SUPPORT THE WORK

GetWiki

New Brunswick

ARTICLE SUBJECTS
aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE TYPES
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE ORIGINS
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
New Brunswick
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{About|the Canadian province|other uses|New Brunswick (disambiguation)}}{{Short description|province in Canada}}{{Use Canadian English|date=July 2015}}{{Use mdy dates|date=September 2015}}







factoids
| EntityAdjective = Provincial| Flag = Flag of New Brunswick.svg| CoatOfArms = NewBrunswick CoatOfArms.png| Map = New Brunswick in Canada.svg| Label_map = yes TITLE=WINSLOW PAPERS >> ANN GORMAN CONDON >> THE NEW PROVINCE: SPEM REDUXIT AUTHOR=ANN GORMAN CONDON DEADURL=NO ARCHIVEDATE=MARCH 3, 2016, mdy-all, ("Hope restored")| Capital = Fredericton| LargestCity = Moncton| LargestMetro = Greater Moncton| OfficialLang =
{{hlist
|English |French}}WEB, My Linguistic Rights, Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages for New Brunswick,weblink March 7, 2019,
Acadian French>FR: Néo-Brunswickois(e)Viola cucullata>Purple violetAbies balsamea>Balsam fir| Bird = Black-capped chickadeeFIRST=GOVERNMENT OF NEW BRUNSWICK,WEBSITE=WWW2.GNB.CAARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170411181742/HTTP://WWW2.GNB.CA/CONTENT/GNB/EN/DEPARTMENTS/GOVERNMENT_SERVICES/SYMBOLS.HTMLDF=MDY-ALL, June 20, 2016, | Premier = Blaine HiggsProgressive Conservative Party of New Brunswick>Progressive Conservatives| Viceroy = Jocelyne Roy-Vienneau| ViceroyType = Lieutenant Governor| Legislature = Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick| PostalAbbreviation = NBList of E postal codes of Canada>E| AreaRank = 11th| TotalArea_km2 = 72907| LandArea_km2 = 71450| WaterArea_km2 = 1458| PercentWater = 2.0| PopulationRank = 8th| Population = 747101 PUBLISHER=STATCAN.GC.CA ACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 8, 2012 ARCHIVEURL=HTTP://ARCHIVE.WIKIWIX.COM/CACHE/20140307020829/HTTP://WWW12.STATCAN.GC.CA/CENSUS-RECENSEMENT/2011/DP-PD/HLT-FST/PD-PL/TABLE-TABLEAU.CFM?LANG=ENG&T=101&S=50&O=A DF=MDY-ALL, | PopulationYear = 2016| Population_est = 773020| Pop_est_as_of = 2019 Q2 PUBLISHER=STATISTICS CANADA ACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 29, 2018 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160619182727/HTTP://WWW5.STATCAN.GC.CA/CANSIM/A26?LANG=ENG&RETRLANG=ENG&ID=0510005&PASER=&PATTERN=&STBYVAL=1&P1=1&P2=31&TABMODE=DATATABLE&CSID= DF=MDY-ALL, | DensityRank = 4th| Density_km2 = 10.5| GDP_year = 2011 PUBLISHER=STATISTICS CANADA ACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 26, 2013 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WWW.WEBCITATION.ORG/6BT3JW27S?URL=HTTP://WWW.STATCAN.GC.CA/TABLES-TABLEAUX/SUM-SOM/L01/CST01/ECON15-ENG.HTM DF=MDY-ALL, | GDP_rank = 9th| GDP_per_capita = C$42,606| GDP_per_capita_rank = 11th| AdmittanceOrder = 1st, with Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia| AdmittanceDate = July 1, 1867Atlantic Time Zone>Atlantic: UTC−4/−3| HouseSeats = 10| SenateSeats = 10| ISOCode = CA-NB| Website = www.gnb.ca}}New Brunswick (; Canadian French pronunciation: {{IPA-frdia|nuvobʁɔnzwɪk||Qc-Nouveau-Brunswick.ogv}}) is one of four Atlantic provinces on the east coast of Canada. According to the Constitution of Canada, New Brunswick is the only bilingual province. About two thirds of the population declare themselves anglophones and a third francophones. One third of the population describes themselves as bilingual. Atypically for Canada, only about half of the population lives in urban areas, mostly in Greater Moncton, Greater Saint John and the capital Fredericton.Unlike the other Maritime provinces, New Brunswick's terrain is mostly forested uplands, with much of the land further from the coast, giving it a harsher climate. New Brunswick is 83% forested, and less densely-populated than the rest of the Maritimes.Being relatively close to Europe, New Brunswick was among the first places in North America to be explored and settled by Europeans, starting with the French in the early 1600s, who displaced the indigenous Mi'kmaq, Maliseet, and the Passamaquoddy peoples. The French settlers were later displaced when the area became part of the British Empire. In 1784, after an influx of refugees from the American Revolutionary War, the province was partitioned from Nova Scotia. In 1785 Saint John became Canada's first incorporated city.WEB,weblink Saint John, NB, Canadian Encyclopedia, June 12, 2017, .The province prospered in the early 1800s and the population grew rapidly, reaching about a quarter of a million by mid-century. In 1867, New Brunswick was one of four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation, along with Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada (now Ontario and Quebec).After Confederation, wooden shipbuilding and lumbering declined, while protectionism disrupted trade ties with New England. The mid-1900s found New Brunswick to be one of the poorest regions of Canada, now mitigated by Canadian transfer payments and improved support for rural areas. As of 2002, provincial gross domestic product was derived as follows: services (about half being government services and public administration) 43%; construction, manufacturing, and utilities 24%; real estate rental 12%; wholesale and retail 11%; agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting, mining, oil and gas extraction 5%; transportation and warehousing 5%.WEB, Provincial Gross Domestic Product by Industry,weblink Statistics Canada, 19 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141205053036weblink">weblink December 5, 2014, mdy-all, Tourism accounts for about 9% of the labour force directly or indirectly. Popular destinations include Fundy National Park and the Hopewell Rocks, Kouchibouguac National Park, and Roosevelt Campobello International Park. In 2013, 64 cruise ships called at Port of Saint John carrying on average 2600 passengers each.WEB, New Brunswick Tourism Indicators Summary Report,weblink Government of New Brunswick, 19 November 2017, September 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170329005825weblink">weblink March 29, 2017, mdy-all, {{TOC limit|2}}

