Relevance of Gandhian Philosophy in the 21st century. In 1948, the year of Gandhi's death, the Nobel Committee declined to award a prize on the grounds that "there was no suitable living candidate" that year.WEB,weblink Mahatma Gandhi, the Missing Laureate, 17 October 2007, Tønnesson, Øyvind, 1 December 1999, Nobel Foundation, Abrams, pp. 147–148 Later, when the 14th Dalai Lama was awarded the Peace Prize in 1989, the chairman of the committee said that this was "in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi".WEB,weblink The Nobel Prize in Peace 1989 – Presentation Speech, 12 June 2010, Aarvik, Egil, The Nobel Foundation, Other high-profile individuals with widely recognised contributions to peace have been missed out. Foreign Policy lists Eleanor Roosevelt, Václav Havel, Ken Saro-Wiwa, Sari Nusseibeh, and Corazon Aquino as people who "never won the prize, but should have".NEWS, David, Kenner, Nobel Peace Prize Also-Rans, 7 October 2009,weblink Foreign Policy, 1–7, 11 June 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 25 January 2010, In 1965, UN Secretary General U Thant was informed by the Norwegian Permanent Representative to the UN that he would be awarded that year's prize and asked whether or not he would accept. He consulted staff and later replied that he would. At the same time, Chairman Gunnar Jahn of the Nobel Peace prize committee, lobbied heavily against giving U Thant the prize and the prize was at the last minute awarded to UNICEF. The rest of the committee all wanted the prize to go to U Thant, for his work in defusing the Cuban Missile Crisis, ending the war in the Congo, and his ongoing work to mediate an end to the Vietnam War. The disagreement lasted three years and in 1966 and 1967 no prize was given, with Gunnar Jahn effectively vetoing an award to U Thant.WEB,weblink The Nobel Peace Prize 1901–2000, Nobel Foundation, 25 February 2014, JOURNAL, U Thant in New York: A Portrait of the Third Secretary-General of the United Nations, Rames, Nassif, Hurst, 31 December 1988,weblink 978-1850650454, subscription, (File:Revolutionary Joyce Better Contrast.jpg|thumb|upright|left|James Joyce, one of the controversial omissions of the Literature Prize)The Literature Prize also has controversial omissions. Adam Kirsch has suggested that many notable writers have missed out on the award for political or extra-literary reasons. The heavy focus on European and Swedish authors has been a subject of criticism.JOURNAL, Kirsch, Adam,weblink The Nobel Committee has no clue about American literature, Slate (magazine), Slate, 3 October 2008, 31 March 2010, NEWS,weblink Akademien väljer helst en europé, 2 April 2010, Fristorp, Mimmi, 8 October 2008, Dagens Nyheter, Swedish, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 February 2010, The Eurocentric nature of the award was acknowledged by Peter Englund, the 2009 Permanent Secretary of the Swedish Academy, as a problem with the award and was attributed to the tendency for the academy to relate more to European authors.NEWS,weblink Judge: Nobel literature prizes 'too Eurocentric', The Guardian, 6 October 2009, 3 February 2010, London, This tendency towards European authors still leaves some European writers on a list of notable writers that have been overlooked for the Literature Prize, including Europe's Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov, J. R. R. Tolkien, Émile Zola, Marcel Proust, Vladimir Nabokov, James Joyce, August Strindberg, Simon Vestdijk, Karel Čapek, the New World's Jorge Luis Borges, Ezra Pound, John Updike, Arthur Miller, Mark Twain, and