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National Reconnaissance Office
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factoids
| chief1_position = Director of the National Reconnaissance Office (DNRO)| chief3_name = Frank Calvellweblink| chief3_position = Principal Deputy Director of the NRO (PDDNRO)| chief4_name = Maj. General Michael Guetleinweblink| chief4_position = Deputy Director of the NRO (DDNRO)| chief5_name = | chief5_position = | chief6_name = | chief6_position = | chief7_name = | public_protector = | chief7_position = | chief8_name = | chief8_position = | chief9_name = | chief9_position = | parent_department = United States Department of Defense>Department of Defense| child1_agency = | child2_agency = | keydocument1 = weblink}}| map = | map_size = | map_caption = | embed = }}{{Global surveillance}}The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) is a member of the United States Intelligence Community and an agency of the United States Department of Defense. NRO is considered, along with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), National Security Agency (NSA), Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), and National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), to be one of the "big five" U.S. intelligence agencies.Intelligence Agencies Must Operate More Like An Enterprise The NRO is headquartered in Chantilly, Virginia,"Contact the NRO {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131029145703weblink |date=2013-10-29 }}" "National Reconnaissance Office Office of Public Affairs 14675 Lee Road Chantilly, VA 20151-1715" {{convert|2|mi}} south of the Washington Dulles International Airport.It designs, builds, launches, and operates the reconnaissance satellites of the U.S. federal government, and provides satellite intelligence to several government agencies, particularly signals intelligence (SIGINT) to the NSA, imagery intelligence (IMINT) to the NGA, and measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT) to the DIA.WEB,weblink The Evolving Role of the NRO, Federation of American Scientists, The Director of the NRO reports to both the Director of National Intelligence and the Secretary of DefenseOfficial NRO Fact Sheet viaweblink accessed March 2012. The NRO's federal workforce is a hybrid organization consisting of some 3000 personnel including NRO cadre, Air Force, Army, CIA, NGA, NSA, and Navy personnel.WEB,weblink Career Opportunities, 2013-07-08,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131029132816weblink">weblink 2013-10-29, dead, A 1996 bipartisan commission report described the NRO as having by far the largest budget of any intelligence agency, and "virtually no federal workforce", accomplishing most of its work through "tens of thousands" of defense contractor personnel.WEB,weblink Preparing for the 21st Century: An Appraisal of U.S. Intelligence, Chapter 13 – The Cost of Intelligence, Commission on the Roles and Capabilities of the United States Intelligence Community,

Mission

The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) develops, builds, launches, and operates space reconnaissance systems and conducts intelligence-related activities for U.S. national security.WEB, National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) Center for the Study of National Reconnaissance (CSNR) Bulletin, Combined 2002 Issue,weblink Government Attic, 26 October 2016,weblink NRO also coordinates collection and analysis of information from airplane and satellite reconnaissance by the military services and the Central Intelligence Agency.WEB, NRO Provides Support to the Warfighters,weblink Press Release, NRO Press Office, 26 October 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20010618144016weblink">weblink 18 June 2001, 28 April 1998, It is funded through the National Reconnaissance Program, which is part of the National Intelligence Program (formerly known as the National Foreign Intelligence Program) WEB,weblink . The agency is part of the United States Department of Defense, Department of Defense.The NRO works closely with its intelligence and space partners, which include the National Security Agency (NSA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), the United States Strategic Command, United States Naval Research Laboratory, "section" name="History">

History

(File:NRO50yrNROL41WeAreReady.jpg, thumb, right, 200px, Close-up of Atlas 501 payload fairing with NROL-41 satellite (poster commemorating 50 years of NRO).)File:Iraq-030205-powell-un-slide-15.jpg, thumb, right, Serum and Vaccine Institute in Al-A'amiriyaAl-A'amiriyaFile:SyrianTanks US SatelliteImagery.jpg, thumb, right, US Satellite imagery of Syrian tanks departing Da'elDa'el{{See also, Chronology of the National Reconnaissance Office, The NRO was established on August 25, 1960, after management problems and insufficient progress with the USAF satellite reconnaissance program (see SAMOS and MIDAS).WEB, Stares, Paul B., The Militarization of Space,weblink 23,46, 2008-11-24, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090113113757weblink">weblink 2009-01-13, {{Rp|23}}BOOK, America's Secret Eyes in Space, Jeffrey Richelson, Harper & Row, 1990, The formation was based on a 25 August 1960 recommendation to President Dwight D. Eisenhower during a special National Security Council meeting, and the agency was to coordinate the USAF and CIA's (and later the navy and NSA's) reconnaissance activities.{{Rp|46}}The NRO's first photo reconnaissance satellite program was the Corona program,{{rp|25–28}} the existence of which was declassified February 24, 1995, and which existed from August 1960 to May 1972 (although the first test flight occurred on February 28, 1959). The Corona system used (sometimes multiple) film capsules dropped by satellites, which were recovered mid-air by military craft. The first successful recovery from space (Discoverer XIII) occurred on August 12, 1960, and the first image from space was seen six days later. The first imaging resolution was 8 meters, which was improved to 2 meters. Individual images covered, on average, an area of about {{convert|10|by|120|mi|km}}. The last Corona mission (the 145th), was launched May 25, 1972, and this mission's last images were taken May 31, 1972. From May 1962 to August 1964, the NRO conducted 12 mapping missions as part of the "Argon" system. Only seven were successful.{{rp|25–28}}In 1963, the NRO conducted a mapping mission using higher resolution imagery, as part of the "Lanyard" program. The Lanyard program flew one successful mission.{{Citation needed|date=January 2008}}NRO missions since 1972 are classified, and portions of many earlier programs remain unavailable to the public.