History

Pre-history

Indigenous peoples have been in the area since about 7000 BC. At the time of European contact, inhabitants were the Mi'kmaq, the Maliseet, and the Passamaquoddy. Although these tribes did not leave a written record, their language is present in many placenames, such as Aroostook, Bouctouche, Petitcodiac, Quispamsis, and Shediac.New Brunswick may have been part of Vinland during the Norse exploration of North America, and Basque, Breton, and Norman fishermen may have visited the Bay of Fundy in the early 1500s.WEB, Local history,weblink 12 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170618020244weblink">weblink June 18, 2017, mdy-all,

French colony

The first documented European visits were by Jacques Cartier in 1534. In 1604, a party including Samuel de Champlain visited the mouth of the Saint John River on the eponymous Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day. Now Saint John, this was later the site of the first permanent European settlement in New Brunswick. French settlement eventually extended up the river to the site of present-day Fredericton.Other settlements in the southeast extended from Beaubassin, near the present-day border with Nova Scotia, to Baie Verte, and up the Petitcodiac, Memramcook, and Shepody Rivers.BOOK, Histoire des Acadiens,weblink Les Editions Fides, 2004-01-01, 9782762126136, fr, Bona, Arsenault, Pascal, Alain, no,weblink March 28, 2018, mdy-all, By the early 1700s the area was part of the French colony of Acadia, in turn part of New France. Acadia covered what is now the Maritimes, as well as bits of Quebec and Maine. In the early 1700s, rivalry between Britain and France for control of territory led to the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, under which Acadia was reduced to ÃŽle Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island) and ÃŽle-Royale (Cape Breton Island). The ownership of New Brunswick being disputed, with an informal border on the Isthmus of Chignecto.The British eventually prevailed, leading to the 1755 Expulsion of the Acadians.

