New York City Subway

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New York City Subway
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{{short description|Rapid transit system in New York City}}{{Use mdy dates|date=January 2019}}{{good article}}

train made up of R62A (New York City Subway car) cars leaves the 125th Street (IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line)>125th Street station.Bottom: An '''{{NYCSR160 (New York City Subway car)>R160A cars enters the World Trade Center station.| owner = Government of New York City| area served = The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, and Queens| locale = New York City| transit_type = Rapid transitList of New York City Subway lines>{{NYCS const linesThese are the physical tracks that a train "service" runs on. See New York City Subway nomenclature for more information.routes}} services(1 planned)These "services" run on physical tracks. See New York City Subway nomenclature for more information.| line_number =| start =| end =List of New York City Subway stations>{{NYCS consttotal}} (Metropolitan Transportation Authority total count){{#tag:ref>There are 13 stations on the IND Second Avenue Line and 1 station on the IRT Flushing Line planned.
  • The Second Avenue Line has 3 active stations.WEB,weblink, 13 of these are planned.WEB,weblink MTA releases Second Avenue subway images,
  • The Tenth Avenue station will be constructed as an in-fill station once funding for it is secured.weblink" title="">"Outcry emerges for 41st St. stop on new 7-line".|group=note|name="planned stations"}}{{refn|group=note| name=stationnote|
  • Permanently closed stations are not counted.{{NYCS const|stationinformation}}
  • Both the Chambers Street–World Trade Center (IND Eighth Avenue Line) and Canal Street (BMT Broadway Line) stations are considered two stations each by the MTA. If both of them are counted as one station each, the number of stations in the New York City Subway is {{expr:{{NYCS const|number|total}}-2}} stations (or {{NYCS const|number|intl}} by international standards).}}{{NYCS const|number|intl}} unique stations (when compared to international standards)14 planned| ridership = 5,580,845 (weekdays, 2017) 3,156,673 (Saturdays, 2017)2,525,481 (Sundays, 2017)| weekly_ridership =| annual_ridership = 1,727,366,607 (2017)| chief_executive =}}| operator = New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA)Early history of the IRT subway>Original subway)July 3, 1868Fifty Years of Rapid Transit (1918)(first elevated, rapid transit operation)October 9, 1863(first railroad operation)The IRT main line, which is considered to be the first New York City "subway" line, opened in 1904; however, the Ninth Avenue Line, a predecessor elevated railroad line, operated its first trial run on July 3, 1868 according to Facts and Figures 1979–80, published by the New York City Transit Authority See also; and the West End Line, which opened in 1863. A small portion of the latter line's original right-of-way, part of an extension opened in 1864, is still in daily use near Coney Island. {{webarchive|url= |date=May 23, 2006 }}| character =PUBLISHER=METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION AUTHORITY, February 22, 2018, | train_length = PUBLISHER=NYPRIG STRAPHANGERS CAMPAIGN, February 28, 2016, Off-peak: 10–20 minutes245kmPUBLISHER=METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION AUTHORITY >FORMAT=PDF DATE=JULY 26, 2017 4}}(route length){{convertmi4}}(track length, revenue){{convertmi4}}(track length, total)| notrack =usstandardallk=on}}HTTP://WWW.NYCSUBWAY.ORG/FAQ/FACTSFIGURES.HTML >TITLE=FACTS & FIGURES – SUBWAYS ACCESSDATE=MARCH 9, 2014, volt>V (Direct current) third rail; normally 625VTHE RAILWAY POWER STATIONS OF NEW YORK CITY URL=HTTP://ETHW.ORG/THE_RAILWAY_POWER_STATIONS_OF_NEW_YORK_CITY, September 13, 2016, 17km/hPUBLISHER=, 55km/h|abbr=on}}frameless)| map_state =}}The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority,BOOK, Clifton, Hood, 722 Miles: The Building of the Subways and How They Transformed New York,weblink 2004
, Johns Hopkins University Press, 978-0801880544, a subsidiary agency of the state-run Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA).WEB,weblink Metropolitan Transportation Authority Description and Board Structure Covering Fiscal Year 2009, 2009,, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, March 13, 2016, Opened in 1904, the New York City Subway is one of the world's oldest public transit systems, one of the most-used, and the one with the most stations.WEB,weblink What is the largest metro system in the world?, CityMetric, March 13, 2016, The New York City Subway is the largest rapid transit system in the world by number of stations, with {{NYCS const|number|total}} stations in operation ({{NYCS const|number|intl}} if stations connected by transfers are counted as single stations).WEB,weblink Introduction to Subway Ridership, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, July 12, 2018, Stations are located throughout the boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and the Bronx.
The system offers service 24 hours per day, every day of the year, though some routes may operate only part-time.WEB,weblink How to Ride the Subway, November 17, 2013, By annual ridership, the New York City Subway is the busiest rapid transit system in both the Western Hemisphere and the Western world, as well as the ninth-busiest rapid transit rail system in the world.WEB,weblink Subways, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), April 2, 2013, April 26, 2015, In 2017, the subway delivered over 1.72 billion rides, averaging approximately 5.6 million daily rides on weekdays and a combined 5.7 million rides each weekend (3.2 million on Saturdays, 2.5 million on Sundays). On September 23, 2014, more than 6.1 million people rode the subway system, establishing the highest single-day ridership since ridership was regularly monitored in 1985.NEWS,weblink M.T.A. Expected to Raise Fares and Tolls, Emma G. Fitzsimmons, The New York Times, November 16, 2014, November 18, 2014, Highest daily ridership since public takeover. In the first half of the 20th century, ridership was significantly higher.The system is also one of the world's longest. Overall, the system contains {{convert|245|mi|km}} of routes,WEB,weblink Comprehensive Annual Financial Report for the Years Ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, May 2, 2012, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), 148,weblink" title="">weblink July 22, 2013, July 14, 2014, translating into {{convert|665|mi|km}} of revenue track and a total of {{convert|850|mi|km}} including non-revenue trackage. Of the system's {{NYCS const|routes}} routes or "services" (which usually share track or "lines" with other services), {{#expr:{{NYCS const|routes}}-3}} pass through Manhattan, the exceptions being the {{NYCS|G}} train, the Franklin Avenue Shuttle, and the Rockaway Park Shuttle. Large portions of the subway outside Manhattan are elevated, on embankments, or in open cuts, and a few stretches of track run at ground level. In total, 40% of track is aboveground.BOOK, 101 Amazing Facts About New York,weblink Andrews UK Limited, 2013, 978-1783333059, en, Jack, Goldstein, Many lines and stations have both express and local services. These lines have three or four tracks. Normally, the outer two are used by local trains, while the inner one or two are used by express trains. Stations served by express trains are typically major transfer points or destinations.{{As of|2018}}, the New York City Subway's budgetary burden for expenditures was $8.7 billion, supported by collection of fares, bridge tolls, and earmarked regional taxes and fees, as well as direct funding from state and local governments.WEB, Rivoli, Dan, MTA Budget: Where does the money go?, NY Daily News, February 13, 2018,weblink November 3, 2018, Its on-time performance rate was 65% during weekdays.NEWS, They Vowed to Fix the Subway a Year Ago. On-Time Rates Are Still Terrible., The New York Times, July 23, 2018,weblink November 3, 2018, Fitzsimmons, Emma G.,


File:CityHallArchSkylight.jpg|thumb|left|The City Hall station of the IRT Lexington Avenue LineIRT Lexington Avenue LineAlfred Ely Beach built the first demonstration for an underground transit system in New York City in 1869 and opened it in February 1870.WEB,weblink They found the tube in excellent condition, 2005, Beach Pneumatic, Brennan, Joseph, January 17, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 6, 2007, WEB,weblink Inventor of the Week: Archive, March 6, 2014, March 18, 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 6, 2014, His Beach Pneumatic Transit only extended {{convert|312|ft}} under Broadway in Lower Manhattan operating from Warren Street to Murray Street and exhibited his idea for an atmospheric railway as a subway. The tunnel was never extended for political and financial reasons.WEB,weblink The Pneumatic Tunnel Under Broadway (1870),, July 7, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink May 5, 2008, (extract from Scientific American March 5, 1870) Today, no part of this line remains as the tunnel was completely within the limits of the present day City Hall Station under – Beach Pneumatic TransitNEWS,weblink NYC’s first subway was luxurious, pneumatic and built illegally, Blankinger, Kari, March 1, 2016, New York Daily News, March 13, 2016, NEWS,weblink Subway Planners' Lofty Ambitions Are Buried as Dead-End Curiosities, November 17, 1996, [, The New York Times, Martin, Douglas, June 27, 2015, NEWS,weblink When the New York City Subway Ran Without Rails, August 14, 2013, The New York Times, Santora, Marc, )The Great Blizzard of 1888 helped demonstrate the benefits of an underground transportation system.WEB,weblink The Blizzard of 1888; the Impact of this Devastating Storm on New York Transit, February 9, 2016,, Christiano, G. J., A plan for the construction of the subway was approved in 1894, and construction began in 1900.WEB,weblink American Experience. Technology . New York Underground. About the Program {{!, PBS||access-date=March 13, 2016}} Even though the underground portions of the subway had yet to be built, several above-ground segments of the modern-day New York City Subway system were already in service by then. The oldest structure still in use opened in 1885 as part of the BMT Lexington Avenue Line in BrooklynBKLYN, Done at Last, 50426818, May 13, 1885, 1, BKLYN, Halsey Street Station Opened, 50405675, August 19, 1885, 4, BKLYN, A New Station Opened, 50405355, July 18, 1885, 4, BKLYN, East New York, 50427251, June 13, 1885, 6, BKLYN, Still Extending Its Lines, 50405953, September 5, 1885, 6, and is now part of the BMT Jamaica Line.WEB,weblink BMT Nassau Street-Jamaica Line,, February 25, 2016, The oldest right-of-way, which is part of the BMT West End Line near Coney Island Creek, was in use in 1864 as a steam railroad called the Brooklyn, Bath and Coney Island Rail Road.BKLYN, Opening of a New Railroad, 50420352, October 5, 1863, 2, BKLYN, Railroads, 50421043, October 9, 1863, 1, WEB, The Third Rail – Gunther and his Railroad – page 1,weblink, February 14, 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 29, 2016, The first underground line of the subway opened on October 27, 1904, almost 36 years after the opening of the first elevated line in New York City, which became the IRT Ninth Avenue Line.James Blaine Walker, Fifty Years of Rapid Transit, 1864–1917, published 1918, pp. 162–191WEB,weblink The 9th Avenue Elevated-Polo Grounds Shuttle,, 2012, July 3, 2014, The {{convert|9.1|mi|km|adj=on}} line, then called the "Manhattan Main Line", ran from City Hall station northward under Lafayette Street (then named Elm Sreet) and Park Avenue (then named Fourth Avenue) before turning westward at 42nd Street. It then curved northward again at Times Square, continuing under Broadway before terminating at 145th Street station in Harlem.WEB, New York City subway opens – Oct 27, 1904,, October 27, 1904,weblink October 25, 2015, Its operation was leased to the Interborough Rapid Transit Company and over 150,000 passengersNEWS,weblink Our Subway Open, 150,000 Try It – Mayor McClellan Runs the First Official Trainwork= access-date = February 24, 2016 WEBSITE=SECOND AVE. SAGASDATE=NOVEMBER 21, 2007, By the late 1900s and early 1910s, the lines had been consolidated into two privately owned systems, the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company (BRT, later Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation, BMT) and the Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT). The city built most of the lines and leased them to the companies.WEB,weblink website = www.nycsubway.orgIndependent Subway System (IND) opened in 1932;HTTPS://SELECT.NYTIMES.COM/GST/ABSTRACT.HTML?RES=FA0D13F7395513738DDDA90994D1405B828FF1D3 DATE=SEPTEMBER 10, 1932 PAGE=1, this system was intended to compete with the private systems and allow some of the elevated railways to be torn down, but stayed within the core of the City due to its small startup capital. This required it to be run 'at cost', necessitating fares up to double the five-cent fare popular at the time.In 1940, the city bought the two private systems. Some elevated lines ceased service immediately while others closed soon after.BOOK, Under the Sidewalks of New York: The Story of the Greatest Subway System in the World, Cudahy, Brian J., Fordham University Press, 1995, 978-0823216185, 118,weblink Integration was slow, but several connections were built between the IND and BMT;NEWS,weblink Straphangers Sit As Tunnel Opens, December 2, 1955, The New York Times, 29, February 13, 2010, WEB,weblink Subway Changes to Speed Service: Major Alterations in Maps, Routes and Signs Will Take Effect Nov. 26, November 16, 1967,, The New York Times, Perlmutter, Emanuel, July 7, 2015, ROUTES NOT TAKEN, these now operate as one division called the B Division. Since the IRT tunnels, sharper curves, and stations are too small and therefore can not accommodate B Division cars, the IRT remains its own division, the A Division.WEB, A Division,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink August 6, 2011, August 6, 2011, February 14, 2016, However, many passenger transfers between stations of all three former companies have been created, allowing the entire network to be treated as a single unit.BOOK, Sparberg, Andrew J., From a Nickel to a Token: The Journey from Board of Transportation to MTA,weblink 2014, Fordham University Press, 978-0823261901, During the late-1940s, the system recorded high ridership, and on December 23, 1946, the system-wide record of 8,872,249 fares was set.BOOK,weblink A History of the New York City Subway System, Cunningham, Joseph, DeHart, Leonard O., 1993, J. Schmidt, R. Giglio, and K. Lang, en, {{Rp|73}}The New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA), a public authority presided by New York City, was created in 1953 to take over subway, bus, and streetcar operations from the city, and placed under control of the state-level Metropolitan Transportation Authority in 1968.WEB,weblink {{!, Facts and Figures||access-date=March 11, 2016}}File:Heavily tagged subway car in NY.jpg|thumb|left|GraffitiGraffitiOrganized in 1934 by transit workers of the BRT, IRT, and IND,WEB, Transport Workers Union Our History,weblink, February 16, 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 9, 2016, the Transport Workers Union of America Local 100 remains the largest and most influential local of the labor unions.BOOK,weblink In Transit:The Transport Workers Union In New York City, 1933–1966, B. Freeman, Joshua, Temple University Press, 1989, 978-1592138159, en, Since the union's founding, there have been three union strikes over contract disputes with the MTA:WEB, A Short History of Recent American Transit Strikes,weblink The Transport Politic, February 16, 2016, en-US, August 14, 2009, 12 days in 1966,WEB, A look back at the historic 1966 transit strike: Photos and more,weblink am New York, February 16, 2016, WEB, N. Y. Transit Strike on (January 1, 1966),weblink February 16, 2016, 11 days in 1980,WEB, 35 Years Ago This Week, the MTA Strikes for 11 Days in NYC Bringing Transit to a Halt,weblink Untapped Cities, February 16, 2016, April 7, 2015, and three days in 2005.NEWS, Citywide Strike Halts New York Subways and Buses,weblink The New York Times, December 21, 2005, February 16, 2016, 0362-4331, Jennifer, Steinhauer, WEB, NYC Transit Workers On Strike,weblink, February 16, 2016, By the 1970s and 1980s, the New York City Subway was at an all-time – The New York Transit Authority in the – The New York Transit Authority in the 1980s Ridership had dropped to 1910s levels, and graffiti and crime were rampant. Maintenance was poor, and delays and track problems were common. Still, the NYCTA managed to open six new subway stations in the 1980s,NEWS,weblink
, The 'Subway to Nowhere' Now Goes Somewhere
, Lorch, Donatella, October 29, 1989
, The New York Times, October 20, 2011, NEWS,weblink
, Big Changes For Subways Are to Begin
, Johnson, Kirk, December 9, 1988
, The New York Times, July 5, 2009, make the current fleet of subway cars graffiti-free, as well as order 1,775 new subway cars.NEWS,weblink Graffiti Cleanup A Shiny Symbol Of Subway System`s Turnaround, Lentz, Phillip, May 18, 1989, Chicago Tribune, March 11, 2016, By the early 1990s, conditions had improved significantly, although maintenance backlogs accumulated during those 20 years are still being fixed today.
File:Cortlandt St station demolished.jpg|thumb|The Cortlandt Street station partially collapsed as a result of the alt=The Cortlandt Street station is seen partially collapsed. Several of the stations support beams are seen fallen. Debris covers the track. The front half of the station remains mostly intact.Entering the 21st century, progress continued despite several disasters. The September 11 attacks resulted in service disruptions on lines running through Lower Manhattan, particularly the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line, which ran directly underneath the World Trade Center.WEB,weblink Effects of Catastrophic Events on Transportation System Management and Operations: New York City – September 11, April 2002, U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Special Programs Administration, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, November 5, 2013, Sections of the tunnel, as well as the Cortlandt Street station, which was directly underneath the Twin Towers, were severely damaged. Rebuilding required the suspension of service on that line south of Chambers Street. Ten other nearby stations were closed for cleanup. By March 2002, seven of those stations had reopened. Except for Cortlandt Street, the rest reopened on September 15, 2002, along with service south of Chambers Street.Kennedy, Randy. "Tunnel Vision; With Station's Reopening, Even Commuters Smile", The New York Times, September 17, 2002. Accessed October 6, 2007.WEB,weblink 1 9 2 3 Service Restored, September 15, 2002,,weblink" title="">weblink July 16, 2003, dead, December 25, 2017, WEB, September 11: Three Years Later, Brian Abbott, September 11, 2004,weblink March 25, 2016, Cortlandt Street reopened on September 8, 2018.NEWS, Cortlandt Street Station, Damaged on Sept. 11, Reopens 17 Years Later, The New York Times, September 8, 2018,weblink September 8, 2018, Fitzsimmons, Emma G., Hu, Winnie, NEWS, WTC Cortlandt Subway Station Reopens for 1st Time Since 9/11 Attacks,weblink September 8, 2018, NBC 4 New York, Associated Press, September 8, 2018, In October 2012, Hurricane Sandy flooded several underwater tunnels and other facilities near New York Harbor, as well as trackage over Jamaica Bay. The immediate damage was fixed within six months but long-term resiliency and rehabilitation projects continue. Among the more notable Sandy recovery projects include the restoration of the new South Ferry station from 2012 to 2017; the full closure of the Montague Street Tunnel from 2013 to 2014; and the partial 14th Street Tunnel shutdown from 2019 to 2020.WEB, Superstorm Sandy Timeline,weblink

