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Newton (unit)
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{{distinguish|text=Newton scale, a rarely used non-SI temperature scale}}{{short description|SI unit of force}}{{Use British English Oxford spelling|date=May 2018}}







factoids
}}The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force. It is named after Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on classical mechanics, specifically Newton's second law of motion.See below for the conversion factors.

Definition

One newton is the force needed to accelerate one kilogram of mass at the rate of one metre per second squared in the direction of the applied force.WEB,weblink Newton {{!, unit of measurement|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|language=en|access-date=2019-09-27}}In 1946, Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM) Resolution 2 standardized the unit of force in the MKS system of units to be the amount needed to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at the rate of 1 metre per second squared. In 1948, the 9th CGPM Resolution 7 adopted the name newton for this force.{{Citation | author = International Bureau of Weights and Measures | title = The International System of Units | issue = 330–331 | edition = 3rd | publisher = U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards | page = 17 | year = 1977 | isbn = 0745649742 | url =weblink | postscript= .}} The MKS system then became the blueprint for today's SI system of units. The newton thus became the standard unit of force in the (SI), or International System of Units.{{SI unit lowercase|Isaac Newton|newton|N}}In more formal terms, Newton's second law of motion states that the force exerted by an object is directly proportional to the acceleration of that object, namely:WEB, Table 3. Coherent derived units in the SI with special names and symbols, The International System of Units (SI), International Bureau of Weights and Measures, 2006,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070618123613weblink">weblink 2007-06-18,
F = ma
where the proportionality constant, m, represents the mass of the object undergoing an acceleration, a. As a result, the newton may be defined in terms of kilograms (text{kg}), metres (text{m}), and seconds (text{s}) by
1 text{N} = 1 frac{text{kg}cdottext{m}}{text{s}^2}

Examples

At average gravity on Earth (conventionally, {{val|9.80665|ul=m/s2|p={{math|g}} = }}), a kilogram mass exerts a force of about 9.8 newtons. An average-sized apple exerts about one newton of force, which we measure as the apple's weight.WEB,weblink Whitbread BSc (Hons) MSc DipION, Daisy, What weighs 100g?, 28 August 2015,
1 N{{math| {{=}} }} 0.10197 kg × 9.80665 m/s2{{spaces|3}} ({{val|0.10197|ul=kg|s=  = 101.97 g}})
The weight of an average adult exerts a force of about 608 N.
608 N{{math| {{=}} }} 62 kg × 9.80665 m/s2 (where 62 kg is the world average adult mass)JOURNAL, The weight of nations: an estimation of adult human biomass, Walpole, Sarah Catherine, David, Prieto-Merino, Phillip, Edwards, John, Cleland, Gretchen, Stevens, Ian, Roberts, BMC Public Health, 12, 12, 439, 2012, 10.1186/1471-2458-12-439, 22709383, 3408371,

Commonly seen as kilonewtons

It is common to see forces expressed in kilonewtons (kN) where {{nowrap|1 kN {{math| {{=}} }}1000 N}}. For example, the tractive effort of a Class Y steam train locomotive and the thrust of an F100 fighter jet engine are both around 130 kN.One kilonewton, 1 kN, is equivalent to {{convert|1|kN|kgf|1|disp=out|lk=on}}, or about 100 kg of load under Earth gravity.
1 kN{{math| {{=}} }}102 kg × 9.81 m/s2{{spaces|3}}
So for example, a platform that shows it is rated at {{convert|321|kN}}, will safely support a {{convert|32100|kg}} load.Specifications in kilonewtons are common in safety specifications for:

Conversion factors

{{Units of force}}{{GravEngAbs}}{{SI prefixes (inline table)|floatleft}}{{clear}}

See also

{{div col|colwidth=30em}} {{div col end}}

References

{{Reflist}}{{SI units}}{{Isaac Newton}}

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