British colony

File:Henry Sandham - The Coming of the Loyalists.jpg|thumb|upright|The Coming of the Loyalists, painting by Henry SandhamHenry SandhamPresent-day New Brunswick became part of the colony of Nova Scotia. Hostilities ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763, and Acadians returning from exile discovered several thousand immigrants, mostly from New England, on their former lands. Some settled around Memramcook and along the Saint John River.WEB, New Brunswick,weblink Historica Canada, 13 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171213134748weblink">weblink December 13, 2017, mdy-all, Settlement was initially slow. Pennsylvanian immigrants founded Moncton in 1766, and English settlers from Yorkshire arrived in the Sackville area.After the American Revolution, about 10,000 loyalist refugees settled along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy,BOOK, David, Bell, American Loyalists to New Brunswick: The ship passenger lists,weblink 2015, Formac Publishing Company, 7, 9781459503991, no,weblink December 31, 2016, mdy-all, commemorated in the province's motto, ("hope restored"). The number reached almost 14,000 by 1784, with about one in ten eventually returning to America.Christopher Moore, The Loyalists, Revolution, Exile, Settlement, 1984, pp. 244-252 {{ISBN|0-7710--6093-9}} The same year New Brunswick was partitioned from Nova Scotia and that year saw its first elected assembly.WEB, Responsible Government,weblink Historica Canada, 13 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171212171105weblink">weblink December 12, 2017, mdy-all, The colony was named New Brunswick in honour of George III, King of Great Britain, King of Ireland, and Prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in what is now Germany.WEB, New Brunswick's provincial symbols,weblink Government of Canada, 12 November 2017, no,weblink November 18, 2017, mdy-all, In 1785 Saint John became Canada's first incorporated city.WEB, New Brunswick,weblink Encyclopedia Britannica, 13 November 2017, no,weblink November 14, 2017, mdy-all, The population of the colony reached 26,000 in 1806 and 35,000 in 1812. The 1800s saw an age of prosperity based on wood export and shipbuilding, bolstered by The Canadian–American Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 and demand from the American Civil War. St. Martins became the third most productive shipbuilding town in the Maritimes, producing over 500 vessels.WEB, Living History,weblink 14 September 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170804125041weblink">weblink August 4, 2017, mdy-all, The first half of the 1800s saw large-scale immigration from Ireland and Scotland, with the population reaching 252,047 by 1861.In 1848, responsible home government was granted and the 1850s saw the emergence of political parties largely organised along religious and ethnic lines.

Confederation

The notion of unifying the separate colonies of British North America was discussed increasingly in the 1860s. Many felt that the American Civil war was the result of weak central government, and wished to avoid such violence and chaos.WEB, Confederation,weblink Historica Canada, 13 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171126081754weblink">weblink November 26, 2017, mdy-all, The 1864 Charlottetown Conference was intended to discuss a Maritime Union, but concerns over possible conquest by the Americans, coupled with a belief Britain was unwilling to defend its colonies against American attack, led to a request from the Province of Canada (now Ontario and Quebec) to expand the meeting's scope. In 1866 the US cancelled the Canadian–American Reciprocity Treaty leading to loss of trade with New England and prompting a desire to build trade within British North America,WEB, Reciprocity,weblink Historica Canada, 13 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171214113323weblink">weblink December 14, 2017, mdy-all, while Fenian raids increased support for union.WEB, New Brunswick and Confederation,weblink Historica Canada, 13 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171214232617weblink">weblink December 14, 2017, mdy-all, On 1 July 1867 New Brunswick entered the Canadian Confederation along with Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada.

Modern New Brunswick

Confederation brought into existence the Intercolonial Railway in 1872, a consolidation of the existing Nova Scotia Railway, European and North American Railway, and Grand Trunk Railway. In 1879 John A. Macdonald's Conservatives enacted the National Policy which called for high tariffs and opposed free trade, disrupting the trading relationship between the Maritimes and New England. The economic situation was worsened by the decline of the wooden ship building industry. The railways and tariffs did foster the growth of new industries in the province such as textile manufacturing, iron mills, and sugar refineries, many of which eventually failed to compete with better capitalized industry in central Canada.In 1937 New Brunswick had the highest infant mortality and illiteracy rates in Canada.WEB,weblink New Brunswick, June 29, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160602203857weblink">weblink June 2, 2016, mdy-all, At the end of the Great Depression the New Brunswick standard of living was much below the Canadian average. In 1940 the Rowell–Sirois Commission reported that federal government attempts to manage the depression illustrated grave flaws in the Canadian constitution. While the federal government had most of the revenue gathering powers, the provinces had many expenditure responsibilities such as healthcare, education, and welfare, which were becoming increasingly expensive. The Commission recommended the creation of equalization payments, implemented in 1957.The Acadians in northern New Brunswick had long been geographically and linguistically isolated from the more numerous English speakers to the south. The population of French origin grew dramatically after Confederation, from about 16 per cent in 1871 to 34 per cent in 1931. Government services were often not available in French, and the infrastructure in Francophone areas was less developed than elsewhere. In 1960 Premier Louis Robichaud embarked on the New Brunswick Equal Opportunity program, in which education, rural road maintenance, and healthcare fell under the sole jurisdiction of a provincial government that insisted on equal coverage throughout the province, rather than the former county-based system.The flag of New Brunswick, based on the coat of arms, was adopted in 1965. The conventional heraldic representations of a lion and a ship represent colonial ties with Europe, and the importance of shipping at the time the coat of arms was assigned.WEB, Symbols,weblink Service New Brunswick, 15 November 2017, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170411181742weblink">weblink April 11, 2017, mdy-all,

Geography

(File:New Brunswick topographic map-fr.svg|thumb|Topography of the province)Roughly square, New Brunswick is bordered on the north by Quebec, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Bay of Fundy, and on the west by the US state of Maine. The southeast corner of the province is connected to Nova Scotia at the isthmus of Chignecto.Glaciation has left much of New Brunswick's uplands with only shallow, acidic soils which have discouraged settlement, but are home to enormous forests.WEB, Landforms and Climate,weblink Ecological Framework of Canada, 26 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170803210602weblink">weblink August 3, 2017, mdy-all,