Construction methods

File:7Line 2208 (9124955331).jpg|thumb|left|A stretch of subway track on the 7 Subway Extension7 Subway ExtensionWhen the IRT subway debuted in 1904, the typical tunnel construction method was cut-and-cover.WEB, The New York Subway: Chapter 02, Types and Methods of Construction,,weblink November 1, 2015, The street was torn up to dig the tunnel below before being rebuilt from above. Traffic on the street above would be interrupted due to the digging up of the street.WEB,weblink Why It Was Faster To Build Subways in 1900, October 22, 2015, Atlas Obscura, April 15, 2016, Temporary steel and wooden bridges carried surface traffic above the construction.WEB,weblink Design and Construction of the IRT: Civil Engineering (Scott),, April 15, 2016, Contractors in this type of construction faced many obstacles, both natural and man-made. They had to deal with rock formations and ground water, which required pumps. Twelve miles of sewers, as well as water and gas mains, electric conduits, and steam pipes had to be rerouted. Street railways had to be torn up to allow the work. The foundations of tall buildings often ran near the subway construction, and in some cases needed underpinning to ensure stability.WEB,weblink Subway Construction: Then and Now, The New York Public Library, April 15, 2016, This method worked well for digging soft dirt and gravel near the street surface. However, tunnelling shields were required for deeper sections, such as the Harlem and East River tunnels, which used cast-iron tubes. Rock or concrete-lined tunnels were used on segments from 33rd to 42nd streets under Park Avenue; 116th to 120th Streets under Broadway; 145th to Dyckman Streets (Fort George) under Broadway and St. Nicholas Avenue; and 96th Street and Broadway to Central Park North and Lenox Avenue.About 40% of the subway system runs on surface or elevated tracks, including steel or cast iron elevated structures, concrete viaducts, embankments, open cuts and surface routes.WEB,weblink Subway FAQ: Facts and Figures,, February 26, 2016, {{As of|2019}}, there are {{convert|168|mi|km}} of elevated tracks.WEB, MTA has been leaving dangerous debris exposed for years: conductor, New York Post, February 23, 2019,weblink February 23, 2019, All of these construction methods are completely grade-separated from road and pedestrian crossings, and most crossings of two subway tracks are grade-separated with flying junctions. The sole exceptions of at-grade junctions of two lines in regular service are the 142nd Street junction,WEB,weblink IRT White Plains Road Line,, February 26, 2016, the Rogers junction and the Myrtle Avenue junction, whose tracks both intersect at the same level.WEB,weblink Myrtle Av-Broadway (J, M, Z) – The SubwayNut, Cox, Jeremiah,, February 26, 2016, {{NYCS const|trackref|trackbook3}}The 7,700 workers who built the original subway lines were mostly immigrants living in Manhattan.BOOK, DuTemple, Lesley A., The New York Subways, 2002, Twenty-First Century Books, 978-0822503781,weblink January 28, 2016, More recent projects use tunnel boring machines, which increase the cost. They minimize disruption at street level and avoid already existing utilities.WEB,weblink The Two Methods of Subway Construction, MacKechnie, Christopher,, May 7, 2014, In exchange for these advantages are two major disadvantages. One is financial: "deep bore" construction costs significantly more than 'cut and cover', Examples of such projects include the extension of the IRT Flushing LineWEB,weblink No. 7 Subway Line Extension, Richard Dattner & Partners Architects, February 28, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink March 15, 2012, NEWS, West Side Development Project Gets The Green Light,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink April 7, 2012, NY1, December 21, 2009, February 28, 2010, NEWS, Crews Lower Giant Drill Into 7 Line Tunnel, Bobby, Cuza,weblink NY1, February 19, 2009, February 28, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink May 5, 2009, WEB,weblink New York State Society of Professional Engineers Recognizes No. 7 Line Project, July 3, 2013, Tunnel Business Magazine, August 20, 2013, and the IND Second Avenue Line.WEB,weblink", Blasting on Second Avenue,, March 22, 2010, NEWS, 2nd Ave. Subway Tunnel Dig Begins, Andrew, Siff,weblink WNBC, May 14, 2010, May 14, 2010, WEB, MTA {{!, news {{!}} Tunneling Begins Under Second Avenue|url =weblink|website =|access-date = February 10, 2016}}WEB, Various,weblink Second Avenue Subway has a breakthrough moment; several billion more are all the M.T.A. wants, Capital New York, September 23, 2011, March 31, 2014,


(File:Second Avenue Subway Community Information Center vc.jpg|thumb|Second Avenue Subway Community Information Center)Since the opening of the original New York City Subway line in 1904, various official and planning agencies have proposed numerous extensions to the subway system. One of the more expansive proposals was the "IND Second System", part of a plan to construct new subway lines in addition to taking over existing subway lines and railroad rights-of-way. The most grandiose IND Second Subway plan, conceived in 1929, was to be part of the city-operated IND, and was to comprise almost {{frac|1|3}} of the current subway system.NEWS,weblink 100 Miles of Subway in New City Project; 52 of them in Queens, September 16, 1929, March 25, 2016, The New York Times, By 1939, with unification planned, all three systems were included within the plan, which was ultimately never carried out.WEB,weblink The futureNYCSubway: The IND Second System, vanshnookenraggen, en-US, March 13, 2016, February 2010, – History of the Independent Subway Many different plans were proposed over the years of the subway's existence, but expansion of the subway system mostly stopped during World War II.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink August 9, 2013, Lost Subways: Abandoned Stations and Unbuilt Lines, January 3, 2012, February 10, 2016,, O'Grade, Jim, Though most of the routes proposed over the decades have never seen construction, discussion remains strong to develop some of these lines, to alleviate existing subway capacity constraints and overcrowding, the most notable being the proposals for the Second Avenue Subway. Plans for new lines date back to the early 1910s, and expansion plans have been proposed during many years of the system's existence.NEWS, Duffus, R.L., Our Great Subway Network Spreads Wider – New Plans of Board of Transportation Involve the Building of More Than One Hundred Miles of Additional Rapid Transit Routes for New York,weblink The New York Times, August 19, 2015, September 22, 1929, After the IND Sixth Avenue Line was completed in 1940,NEWS, New Subway Line on 6th Ave. Opens at Midnight Fete,weblink The New York Times, December 15, 1940, 1, October 7, 2011, the city went into great debt, and only 33 new stations have been added to the system since, nineteen of which were part of defunct railways that already existed. Five stations were on the abandoned New York, Westchester and Boston Railway, which was incorporated into the system in 1941 as the IRT Dyre Avenue Line.NEWS,weblink Rail Line is Added to Subway System, May 16, 1941, The New York Times, 25, October 4, 2011, Fourteen more stations were on the abandoned LIRR Rockaway Beach Branch (now the IND Rockaway Line), which opened in 1955.WEB,weblink Rockaway Trains to Operate Today, June 28, 1956,, The New York Times, Freeman, Ira Henry, June 29, 2015, Two stations (57th Street and Grand Street) were part of the Chrystie Street Connection, and opened in 1968;WEB,weblink Rapid Transit Service Coming Brochure, July 1, 1968,, New York City Transit Authority, January 24, 2016, WEB,weblink KK a new service, July 1, 1968,, New York City Transit Authority, January 24, 2016, the Harlem–148th Street terminal opened that same year in an unrelated project.NEWS,weblink IRT Passengers Get New 148th St. Station, May 14, 1968, The New York Times, 95, October 4, 2011, Six were built as part of a 1968 plan: three on the Archer Avenue Lines, opened in 1988,NEWS,weblink Big Changes For Subways Are to Begin, Johnson, Kirk, December 9, 1988, The New York Times, July 5, 2009, and three on the 63rd Street Lines, opened in 1989.NEWS,weblink The 'Subway to Nowhere' Now Goes Somewhere, Lorch, Donatella, October 29, 1989, The New York Times, October 20, 2011, The new South Ferry station was built and connected to the existing Whitehall Street–South Ferry station in 2009.WEB,weblink MTA opens new $530M South Ferry station, Donohue, Pete, March 17, 2009, New York Daily News, July 21, 2016, The one-stop 7 Subway Extension to the west side of Manhattan, consisting of the 34th Street–Hudson Yards station, was opened in 2015,WEB, Fitzsimmons, Emma G., Subway Station for 7 Line Opens on Far West Side, The New York Times, September 10, 2015,weblink September 13, 2015, WEB, Capital Programs 7 Line Extension,, September 13, 2015,weblink March 25, 2016, There is one station (10th Avenue) planned as a future infill station. See weblink" title="">Outcry emerges for 41st St. stop on new 7-line and three stations on the Second Avenue Subway in the Upper East Side were opened in the beginning of 2017.WEB, Ingram, David, New York tale: a century-old subway dream becomes reality, Yahoo, December 31, 2016,weblink January 1, 2017,