Africa's Chinua Achebe.Feldman, pp. 56–57Candidates can receive multiple nominations the same year. Gaston Ramon received a total of 155WEB, Nomination Database: Gaston Ramon,weblink Nobel Foundation, 7 January 2017, nominations in physiology or medicine from 1930 to 1953, the last year with public nomination data for that award {{as of|2016|lc=on}}. He died in 1963 without being awarded. Pierre Paul Émile Roux received 115WEB, Nomination Database: Emile P Roux,weblink Nobel Foundation, 7 January 2017, nominations in physiology or medicine, and Arnold Sommerfeld received 84WEB, Nomination Database: Arnold Sommerfeld,weblink Nobel Foundation, 7 January 2017, in physics. These are the three most nominated scientists without awards in the data published {{as of|2016|lc=on}}.JOURNAL, Butler, Declan, Close but no Nobel: the scientists who never won,weblink Nature, 7 January 2017, 10.1038/nature.2016.20781, 11 October 2016, Otto Stern received 79WEB, Nomination Database: Otto Stern,weblink Nobel Foundation, 7 January 2017, nominations in physics 1925–43 before being awarded in 1943.NEWS, Crawford, Elisabeth, Nobel population 1901–50: anatomy of a scientific elite,weblink Physics World, November 2001,weblink" title="">weblink 3 February 2006, The strict rule against awarding a prize to more than three people is also controversial.Levinovitz, p. 61 When a prize is awarded to recognise an achievement by a team of more than three collaborators, one or more will miss out. For example, in 2002, the prize was awarded to Koichi Tanaka and John Fenn for the development of mass spectrometry in protein chemistry, an award that did not recognise the achievements of Franz Hillenkamp and Michael Karas of the Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry at the University of Frankfurt.WEB, Spinney, Laura,weblink News Analysis: Nobel Prize Controversy, The Scientist (magazine), The Scientist, 4 December 2001, 28 October 2006, NEWS, Nicholas, Dawidoff, The Civil Heretic, 25 April 2009,weblink The New York Times, 8 June 2010, According to one of the nominees for the prize in physics, the three person limit deprived him and two other members of his team of the honor in 2013: the team of Carl Hagen, Gerald Guralnik, and Tom Kibble published a paper in 1964 that gave answers to how the cosmos began, but did not share the 2013 Physics Prize awarded to Peter Higgs and François EnglertFrançois Englert, Rochester, New York,weblink 18 March 2019, Similarly, the prohibition of posthumous awards fails to recognise achievements by an individual or collaborator who dies before the prize is awarded. The Economics Prize was not awarded to Fischer Black, who died in 1995, when his co-author Myron Scholes received the honor in 1997 for their landmark work on option pricing along with Robert C. Merton, another pioneer in the development of valuation of stock options. In the announcement of the award that year, the Nobel committee prominently mentioned Black's key role.Political subterfuge may also deny proper recognition. Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann, who co-discovered nuclear fission along with Otto Hahn, may have been denied a share of Hahn's 1944 Nobel Chemistry Award due to having fled Germany when the Nazis came to power.JOURNAL, Crawford, Elisabeth, Lewin Sime, Ruth, Walker, Mark, 1, A Nobel Tale of Postwar Injustice, Physics Today, 50, 9, 26–32, 1997, 10.1063/1.881933, 1997PhT....50i..26C, The Meitner and Strassmann roles in the research was not fully recognised until years later, when they joined Hahn in receiving the 1966 Enrico Fermi Award.