Topography

New Brunswick lies entirely within the Appalachian Mountain range. All of the rivers of New Brunswick drain into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the east or the Bay of Fundy to the south. These watersheds include lands in Quebec and Maine.JOURNAL, Burrel, Brian C, Anderson, James E, 1991, Adian Water Resources Journal /, 16, 4, 317–330, 10.4296/cwrj1604317, Regional Hydrology of New Brunswick, New Brunswick and the rest of the Maritime Peninsula was covered by thick layers of ice during the last glacial period (the Wisconsinian glaciation).BOOK, Sanger, David, Hornsby, S.J., Reid, J.G., New England and the Maritime Provinces: Connections and Comparisons, 2005, McGill-Queen's University Press, 0-77-352865-2, 15,weblink Pre-European Dawnland: Archaeology of the Maritime Peninsula, It cut U-shaped valleys in the Saint John and Nepisiguit River valleys, and pushed granite boulders from the Miramichi highlands south and east, leaving them as erratics when the ice receded at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation, along with deposits such as the eskers between Woodstock and St George, today sources of sand and gravel.

Flora and fauna

(File:Lynx Canadensis.jpg|thumb|left|Canada lynx)Most of New Brunswick is forested with secondary forest or tertiary forest. At the start of European settlement, the Maritimes were covered from coast to coast by a forest of mature trees, giants by today's standards. Today less than one per cent of old-growth Acadian forest remains,WEB, Noseworthy, Josh, A WALK IN THE WOODS: ACADIAN OLD-GROWTH FOREST,weblink Nature Conservancy Canada, 27 July 2018, and the World Wide Fund for Nature lists the Acadian Forest as endangered.WEB, Simpson, Jamie, Restoring the Acadian Forest,weblink 27 July 2018, Following the frequent large scale disturbances caused by settlement and timber harvesting, the Acadian forest is not growing back as it was, but is subject to borealization. This means that exposure-resistant species that are well adapted to the frequent large scale disturbances common in the boreal forest are increasingly abundant. These include jack pine, balsam fir, black spruce, white birch, and poplar.Forest ecosystems support large carnivores such as the bobcat, Canada lynx, and black bear, and the large herbivores moose and white-tailed deer.Fiddlehead greens are harvested from the Ostrich fern which grows on riverbanks.Furbish's lousewort a perennial herb endemic to the shores of the upper Saint John River, is an endangered species threatened by habitat destruction, riverside development, forestry, littering and recreational use of the riverbank.WEB, Furbish's Lousewort,weblink Species at Risk Public Registry, Government of Canada, 25 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171013061742weblink">weblink October 13, 2017, mdy-all, Many wetlands are being disrupted by the highly invasive Introduced species purple loosestrife.WEB, Purple loosestrife,weblink New Brunswick Alliance of Lake Associations, 26 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171130024218weblink">weblink November 30, 2017, mdy-all,

Climate

New Brunswick's climate is more severe than that of the other Maritime provinces, which are lower and have more shoreline along the moderating sea. New Brunswick has a humid continental climate, with slightly milder winters on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coastline. Elevated parts of the far north of the province have a subarctic climate.Evidence of climate change in New Brunswick includes: more intense precipitation events, more frequent winter thaws, and one quarter to half the amount of snowpack.WEB, How is Climate Change Affecting New Brunswick?,weblink Government of New Brunswick, 25 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171201034456weblink">weblink December 1, 2017, mdy-all, Today the sea level is about 30 cm higher than it was 100 years ago, and is expected to rise twice that much again by the year 2100.

Geology

File:Bay of Fundy rock formations.jpg|thumb|Bay of FundyBay of FundyBedrock types range from 1 billion to 200 million years old.WEB, Bedrock Mapping,weblink Government of New Brunswick, 14 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171114202444weblink">weblink November 14, 2017, mdy-all, Much of the bedrock in the west and north derives from ocean deposits in the Ordovician, which were then subject to folding and igneous intrusion, and were eventually covered with lava during the Paleozoic, peaking during the Acadian orogeny.During the Carboniferous era, about 340 million years ago, New Brunswick was in the Maritimes Basin, a sedimentary basin near the equator. Sediments, brought by rivers from surrounding highlands, accumulated there and after being compressed, producing the Albert oil shales of southern New Brunswick. Eventually sea water from the Panthalassic Ocean invaded the basin, forming the Windsor Sea. Once this receded, conglomerates, sandstones, and shales accumulated. The rust colour of these was caused by the oxidation of iron in the beds between wet and dry periods.BOOK, Atlantic Geoscience Society, Williams, Graham, Fensome, Robert, The last billion years : a geological history of the Maritime Provinces of Canada, 2001, Nimbus Publishing, Halifax, NS, 1-55109-351-0, billion, Such late carboniferous rock formed the Hopewell Rocks, which have been shaped by the extreme tidal range of the Bay of Fundy.In the early Triassic, as Pangea drifted north it was rent apart, forming the rift valley that is the Bay of Fundy. Magma pushed up through the cracks, forming basalt columns on Grand Manan.WEB, Geology,weblink 15 November 2017, no,weblink November 16, 2017, mdy-all,