Lines and routes

{{See also|List of New York City Subway services|List of New York City Subway lines}}{{NYCS const|ridership}}File:R142 Sign.jpg|thumb|left|A digital sign on the side of an R142R142File:MTA125.JPG|thumb|left|125th Street station on the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue LineIRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue LineMany rapid transit systems run relatively static routings, so that a train "line" is more or less synonymous with a train "route". In New York City, however, routings change often, for various reasons. Within the nomenclature of the subway, the "line" describes the physical railroad track or series of tracks that a train "route" uses on its way from one terminal to another. "Routes" (also called "services") are distinguished by a letter or a number and "Lines" have names. Trains display their route designation.There are {{NYCS const|routes}} train services in the subway system, including three short shuttles. Each route has a color and a local or express designation representing the Manhattan trunk line of the particular service.{{YouTube|yZ83UhBJFP0|Subway Colors and Names}} MTA YouTube Web Page. Made July 15, 2010. Retrieved July 17, 2010.{{NYCS const|serviceguide}} New York City residents seldom refer to services by color (e.g., Blue Line or Green Line) but out-of-towners and tourists often do.WEB, Cox, Bobby, New York City Subway,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink November 2, 2014, Deaf Echo, February 10, 2016, WEB, Rules of The Subway,weblink Fodors, September 21, 2013, The {{NYCS|1}}, {{NYCS|C}}, {{NYCS|G}}, {{NYCS|L}}, {{NYCS|M}}, {{NYCS|R}}, and {{NYCS|W}} trains are fully local and make all stops. The {{NYCS|2}}, {{NYCS|3}}, {{NYCS|4}}, {{NYCS|5}}, {{NYCS|A}}, {{NYCS|B}}, {{NYCS|D}}, {{NYCS|E}}, {{NYCS|F}}, {{NYCS|N}}, and {{NYCS|Q}} trains have portions of express and local service. {{NYCS|J}}, {{NYCS|Z}}, {{NYCS|6}}, and {{NYCS|7}} trains vary by day or time of day. The letter {{NYCS|S}} is used for three shuttle services: Franklin Avenue Shuttle, Rockaway Park Shuttle, and 42nd Street Shuttle.{{NYCS const|map}}Though the subway system operates on a 24-hour basis, during late night hours some of the designated routes do not run, run as a shorter route (often referred to as the 'shuttle train' version of its full-length counterpart) or run with a different stopping pattern. These are usually indicated by smaller, secondary route signage on station platforms.WEB,weblink Late Night Subway Service September 2015, September 2015,, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, February 29, 2016, Because there is no nightly system shutdown for maintenance, tracks and stations must be maintained while the system is operating. This work sometimes necessitates service changes during midday, overnight hours, and weekends.NEWS, Haberman, Clyde, Train Skip Your Stop? It’s No Mistake, It’s Just the Weekend, The New York Times, April 4, 2008,weblink March 25, 2016, NEWS,weblink New York’s Subway System Can’t Keep Pace With Growing Number of Riders, Tangel, Andrew, Wall Street Journal, 0099-9660, March 25, 2016, See also FASTRACKWhen parts of lines are temporarily shut down for construction purposes, the transit authority can substitute free shuttle buses (using MTA Regional Bus Operations bus fleet) to replace the routes that would normally run on these lines.Finnegan, Jack, Belden Merims and Jennifer Cecil (2007). Newcomer's Handbook for Moving to and Living in New York City: Including Manhattan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens, Staten Island, and Northern New Jersey. Portland, OR: First Books Inc. {{ISBN|978-0912301723}}. p. 336. The Transit Authority announces planned service changes through its website,WEB, NYCT – Service Advisory,weblink, February 10, 2016, via placards that are posted on station and interior subway-car walls,WEB, MTA/New York City Transit – Subway Service Information,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink December 20, 2010, December 20, 2010, February 10, 2016, and through its Twitter page.WEB,weblink NYCT Subway (@NYCTSubway) – Twitter,


{{NYCS const/table|style=margin:0 0 1 0}}

Subway map

(File:Nyc subway underground or overground track position.svg|thumb|right|Map of line elevation in relation to the ground; underground segments are in orange, and above ground segments are in blue, whether they are elevated, embanked, graded or open cut)Current official transit maps of the New York City Subway are based on a 1979 design by Michael Hertz Associates. The maps are not geographically accurate due to the complexity of the system (Manhattan being the smallest borough, but having the most services), but they do show major city streets as an aid to navigation. The newest edition took effect on June 27, 2010, and makes Manhattan bigger and Staten Island smaller.New Subway Map is Here website. Retrieved June 18, 2010. Earlier diagrams of the subway (the first being produced in 1958) had the perception of being more geographically inaccurate than the diagrams today. The design of the subway map by Massimo Vignelli, published by the MTA between 1972 and 1979, has become a modern classic but the MTA deemed the map flawed due to its placement of geographical elements.WEB,weblink The (Mostly) True Story of Helvetica and the New York City Subway, AIGA, November 18, 2008,, February 4, 2009, WEB, Dave, Hogarty,weblink Michael Hertz, Designer of the NYC Subway Map, Gothamist, August 3, 2007, July 4, 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 18, 2009, A late night-only version of the map was introduced on January 30, 2012.{{NYCS const|latenightmap}} On September 16, 2011, the MTA introduced a Vignelli-style interactive subway map, "The Weekender",WEB,weblink Introducing The Weekender, (YouTube), September 30, 2011, October 1, 2011, to its website;WEB,weblink The Weekender,, October 12, 2013, as the title suggests,NEWS,weblink Aid for Baffled Weekend Subway Riders, The New York Times, Michael M., Grynbaum, September 15, 2011, September 30, 2011, the online map provides information about any planned work, from late Friday night to early Monday morning.NEWS,weblink Introducing 'The Weekender',, September 16, 2011, September 18, 2011, NEWS,weblink MTA Launches Interactive Online Map Ahead Of Difficult Weekend For Subways, NY1, September 16, 2011, September 18, 2011, bot: unknown,weblink" title="">weblink June 28, 2014, mdy-all, Several privately produced schematics are available online or in printed form, such as those by Hagstrom Map.weblink" title="">Subway Map Gets A Makeover NY1 local news channel. Retrieved May 28, 2010.File:NYC subway late night map.svg|Late night subway service mapFile:Official New York City Subway Map vc.jpg|The official mapFile:NYC Subway old map 2 vc.jpg|Old official map designed by George SalomonFile:NYC Subway Wallets vc.jpg|alt=On top of a table, several wallets can be seen with the subway map printed on them. On the left, five wallets can be seen sitting directly on the table, along with a sticker with the words "NYC SUBWAY" printed on it. To the right more wallets with the subway maps can be seen in a small, transparent box.|The NYC Subway map as a theme of art

{{Anchor|Stations, facilities, and amenities}} Stations

File:7train arriving.ogv|thumb|{{NYCS|7}} train arriving at Vernon Boulevard â€“ Jackson Avenue station (43s)]]Out of the {{NYCS const|number|total}} stations, {{#expr:{{NYCS const|number|total}}-2}} are served 24 hours a day.The Times Square and Grand Central stations of the IRT 42nd Street Shuttle are closed during late nights. Underground stations in the New York City Subway are typically accessed by staircases going down from street level. Many of these staircases are painted in a common shade of green, with slight or significant variations in design.WEB, Subway Entrance Stylings,weblink Forgotten New York, December 6, 2015, February 14, 2005, Other stations have unique entrances reflective of their location or date of construction. Several station entrance stairs, for example, are built into adjacent buildings. Nearly all station entrances feature color-coded globe or square lamps signifying their status as an entrance.NEWS,weblink Tunnel Vision; The Light at the Top of the Subway Stairs, Kennedy, Randy, August 13, 2002, The New York Times, July 7, 2008, File:West 4 St mezzanine vc.jpg|thumb|left|The long and wide mezzanine in the West Fourth Street station in alt=The mezzanine at West Fourth Street station in Greenwich Village. Several support beams, painted green can be seen throughout the mezzanine. On the ceiling, a long and straight white light can be seen.


File:Times Square-42nd Street Entrance.JPG|left|thumb|An entrance to the Times Square–42nd Street/Port Authority Bus Terminal station]]Many stations in the subway system have mezzanines. Mezzanines allow for passengers to enter from multiple locations at an intersection and proceed to the correct platform without having to cross the street before entering. Inside mezzanines are fare control areas, where passengers physically pay their fare to enter the subway system.WEB, Reopening Closed Subway Entrances,weblink, New York City Transit Riders Council, December 6, 2015, November 2001, WEB, MTA New York City Transit Jay Street / Lawrence Street Stations Contract A-35913 / A-35914 / A-35927 / A-35978,weblink Metropolitan Transportation Authority, December 6, 2015, In many older stations, the fare control area is at platform level with no mezzanine crossovers.WEB,weblink IRT West Side Line,, February 24, 2016, Many elevated stations also have platform-level fare control with no common station house between directions of service.Upon entering a station, passengers may use station booths (formerly known as token booths)WEB,weblink MTA/New York City Transit – Subway Station Booth,, March 13, 2016, or vending machines to buy their fare, which is currently stored in a MetroCard. Each station has at least one booth, typically located at the busiest entrance.NEWS,weblink M.T.A. Station Agent Cuts Leave Riders Lost, Grynbaum, Michael M., October 8, 2009, New York Times, March 13, 2016, After swiping the card at a turnstile, customers enter the fare-controlled area of the station and continue to the platforms. Inside fare control are "Off-Hours Waiting Areas", which consist of benches and are identified by a yellow sign.WEB, Riding Safely,weblink Metropolitan Transportation Authority, December 6, 2015, NEWS,weblink For Off-Hours, Subway Zones for Safer Wait, Goldman, Ari L., March 8, 1982, The New York Times, April 15, 2016, 0362-4331,


File:59th Street–Columbus Circle (New York City Subway) by David Shankbone.jpg|thumb|The IND Eighth Avenue Line station at 59th Street â€“ Columbus Circle ]]A typical subway station has waiting platforms ranging from {{convert|480|to|600|ft}} long. Some are longer.WEB,weblink History of the Independent Subway,, February 10, 2016, Feinman, Mark S., 2000, WEB, IND STation Lengths,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink August 6, 2011, August 6, 2011, February 14, 2016, Platforms of former commuter rail stations—such as those on the IND Rockaway Line, are even longer. With the many different lines in the system, one platform often serves more than one service. Passengers need to look at the overhead signs to see which trains stop there and when, and at the arriving train to identify it.There are a number of common platform configurations:
  • On a double track line, a station may have one center island platform used for trains in both directions, or two side platforms, one for each direction.BOOK, Interborough Rapid Transit Company, IRT Interborough Rapid Transit / the New York City Subway: Its Design and Construction,weblink February 27, 2016, 2007,, 978-1430325505,
  • For lines with three or four tracks with express service, local stops will have side platforms and the middle one or two tracks will not stop at the station. On these lines, express stations typically have two island platforms, one for each direction. Each island platform provides a cross-platform interchange between local and express services. Some lines with four-track express service have two tracks each on two levels and use both island and side platforms.


File:BwyWalk0505 StationLincolnCenter.jpg|thumb|left|Street elevator serving as an entrance to the 66th Street–Lincoln Center station]]Since the majority of the system was built before 1990, the year the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) went into effect, many New York City Subway stations were not designed to be handicapped-accessible.WEB,weblink Map Reveals Shortage of Wheelchair-Accessible NYC Subway Stations, DNAinfo New York, February 28, 2016, dead,weblink March 6, 2016, mdy-all, Since then, elevators have been built in newly constructed stations to comply with the ADA. (Most grade-level stations required little modification to meet ADA standards.) In addition, the MTA identified "key stations", high-traffic and/or geographically important stations, which must conform to the ADA when they are extensively renovated. As of January 2017, there are {{NYCS const|number|accessible}} currently accessible stations; many of them have AutoGate access.WEB, {{!, Accessibility|url =weblink|website =|access-date = February 10, 2016}} Under the current MTA plans, the number of ADA accessible stations will go up to 144 by 2020.WEB,weblink NYC Subway Needs $1.7 Billion In New Elevators, Feds Say, Curbed NY, February 29, 2016, February 2016, In June 2016, the MTA was sued by a disability rights group for not including an elevator during the $21 million renovation of the Middletown Road subway station in the Bronx. Only 19% of all of the subway system's stations were fully accessible to people with disabilities at the time,WEB,weblink Disability rights groups sue MTA over inaccessible subway station, Ross, Barbara, Gregorian, Dareh, June 29, 2016, NY Daily News, July 7, 2016, a number that rose to 24% the next year.NEWS,weblink New York City’s Subway System Violates Local and Federal Laws, Disability Groups Say, Rosenberg, Eli, April 25, 2017, The New York Times, April 26, 2017, 0362-4331, In April 2017, two simultaneous lawsuits against the MTA, one in state court and one in federal court, claimed that the system was breaking one of the city's human-rights laws by violating the Americans with Disabilities Act. As a result, the suits said, the MTA failed to "eliminate and prevent discrimination from playing any role in actions relating to employment, public accommodations and housing and other real estate."