    Emphasis on discoveries over inventions

    Alfred Nobel left his fortune to finance annual prizes to be awarded "to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind".weblink" title="">Excerpt from the Will of Alfred Nobel. He stated that the Nobel Prizes in Physics should be given "to the person who shall have made the most important 'discovery' or 'invention' within the field of physics". Nobel did not emphasise discoveries, but they have historically been held in higher respect by the Nobel Prize Committee than inventions: 77% of the Physics Prizes have been given to discoveries, compared with only 23% to inventions. Christoph Bartneck and Matthias Rauterberg, in papers published in Nature and Technoetic Arts, have argued this emphasis on discoveries has moved the Nobel Prize away from its original intention of rewarding the greatest contribution to society.JOURNAL, 10.1038/448644c, 17687300, Physics Nobels should favour inventions, 9 August 2007,weblink Bartneck, Christoph, Rauterberg, Matthias, Nature, 448, 7154, 644, 2007Natur.448..644B, JOURNAL, 10.1386/tear.6.1.73_1, The asymmetry between discoveries and inventions in the Nobel Prize in Physics, 2008, Bartneck, Christoph, Rauterberg, Matthias, Technoetic Arts: A Journal of Speculative Research, 6, 73,weblink,

    Gender disparity

    {{See also|List of female Nobel laureates}}In terms of the most prestigious awards in STEM fields, only a small proportion have been awarded to women. Out of 210 laureates in Physics, 181 in Chemistry and 216 in Medicine between 1901 and 2018, there were only three female laureates in physics, five in chemistry and 12 in medicine.Nobel Prize Facts, Nobel Foundation, 2014. (accessed 29 October 2014)BOOK,weblink A Complex Formula: Girls and Women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics in Asia, UNESCO, 2015, 978-92-9223-492-8, Paris, 23, Nobel Prize in Chemistry Nobel Foundation 2018 (accessed 3 October 2018)Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Nobel Foundation 2018. (accessed 3 October 2018) Factors proposed to contribute to the discrepancy between this and the roughly equal human sex ratio include biased nominations, fewer women than men being active in the relevant fields, Nobel Prizes typically being awarded decades after the research was done (reflecting a time when gender bias in the relevant fields was greater), a greater delay in awarding Nobel Prizes for women's achievements making longevity a more important factor for women (Nobel Prizes are not awarded posthumously), and a tendency to omit women from jointly awarded Nobel Prizes.NEWS,weblink Nobel Prizes still struggle with wide gender disparity, 1 October 2018, Associated Press, CBC News, en, 2018-12-12, JOURNAL,weblink Why more women don't win science Nobels, Feeney, Mary K., The Conversation (website), The Conversation, en, 2018-12-12, WEB,weblink The Nobel Prize committee explains why women win so few prizes, Rathi, Akshat, Rathi, Akshat, Quartz, en, 2018-12-12, NEWS,weblink Why don't women win Nobel science prizes?, Devlin, Hannah, 6 October 2017, The Guardian, 2018-12-12, en-GB, 0261-3077, BOOK,weblink Love, Power, and Knowledge: Towards a Feminist Transformation of the Sciences, Rose, Hilary, 1994, Indiana University Press, 978-0253209078, 137, en, JOURNAL,weblink These 5 Women Deserved, And Were Unjustly Denied, A Nobel Prize In Physics, Siegel, Ethan, 18 October 2018, Medium (website), Medium, 2018-12-12, Despite these factors, Marie Curie is to date the only person awarded Nobel Prizes in two different sciences (Physics in 1903, Chemistry in 1911); she is one of only three people who have received two Nobel Prizes in sciences (see Multiple laureates below).

    Specially distinguished laureates

    Multiple laureates

    File:Marie Curie 1903.jpg|left|thumb|upright|alt=A black and white portrait of a woman in profile. |Marie CurieMarie CurieFour people have received two Nobel Prizes. Marie Curie received the Physics Prize in 1903 for her work on radioactivity and the Chemistry Prize in 1911 for the isolation of pure radium,NEWS,weblink Marie Curie voted greatest female scientist, The Daily Telegraph, 2 July 2009, 15 January 2010, London, making her the only person to be awarded a Nobel Prize in two different sciences. Linus Pauling was awarded the 1954 Chemistry Prize for his research into the chemical bond and its application to the structure of complex substances. Pauling was also awarded the Peace Prize in 1962 for his activism against nuclear weapons, making him the only laureate of two unshared prizes. John Bardeen received the Physics Prize twice: in 1956 for the invention of the transistor and in 1972 for the theory of superconductivity.Feldman, p. 180 Frederick Sanger received the prize twice in Chemistry: in 1958 for determining the structure of the insulin molecule and in 1980 for inventing a method of determining base sequences in DNA.Shalev, p. 78Feldman, p. 222Two organizations have received the Peace Prize multiple times. The International Committee of the Red Cross received it three times: in 1917 and 1944 for its work during the world wars; and in 1963 during the year of its centenary.Abrams, p. 84Abrams, p. 149Abrams, pp. 199–200 The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has been awarded the Peace Prize twice for assisting refugees: in 1954 and 1981.Feldman, p. 313