People

File:Partridge Island Lighthouse, Irish immigration to Saint John, NB.jpg|thumb|Partridge Island welcomed immigrants and refugees into Saint John HarbourSaint John HarbourThe four Atlantic Provinces are Canada's least populated, with New Brunswick is the third least populous at 747,101 in 2016. The Atlantic provinces also have higher rural populations. New Brunswick was largely rural until 1951 since when the rural urban split has been roughly even.WEB, Population, urban and rural, by province and territory (New Brunswick),weblink Statistics Canada, 18 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171010203113weblink">weblink October 10, 2017, mdy-all, Population density in the Maritimes is above average among Canadian provinces, which reflects their small size and the fact that they do not possess large unpopulated hinterlands, as do the other seven provinces and three territories.New Brunswick's 107 municipalitiesWEB,weblink Welcome to the Association of Municipal Administrators of New Brunswick, The Association of Municipal Administrators of New Brunswick, 2015, August 16, 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150801012020weblink">weblink August 1, 2015, mdy-all, cover {{percentage|6127.12|71377.18|1}} of the province's land mass but are home to {{percentage|490780|751171|1}} of its population. The three major urban areas are in the south of the province and are Greater Moncton, population 126,424, Greater Saint John, population 122,389, and Greater Fredericton, population 85,688.

Ethnicity and language

(File:Bienvenue au Nouveau-Brunswick.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.35|Bilingual highway sign at entrance to New Brunswick)In the 2001 census, the most commonly reported ethnicities were British and Irish 60%, French Canadian or Acadian 31%, other European 7%, First Nations 3%, Asian Canadian 2%. Each person could choose more than one ethnicity.WEB,weblink Ethnic Origin (232), Sex (3) and Single and Multiple Responses (3) (2001 Census), 2.statcan.ca, September 23, 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170101073454weblink">weblink January 1, 2017, mdy-all, According to the Canadian Constitution, both English and French are the official languages of New Brunswick,WEB, Official Languages Act,weblink Government of New Brunswick, 17 November 2017, no,weblink December 1, 2017, mdy-all, making it the only officially bilingual province. Anglophone New Brunswickers make up roughly two-thirds of the population, with about one-third being Francophone. Recently there has been growth in the numbers of people reporting themselves as bilingual, with 34% reporting that they speak both English and French. This reflects a trend across Canada.NEWS, New Brunswick bilingualism rate rises to 34%,weblink CBC, 17 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171106195412weblink">weblink November 6, 2017, mdy-all, {{clr|left}}

Religion

In the 2011 census, 84% of provincial residents reported themselves as Christian: 52% were Roman Catholic, 8% Baptist, 8% United Church of Canada, and 7% Anglican. Fifteen percent of residents reported no religion.

Economy

As of October 2017 seasonally-adjusted employment is 73,400 for the goods-producing sector, and 280,900 for the services-producing sector.WEB, Employment by major industry group, seasonally adjusted, by province (monthly) (New Brunswick),weblink Statistics Canada, 16 November 2017, no,weblink November 16, 2017, mdy-all, Those in the goods producing industries are mostly employed in manufacturing or construction, while those in services work in social assistance, trades, and health care.The US is the province's largest export market, accounting for 92% of a foreign trade valued in 2014 at almost $13 billion, with refined petroleum making up 63% of that, followed by seafood products, pulp, paper and sawmill products and non-metallic minerals (chiefly potash).

Agriculture

More than 13,000 New Brunswickers work in agriculture, shipping products worth over $1 billion, half of which is from crops, and half of that from potatoes, mostly in the Saint John River valley. McCain Foods is one of the world's largest manufacturers of frozen potato products. Other products include apples, cranberries, and maple syrup.WEB, Crops,weblink Government of New Brunswick, 17 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171117122134weblink">weblink November 17, 2017, mdy-all, New Brunswick was in 2015 the biggest producer of wild blueberries in Canada.acadienouvelle.com: "La production de bleuets sauvages prend de l’expansion au Nouveau Brunswick" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161221064347weblink |date=December 21, 2016 }}, 21 Apr 2016The value of the livestock sector is about a quarter of a billion dollars, nearly half of which is dairy. Other sectors include poultry, fur, and goats, sheep, and pigs.

