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Newton (unit)
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Newton (unit)
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{distinguish|text=Newton scale, a rarely used non-SI temperature scale}}{{short description|SI unit of force}}{{Use British English Oxford spelling|date=May 2018}}- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
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Definition
One newton is the force needed to accelerate one kilogram of mass at the rate of one metre per second squared in the direction of the applied force.WEB,weblink Newton {{!, unit of measurement|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|language=en|access-date=2019-09-27}}In 1946, ConfÃ©rence GÃ©nÃ©rale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM) Resolution 2 standardized the unit of force in the MKS system of units to be the amount needed to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at the rate of 1 metre per second squared. In 1948, the 9th CGPM Resolution 7 adopted the name newton for this force.{{Citation | author = International Bureau of Weights and Measures | title = The International System of Units | issue = 330â€“331 | edition = 3rd | publisher = U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards | page = 17 | year = 1977 | isbn = 0745649742 | url =weblink | postscript= .}} The MKS system then became the blueprint for today's SI system of units. The newton thus became the standard unit of force in the (SI), or International System of Units.{{SI unit lowercase|Isaac Newton|newton|N}}In more formal terms, Newton's second law of motion states that the force exerted by an object is directly proportional to the acceleration of that object, namely:WEB, Table 3. Coherent derived units in the SI with special names and symbols, The International System of Units (SI), International Bureau of Weights and Measures, 2006,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070618123613weblink">weblink 2007-06-18,
F = ma
where the proportionality constant, m, represents the mass of the object undergoing an acceleration, a. As a result, the newton may be defined in terms of kilograms (text{kg}), metres (text{m}), and seconds (text{s}) by
1 text{N} = 1 frac{text{kg}cdottext{m}}{text{s}^2}
Examples
At average gravity on Earth (conventionally, {{val|9.80665|ul=m/s2|p={{math|g}} = }}), a kilogram mass exerts a force of about 9.8 newtons. An average-sized apple exerts about one newton of force, which we measure as the apple's weight.WEB,weblink Whitbread BSc (Hons) MSc DipION, Daisy, What weighs 100g?, 28 August 2015,
1 N{{math| {{=}} }} 0.10197 kg × 9.80665 m/s2{{spaces|3}} ({{val|0.10197|ul=kg|s= = 101.97 g}})
The weight of an average adult exerts a force of about 608 N.
608 N{{math| {{=}} }} 62 kg × 9.80665 m/s2 (where 62 kg is the world average adult mass)JOURNAL, The weight of nations: an estimation of adult human biomass, Walpole, Sarah Catherine, David, Prieto-Merino, Phillip, Edwards, John, Cleland, Gretchen, Stevens, Ian, Roberts, BMC Public Health, 12, 12, 439, 2012, 10.1186/1471-2458-12-439, 22709383, 3408371,
Commonly seen as kilonewtons
It is common to see forces expressed in kilonewtons (kN) where {{nowrap|1 kN {{math| {{=}} }}1000 N}}. For example, the tractive effort of a Class Y steam train locomotive and the thrust of an F100 fighter jet engine are both around 130 kN.One kilonewton, 1 kN, is equivalent to {{convert|1|kN|kgf|1|disp=out|lk=on}}, or about 100 kg of load under Earth gravity.
1 kN{{math| {{=}} }}102 kg × 9.81 m/s2{{spaces|3}}
So for example, a platform that shows it is rated at {{convert|321|kN}}, will safely support a {{convert|32100|kg}} load.Specifications in kilonewtons are common in safety specifications for: - the holding values of fasteners, Earth anchors, and other items used in the building industry.
- working loads in tension and in shear.
- rock climbing equipment.
- thrust of rocket engines and launch vehicles
- clamping forces of the various moulds in injection moulding machines used to manufacture plastic parts.
Conversion factors
{{Units of force}}{{GravEngAbs}}{{SI prefixes (inline table)|floatleft}}{{clear}}See also
{{div col|colwidth=30em}}- Force gauge
- International System of Units (SI)
- Joule, SI unit of energy, 1 newton exerted over a distance of 1 metre
- Kilogram-force, force exerted by Earth's gravity at sea level on one kilogram of mass
- Kip (unit)
- Pascal, SI unit of pressure, 1 newton acting on an area of 1 square metre
- Orders of magnitude (force)
- Pound (force)
- SthÃ¨ne
- Newton metre, SI unit of torque
References
{{Reflist}}{{SI units}}{{Isaac Newton}}- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Newton (unit)" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 6:53am EST - Thu, Nov 14 2019
- "Newton (unit)" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 6:53am EST - Thu, Nov 14 2019
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