Rolling stock

File:A train @ Hoyt-Schermerhorn.jpg|thumb|A train of R32R32File:Empty subway in NYC.jpg|thumb|Interior of an R142AR142AFile:R62 interior.jpg|thumb|Interior of an R62R62File:NYC N train cockpit.jpg|thumb|right|Driver's cab of an R160BR160B{{As of|2016|November|alt=As of November 2016}}, the New York City Subway has {{NYCS const|subwaycartotal}} cars on the roster.WEB,weblink New York City Subway Car Fleet Jan 2012 through January 2016, TheJoeKorner, February 6, 2016, See:
  • {{NYCS const|thejoekorner|A}}
  • {{NYCS const|thejoekorner|B}}
A typical New York City Subway train consists of 8 to 11 cars, although shuttles can have as few as two, and the train can range from {{convert|150|to|600|ft}} in length.WEB, BMT-IND Car Assignments – December 6, 2015,weblink, February 14, 2016, The system maintains two separate fleets of cars, one for the A Division routes and another for the B Division routes.WEB,weblink R-Type Cars 1932 to 1987,, March 13, 2016, All B Division equipment is about {{convert|10|ft|2}} wide and either {{convert|60|ft|6|in}} or {{convert|75|ft|2}} long, whereas A Division equipment is approximately {{convert|8|ft|9|in}} wide and {{convert|51|ft|4|in}} long.Second Avenue Subway Draft Environmental Impact Statement, WEB,weblink Glossary,  {{small|(45.6 KB)}} A portion of the 60-foot B Division fleet is used for operation in the BMT Eastern Division, where {{convert|75|ft|2|adj=on}} long cars are not permitted.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, June 6, 2010, 3.3.3 A, C (Fulton Street) Line Services and Structural Issues, 2007, February 9, 2016,, New York City Department of City Planning, WEB,weblink Car History,, March 13, 2016, Cars purchased by the City of New York since the inception of the IND and the other divisions beginning in 1948 are identified by the letter "R" followed by a number; e.g.: R32. This number is the contract number under which the cars were purchased.WEB,weblink R-Type Cars 1932 to 1987,, Cars with nearby contract numbers (e.g.: R1 through R9, or R26 through R29, or R143 through R179) may be relatively identical, despite being purchased under different contracts and possibly built by different manufacturers.NEWS, Chan, Sewell, Sewell Chan, New Subway Cars Promise All Kinds of Information, The New York Times, November 30, 2005,weblink October 27, 2007, Since 1999, the R142, R142A, R143, R160, R179 and R188 cars have been placed into service.*R142/A: NEWS, Siegal, Nina, Neighborhood Report: New York Underground; 2 New Trains in the Subways: Catch Them if You Can,weblink January 24, 2016, The New York Times, October 1, 2000,
  • R143: JOURNAL, Kawasaki completes NYCT R143 order. (Market).(New York City Transit)(subway cars contract), Railway Age, March 1, 2003,weblink
  • R160: NEWS, Lueck, Thomas J., City Subways Put New Cars Into Service as a Test Run,weblink January 24, 2016, The New York Times, August 18, 2006,
  • R179: NEWS, Barone, Vincent, New MTA subway cars to arrive for testing, will replace oldest fleet,weblink September 8, 2016, AM New York, September 6, 2016,
  • R188: WEB,weblink MTA &124; news &124; New Subway Cars Being Put to the Test,, November 18, 2013, August 24, 2014, These cars are collectively known as New Technology Trains (NTTs) due to modern innovations such as LED and LCD route signs and information screens, as well as recorded train announcements and the ability to facilitate Communication-Based Train Control (CBTC).WEB, New Technology Train Rolled Out This Morning Along the E Line,weblink Metropolitan Transportation Authority, December 7, 2015, December 22, 2008, WEB, The voice behind the closing doors would like to clear something up.,weblink, Straus News, December 7, 2015, March 18, 2003,
As part of the 2017–2020 MTA Financial Plan, 600 subway cars will have electronic display signs installed to improve customer experience.


Riders pay a single fare to enter the subway system and may transfer between trains at no extra cost until they exit via station turnstiles; the fare is a flat rate regardless of how far or how long the rider travels. Thus, riders must swipe their MetroCard upon entering the subway system, but not a second time upon leaving.WEB, MTA/New York City Transit – Fares and MetroCard,weblink, February 10, 2016, {{As of|2016|April}}, nearly all fares are paid by MetroCard;WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, March 2, 2016, Transit & Bus Committee Meeting February 2016, February 2016,, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, March 11, 2016, the base fare is $2.75 when purchased in the form of a reusable "pay per ride" MetroCard, with the last fare increase occurring on March 22, 2015.WEB,weblink MetroCard Calculator to ease fare increase pain, am New York, Single-use cards may be purchased for $3.00, and 7-day and 30-day unlimited ride cards can lower the effective per-ride fare significantly.WEB,weblink MTA/New York City Transit – Fares and MetroCard,, Reduced fares are available for the elderly and people with disabilities.WEB,weblink – Reduced-Fare,, Fares were stored in a money room at 370 Jay Street in Downtown Brooklyn starting in 1951, when the building opened as a headquarters for the New York City Board of Transportation.*NEWS, New Home Ready for Transit Board,weblink October 14, 2016, The New York Times, March 25, 1951, NEWS, City Board Rushes Move to New Site: Transportation Unit Receives U.S. Order to Vacate and Speeds to Brooklyn,weblink October 14, 2016, The New York Times, March 31, 1951, NEWS, Transit Board Now In Its New Building,weblink October 14, 2016, The New York Times, April 3, 1951, The building is close to the lines of all three subway divisions (the IRT, BMT, and IND) and thus was a convenient location to collect fares, including tokens and cash, via money trains. Passageways from the subway stations, including a visible door in the Jay Street IND station, lead to a money sorting room in the basement of the building. The money trains were replaced by armored trucks in 2006.NEWS, Young, Michelle, The MTA’s Special Armored Money Train that Ran from 1951 to 2006 in NYC,weblink October 14, 2016, Untapped cities, February 12, 2016, NEWS, Zimmerman, Alex, Inside the Brooklyn Building that Held the Subway's Secrets,weblink October 14, 2016, Atlas Obscura, November 30, 2015, NEWS, Olshan, Jeremy, End of the Line: Secret Cash Train Retired,weblink October 14, 2016, New York Post, January 16, 2006,weblink" title="">weblink January 18, 2006, dead, NEWS, Chung, Jen, Money Train Retires,weblink October 14, 2016, Gothamist, January 16, 2006, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 4, 2015,


(File:MetroCard.SVG|left|thumb|The current MetroCard design)In November 1993,WEB,weblink Old Metrocard Can Be a Fare-Ly Profitable Item, Salkin, Allen, New York Post, March 13, 2016, June 15, 2000, a fare system called the MetroCard was introduced, which allows riders to use cards that store the value equal to the amount paid to a subway station booth clerk or vending machine.NEWS,weblink Seth, Faison, The New York Times, 3,000 Subway Riders, Cards in Hand, Test New Fare System, June 2, 1993, April 25, 2010, The MetroCard was enhanced in 1997 to allow passengers to make free transfers between subways and buses within two hours; several MetroCard-only transfers between subway stations were added in 2001.NEWS,weblink With work on Greenpoint Tube set to end, advocates want free G-to-J/M transfer to be permanent, Donohue, Pete, August 26, 2014, New York Daily News, February 28, 2016, WEB,weblink NYC Transit G Line Review, July 10, 2013,, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, February 28, 2016, With the addition of unlimited-ride MetroCards in 1998, the New York City Transit system was the last major transit system in the United States with the exception of BART in San Francisco to introduce passes for unlimited bus and rapid transit travel.NEWS, Andy, Newman, Hop On, Hop Off: The Unlimited Metrocard Arrives, The New York Times,weblink July 3, 1998, January 8, 2010, Unlimited-ride MetroCards are available for 7-day and 30-day periods.NEWS, Andy, Newman, Guide to NYC Subway, FreshNYC,weblink One-day "Fun Pass" and 14-day cards were also introduced, but have since been discontinued.WEB, MTA: Say Goodbye to Fun Cards,weblink WNYC, February 9, 2016,

MetroCard replacement

On October 23, 2017, it was announced that the MetroCard would be phased out and replaced by OMNY, a contactless fare payment system also by Cubic, with fare payment being made using Apple Pay, Google Pay, debit/credit cards with near-field communication technology, or radio-frequency identification cards.NEWS,weblink MTA approves plan to scrap MetroCards for ‘tap’ payment system, Rivoli, Dan, October 23, 2017, NY Daily News, October 24, 2017, en, NEWS,weblink New York to Replace MetroCard With Modern Way to Pay Transit Fares, Barron, James, October 23, 2017, The New York Times, October 24, 2017, en-US, 0362-4331, All buses and subway stations will be compatible with electronic fare collection by 2020. However, support of the MetroCard is slated to remain until 2023.{{Clear}}


(File:Reopening of 53rd St ESI Station (36710339210).jpg|thumb|A subway station rebuilt under the Enhanced Station Initiative)Since the late 20th century, the MTA has started several projects to maintain and improve the subway. In the 1990s, it started converting the BMT Canarsie Line to use communications-based train control, utilizing a moving block signal system that allowed more trains to use the tracks and thus increasing passenger capacity.NEWS,weblink Subways Run by Computers Start on L Line This Summer, May 24, 2007, Sewell, Chan, Sewell Chan, January 14, 2005, The New York Times, After the Canarsie Line tests were successful, the MTA expanded the automation program in the 2000s and 2010s to include other lines.WEB,weblink Twenty-Year Capital Needs Assessment,, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, August 2009, September 12, 2016, WEB,weblink Chapter 2: Project Alternatives, 4,, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, September 12, 2015, As part of another program called FASTRACK, the MTA started closing sections of lines during weekday nights in 2012,in order to allow workers to clean these lines without being hindered by train movements.WEB,weblink 'FASTRACK' Repairs Mean Service Disruptions On 4, 5 And 6 Subway, January 1, 2012, CBS New York, September 8, 2017, It expanded the program beyond Manhattan the next year after noticing how efficient the FASTRACK program was compared to previous service diversions.WEB, MTA Fastrack To Expand To Beyond Manhattan, WNYC, May 14, 2012,weblink September 8, 2017, In 2015, the MTA announced a wide-ranging improvement program as part of the 2015–2019 Capital Program. Thirty stations would be extensively rebuilt under the Enhanced Station Initiative, and new R211 subway cars would be able to fit more passengers.WEB,weblink Cuomo unveils new designs aimed to fix MTA subway crowding, Rivoli, Dan, July 18, 2016, NY Daily News, July 19, 2016, NEWS,weblink Cuomo Details Redesigned Subway Cars and Major Station Renovations, Schmidt, Samantha, July 18, 2016, July 19, 2016, The New York Times, The MTA has also started some projects to improve passenger amenities. It added train arrival "countdown clocks" to most A Division stations (except on the IRT Flushing Line, serving the {{NYCS trains|Flushing}}) and the BMT Canarsie Line ({{NYCS trains|Canarsie}}) by late 2011, allowing passengers on these routes to see train arrival times using real-time data.WEB,weblink Innovation, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, September 11, 2017, A similar countdown-clock project for the B Division and the Flushing Line was deferredWEB,weblink More NYC Subway Countdown Clocks Won't Arrive Anytime Soon, Tangel, Andrew, October 28, 2015, WSJ, October 29, 2015, until 2016, when a new Bluetooth-based clock system was tested successfully.NEWS, Wolfe, Jonathan, New York Today: New Subway Clocks, The New York Times, August 7, 2017,weblink September 11, 2017, Beginning in 2011, the MTA also started "Help Point" to aid with emergency calls or station agent assistance.WEB,weblink New 'Help Point' Intercoms Head from MoMa to the Subway, DNAinfo, April 5, 2011, dead,weblink September 12, 2017, The Help Point project was deemed successful, and the MTA subsequently installed Help Points in all stations.WEB, Smith, Dave, All New York City subway stations will have WiFi by the end of this year, Business Insider, January 11, 2016,weblink September 11, 2017, Interactive touchscreen "On The Go! Travel Station" kiosks, which give station advisories, itineraries, and timetables, were installed starting in 2011,WEB, MTA Unveils New "On The Go" Touch-Screen Plaything At Bowling Green Subway Station,weblink Gothamist, February 10, 2016, Sarah, Nelson, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 16, 2016, with the program also being expanded after a successful pilot.WEB,weblink MTA 2017 Final Proposed Budget November Financial Plan 2017–2020, Volume 2, November 16, 2016,, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, November 17, 2016, Cellular phone and wireless data in stations, first installed in 2011 as part of yet another pilot program,NEWS,weblink Source: MTA on track with subway station Wi-Fi goal, Barone, Vincent, December 8, 2016, am New York, December 8, 2016, was also expanded systemwide due to positive passenger feedback. Finally, credit-card trials at several subway stations in 2006 and 2010NEWS, A Test at 25 Stations Subway Riding Without the Swiping,weblink The New York Times, January 31, 2006, February 10, 2016, 0362-4331, Sewell, Chan, NEWS, Kaminer, Ariel, Testing PayPass on New York’s Buses and Trains, The New York Times, June 11, 2010,weblink March 25, 2016, led to proposals for contactless payment to replace the aging MetroCard.

Safety and security


Signaling has evolved during a century of operation, and MTA uses a mixture of old and new systems. Most routes use block signaling but a few routes are also being retrofitted with communications-based train control (CBTC), which would allow trains to run without conductor input.AV MEDIA,weblink CBTC: Communications-Based Train Control, July 20, 2015, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, video, en-US, YouTube, April 30, 2018,

Wayside block signaling

File:34 St-Hudson Yards Station (21389427245).jpg|thumb|Example of a wayside block signal at the 34th Street–Hudson Yards station]]The system currently uses automatic block signaling with fixed wayside signals and automatic train stops in order to provide safe train operation across the whole system.WEB,weblink
, Moving Forward: Accelerating the Transition to Communications-Based Train Control for New York City's Subways
,, Regional Plan Association, May 2014, September 12, 2016, The New York City Subway system has, for the most part, used block signalling since its first line opened, and many portions of the current signaling system were installed between the 1930s and 1960s. These signals work by preventing trains from entering a "block" occupied by another train. Typically, the blocks are {{convert|1000|ft}} long.WEB,weblink
, Why New York Subway Lines Are Missing Countdown Clocks
, Somers, James
, The Atlantic, en-US, February 28, 2016, November 13, 2015, Red and green lights show whether a block is occupied or vacant. The train's maximum speed will depend on how many blocks are open in front of it. The signals do not register a train's speed, nor where in the block the train is located.WEB,weblink
, Moving Forward Accelerating the Transition to Communications-Based Train Control for New York City's Subways
, Regional Plan Association, May 2014, March 25, 2016, WEB,weblink
, The JoeKorNer – Looking out the Front – Signals,, February 28, 2016,
Subway trains are stopped mechanically at all signals showing "stop". Although this is a simple principle of train stops, that wayside trippers must not be moved to trip ("stop") position until the train has fully passed.WEB, Subway Signals: Train Stops
,, October 21, 2015
,weblink October 21, 2015,