    Family laureates

    The Curie family has received the most prizes, with four prizes awarded to five individual laureates. Marie Curie received the prizes in Physics (in 1903) and Chemistry (in 1911). Her husband, Pierre Curie, shared the 1903 Physics prize with her.NEWS,weblink Marie Curie (1867–1934), BBC News, 21 January 2010, Their daughter, Irène Joliot-Curie, received the Chemistry Prize in 1935 together with her husband Frédéric Joliot-Curie. In addition, the husband of Marie Curie's second daughter, Henry Labouisse, was the director of UNICEF when he accepted the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965 on that organisation's behalf.Feldman, p. 405Although no family matches the Curie family's record, there have been several with two laureates. The husband-and-wife team of Gerty Cori and Carl Ferdinand Cori shared the 1947 Prize in Physiology or MedicineBOOK, Grinstein, Louise S., Biermann, Carol A., Rose, Rose K., Women in the Biological Sciences: A Biobibliographic Sourcebook,weblink 25 December 2012, 1997, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-313-29180-7, 108–110, as did the husband-and-wife team of May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser in 2014 (along with John O'Keefe).WEB,weblink The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014, 28 January 2015, Nobel Fondation, J. J. Thomson was awarded the Physics Prize in 1906 for showing that electrons are particles. His son, George Paget Thomson, received the same prize in 1937 for showing that they also have the properties of waves.Gribbin, p. 91 William Henry Bragg and his son, William Lawrence Bragg, shared the Physics Prize in 1915 for inventing the X-ray crystallography.BOOK, Hargittai, István, The Road to Stockholm:Nobel Prizes, Science, and Scientists: Nobel Prizes, Science, and Scientists,weblink 25 December 2012, 28 August 2003, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-860785-4, 149, Niels Bohr was awarded the Physics prize in 1922, as was his son, Aage Bohr, in 1975.NEWS,weblink Professor Aage Bohr: Nobel prize-winning physicist, The Times, Times Newspapers Limited, 11 September 2009, 24 January 2010, London, Manne Siegbahn, who received the Physics Prize in 1924, was the father of Kai Siegbahn, who received the Physics Prize in 1981.NEWS, Maugh, Thomas H., II,weblink Kai Siegbahn, 89; Nobel-winning physicist invented electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, Los Angeles Times, 8 August 2007, 24 January 2010, Hans von Euler-Chelpin, who received the Chemistry Prize in 1929, was the father of Ulf von Euler, who was awarded the Physiology or Medicine Prize in 1970. C. V. Raman was awarded the Physics Prize in 1930 and was the uncle of Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, who was awarded the same prize in 1983.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, University of Chicago, 22 August 1995, 24 January 2010, Feldman, p. 406 Arthur Kornberg received the Physiology or Medicine Prize in 1959; Kornberg's son, Roger later received the Chemistry Prize in 2006.WEB, Conger, Krista,weblink Roger Kornberg wins the 2006 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Stanford Report, 4 October 2006, 24 January 2010, Jan Tinbergen, who was awarded the first Economics Prize in 1969, was the brother of Nikolaas Tinbergen, who received the 1973 Physiology or Medicine Prize. Alva Myrdal, Peace Prize laureate in 1982, was the wife of Gunnar Myrdal who was awarded the Economics Prize in 1974. Economics laureates Paul Samuelson and Kenneth Arrow were brothers-in-law. Frits Zernike, who was awarded the 1953 Physics Prize, is the great-uncle of 1999 Physics laureate Gerard 't Hooft.WEB,weblink Gerardus 't Hooft - Biographical,, 5 July 2017,

    Refusals and constraints

    File:Richard Kuhn ETH-Bib Dia 248-065.jpg|thumb|upright|alt=A black and white portrait of a man in a suit and tie. Half of his face is in a shadow.|Richard KuhnRichard KuhnTwo laureates have voluntarily declined the Nobel Prize. In 1964, Jean-Paul Sartre was awarded the Literature Prize but refused, stating, "A writer must refuse to allow himself to be transformed into an institution, even if it takes place in the most honourable form."JOURNAL, Holt, Jim,weblink Exit, Pursued by a Lobster, Slate, 22 September 2003, 21 January 2010, Lê Đức Thọ, chosen for the 1973 Peace Prize for his role in the Paris Peace Accords, declined, stating that there was no actual peace in Vietnam.NEWS, English, Jason,weblink Odd facts about Nobel Prize winners, CNN, 6 October 2009, 21 January 2010, During the Third Reich, Adolf Hitler hindered Richard Kuhn, Adolf Butenandt, and Gerhard Domagk from accepting their prizes. All of them were awarded their diplomas and gold medals after World War II. In 1958, Boris Pasternak declined his prize for literature due to fear of what the Soviet Union government might do if he travelled to Stockholm to accept his prize. In return, the Swedish Academy refused his refusal, saying "this refusal, of course, in no way alters the validity of the award." The Academy announced with regret that the presentation of the Literature Prize could not take place that year, holding it back until 1989 when Pasternak's son accepted the prize on his behalf.NEWS, Franchetti, Mark, How the CIA won Zhivago a Nobel,weblink The Times, 14 January 2007, 21 January 2010, London, NEWS, Finn, Peter, The Plot Thickens,weblink The Washington Post, 27 January 2007, 21 January 2010, Aung San Suu Kyi was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991, but her children accepted the prize because she had been placed under house arrest in Burma; Suu Kyi delivered her speech two decades later, in 2012.WEB, Aung San Suu Kyi – Biographical,weblink The Nobel Foundation, 28 July 2012, Liu Xiaobo was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2010 while he and his wife were under house arrest in China as political prisoners, and he was unable to accept the prize in his lifetime.