Fisheries

The value of exports, mostly to the United States, was $1.6 billion in 2016. About half of that came from lobster. Other products include salmon, crab, and herring.WEB, New Brunswick agrifood and seafood export highlights 2016,weblink Government of New Brunswick, 17 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170808164127weblink">weblink August 8, 2017, mdy-all,

Forestry

About 83% of New Brunswick is forested. Historically important, it accounted for more than 80% of exports in the mid 1800s. By the end of the 1800s the industry, and shipbuilding, were declining due to external economic factors. The 1920s saw the development of a pulp and paper industry. In the mid-1960s, forestry practices changed from the controlled harvests of a commodity to the cultivation of the forests.WEB,weblink New Brunswick, Ernest R., Forbes, June 29, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160622063828weblink">weblink June 22, 2016, mdy-all, The industry employs nearly 12,000, generating revenues around $437 million.

Mining

Mining was historically unimportant in the province, but since the 1950s has grown and in 2012 was an estimated $1.1 billion. Mines in New Brunswick produce lead, zinc, copper, and potash.

Tourism

In 2015, spending on non-resident tourism in New Brunswick was $441 million, which provided $87 million in tax revenue.WEB, Tourism contributes to economy,weblink Government of New Brunswick, 16 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171116082824weblink">weblink November 16, 2017, mdy-all,

Infrastructure

{{See also|List of airports in New Brunswick}}The Department of Transportation and Infrastructure maintains government facilities and the province's highway network and ferries. The Trans-Canada Highway is not under federal jurisdiction, and traverses the province from Edmundston following the Saint John River Valley, through Fredericton, Moncton, and on to Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island.

Rail

Via Rail's Ocean service, which connects Montreal to Halifax, is currently the oldest continuously operated passenger route in North America, with stops from west to east at Campbellton, Charlo, Jacquet River, Petit Rocher, Bathurst, Miramichi, Rogersville, Moncton, and Sackville.Canadian National Railway operates freight services along the same route, as well as a subdivision from Moncton to Saint John.The New Brunswick Southern Railway, a division of J. D. Irving Limited, together with its sister company Eastern Maine Railway form a continuous {{convert|305|km|mi|abbr=on}} main line connecting Saint John and Brownville Junction, Maine.

Energy

{{Pie chart|thumb = right|caption = Energy Capacity by source in NB |label1 = Fossil Fuel|value1 = 54.7|color1 = Gray|label2 = Hydro|value2 = 22.0|color2 = DodgerBlue|label3 = Nuclear|value3 = 15.4|color3 = Crimson|label4 = Other Renewables|value4 = 7.9|color4 = MediumSeaGreen}}Publicly-owned NB Power operates 13 of New Brunswick's generating stations, deriving power from fuel oil and diesel (1497 MW), hydro (889 MW), nuclear (660 MW), and coal (467 MW). There were 30 active natural gas production sites in 2012.

Government

File:New Brunswick Legislative Assembly January 2011.jpg|left|thumb|NB Legislative Building, seat of New Brunswick Government since 1882]]Under Canadian federalism, power is divided between federal and provincial governments. Among areas under federal jurisdiction are citizenship, foreign affairs, national defence, fisheries, criminal law, Indian policies, and many others. Provincial jurisdiction covers public lands, health, education, and local government, among other things. Jurisdiction is shared for immigration, pensions, agriculture, and welfare.WEB, Canada's Legal System – Sharing of Legislative Powers in Canada,weblink University of Ottawa, 17 November 2017, yes,weblink August 22, 2017, mdy-all, The parliamentary system of government is modelled on the British Westminster system. Forty-nine representatives, nearly always members of political parties, are elected to the Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick. The head of government is the Premier of New Brunswick, normally the leader of the party or coalition with the most seats in the legislative assembly. Governance is handled by the executive council (cabinet), with about 32 ministries.WEB, Members of the Executive Council,weblink Government of New Brunswick, 17 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171005144515weblink">weblink October 5, 2017, mdy-all, Ceremonial duties of the Monarchy in New Brunswick are mostly carried out by the Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick.Under amendments to the province's Legislative Assembly Act in 2007, a provincial election is held every four years. The two largest political parties are the New Brunswick Liberal Association and the Progressive Conservative Party of New Brunswick. Since the 2018 election, minor parties are the Green Party of New Brunswick and the People's Alliance of New Brunswick.