Existence

The first press reports on NRO started in 1971.WEB,weblink History of NRO security breaches, 2010-12-22author= (Chief, Special Security Center) YEAR = 1973, CIA and others: secret agencies studied
, Sarasota Herald-Tribune, Sarasota, Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 4,weblink In 1985, a New York Times article revealed details on the operations of the NRO.JOURNAL, Bamford, James, James Bamford, January 13, 1985, 1985, America's Supersecret Eyes In Space, The New York Times, New York, The New York Times,weblink
The existence of the NRO was declassified on September 18, 1992, by the Deputy Secretary of Defense, as recommended by the Director of Central Intelligence.WEB,weblink Out of the Black: The Declassification of the NRO, 2008-10-13, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 257author= Jeffrey T. Richelson, September 18, 2008,

Funding controversy

A Washington Post article in September 1995 reported that the NRO had quietly hoarded between $1 billion and $1.7 billion in unspent funds without informing the Central Intelligence Agency, the Pentagon, or Congress. The CIA was in the midst of an inquiry into the NRO's funding because of complaints that the agency had spent $300 million of hoarded funds from its classified budget to build a new headquarters building in Chantilly, Virginia, a year earlier.In total, NRO had accumulated US$3.8 billion (inflation adjusted US$ {{formatnum:{{Inflation|US|3.8|1995|r=1}}}} billion in {{CURRENTISOYEAR}}) in forward funding. As a consequence, NRO's three distinct accounting systems were merged.WEB
,weblink
, Risk Management and National Reconnaissance From the Cold War Up to the Global War on Terrorism
, 2011-07-31
, Journal of Discipline and Practice, 2005-U1
, NRO
, Fitzgerald
, Dennis D.
, 2005
, {{dead link|date=February 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}The presence of the classified new headquarters was revealed by the Federation of American Scientists who obtained unclassified copies of the blueprints filed with the building permit application. After 9/11 those blueprints were apparently classified. The reports of an NRO slush fund were true. According to former CIA general counsel Jeffrey Smith, who led the investigation: "Our inquiry revealed that the NRO had for years accumulated very substantial amounts as a 'rainy day fund.'"WEB,weblink Get Smarter: Demystifying the NRO, 2008-10-13, SECRECY & GOVERNMENT BULLETIN, Issue Number 39, Federation of American Scientists, August–September 1994,

Future Imagery Architecture

In 1999 the NRO embarked on a $25 billionWEB,weblink U.S. News & World Report, Lack of Intelligence, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121023040341weblink">weblink 2012-10-23, project with Boeing entitled Future Imagery Architecture to create a new generation of imaging satellites. In 2002 the project was far behind schedule and would most likely cost $2 billion to $3 billion more than planned, according to NRO records. The government pressed forward with efforts to complete the project, but after two more years, several more review panels and billions more in expenditures, the project was killed in what the Times report calls "perhaps the most spectacular and expensive failure in the 50-year history of American spy satellite projects."NEWS,weblink Failure to Launch: In Death of Spy Satellite Program, Lofty Plans and Unrealistic Bids, Philip Taubman, The New York Times, 2007-11-11, 2007-11-12,

