SUPPORT THE WORK

GetWiki

Nehemiah ben Hushiel

ARTICLE SUBJECTS
aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE TYPES
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE ORIGINS
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
Nehemiah ben Hushiel
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
Nehemiah ben Hushiel is an enigmatic figure. He is thought to be a historical figure and leader of the Jewish revolt against Heraclius.BOOK, A History of the Jewish People,weblink Haim Hillel Ben-Sasson, Harvard University Press, 362, 1976, 19 January 2014, BOOK, Itineraria Phoenicia,weblink Edward Lipiński, Peeters Publishers, 542–543, 2004, 11 March 2014, Nehemiah ben Hushiel is best known as a figure who appears in many medieval Jewish apocalyptic writings. In these writings he is cast as the Messiah ben Joseph who is an Ephraimite.

Background

In 590-591 CE according to Karaite sources the Exilarch Haninai was put to death by Khosrau II for supporting Bahram VIBOOK, A history of the Jews in Babylonia v. later Sasanian times,weblink Jacob Neusner, printed in the Netherlands, 126, 1970, 15 January 2014, The next Exilarch Haninais' son Bostanai would not reign until around 640 CE. Bostanai would be the first Exilarch under Arab rule. This would leave a fifty-year gap where no Exilarch would have reigned.BOOK, A history of the Jews in Babylonia v. later Sasanian times,weblink Jacob Neusner, printed in the Netherlands, 127, 1970, 15 January 2014, It is thought that after Haninai was put to death, Khosrau II suspended all forms of Jewish self-governance and created many difficulties for rabbinical academies. By 609 CE, both of the major academies Sura and Pumbedita are known to have been holding classes and led by a Gaon.BOOK, History of the Jewish People: From Yavneh to Pumbedisa,weblink Meir Holder, printed in the Netherlands, 265–266, 1986, 19 January 2014,

Account

The historical records from this period are poor. Nehemiah ben Hushiel is thought to be an historical figure and leader of the Jewish revolt against Heraclius.Jacob Neusner guesses that Jews of the west supported Khosrau II against the Byzantines either not knowing or not caring about his persecution of the Exilarchs and suppression of Jews in the east. Frank Meir Loewenberg speculates that in order to gain Jewish support Khosrau II appointed an Exilarch of his choosing. Named Hushiel, this Exilarch had a son named Nehemiah - hence Nehemiah ben Hushiel. According to this guess Nehemiah was placed as the symbolic leader of the Jewish forces.WEB,weblink A Forgotten Chapter Of Jewish History: The Persian Conquest Of Jerusalem, January 2012, jewishmag.com, 2014-06-09, Frank Meir Loewenberg, The Persian Sassanians, commanded by Shahrbaraz, were joined by Nehemiah and the wealthy Jewish leader Benjamin of Tiberias, who had mustered a force of Tiberian Jews.BOOK,weblink Jewish Encyclopedia CHOSROES (KHOSRU) II. PARWIZ ("The Conqueror"):, Th. Nöldeke, Grätz, Gesch, Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906, 20 January 2014, The combined force captured Jerusalem in 614 CE without resistance.BOOK,weblink The Armenian History Attributed to Sebeos, 207, R. W. THOMSON Historical commentary by JAMES HOWARD-JOHNSTON Assistance from TIM GREENWOOD., Liverpool University Press, 1999, 17 January 2014, Nehemiah was then appointed the ruler of Jerusalem. He began the work of making arrangements for the building of the Third Temple, and sorting out genealogies to establish a new High Priesthood. After only a few months, a Christian revolt occurred. Nehemiah ben Hushiel and his "council of the righteous" were killed along with many other Jews, some throwing themselves off the city walls. The surviving Jews fled to Shahrbaraz’s encampment at Caesarea. The Christians were able to briefly retake the city for 19 days before the walls were breached by Shahrbaraz’s forces.BOOK,weblink The Armenian History Attributed to Sebeos, 69–71, R. W. THOMSON Historical commentary by JAMES HOWARD-JOHNSTON Assistance from TIM GREENWOOD., Liverpool University Press, 1999, 17 January 2014, In 617 CE, the Persians reversed their policy and sided with the Christians, probably because of pressure from Mesopotamian Christians.BOOK,weblink The Armenian History Attributed to Sebeos, 208, R. W. THOMSON Historical commentary by JAMES HOWARD-JOHNSTON Assistance from TIM GREENWOOD., Liverpool University Press, 1999, 17 January 2014, It has been suggested that Nehemiah ben Hushiel was killed then. However, it does not appear that Jews were violently expelled from Jerusalem as Sebeos thought. Instead, Modestos’ letter seems to imply that further Jewish settlers were banned from settling in or around Jerusalem. A small synagogue on the Temple Mount was also demolished.BOOK,weblink The Armenian History Attributed to Sebeos, 209, R. W. THOMSON Historical commentary by JAMES HOWARD-JOHNSTON Assistance from TIM GREENWOOD., Liverpool University Press, 1999, 17 January 2014,