Judiciary

The Court of Appeal of New Brunswick is the highest provincial court. It hears appeals from: The system consists of eight Judicial Districts, loosely based on the counties.WEB,weblink COURT OF QUEEN'S BENCH OF NEW BRUNSWICK, June 29, 2016, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160713181343weblink">weblink July 13, 2016, mdy-all, The Chief Justice of New Brunswick serves at the apex of this court structure.

Administrative divisions

File:Administrative areas of New Brunswick with First Nations lands map-blank.svg|thumb|Administrative areas of New Brunswick:{{Legend|#FEFEE4|Local service district|css=border:1px solid #AA8753}}{{Legend|#F6E1B9|Rural community|css=border:1px solid #AA8753}}{{Legend|#F1C872|Municipality|css=border:1px solid #AA8753}}{{Legend|#D75D00|(Indian reserve]]|css=border:1px solid #AA8753}})Ninety-two per cent of the land in the province, inhabited by about 35% of the population, is under provincial administration and has no local, elected representation. The 51% of the province that is Crown land is administered by the Department of Energy and Resource Development.Most of the province is administrated as a local service district (LSD), an unincorporated unit of local governance. As of 2017 there are 237 LSDs. Services, paid for by property taxes, include a variety of services such as fire protection, solid waste management, street lighting, and dog regulation. LSDs may elect advisory committeesWEB, Local Service Districts (LSDs),weblink Government of New Brunswick, 17 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171201033139weblink">weblink December 1, 2017, mdy-all, and work with the Department of Local Government to recommend how to spend locally collected taxes.In 2006 there were three rural communities. This is a relatively new entity, and to be created requires a population of 3,000 and a tax base of $200 million.WEB, Beckley, Thomas M., New Brunswick,weblink State of Rural Canada, 17 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171201044041weblink">weblink December 1, 2017, mdy-all, In 2006 there were 101 municipalities.Regional Service Commissions, which number 12, were introduced in 2013 to regulate regional planning and solid waste disposal, and provide a forum for discussion on a regional level of police and emergency services, climate change adaptation planning, and regional sport, recreational and cultural facilities. The commissions' administrative councils are populated by the mayors of each municipality or rural community within a region.WEB,weblink Structure of the new Regional Service Commissions, Government of New Brunswick,, Canada, www2.gnb.ca, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171010203850weblink">weblink October 10, 2017, mdy-all, Historically the province was divided into counties with elected governance, but this was abolished in 1966. These were subdivided into 152 parishes which also lost their political significance in 1966, but are still used as census subdivisions by Statistics Canada.

Provincial finances

New Brunswick has the most poorly-performing economy of any Canadian province, with a per capita income of $28,000.NEWS, New Brunswick's 'struggling' economy ranks near bottom of report,weblink CBC, 16 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151016184411weblink">weblink October 16, 2015, mdy-all, The government has historically run at a large deficit. With about half of the population being rural, it is expensive for the government to provide education and health services, which account for 60 per cent of government expenditure. Thirty-six per cent of the provincial budget is covered by federal cash transfers.MAGAZINE, Patriquin, Martin, Can anything save New Brunswick?,weblink Maclean's, 16 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171116081810weblink">weblink November 16, 2017, mdy-all, The government has frequently attempted to create employment through subsidies, which has often failed to generate long-term economic prosperity and resulted in bad debt, examples of which include Bricklin, Atcon,NEWS, Atcon was so badly managed, taxpayers' $63M was never going to save it, AG finds,weblink CBC, 16 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171008193130weblink">weblink October 8, 2017, mdy-all, and the Marriott call centre in Fredericton.NEWS, Fredericton call centre closure will cost 265 jobs,weblink CBC, 16 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180328002830weblink">weblink March 28, 2018, mdy-all, According to a 2014 study by the Atlantic Institute for Market Studies the large public debt is a very serious problem. Government revenues are shrinking because of a decline in federal transfer payments. Though expenditures are down (through government pension reform and a reduction in the number of public employees), they have increased relative to GDP, necessitating further measures to reduce debt in the future.In the 2014–15 fiscal year, provincial debt reached $12.2 billion or 37.7 per cent of nominal GDP, an increase over the $10.1 billion recorded in 2011–12.WEB, Murrell, David, Fantauzzo, Shawn, New Brunswick's Debt and Deficit,weblink Atlantic Institute for Market Studies, 17 November 2017, 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171010203848weblink">weblink October 10, 2017, mdy-all, The debt-to-GDP ratio is projected to reach 41.9% in 2017–18, compared to a ratio of 25% in 2007–08.WEB
,weblink
, Canadian Federal and Provincial Fiscal Tables
,
,
,
, Economic Reports
, Royal Bank of Canada
, 17 August 2017
,
, no
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140122204246weblink">weblink
, January 22, 2014
, mdy-all
,