    Cultural impact

    Being a symbol of scientific or literary achievement that is recognisable worldwide, the Nobel Prize is often depicted in fiction. This includes films like The Prize and Nobel Son about fictional Nobel laureates as well as fictionalised accounts of stories surrounding real prizes such as Nobel Chor, a film based on the theft of Rabindranath Tagore's prize.PRESS RELEASE,weblink The Nobel Prize: On the film screen, Stockholm Business Region, 5 December 2013, 31 March 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 April 2015, dmy-all, JOURNAL, Brodesco, Alberto, 2018, Nobel laureates in fiction: From La fin du monde to The Big Bang Theory, Public Understanding of Science,weblink en, 27, 4, 458–470, 10.1177/0963662518766476, 29720058, 0963-6625, The memorial symbol "Planet of Alfred Nobel" was opened in Dnipropetrovsk University of Economics and Law in 2008. On the globe, there are 802 Nobel laureates' reliefs made of a composite alloy obtained when disposing of military strategic missiles.Monument of the Planet of Alfred Nobel. Retrieved on 28 July 2013.Memorial symbol "Alfred Nobel Planet". Retrieved on 28 July 2013.

    See also

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    {{Free-content attribution| title = A Complex Formula: Girls and Women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics in Asia| author = UNESCO| publisher = UNESCO| page numbers = 23| source = UNESCO| documentURL =weblink| license statement URL =weblink| license = CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0}}


    • BOOK, Abrams, Irwin, The Nobel Peace Prize and the Laureates,weblink 2001, Watson Publishing International, 978-0-88135-388-4, Abrams,
    • BOOK, Crawford, Elizabeth T., The Beginnings of the Nobel Institution – The Science Prizes, 1901–1915,weblink 1984, Maison des Sciences de l'Homme & Cambridge University Press, First, 978-0-521-26584-3, Crawford69,
    • BOOK,weblink Feldman, Burton, The Nobel prize: a history of genius, controversy, and prestige, Arcade Publishing, 2001, 978-1-55970-592-9, Feldman,
    • BOOK, Gribbin, John, In Search of Schrödinger's Cat: Quantum Physics and Reality, 1985, Corgi, 978-0-552-12555-0, Gribbin69, In Search of Schrödinger's Cat,
    • BOOK, Jones, Brenn, Learning about love from the life of Mother Teresa,weblink 2003, PowerKids Press, 978-0-8239-5777-4, Jones,
    • BOOK, Levinovitz, Agneta Wallin, The Nobel Prize: The First 100 Years,weblink Nils Ringertz, 2001, Imperial College Press and World Scientific, World Scientific Publishing, 978-981-02-4664-8, Levinovitz69,
    • BOOK, Leroy, Francis, A century of Nobel Prizes recipients: chemistry, physics, and medicine,weblink 2003, CRC Press, 978-0-8247-0876-4, Leroy,
    • BOOK, Shalev, Baruch Aba, 100 years of Nobel prizes,weblink 2005, The Americas Group, Third, 978-0-935047-37-0, Shalev69,
    • BOOK, Sohlman, Ragnar, The Legacy of Alfred Nobel – The Story Behind the Nobel Prizes, 1983, The Nobel Foundation, Ragnar Sohlman, Sohlman69,
    • BOOK, Söderlind, Ulrica, The Nobel Banquet, 2010, World Scientific Publishing, judia85, 10.1142/7789, 978-981-4313-11-7,
    • BOOK, Wilhelm, Peter, The Nobel Prize,weblink 1983, Springwood Books, 978-0-86254-111-8, Wilhelm69,

    Further reading

    • BOOK, Pais, Abraham, Abraham Pais, Subtle Is the Lord: The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein,weblink 1983, Third, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-520438-4, 8195995, Pais69,

    External links

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