Sources

Sebeos' account

The Armenian bishop and historian Sebeos wrote an account of the fall of Jerusalem. He writes that at first the inhabitants of Jerusalem voluntarily submitted to the Jews and Persians, however after a few months, the ostikan appointed by Khosrau II to rule Jerusalem was killed in a Christian revolt.Sebeos writes that during the revolt many Jews were killed. Some throwing themselves off the city walls to escape. The remaining Jews fled to the Sasanian general Shahrbaraz. Shahrbaraz assembled his troops and went and encamped around Jerusalem and besieged it for 19 days. The Christian death toll was 17,000 in addition 35,000 people including the patriarch Zacharias were deported to Mesopotamia. For three days the Persian forces slaughtered and plundered the inhabitants of the city. The city was burned down. The Jews where then driven from the city and an archpriest named Modestos was appointed over the city.

Sefer Zerubbabel

The Sefer Zerubbabel is a medieval Hebrew apocalypse written in the style of biblical visions (e.g. Daniel, Ezekiel) placed into the mouth of Zerubbabel. It is thought to have been written at least partially during the beginning of the 7th century.BOOK, History of Messianic Speculation in Israel, Abba Hillel, Silver, 49, II The Mohammedan Period, 2003, Kessinger Publishing, 0-7661-3514-4, In the Sefer Zerubbabel Aaron's rod, Elijah and Nehemiah ben Hushiel will be hidden in the city of Tiberias. After Nehemiah ben Hushiel takes possession of Jerusalem, he proceeds to sorts out Israel’s genealogical lists according to their families. He is killed in the fifth year which would be 619 during the month of Av (July - August). The Sefer Zerubbabel states that Shiroi King of Persia will stab Nehemiah ben Hushiel and Israel. His thoroughly crushed corpse will be thrown down before the gates of Jerusalem. And sixteen of the righteous shall be killed with him. Armilus enters Jerusalem on the 14th day of the new year during the month of Nisan. Presumably, this would coincide with March 28, 628.WEB,weblink Sefer Zerubbabel, 2014-01-17, Translated by John C. Reeves. University of North Carolina at Charlotte, The Sefer Zerubbabel does not claim that Nehemiah ben Hushiel will be the Messiah ben David. Rather it asserts that he is the Messiah ben Joseph and a descendant of Joseph. The exilarchs traced their line back to David.Kavadh II made peace with Heraclius in 628 after the reign of Khosrau II. Armilus is thought to be a cryptogram for Heraclius.BOOK,weblink Jewish Martyrs in the Pagan and Christian Worlds, 2006, 108 - 109, 2014-01-10, Cambridge university press. Cambridge , New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao Paulo,