Communications-based train control

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the MTA began automating the subway by installing CBTC, which supplements rather than replaces the fixed-block signal system; it allows trains to operate more closely together with lower headways. The BMT Canarsie Line, on which the {{NYCS trains|Canarsie}} runs, was chosen for pilot testing because it is a self-contained line that does not operate in conjunction with other lines. CBTC became operational in February 2009.WEB,weblink MTA L Line trains go to full CBTC, Editor-in-Chief, William C. Vantuono,, March 13, 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 14, 2016, February 24, 2009, Due to an unexpected ridership increase, the MTA ordered additional cars, and increased service from 15 trains to 26 trains per hour, an achievement beyond the capability of the block system.NEWS,weblink For Less Crowding on L Train, Think 2010, Report Says, May 24, 2007, William, Neuman, May 22, 2007, The New York Times, The total cost of the project was $340 million.After the success of the BMT Canarsie Line automation, the IRT Flushing Line, carrying the {{NYCS trains|Flushing}}, was next chosen to get CBTC.WEB, New Tech Promises Less Subway Crowding, If Albany Doesn't Beggar the MTA {{!, Streetsblog New York City|url =weblink|access-date = February 10, 2016|date = October 13, 2011}} The plan is estimated to cost US $1.4 billion.WEB, 2008–2013 MTA Capital Program Accelerated Program Presentation to the Board, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, February 27, 2008,weblink PPT, February 28, 2008, 15–16, It was scheduled to be completed in September 2017,WEB,weblink MTA 2017 Final Proposed Budget November Financial Plan 2017–2020, Volume 2, November 16, 2016,, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, November 17, 2016, but was delayed to November 2018.WEB,weblink Capital Program Oversight Committee Meeting November 2018, November 13, 2018, April 20, 2018, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, {{rp|11–12}}By 2018, CBTC was in the process of being installed on several other routes as well, particularly the IND Queens Boulevard Line ({{NYCS trains|Queens}}) and IND Culver Line ({{NYCS trains|Culver IND north}}). Eventually, the MTA has plans to automate a much larger portion, using One Person Train Operation (OPTO) in conjunction with CBTC. At the current pace of installation, it would take 175 years for CBTC to be installed at a cost of $20 billion. The Flushing line operated at almost 30 trains an hour using the signal system installed when the line was built, but after CBTC is installed it is possible that an additional two trains per hour could be operated.BOOK,weblink Rail Transit Capacity, Parkinson, Tom, Fisher, Ian, 1996, Transportation Research Board, 978-0309057189, en, In March 2018, New York City Transit Authority president Andy Byford announced a new plan for resignaling the subway with CBTC, which would only take 10 to 15 years, compared to the previous estimate of 40 years. However, this would be very expensive, as it would cost $8 to $15 billion.NEWS,weblink New York City Transit Chief: Subway Signal Overhaul Could Be Done in 10 to 15 Years, Berger, Paul, March 29, 2018, Wall Street Journal, March 30, 2018, en-US, 0099-9660, NEWS,weblink NYC subway’s aging signals could be fixed in 10–15 years, says transit head, Rosenberg, Zoe, March 29, 2018, Curbed NY, March 30, 2018, The New York City Subway uses a system known as Automatic Train Supervision (ATS) for dispatching and train routing on the A DivisionWEB,weblink MTA | news | Know Before You Go with MTA Subway Time™,, December 28, 2012, April 11, 2014, (the Flushing line and the trains used on the {{NYCS trains|Flushing|type=service|time=nolink}} do not have ATS.) ATS allows dispatchers in the Operations Control Center (OCC) to see where trains are in real time, and whether each individual train is running early or late. Dispatchers can hold trains for connections, re-route trains, or short-turn trains to provide better service when a disruption causes delays.

Train accidents

Despite the signal system, there have been at least 64 major train accidents since 1918, when a train bound for South Ferry smashed into two trains halted near Jackson Avenue on the IRT White Plains Road Line in the Bronx.WEB,weblink NYC Subway accidents,, 2009, December 12, 2009, Several accidents resulted when the train operator ran through red signals and rear-ended the subway train in front of it; this resulted from the signaling practice of "keying by", which allowed train operators to bypass red signals. The deadliest accident, the Malbone Street Wreck, occurred on November 1, 1918 beneath the intersection of Flatbush Avenue, Ocean Avenue, and Malbone Street (the latter of which is now Empire Boulevard) near the Prospect Park station of the then-BRT Brighton Line in Brooklyn, killing 93 people.NEWS, The Mayor to Begin B.R.T Inquiry Today, The New York Times, 24, November 1, 1918,weblink December 12, 2009, PDF, As a result of accidents, especially more recent ones such as the 1995 Williamsburg Bridge crash, timer signals were installed. These signals have resulted in reduced speeds across the system. Accidents such as derailments are also due to broken equipment, such as the rails and the train itself.

Passenger safety

(File:168th Street IRT Broadway 2.JPG|thumb|Yellow platform edges, yellow staircase steps and yellow railings, painted for safety, at the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line platform at 168th Street)

Track safety and suicides{{Anchor|Track safety|Suicides}}

A portion of subway-related deaths in New York consists of suicides committed by jumping in front of an oncoming train. Between 1990 and 2003, 343 subway-related suicides have been registered out of a citywide total of 7,394 (4.6%) and subway-related suicides increased by 30%, despite a decline in overall suicide numbers.WEB, Galea, Sandro, Tracy, M, Piper, T.M., Bucciarelli, A.M., Tardiff, K., Gershon, R, Vlahov, D, Epidemiology of suicide in the New York City subway system, American Public Health Association, November 4, 2009,weblink November 27, 2009, Due to increase in people hit by trains in 2013,NEWS,weblink Deaths by New York subway train strikes shrank slightly for 2013, MTA says, NY Daily News, December 31, 2013, April 13, 2014, in late 2013 and early 2014 the MTA started a test program at one undisclosed station, with four systems and strategies to eliminate the number of people hit by trains. Closed-circuit television cameras, a web of laser beams stretched across the tracks, radio frequencies transmitted across the tracks, and thermal imaging cameras focused on the station's tracks were set to be installed at that station.WEB, Sozzi, Brian, Sozzi: The Boring Old Subway is Now Digital, and That's Pretty Awesome, TheStreet, April 21, 2014,weblink March 25, 2016, At the unidentified station, tests have gone so well at the testing site that these track protection systems will be installed systemwide as part of the 2015–2019 capital program.WEB,weblink MTA is testing sensors, video systems that would save people who fall on subway tracks, NY Daily News, Donohhue, Pete, August 11, 2014, August 18, 2014, The MTA also expressed interest in starting a pilot program to install platform edge doors.NEWS,weblink MTA tests motion sensing lasers, thermal image cameras to save fallen straphangers from subway trains, NY Daily News, December 12, 2013, April 13, 2014, Several planned stations in the New York City Subway may possibly feature platform screen doors, possibly including future stations such as those part of the Second Avenue Subway.NEWS,weblink 2nd Ave. Subway Platforms May Get Glass Walls and Sliding Doors, Neuman, William, April 5, 2007, February 10, 2016, New York Times, Currently, the MTA is planning a test program to install screen doors at a subway station on the BMT Canarsie Line. As part of the 2010–2014 capital program, the station was going to be Sixth Avenue, but it is uncertain whether or not that this will be the station chosen.WEB,weblink L Train Platform Eyed for AirTrain-Like Safety Doors in MTA Pilot Program, DNAinfo New York, February 29, 2016, dead,weblink February 24, 2016, mdy-all, Following a series of incidents during one week in November 2016, in which three people were injured or killed after being pushed onto the tracks, the MTA started to consider installing platform edge doors for the 42nd Street Shuttle.WEB,weblink MTA boss makes another push for subway platform doors, Furfaro, Danielle, November 15, 2016, New York Post, November 16, 2016, Numerous challenges come with platform doors. Some subway lines operate multiple subway car models, and their doors often do not line up.NEWS,weblink Subway Train Drags Woman to Death, Honan, Katie, 2019-04-22, Wall Street Journal, 2019-04-28, en-US, 0099-9660, Many platforms are not strong enough to hold the additional weight of a platform barrier, thus requiring extensive renovations if they were to be installed.


Crime rates have varied, but there has been a downward trend starting in the 1990s and continuing today.NEWS,weblink
, Safest and riskiest areas of New York's subway system revealed in Daily News investigation
, June 22, 2014, New York Daily News, March 18, 2016, In order to fight crime, various approaches have been used over the years, including an "If You See Something, Say Something" campaignWEB,weblink
, If You See Something, Say Something – Subway – Spring 2011, (YouTube)
, April 19, 2011, April 19, 2011, and, starting in 2016, banning people who commit a crime in the subway system from entering the system for a certain length of time.WEB,weblink
, NYPD Reportedly Wants To Ban "Career Criminals" From Subways
, Yakas, Ben, Gothamist, March 18, 2016
archiveurl= March 3, 2016, In July 1985, the Citizens Crime Commission of New York City published a study showing riders abandoning the subway, fearing the frequent robberies and generally bad circumstances.BOOK,weblink
, Downtown safety, security, and economic development: a joint report
, City, Citizens Crime Commission of New York, NY, Regional Plan Association
, 1985, Downtown Research & Development Center, 978-0915910229, en,
To counter these developments, policy that was rooted in the late 1980s and early 1990s was implemented.MAGAZINE, Kelling, George L., How New York Became Safe: The Full Story, City Journal (New York), City Journal, 2009,weblink November 24, 2009, NEWS, Glazer, Nathan, On Subway Graffiti in New York, National Affairs, 54, 3–12, 1979,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, October 17, 2015, November 24, 2009, In line with this Fixing Broken Windows philosophy, the New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA) began a five-year program to eradicate graffiti from subway trains in 1984.WEB,weblink
, Don't Do It (1988), (YouTube)
, January 9, 2010, May 28, 2011, In 1993, Mayor Rudy Giuliani took office and with Police Commissioner Howard Safir, the strategy was more widely deployed in New York. Crime rates in the subway and city dropped.NEWS, Wolff, Craig
, Subway Crime Declining, New Transit Figures Show
, The New York Times, November 12, 1993
,weblink November 26, 2009, Giuliani's campaign credited the success to his policy.WEB, Rudy Giuliani,,weblink July 15, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink September 4, 2007, The extent to which his policies deserve the credit is disputed.Levitt, Steven D.: "Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors that Explain the Decline and Six that Do Not", Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18(1), 163–190
New York City Police Department Commissioner William J. Bratton and author of Fixing Broken Windows, George L. Kelling, however, stated the police played an "important, even central, role" in the declining crime rates. The trend continued and Giuliani's successor, Michael Bloomberg, stated in a November 2004 press release: "Today, the subway system is safer than it has been at any time since we started tabulating subway crime statistics nearly 40 years ago."PRESS RELEASE, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg testifies before the Metropolitan Transportation Authority Board, November 9, 2004,weblink November 26, 2009,


After the September 11, 2001, attacks, the MTA exercised extreme caution regarding anyone taking photographs or recording video inside the system and proposed banning all photography and recording in a meeting around June 2004.WEB,weblink village voice > nyclife > Forbidden Photos, Anyone? by Matt Haber, February 28, 2005, March 18, 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 28, 2005, However, due to strong response from both the public and from civil rights groups, the rule of conduct was dropped. In November 2004, the MTA again put this rule up for approval, but was again denied,WEB,weblink Threat Of Subway Photo Ban Riseth Again, Gothamist, November 30, 2004, July 7, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 20, 2008, though many police officers and transit workers still confront or harass people taking photographs or videos.WEB, Kabak, Benjamin, Unlawful arrest for subway photography costs city $30K,weblink Second Ave. Sagas, November 24, 2015, February 10, 2010, However, on April 3, 2009, the NYPD issued a directive to officers stating that it is legal to take pictures within the subway system so long as it is not accompanied with suspicious activity.WEB,weblink Investigation of Individuals engaged in suspicious photography and video surveillance, New York City Police Department, April 3, 2009, March 25, 2016, Currently, the MTA Rules of Conduct, Restricted Areas and Activities section states that anyone may take pictures or record videos, provided that they do not use any of three tools: lights, reflectors, or tripods. These three tools are permitted only by members of the press who have identification issued by the NYPD.WEB,weblink {{!, Rules of Conduct Section 1050.9 Restricted areas and activities||access-date=March 13, 2016}}

Terrorism prevention

{{See also|New York City Transit Police}}On July 22, 2005, in response to bombings in London, the New York City Transit Police introduced a new policy of randomly searching passengers' bags as they approached turnstiles. The NYPD claimed that no form of racial profiling would be conducted when these searches actually took place. The NYPD has come under fire from some groups that claim purely random searches without any form of threat assessment would be ineffectual. Donna Lieberman, Executive Director of the NYCLU, stated, "This NYPD bag search policy is unprecedented, unlawful and ineffective. It is essential that police be aggressive in maintaining security in public transportation. But our very real concerns about terrorism do not justify the NYPD subjecting millions of innocent people to suspicionless searches in a way that does not identify any person seeking to engage in terrorist activity and is unlikely to have any meaningful deterrent effect on terrorist activity."WEB,weblink American Civil Liberties Union : NYCLU Sues New York City Over Subway Bag Search Policy, November 1, 2009, March 18, 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 1, 2009, The searches were upheld by the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in MacWade v. Kelly.WEB, MacWade v. Kelly (Challenging the NYPD's subway bag-search program),weblink New York Civil Liberties Union, November 24, 2015, July 6, 2007, On April 11, 2008, MTA received a Ferrara Fire Apparatus Hazardous Materials Response Truck, which went into service three days later. It will be used in the case of a chemical or bioterrorist attack.NEWS, MTA NYC Transit Introduces New Hazmat Response Vehicle, April 11, 2008,weblink April 14, 2008, Najibullah Zazi and others were arrested in September 2009 and pleaded guilty in 2010 to being part of an al-Qaeda plan to undertake suicide bombings on the New York City subway system.NEWS,weblink Man in Queens Raids Denies Any Terrorist Link, Zraick, Karen, Johnston, David, September 15, 2009, New York Times, January 30, 2014, NEWS,weblink N.Y.C. bomb plot suspect Zazi pleads guilty, Associated Press News, CBC, February 20, 2010, January 30, 2014,