Culture

Education

File:UNB OldArtsBuilding.JPG|thumb|Sir Howard Douglas HallSir Howard Douglas HallPublic education in the province is administered by the NB Department of Education. New Brunswick has a parallel system of Anglophone and Francophone public schools. There are also secular and religious private schools in the province, such as the Moncton Flight College.The New Brunswick Community College system has campuses in all regions of the province.The two comprehensive provincial universities are the University of New Brunswick (Fredericton and Saint John) and the Université de Moncton (Moncton, Shippegan and Edmundston). These have extensive postgraduate programs and Law schools. Medical education programs have also been established at both the Université de Moncton and at UNBSJ in Saint John (affiliated with Université de Sherbrooke and Dalhousie University respectively). Other public funded universities include Mount Allison University in Sackville and Saint Thomas University in Fredericton. Mount Allison University is a highly regarded undergraduate university with over 50 Rhodes Scholars to its credit. There are several private universities in the province as well, the largest being Crandall University in Moncton.

Literature

Julia Catherine Beckwith born in Fredericton, was Canada's first published novelist. Charles G. D. Roberts was one of the first Canadians to achieve international fame. Antonine Maillet was the first non-European winner of France's Prix Goncourt. Other modern writers include Alfred Bailey, Alden Nowlan, John Thompson, Douglas Lochhead, K. V. Johansen, David Adams Richards, Raymond Fraser, and France Daigle. A recent New Brunswick Lieutenant-Governor, Herménégilde Chiasson, is a poet and playwright.The Fiddlehead, established in 1945 at UNB, is Canada's oldest literary magazine.

Visual arts

Mount Allison University in Sackville began offering classes in 1854. The program came into its own under John A. Hammond, from 1893 to 1916. Alex Colville and Lawren Harris later studied and taught art there and both Christopher Pratt and Mary Pratt were trained at Mount Allison. The University's art gallery – which opened in 1895 and is named for its patron, John Owens of Saint John – is Canada's oldest. Modern New Brunswick artists include landscape painter Jack Humphrey, sculptor Claude Roussel, and Miller Brittain.

Music

Music of New Brunswick includes artists such as Henry Burr, Roch Voisine, Lenny Breau, and Édith Butler. Symphony New Brunswick, based in Saint John, tours extensively in the province.

Performing arts, events, and festivals

(File:Imperial Theatre, Saint John(IMG 9955).JPG|thumb|Saint John's Imperial Theatre)Symphony New Brunswick based in Saint John and the Atlantic Ballet Theatre of Canada (based in Moncton), tours nationally and internationally. Theatre New Brunswick (based in Fredericton), tours plays around the province. Canadian playwright Norm Foster saw his early works premiere at TNB. Other live theatre troops include the Théatre populaire d'Acadie in Caraquet, and Live Bait Theatre in Sackville. The refurbished Imperial and Capitol Theatres are found in Saint John and Moncton, respectively; the more modern Playhouse is in Fredericton.

Media

New Brunswick has four daily newspapers: the Times & Transcript, serving eastern New Brunswick, the Telegraph-Journal, based in Saint John and distributed province-wide, The Daily Gleaner, based in Fredericton, and L'Acadie Nouvelle, based in Caraquet. The three English-language dailies and the majority of the weeklies are owned and operated by Brunswick News, privately owned by J. K. Irving.The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation has Anglophone television and radio operations in Fredericton. Télévision de Radio-Canada is based in Moncton.

Historic sites

There are about 61 historic places in New Brunswick, including Fort Beauséjour, Kings Landing Historical Settlement and the Village Historique Acadien, and many New Brunswick museums.

See also

{{clear}}

Gallery

File:Tintamarre during National Acadian Day 2009, Caraquet New Brunswick.jpg|Acadians celebrating the Tintamarre and National Acadian Day in Caraquet, New BrunswickFile:Canada Irish Festival on the Miramichi.jpg|Canada's Irish Festival on the Miramichi RiverFile:NB - Confederation Bridge6.jpg|Confederation Bridge connecting New Brunswick to Prince Edward IslandFile:Miscou Island Lighthouse (3).jpg|Miscou Island Lighthouse

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

{{Commons category}}{{wikivoyage|New Brunswick}}{{Wiktionary|New Brunswick}} {{Authority control}}{{Subdivisions of New Brunswick}}{{Provinces and territories of Canada}}{{La Francophonie}}{{Coord|46|N|66|W|type:adm1st_scale:5000000_region:CA-NB|display=title}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "New Brunswick" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 12:04pm EDT - Wed, Jun 26 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
GETWIKI 09 MAY 2016
GETWIKI 18 OCT 2015
M.R.M. Parrott
Biographies
GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 18 AUG 2014
Wikinfo
Culture
CONNECT