Poems by Eleazar ben Killir

Three piyyutim attributed to Eleazar ben Killir are thought to be based on an early version of the Sefer Zerubbabel.BOOK,weblink Judaica Minora: Geschichte und Literatur des rabbinischen Judentums, Günter Stemberger, Mohr Siebeck, 2010, 17 December 2014, {{rp|168–169}}The first is believed to be dated between 629 and 634. In the text the Jews set up an altar and offer sacrifices, however they are not allowed to erect a sanctuary. The Jewish leader who is called the Messiah ben Joseph arises among them and within three months reaches the top. However, he is killed by the Persian chief commander in a small sanctuary shortly after.{{rp|168–169}}BOOK,weblink Judaism and Imperial Ideology in Late Antiquity, 57, Alexei Sivertsev, Cambridge University Press, 2011, 17 December 2014, In a second piyyut, which is undatable, the Messiah ben Joseph is named as Nehemiah ben Hushiel.{{rp|170–171}}A third piyyut titled Oto ha-yom is dated later, as the Persians have been defeated by the Byzantines. However a king from Arabia then invades. This poem is thought to date from the early years of the Arab invasion. Nehemiah ben Hushiel is not mentioned. The Messiah ben David of the Sefer Zerubbabel Menahem ben Ammiel is now called the Messiah ben Joseph.{{rp|171}}

Other texts mentioning Nehemiah

Otot ha-Mašiah (Signs of the Messiah)

Another medieval Hebrew apocalypse the Otot ha-Mašiah also casts Nehemiah ben Hushiel as a Messianic leader.WEB,weblink ’Otot ha-Mašiah (Signs of the Messiah), 2014-01-20, Translated by John C. Reeves. University of North Carolina at Charlotte, It gives a less detailed account but is also thought to be dated to this period.The following texts also mention Nehemiah and they are all similar to ’Otot ha-Mašiah (Signs of the Messiah). For example, Nehemiah will confront Armilos with a Torah scroll in all of them and in some cases the text is almost identical. The texts are Tefillat (Prayer of) R. Shimon b. Yohai,WEB,weblink Tefillat (Prayer of) R. Shimon b. Yohai, 2014-01-22, Translated by John C. Reeves. University of North Carolina at Charlotte, ’Otot of R. Shimon b. YohaiWEB,weblink ’Otot of R. Shimon b. Yohai, 2014-01-22, Translated by John C. Reeves. University of North Carolina at Charlotte, and Ten SignsWEB,weblink Ten Signs, 2014-01-22, Translated by John C. Reeves. University of North Carolina at Charlotte, BOOK,weblink Trajectories in Near Eastern Apocalyptic: A Postrabbinic Jewish Apocalypse Reader, John C. Reeves, Society of Biblical Literature Atlanta, 2005, 31 January 2014,

Pirqe Mašiah

The medieval Hebrew apocalypse Pirqe Mašiah also mentions Nehemiah without his surname. It was clearly written later, as it mentions Arabs controlling the Temple Mount. The Arabs say this is our sanctuary it has nothing to do with you. The Arabs agree that both will present offerings and whoever's offering is accepted, the other will follow his ways. We will become one people ummah. Satan denounces the Jews before God. The Arabs' offering is accepted and the Jews' offering rejected. The Jews, however, refuse to commit apostasy. A battle erupts between the two and Nehemiah is slain, later to be resurrectedWEB,weblink, Pirqe Mašiah, 2014-01-22, Translated by John C. Reeves. University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Sebeos recorded a similar event in his history - in which Jewish men slaughtered pigs in the Muslim place of worship.WEB, http:rbedrosian.com/seb9.htm, Sebeos chapter 31, Sebeos, 13 March 2014,

See also

References

{{Reflist}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Nehemiah ben Hushiel" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 3:24pm EST - Sun, Dec 16 2018
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
GETWIKI 09 MAY 2016
GETWIKI 18 OCT 2015
M.R.M. Parrott
Biographies
GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 18 AUG 2014
Wikinfo
Culture
CONNECT