2009–2010 budget cuts

File:NYC MTA no W.jpg|thumb|left|28th Street station after the W train was discontinued in mid-2010. Note the dark grey tape masked over the W bullet. (This sign has since been replaced due to the restoration of the W in 2016.)]]The MTA faced a budget deficit of US$1.2 billion in 2009.WEB, M.T.A. Faces $1.2 Billion Deficit,weblink City Room, February 9, 2016, Sewell Chan and William, Neuman, November 10, 2008, This resulted in fare increases (three times from 2008 to 2010)WEB,weblink City straphangers feel sting as fares hiked again, NY Daily News, March 13, 2016, and service reductions (including the elimination of two part-time subway services, the {{NYCS|V}} and {{NYCS|W}}). Several other routes were modified as a result of the deficit. The {{NYCS|N}} was made a full-time local in Manhattan (in contrast to being a weekend local/weekday express before 2010), while the {{NYCS|Q}} was extended nine stations north to Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard on weekdays, both to cover the discontinued {{NYCS|W}}. The {{NYCS|M}} was combined with the {{NYCS|V}}, routing it over the Chrystie Street Connection, IND Sixth Avenue Line and IND Queens Boulevard Line to Forest Hills–71st Avenue on weekdays instead of via the BMT Fourth Avenue Line and BMT West End Line to Bay Parkway. The {{NYCS|G}} was truncated to Court Square full-time. Construction headways on eleven routes were lengthened, and off-peak service on seven routes were lengthened.WEB, MTA/New York City Transit – NYC Transit 2010 Service Reduction Proposals, MTA, March 19, 2010,weblink March 25, 2016,

2017 state of emergency

In June 2017, Governor Andrew Cuomo signed an executive order declaring a state of emergency for the New York City SubwayNEWS,weblink Cuomo Declares a State of Emergency for New York City Subways, Fitzsimmons, Emma G., June 29, 2017, The New York Times, July 25, 2017, en-US, 0362-4331, after a series of derailments,NEWS,weblink Subway Derailment in Manhattan Injures Dozens, Santora, Marc, June 27, 2017, The New York Times, July 25, 2017, Fitzsimmons, Emma G., en-US, 0362-4331, NEWS,weblink Subway Train Derails in Brooklyn, Disrupting Morning Commute, Fitzsimmons, Emma G., July 21, 2017, The New York Times, July 26, 2017, en-US, 0362-4331, track fires,NEWS,weblink Subway Track Fire Sends 9 to Hospital and Snarls Morning Commute, Fitzsimmons, Emma G., July 17, 2017, The New York Times, July 26, 2017, en-US, 0362-4331, NEWS,weblink Track Fire Is the Latest Subway Disaster, Kirby, Jen, July 17, 2017, Daily Intelligencer, July 26, 2017, en, and overcrowding incidents.NEWS,weblink These photos sum up just how bad New York's commuter nightmare has gotten, Muoio, Danielle, July 16, 2017, Business Insider, July 26, 2017, en, On June 27, 2017, thirty-nine people were injured when an A train derailed at 125th Street,NEWS,weblink MTA: Unsecure Rail Stored on Tracks Caused Harlem Subway Derailment, June 28, 2017, June 29, 2017, NY1, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 28, 2017, NEWS,weblink l Supervisors suspended amid NYC subway derailment probe, Armstrong, Kiley, June 28, 2017, June 29, 2017,weblink June 28, 2017, dead, The Washington Post, Eltman, Frank, damaging tracks and signals then catching on fire.NEWS,weblink Subway Derailment in Manhattan Injures Dozens, Santora, Marc, June 27, 2017, The New York Times, June 27, 2017, Ferré-sadurní, Luis, en-US, 0362-4331, On July 21, 2017, the second set of wheels on a southbound Q train jumped the track near Brighton Beach, with nine people suffering injuries due to improper maintenance of the car in question.WEB,weblink 'Abnormal Condition' on Car Caused Q Train Derailment, MTA Official Says, Honan, Katie, July 24, 2017, DNAinfo New York,weblink August 15, 2017, dead, July 26, 2017, NEWS,weblink Q train derailment caused by improper maintenance: MTA, Cook, Lauren, July 24, 2017, am New York, July 26, 2017, en, To solve the system's problems, the MTA officially announced the Genius Transit Challenge on June 28, where contestants could submit ideas to improve signals, communications infrastructure, or rolling stock.NEWS,weblink M.T.A. Asks Transit Fans, ‘Who Wants to Be a Subway-Saving Millionaire?’, Barron, James, June 29, 2017, The New York Times, July 26, 2017, en-US, 0362-4331, NEWS,weblink MTA seeks ‘genius’ to fix subways for $1M prize, Gabrielli, Sarah, June 29, 2017, NY Daily News, July 26, 2017, McShane, Larry, en, On July 25, 2017, Chairman Joe Lhota announced a two-phase, $9 billion New York City Subway Action Plan to stabilize the subway system and to prevent the continuing decline of the system.NEWS,weblink Rescue Plan to Improve Subways Includes Removing Seats, Fitzsimmons, Emma G., July 25, 2017, The New York Times, July 25, 2017, en-US, 0362-4331, WEB,weblink MTA {{!, Press Release {{!}} MTA Headquarters {{!}} MTA Chairman Joseph Lhota Unveils New York City Subway Action Plan||access-date=July 25, 2017}}
  • See also: NEWS,weblink NYC Subway Action Plan, July 25, 2017, NEWS,weblink MTA Chair Unveils $836 Million Subway Stabilization Plan, July 25, 2017, NBC New York, July 26, 2017, en, NEWS,weblink MTA chairman unveils plan to fix NYC subway system, Clark, Dray, July 25, 2017, ABC7 New York, July 26, 2017, en-US, The first phase, costing $836 million, consisted of five categories of improvements in Signal and Track Maintenance, Car Reliability, System Safety and Cleanliness, Customer Communication, and Critical Management Group. The $8 billion second phase would implement the winning proposals from the Genius Transit Challenge and fix more widespread problems. Six winning submissions for the Genius Transit Challenge were announced in March 2018.WEB,weblink MTA Genius Transit Challenge winners announced, Vantuono, William, March 12, 2018, Railway Track & Structures, March 14, 2018,
In October 2017, city comptroller Scott Stringer released an analysis that subway delays could cost up to $389 million or $243.1 million or $170.2 million per year depending on how long were the delays.WEB,weblink
, The Economic Cost of Subway Delays
, Stringer, Scott M., October 1, 2017
, Government of New York City,
, Office of the New York City Comptroller, en-US
, October 4, 2017,
In November 2017, The New York Times published its investigation into the crisis. It found that the crisis had arisen as a result of financially unsound decisions by local and state politicians from both the Democratic and Republican parties. According to the Times, these decisions included overspending; overpaying unions and interest groups; advertising superficial improvement projects while ignoring more important infrastructure; and agreeing to high-interest loans that would have been unnecessary without these politicians' other interventions. By this time, the subway's 65% average on-time performance was the lowest among all major cities' transit systems, and every non-shuttle subway route's on-time performance had declined in the previous ten years.NEWS,weblink How Politics and Bad Decisions Starved New York’s Subways, Rosenthal, Brian M., November 18, 2017, The New York Times, November 18, 2017, Fitzsimmons, Emma G., en-US, 0362-4331, LaForgia, Michael,

Capacity constraints

(File:Downtown Q Train Rush Hour.jpg|thumb|The interior of a {{NYCS|Q}} train during afternoon rush hour|alt=The Q train filled with commuters, many within one inch of each other. Several commuters are seen using smartphones; others are holding on to the train while standing.)Several subway lines have reached their operational limits in terms of train frequency and passengers, according to data released by the Transit Authority. {{As of|2007|6}}, all of the A Division services except the 42nd Street Shuttle, as well as the E and L trains, were beyond capacity, as well as portions of the {{NYCS|N}} train.NEWS,weblink Some Subways Found Packed Past Capacity, The New York Times, June 26, 2007, July 7, 2008, William, Neuman, WEB,weblink Appendix A: Service Needs Assessment Methodology MTA New York City Transit New York City Department of Transportation April 2009, MTA New York City Transit, April 2009, March 25, 2016, In April 2013, New York magazine reported that the system was more crowded than it had been in the previous 66 years.MAGAZINE,weblink The Approval Matrix, bottom left quadrant, New York, April 22, 2013, The subway reached a daily ridership of 6 million for 29 days in 2014, and was expected to record a similar ridership level for 55 days in 2015; by comparison, in 2013, daily ridership never reached 6 million.WEB, Harshbarger, Rebecca, Ridership below prediction at new 7 train station, am New York, September 21, 2015,weblink September 23, 2015, In particular, the express tracks of the IRT Lexington Avenue Line and IND Queens Boulevard Line are noted for operating at full capacity during peak hours. The Long Island Rail Road East Side Access project is expected to bring many more commuters to the Lexington Avenue Line when it opens around the year 2022, further overwhelming its capacity.WEB, MTR 124, Whose Mega-Project ? – Planners Say LIRR-Grand Central Project Folly Without Better East Side Transit,weblink, February 9, 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 15, 2016, WEB,weblink Good and Bad News on Second Avenue Subway, Bloom, Philip M. Plotch and Nicholas D., Gotham Gazette, April 15, 2016, WEB,weblink East Side Access Draws Opponents – The New York Sun,, April 15, 2016, By early 2016, delays as a result of overcrowding were up to more than 20,000 every month, four times the amount in 2012. The overcrowded trains have resulted in an increase of assaults because of tense commuters. With less platform space, more passengers are forced to be on the edge of the platform resulting in the increased possibility of passengers falling on the track. One possible solution that the MTA is considering is platform screen doors, which exist on the AirTrain JFK to prevent passengers from falling onto the tracks. In order to prevent hitting passengers who could fall onto the tracks, train operators are being instructed to go into stations at lower speeds. The increased proximity of riders could result in the spread of contagious diseases.NEWS,weblink Surge in Ridership Pushes New York Subway to Limit, Fitzsimmons, Emma G., May 3, 2016, The New York Times, 0362-4331, May 3, 2016,

Expanding service frequency via CBTC

The Second Avenue Subway, which has provisions for communications-based train control (CBTC), was built to relieve pressure on the Lexington Avenue Line ({{NYCS trains|Lexington}}) by shifting an estimated 225,000 passengers.WEB,weblink How a Single Mechanical Failure Sparked 625 MTA Delays, Daily Intelligencer, February 29, 2016, February 23, 2016, In addition, CBTC installation on the Flushing Line is expected to increase the rate of trains per hour on the {{NYCS trains|Flushing}}, but little relief will come to other crowded lines until later. CBTC on the Flushing Line is expected to be completed in September 2017. The {{NYCS trains|Canarsie}}, which is overcrowded during rush hours, already has CBTC operation.NEWS,weblink Subways Run by Computers Start on L Line This Summer, May 24, 2007, Sewell, Chan, Sewell Chan, January 14, 2005, The New York Times, The installation of CBTC has reduced the L's running time by 3%. Even with CBTC, there are limits on the potential increased service. For L service to be increased further, a power upgrade as well as additional space for the L to turn around at its Manhattan terminus, Eighth Avenue, are needed.The MTA is also seeking to implement CBTC on the IND Queens Boulevard Line. CBTC is to be installed on this line in five phases, with phase one (50th Street/8th Avenue and 47th–50th Streets–Rockefeller Center to Kew Gardens–Union Turnpike) being included in the 2010–2014 capital budget. The $205.8 million contract for the installment of phase one was awarded in 2015 to Siemens and Thales. Planning for phase one started in 2015, with major engineering work to follow in 2017.WEB,weblink MTA – news – $205.8M in Contracts Approved to Install Communications-Based Train Control System, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, July 20, 2015, WEB, Capital Program Oversight Committee Meeting: July 2015,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, September 6, 2015, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, August 11, 2015, New York City, July 2015, The total cost for the entire Queens Boulevard Line is estimated at over $900 million.WEB,weblink MTA 2010–2014 Capital Program Questions and Answers,, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, March 16, 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 2, 2012, The Queens Boulevard CBTC project is expected to be completed in 2021. Funding for CBTC on the IND Eighth Avenue Line is also provided in the 2015–2019 capital project.WEB,weblink MTA Twenty-Year Capital Needs Assessment 2015–2034,, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, March 18, 2016, The MTA projects that 355 miles of track will receive CBTC signals by 2029, including most of the IND, as well as the IRT Lexington Avenue Line and the BMT Broadway Line.WEB,weblink Twenty Year Capital Needs Assessment 2010–2029,, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, March 18, 2016, The MTA also is planning to install CBTC equipment on the IND Crosstown Line, the BMT Fourth Avenue Line and the BMT Brighton Line before 2025.WEB,weblink Second Avenue Subway FEIS Chapter 2,, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, March 18, 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 9, 2014, As part of the installation of CBTC, the whole fleet of subway cars needs to be remodeled or replaced.

Service frequency and car capacity

Due to an increase of ridership, the MTA has tried to increase capacity wherever possible by adding more frequent service, specifically during the evening hours. However, this increase will not likely keep up with the growth of subway ridership.WEB,weblink
, MTA Service Bump Next June Won't Keep Up With Growth in Subway Trips {{!, Streetsblog New York City|access-date=March 13, 2016|date=October 26, 2015}}WEB,weblink
, MTA Announces More Frequent Service On 11 Subway Lines, Plus The Times Square Shuttle
, Whitford, Emma, Gothamist, March 13, 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 1, 2016, Some lines have capacity for additional trains during peak times, but there are too few subway cars for this additional service to be operated.
(File:34th St Hudson Yards td 30 - R211 Open House.jpg|left|thumb|Mockup of the proposed experimental open-gangway configuration for the R211T subway car)As part of the R211 subway car order, the MTA is planning to test a train of 10 open-gangway experimental prototype cars, which could increase capacity by up to 10% by utilizing space between cars. The order could be expanded to include up to 750 open-gangway cars.WEB,weblink
, MTA Capital Program 2015–2019, October 28, 2015
, Metropolitan Transportation Authority,
, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, October 28, 2015, WEB,weblink
,weblink" title="">weblink
, dead, January 29, 2016
, MTA Capital Program Oversight Committee Meeting: January 2016, January 2016
,, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, January 23, 2016, WEB,weblink
, NYC: Look Forward to Finally Riding the Subway Car of the Future
, CityLab, en-US, February 29, 2016,

Platform crowd control

The MTA is also testing smaller ideas on some services. Starting in late 2015, 100 "station platform controllers" were deployed for the F, 6, and 7 trains, to manage the flow of passengers on and off crowded trains during morning rush hours. There were a total of 129 such employees, who also answer passengers' questions about subway directions, rather than having conductors answer them and thus delaying the trains.{{Citation|last=mtainfo
|title=Platform Controller Program|date=November 16, 2015
|url=|accessdate=December 13, 2016}}WEB,weblink
, Your Ride Matters Platform Controllers, 2015
,, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, March 13, 2016, WEB,weblink
, Your Ride Matters Working to Improve Your Ride, 2015
,, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, March 13, 2016, WEB,weblink
, MTA to fight overcrowding by getting trains out of stations faster
, Harshbarger, Rebecca, May 18, 2015
, New York Post, December 13, 2016, In early 2017, the test was expanded to the afternoon peak period with an increase of 35 platform conductors.WEB,weblink
, MTA 2017 Budget and 2017–2020 Financial Plan Adoption Materials, December 12, 2016,
, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, December 13, 2016, In November of the same year, 140 platform controllers and 90 conductors gained iPhone 6S devices so they could receive notifications of, and tell riders about, subway disruptions.WEB,weblink
, MTA workers to get iPhones to keep riders informed during delays
, Rivoli, Dan, November 7, 2017
, New York Daily News, en, November 8, 2017, Subway guards, the predecessors to the platform controllers, were first used during the Great Depression and World War II.
Shortened "next stop" announcements on trains were being tested on the 2 and 5 trains. "Step aside" signs on the platforms, reminding boarding passengers to let departing passengers off the train first, are being tested at Grand Central–42nd Street, 51st Street, and 86th Street on the Lexington Avenue Line.WEB,weblink {{!, Your Ride Matters||access-date=March 13, 2016}} Cameras would also be installed so the MTA could observe passenger overcrowding.WEB,weblink NYC subway overcrowding plan to be tested out on some lines, AM New York, May 19, 2015, May 19, 2015, Rivoli, Dan, WEB,weblink MTA to fight overcrowding by getting trains out of stations faster, New York Post, May 18, 2015, May 19, 2015, Rebecca Harshbarger, WEB, Subway Delay Presentation, Scribd, May 18, 2015,weblink March 25, 2016, In systems like the London Underground, stations are simply closed off when they are overcrowded, such as the busy Oxford Circus tube station, which had to close more than 100 times in a year. That type of restriction is not necessary yet on the New York City Subway, according to MTA spokesman Kevin Ortiz.

Subway flooding

File:New York City Subway 100 1888 edited.JPG|thumb|left|Rain from drainagedrainageService on the subway system is occasionally disrupted by flooding from rainstorms, even minor ones.WEB, Mancini, John, Search Results, TWC News, October 2, 2010,weblink March 25, 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 6, 2016, mdy-all, Rainwater can disrupt signals underground and require the electrified third rail to be shut off. Every day, the MTA moves 13 million gallons of water when it is not raining.WEB,weblink Why the Subways Flood, Chan, Sewell, City Room, February 28, 2016, August 8, 2007, Since 1992, $357 million has been used to improve 269 pump rooms. By August 2007, $115 million was earmarked to upgrade the remaining 18 pump rooms.NEWS, Donohue, Pete, Downpour swamps subways, stranding thousands of riders, New York Daily News, August 9, 2007,weblink August 23, 2007, Despite these improvements, the transit system continues to experience flooding problems. On August 8, 2007, after more than {{convert|3|in|mm}} of rain fell within an hour, the subway system flooded, causing almost every subway service to either be disabled or seriously disrupted, effectively halting the morning rush.WEB,weblink MTA Evening Update, August 8, 2007,, March 13, 2016, WEB,weblink Rain cripples New York City transit,, March 13, 2016, This was the third incident in 2007 in which rain disrupted service. The system was disrupted on this occasion because the pumps and drainage system can handle only a rainfall rate of {{convert|1.75|in|mm}} per hour; the incident's severity was aggravated by the scant warning as to the severity of the storm.WEB, August 8, 2007 Storm Report, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, September 20, 2007,weblink PDF, October 27, 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 29, 2007, {{Rp|10}}In addition, as part of a $130 million and an estimated 18-month project, the MTA began installing new subway grates in September 2008 in an attempt to prevent rain from overflowing into the subway system. The metallic structures, designed with the help of architectural firms and meant as a piece of public art, are placed atop existing grates but with a {{convert|3|to|4|in|mm|adj=on}} sleeve to prevent debris and rain from flooding the subway. The racks will at first be installed in the three most flood-prone areas as determined by hydrologists: Jamaica, Tribeca, and the Upper West Side. Each neighborhood has its own distinct design, some featuring a wave-like deck which increases in height and features seating (as in Jamaica), others with a flatter deck that includes seating and a bike rack.NEWS, Dunlap, David W., New Subway Grates Add Aesthetics to Flood Protection, The New York Times, September 19, 2008,weblink October 7, 2008, NEWS, Lee, Jennifer, Three in One – Flood Protection, Benches and Bike Parking, The New York Times, October 1, 2008,weblink October 7, 2008, WEB,weblink New raised storm grates earn architectural praise, Second Ave. Sagas, March 13, 2016, April 16, 2010, In October 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused significant damage to New York City, and many subway tunnels were inundated with floodwater. The subway opened with limited service two days after the storm and was running at 80 percent capacity within five days; however, some infrastructure needed years to repair. A year after the storm, MTA spokesperson Kevin Ortiz said, "This was unprecedented in terms of the amount of damage that we were seeing throughout the system."WEB, Boissoneault, Lorraine, Superstorm Sandy Anniversary – How the Subway Survived,weblink The Weather Channel, November 24, 2015, WEB,weblink Hurricane Sandy: Effects on Subway & Rail Service, Cox, Jeremiah,, March 13, 2016, The storm flooded nine of the system's 14 underwater tunnels, many subway lines, and several subway yards, as well as completely destroying a portion of the IND Rockaway Line and much of the South Ferry terminal station. Reconstruction required many weekend closures on several lines as well as the 53rd Street Tunnel, Clark Street Tunnel, Cranberry Street Tunnel, Joralemon Street Tunnel and Steinway Tunnel; several long-term closures were also included on the Greenpoint Tunnel, Montague Street Tunnel, Rockaway Line, and the South Ferry station, with a partial closure planned for the 14th Street Tunnel; some reconstruction is expected to last until at least 2020.WEB,weblink {{!, Superstorm Sandy: One Year Later||publisher=Metropolitan Transportation Authority|access-date=July 23, 2016|archive-url=|archive-date=August 3, 2016|url-status=dead|df=mdy-all}}File:Pumping125Street.jpg|Flooding at 125th Street after a water main breakFile:Bowling Green Station Entrance in Flood Prep vc.jpg|Preparations for Hurricane Sandy at Bowling GreenFile:South Ferry Subway Station Entrance under Water vc.jpg|alt=The entrance stairway of the South Ferry Subway Station shortly after Hurricane Sandy can be seen. Floodwater can be seen partly down the stairway. Floating on the floodwater is several leaves and other debris. The camera is facing downwards towards the floodwater.|South Ferry after Hurricane SandyFile:Pump Train in Cranberry Street Tunnel after Hurricane Sandy vc.jpg|alt=A pump train is seen removing water from the Cranberry Street Tube shortly after Hurricane Sandy. The water is brown in color.|Pump train in the Cranberry Street Tube after Hurricane Sandy

Full and partial subway closures

On August 27, 2011, due to the approach of Hurricane Irene, the MTA suspended subway service at noon in anticipation of heavy flooding on tracks and in tunnels. It was the first weather-caused shutdown in the history of the system.NEWS,weblink Hurricane Irene halts NY, NJ mass transit, The New York Post, Aaron Feis, Sabrina Ford, Jennifer Fermino, yes, August 27, 2011, August 28, 2011, Service was restored by August 29.NEWS,weblink NYC's subway service running OK Monday after Irene, The Washington Post, August 29, 2011, August 29, 2011, {{Dead link|date=March 2016}}NEWS,weblink Straphangers Have Relatively Easy Monday Morning Rush, NY1, Roger, Clark, August 29, 2011, August 30, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 5, 2012, On October 29, 2012, another full closure was ordered before the arrival of Hurricane Sandy. All services on the subway, the Long Island Rail Road and Metro-North were gradually shut down that day at 7:00 P.M., to protect passengers, employees and equipment from the coming storm.NEWS,weblink MTA Shuts Down Sunday Night, As Hurricane Nears, Huffington Post, February 28, 2016, October 28, 2012, The storm caused serious damage to the system, especially the IND Rockaway Line, upon which many sections between Howard Beach–JFK Airport and Hammels Wye on the Rockaway Peninsula were heavily damaged, leaving it essentially isolated from the rest of the system.WEB,weblink Rebuilding the Rockaways After Hurricane Sandy, Metropolitan Transportation Authority,, November 18, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 11, 2012, WEB,weblink Cuomo: MTA To Restore A Train Subway Service To The Rockaways « CBS New York, May 16, 2013, This required the NYCTA to truck in 20 R32 subway cars to the line to provide some interim service (temporarily designated the {{NYCS|H}}).WEB,weblink MTA on Twitter, Twitter, WEB,weblink Hurricane Sandy Recovery Service As of November 20, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, November 20, 2012, March 25, 2016, WEB,weblink MTA News,, Also, several of the system's tunnels under the East River were flooded by the storm surge.{{youtube|mhJrrGNvcFk|Raw: Sandy Leaves NYC Subways Flooded}} South Ferry suffered serious water damage and did not reopen until April 4, 2013 by restoring service to the older loop-configured station that had been replaced in 2009;WEB, Mann, Ted, Downtown, Old Stop on Subway to Reopen, WSJ, March 8, 2013,weblink March 25, 2016, NEWS,weblink Storm Damage Prompts Return of Old Subway Stop, Flegenheimer, Matt, March 8, 2013, The New York Times, the stub-end terminal tracks remained out of service until June 2017.WEB,weblink – Restoring South Ferry Station,, WEB,weblink – Old South Ferry Station to Reopen for Service,, NEWS, Donohue, Peter, $194 million contract awarded to upgrade South Ferry subway station,weblink February 7, 2015, Daily News,, December 8, 2014, WEB, Furfaro, Danielle, Sandy-ravaged subway entrance to be closed 9 months, New York Post, October 29, 2015,weblink October 31, 2015, Since 2015, there have been three blizzard-related subway shutdowns. On January 26, 2015, another full closure was ordered by New York Governor Andrew Cuomo due to the January 2015 nor'easter, which was originally projected to leave New York City with {{convert|20|to|30|in|cm}} of snow.NEWS,weblink Snowstorm Barrels Into Northeast; New York City Subways and Buses Are Halted, NY Times, January 26, 2015, January 26, 2015, Marc Santora, The next day, the subway system was partially reopened.WEB,weblink [Update] NYC Travel Ban Lifted, MTA Service Will Resume This Morning, Gothamist, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 29, 2015, WEB,weblink Blizzard 2015: New England Gets Walloped by More Than 2 Feet of Snow, ABC News, ABC News, January 28, 2015, A number of New York City residents criticized Cuomo's decision to shut down the subway system for the first time ever due to snow. The nor'easter dropped much less snow in the city than originally expected, totaling only {{convert|9.8|in|cm}} in Central Park.NEWS, Flegenheimer, Matt, Leaders in New York and New Jersey Defend Shutdown for a Blizzard That Wasn't,weblink, January 28, 2015, WEB, Dolce, Chris, Lam, Linda, Wiltgen, Nick, Juno: Heavy Snow Continues in New England,weblink, The Weather Channel, LLC, January 28, 2015, On January 23, 2016, a partial subway closure was ordered due to the January 2016 United States blizzard, wherein all aboveground stations were closed; the underground lines remained open during the blizzard.WEB,weblink NYC grinds to a halt amid deadly East Coast blizzard, January 23, 2016, USA TODAY, WEB,weblink Above-ground subway service shutting down at 4 p.m.; bus service suspended at noon, Second Ave. Sagas, January 23, 2016, Most of the subway resumed service the next day, with some lingering delays due to an average of {{convert|26|in|cm}} of snow in the area.WEB,weblink Mass Transit Ramping Back Up After Blizzard, NBC New York, On March 13, 2017, another partial subway closure of all aboveground stations was ordered for the next day due to the March 2017 nor'easter, which was forecast to bring up to {{Convert|20|in|cm}} of snow to the area.WEB,weblink Above-Ground Subway Service Shuts Down at 4 a.m. Tuesday, Cuomo Says, Gardiner, Aidan, Honan, Katie, March 13, 2017, DNAinfo New York, March 14, 2017, dead,weblink March 14, 2017,

Litter and rodents

{{Further|Rats in New York City}}Litter accumulation in the subway system is perennial. In the 1970s and 1980s, dirty trains and platforms, as well as graffiti were a serious problem. The situation had improved since then, but the 2010 budget crisis, which caused over 100 of the cleaning staff to lose their jobs, threatened to curtail trash removal.WEB, Kabak, Benjamin, Less Transit money leads to dirtier stations,weblink Second Ave. Sagas, November 24, 2015, June 22, 2009, WEB, Kabak, Benjamin, ABC 7: MTA cleaners slacking on the job,weblink Second Ave. Sagas, November 24, 2015, September 30, 2010, Every day, the MTA removes 40 tons of trash from 3,500 trash receptacles.NEWS,weblink MTA trashes pilot program that removed bins from stations, Barone, Vincent, March 28, 2017, am New York, April 2, 2017, en, The New York City Subway system is infested with rats.NEWS,weblink NYC takes aim at subway rats, United Press International, March 24, 2009, June 27, 2009, Rats are sometimes seen on platforms,"Rats rule the subway rails, platforms", Matthew Sweeney, Newsday, August 13, 2008 and are commonly seen foraging through garbage thrown onto the tracks. They are believed to pose a health hazard, and on rare instances have been known to bite humans.NEWS,weblink Rat bites woman in subway station as she waits for train, amNewYork, Marc, Beja, September 8, 2011, September 12, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 28, 2011, Subway stations notorious for rat infestation include Chambers Street, Jay Street–MetroTech, West Fourth Street, Spring Street and 145th Street.WEB,weblink Rats in subway are health hazard for New Yorkers, January 12, 2010, Brooklyn Today – The Brooklyn News Network,weblink" title="">weblink March 13, 2010, dead, Decades of efforts to eradicate or simply thin the rat population in the system have been unsuccessful. In March 2009, the Transit Authority announced a series of changes to its vermin control strategy, including new poison formulas and experimental trap designs.NEWS,weblink You Dirty Rats! New Traps Target Subway Vermin, Tom, Namako, New York Post, March 24, 2009, June 27, 2009, In October 2011, they announced a new initiative to clean 25 subway stations, along with their garbage rooms, of rat infestations.NEWS,weblink MTA To Launch New Cleaning Initiative To Combat Rat Infestations, NY1, Tina, Redwine, October 5, 2011, October 5, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 8, 2011, That same month, the MTA announced a pilot program aimed at reducing levels of garbage in the subways by removing all garbage bins from the subway platforms. The initiative was tested at the Eighth Street–New York University and Flushing–Main Street stations.NEWS,weblink MTA removes bins hoping to reduce trash, Metro, Emily, Epstein, October 24, 2011, December 13, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 27, 2011, As of March 2016, stations along the BMT Jamaica Line, BMT Myrtle Avenue Line, and various other stations had their garbage cans removed due to the success of the program.WEB,weblink MTA {{!, news {{!}} MTA New York City Transit: Trash Can Free Stations Pilot Yields Positive Results||access-date=March 11, 2016}} In March 2017 the program was ended as a failure.WEB,weblink MTA trashes pilot program that removed bins from stations, am New York, en, December 24, 2018, The old vacuum trains that are designed to remove trash from the tracks are ineffective and often broken. A 2016 study by Travel Math had the New York City Subway listed as the dirtiest subway system in the country based on the number of viable bacteria cells.WEB,weblink New York City Has Dirtiest Subway System,, March 13, 2016, In August 2016, the MTA announced that it had initiated Operation Track Sweep, an aggressive plan to dramatically reduce the amount of trash on the tracks and in the subway environment. This was expected to reduce track fires and train delays. As part of the plan, the frequency of station track cleaning would be increased, and 94 stations would be cleaned per two-week period, an increase from the previous rate of 34 stations every two weeks. The MTA launched an intensive two-week, system-wide cleaning on September 12, 2016.WEB, NYC Transit – MTA Launches Phase 2 of Operation Track Sweep: A Two-Week Track Cleaning Blitz, MTA, September 12, 2016,weblink December 21, 2018, Three new powerful vacuum trains were later ordered; one arrived in 2018, and the others are expected in 2019.WEB,weblink New Vacuum Trains Aim to Suck Trash Right in its Tracks,, en, December 21, 2018, The operation will also include 27 new refuse cars WEB,weblink MTA {{!, news {{!}} Sustained MTA Effort to Keep the Tracks Clean Includes Two-Week Track Cleaning Blitz at All 469 Subway Stations and New Cleaning Equipment||access-date=August 10, 2016}}On March 28, 2017, the New York State Comptroller, Thomas DiNapoli, announced the MTA's pilot program to remove trash cans had been scrapped. His office had criticized the agency for the program.File:NYCS tagged IRT train.jpg|alt=A subway car covered with graffiti can be seen. The image has faint amounts of yellow throughout.|Typical subway car exterior in the late 1970sFile:Rats in the NYC Subway 2 vc.jpg|Measures against ratsFile:Trash in the NYC Subway vc.jpg|alt=An image of a notice on a metal support beam in the subway. The notice reads "Trash is a problem. Be part of the solution. Trash attracts rodents. No trash cans means no food for rodents. We're removing the trash cans at this station as part of a six month pilot study. Please take your trash with you. Your help will make this station cleaner and greener. Visit to tell us what you think of this pilot currently in effect at ten stations."|Program for removing garbage bins from stations


Rolling stock on the New York City Subway produces high levels of noise that exceed guidelines set by the World Health Organization and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.WEB, New York Subway Noise Levels Can Result In Hearing Loss For Daily Riders, ScienceDaily, March 25, 2016,weblink March 25, 2016, In 2006, Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health found noise levels averaged 95 decibel (dB) inside subway cars and 94 dB on platforms. Daily exposure to noise at such levels for as little as 30 minutes can lead to hearing loss. Noise on one in 10 platforms exceeded 100 dB. Under WHO and EPA guidelines, noise exposure at that level is limited to 1.5 minutes. A subsequent study by Columbia and the University of Washington found higher average noise levels in the subway (80.4 dB) than on commuter trains including Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH) (79.4 dB), Metro-North (75.1 dB) and Long Island Rail Road (LIRR) (74.9 dB).WEB, Got Ear Plugs? You May Want to Sport Them on the Subway and Other.... – News – Mailman School of Public Health, Internet Archive, June 24, 2010,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink June 24, 2010, March 25, 2016, Since the decibel scale is a logarithmic scale, sound at 95 dB is 10 times more intense than at 85 dB, 100 times more intense than at 75 dB, and so forth. In the second study, peak subway noise registered at 102.1 dB.For the construction of the Second Avenue Subway, the MTA, with the engineering firm Arup, worked to reduce the noise levels in stations. In order to reduce noise for all future stations starting with the Second Avenue Subway, the MTA is investing in low-vibration track using ties encased in concrete-covered rubber and neoprene pads. Continuously welded rail, which is also being installed, reduces the noise being made by the wheels of trains. The biggest change that is going to be made is in the design of stations. Current stations were built with tile and stone, which bounce sound everywhere, while newer stations will have the ceilings lined with absorbent fiberglass or mineral wool that will direct sound toward the train and not the platform. With less noise from the trains, platform announcements could be heard more clearly. They will be clearer with speakers spaced periodically on the platform, angled so that announcements can be heard by the riders. The Second Avenue Subway has the first stations to test this technology.JOURNAL, Marshall, Aarian, Get Ready for Quieter NYC Subway Stations (Yes, It's Possible), WIRED, June 16, 2016,weblink June 19, 2016,

Public relations

The New York City Board of Transportation, and its successor, MTA New York City Transit, has had numerous events that promote increased ridership of their transit system.

Miss Subways

File:NYC Transit Museum Miss Subways.jpg|thumb|An advertisement for Miss Subways at the New York Transit MuseumNew York Transit MuseumFrom 1941 to 1976, the Board of Transportation/New York City Transit Authority sponsored the "Miss Subways" publicity campaign.WEB,weblink Miss Subways through the years: The iconic NYC beauty queens then and now, NY Daily News, February 28, 2016, In the musical On the Town, the character Miss Turnstiles is based on the Miss Subways campaign.NEWS, Bayen, Ann, Token Women, New York Magazine, March 29, 1976, 46,weblink New York Media, LLC, NEWS, Klein, Alvin, 'On the Town' in Revival at Goodspeed Opera, The New York Times, June 6, 1993,weblink The campaign was resurrected in 2004, for one year, as "Ms. Subways". It was part of the 100th anniversary celebrations. The monthly campaign, which included the winners' photos and biographical blurbs on placards in subway cards, featured such winners as Mona Freeman and prominent New York City restaurateur Ellen Goodman. The winner of this contest was Caroline Sanchez-Bernat, an actress from Morningside Heights.WEB,weblink Ms. Subway 2004 Crowned, Gothamist, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 26, 2013,

Subway Series

(File:NYCS R142 subway series 2000 Yankees.jpg|thumb|An R142 subway train in a special livery for the 2000 Subway Series)Subway Series is a term applied to any series of baseball games between New York City teams, as opposing teams can travel to compete merely by using the subway system. Subway Series is a term long used in New York, going back to series between the Brooklyn Dodgers or New York Giants and the New York Yankees in the 1940s and 1950s. Today, the term is used to describe the rivalry between the Yankees and the New York Mets. During the 2000 World Series, cars on the 4 train (which stopped at Yankee Stadium) were painted with Yankee colors, while cars on the 7 train (which stopped at Shea Stadium) had Mets colors.WEB, Mets/Yankees Metrocard,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink June 14, 1997, June 14, 1997, February 15, 2016, The term could also be applied to the rivalry between the New York Knicks and the Brooklyn Nets of the National Basketball Association, or the New York Rangers and the New York Islanders of the National Hockey League ever since the Nets and the Islanders moved to the Barclays Center in Brooklyn.NEWS, Nets Move to Brooklyn With Legitimacy in Sight,weblink The New York Times, July 4, 2012, February 7, 2016, 0362-4331, Harvey, Araton, NEWS, The NHL's coming Subway Series: Islanders vs. Rangers,weblink The Sporting News, February 21, 2015, April 11, 2016, Michael, McCarthy,

Holiday Train

File:Nostalgia train 2nd Av a jeh.jpg|thumb|Nostalgia Train at Second AvenueSecond AvenueSince 2003, the MTA has operated a Holiday Train on Sundays in November and December, from the first Sunday after Thanksgiving to the Sunday before Christmas Day.WEB,weblink Press Releases,, {{dead link|date=March 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} This train was made of cars from the R1 through R9 series, which have been preserved by Railway Preservation Corp. and the New York Transit Museum. The route made all stops between Second Avenue in Manhattan and Queens Plaza in Queens via the IND Sixth Avenue Line and the IND Queens Boulevard Line. In 2011, the train operated on Saturdays instead of Sundays.NEWS, Watch: MTA Adds A Dose Of 'Nostalgia' With Vintage Trains,weblink Huffington Post, February 10, 2016, November 28, 2011, In 2017, the train ran between Second Avenue and 96th Street.NEWS,weblink Ride into the past with the MTA Holiday Nostalgia Train, November 20, 2017, Metro US, December 22, 2017, en, The contract, car numbers (and year built) used were Arnines, specifically R1 100 (built 1930), R1 381 (1931), R4 401 (1932), R4 484 (1932) – Bulls Eye lighting and a test P.A. system added in 1946, R6-3 1000 (1935), R6-1 1300 (1937), R7A 1575 (1938) – rebuilt in 1947 as a prototype for the R10 subway car, and R9 1802 (1940).WEB,weblink Holiday Subway, Forgotten New York,, March 25, 2016,

Full train wraps

Since 2008, the MTA has tested full train wraps on 42nd Street Shuttle rolling stock. In full train wraps, advertising entirely covers the interiors and exteriors of the train, as opposed to other routes, whose stock generally only displays advertising on placards inside the train.WEB,weblink Untapped Mailbag: Advertising Takeovers on the Shuttle to Times Square, Untapped Cities, May 2, 2016, NEWS,weblink A 'Full Body Wrap' for Times Sq. Shuttle, Lee, Jennifer, October 2, 2008, The New York Times, January 15, 2017, 0362-4331, While most advertisements are well received, a few advertisements have been controversial. Among the more contentious wraps that were withdrawn are a 2015 ad for the TV show The Man in the High Castle, which featured a Nazi flag,NEWS,weblink Nazi-inspired ads for The Man in the High Castle pulled from New York subway, Reuters, November 25, 2015, The Guardian, October 4, 2017, en-GB, 0261-3077, NEWS,weblink Amazon pulls Nazi symbols from New York subway ad campaign, Robertson, Adi, November 24, 2015, The Verge, October 4, 2017, and an ad for Fox Sports 1, in which a shuttle train and half of its seats were plastered with negative quotes about the New York Knicks, one of the city's NBA teams.NEWS,weblink 'Hopeless' Knicks greet NYC subway riders due to FS1 ad campaign, Bodner, Brett, October 3, 2017, NY Daily News, October 4, 2017, Becker, Jake, en, NEWS,weblink Knicks owner James Dolan reportedly ‘furious’ at Fox Sports ‘hopeless’ ads, Bonesteel, Matt, October 3, 2017, Washington Post, October 4, 2017, Bieler, Des, en-US, 0190-8286, Other routes have seen limited implementation of full train wraps. For instance, in 2010, one R142A train set on the 6 route was wrapped with a Target advertisement.WEB, Associated Press, MTA Wraps Subway in Train-Length Ad, NBC New York, June 28, 2010,weblink June 18, 2019, In 2014, the Jaguar F-Type was advertised on train sets running on the F route.WEB, Vranica, Suzanne,weblink And Now, Ads for the Super Bowl Ads – WSJ,, 2014-01-28, 2015-06-28, WEB, Dastardly, British and Brand New to the Super Bowl, The New York Times, January 14, 2014,weblink June 18, 2019, Some of these wraps have also been controversial, such as a Lane Bryant wrap in 2015 that displayed lingerie models on the exteriors of train cars.WEB, Jennings, Rebecca, Lane Bryant's #ImNoAngel Subway Ads Causing Controversy in Brooklyn Orthodox Communities, Racked NY, April 15, 2015,weblink June 18, 2019,

LGBT Pride-themed trains and MetroCards

(File:MTA Pride Month MetroCard for NYC Subway.jpg|thumb|upright|MetroCard for Pride Month in June 2019)The New York City Subway system commemorates Pride Month in June with Pride-themed posters.WEB,weblink PRIDE + PROGRESS New York subways celebrate Pride Month with new 'Pride Trains' and MetroCards, Emily Bass and Julia Jones, CNN, June 16, 2019, June 17, 2019, The MTA celebrated Stonewall 50 - WorldPride NYC 2019 in June 2019 with rainbow-themed Pride logos on the subway trains as well as Pride-themed MetroCards.NEWS,weblink Everyone on board the Pride train! MTA celebrates LGBTQ culture with Pride-themed trains, MetroCards, Clayton Guse and Thomas Tracy, New York Daily News, June 14, 2019, June 17, 2019,

See also

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External links

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