Mid 2000s to present

In August 23, 2001, Mr. Bryan Regan, a civilian employee of TRW at NRO, was arrested at Dulles International Airport outside Washington while boarding a flight for Zurich. He was carrying coded information about Iraqi and Chinese missile sites. He also had the addresses of the Chinese and Iraqi Embassies in Switzerland and Austria. He was sentenced to life in prison without parole for offering to sell intelligence secrets to Iraq and China.weblink January 2008, the government announced that a reconnaissance satellite operated by the NRO would make an unplanned and uncontrolled re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere in the next several months. Satellite watching hobbyists said that it was likely the USA-193, built by Lockheed Martin Corporation, which failed shortly after achieving orbit in December 2006.NEWS,weblink Satellite Spotters Glimpse Secrets, and Tell Them, John Schwartz, The New York Times, 2008-02-05, 2008-02-05, On February 14, 2008, the Pentagon announced that rather than allowing the satellite to make an uncontrolled re-entry, it would instead be shot down by a missile fired from a Navy cruiser.NEWS,weblink U.S. Officials Say Broken Satellite Will Be Shot Down, David Stout and Thom Shanker, The New York Times, 2008-02-14, 2008-02-14, The intercept took place on February 21, 2008.PRESS RELEASE, DoD Succeeds In Intercepting Non-Functioning Satellite (release=No. 0139-08),weblink February 20, 2008, U.S. Department of Defense, 2008-02-20, In July 2008, the NRO declassified the existence of its Synthetic Aperture Radar satellites, citing difficulty in discussing the creation of the Space-Based Radar with the United States Air Force and other entities.NEWS,weblink Spy Radar Satellites Declassified, Colin Clark, DoD Buzz, through Military.com, 2008-07-03, 2008-07-10, In August 2009, FOIA archives were queried for a copy of the NRO video, "Satellite Reconnaissance: Secret Eyes in Space."The Black Vault, weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090911154733weblink">"Download the declassified Satellite Reconnaissance: Secret Eyes in Space", NRO, August 2009. The 7 minute video chronicles the early days of the NRO and many of its early programs.It was proposed that the NRO share the imagery of the United States itself with the National Applications Office for domestic law enforcement purposes.HTTP://WWW.GWU.EDU/~NSARCHIV/NSAEBB/NSAEBB229/INDEX.HTM>TITLE=U.S. RECONNAISSANCE SATELLITES: DOMESTIC TARGETS – DOCUMENTS DESCRIBE USE OF SATELLITES IN SUPPORT OF CIVIL AGENCIES AND LONGSTANDING CONTROVERSYNATIONAL SECURITY ARCHIVE, THE GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY>DATE=2008-04-11, 2008-04-12, The NAO was disestablished in 2009. The NRO is an non-voting associate member in the Civil Applications Committee (CAC). The CAC is an inter-agency committee that coordinates and oversees the Federal- Civil use of classified collections. The CAC was officially chartered in 1975 by the Office of the President to provide Federal- Civil agencies access to National Systems data in support of mission responsibilities.weblink to Asia Times Online, one important mission of NRO satellites is the tracking of non-US submarines on patrol or on training missions in the world's oceans and seas.NEWS, US satellites shadow China's submarines,weblink 26 October 2016, Pakistan Defence, 13 May 2010, At the National Space Symposium in April 2010, NRO director General Bruce Carlson, United States Air Force (Retired) announced that until the end of 2011, NRO is embarking on "the most aggressive launch schedule that this organization has undertaken in the last twenty-five years. There are a number of very large and very critical reconnaissance satellites that will go into orbit in the next year to a year and a half."WEB
,weblink
, Bruce Carlson, Director, NRO, National Space Symposium, Remarks
, 2010-06-04
, National Reconnaissance Office
, Bruce Carlson
, April 14, 2010
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100527130333weblink">weblink
, May 27, 2010
, In 2012, a McClatchy investigation found that the NRO was possibly breaching ethical and legal boundaries by encouraging its polygraph examiners to extract personal and private information from DoD personnel during polygraph tests that were limited to counterintelligence issues.The IG complaint of Mark Phillips concerning the NRO | McClatchy. Mcclatchydc.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-21. Allegations of abusive polygraph practices were brought forward by former NRO polygraph examiners.Taylor, Marisa, "Sen. Charles Grassley Seeks Probe Of Polygraph Techniques At National Reconnaissance Office", The McClatchy Company, 27 July 2012 In 2014, an inspector general's report concluded that NRO failed to report felony admissions of child sexual abuse to law enforcement authorities. NRO obtained these criminal admissions during polygraph testing but never forwarded the information to police. NRO's failure to act in the public interest by reporting child sexual predators was first made public in 2012 by former NRO polygraph examiners.Taylor, Marisa. (2014-04-22) WASHINGTON: IG: Feds didn't pass polygraph evidence of child abuse to investigators | Courts & Crime. McClatchy DC. Retrieved on 2014-04-28.On Aug 30, 2019, Donald Trump tweeted an image of “the catastrophic accident during final launch preparations for the Safir SLV Launch at Semnan Launch Site One in Iran”. The image almost certainly came from a satellite known as USA 224, according to Marco Langbroek, a satellite-tracker based in the Netherlands. The satellite was launched by the National Reconnaissance Office in 2011. weblink

Organization

(File:NROorgchart.jpg|thumb|right|NRO Organizational Chart (Sep. 2010))The NRO is part of the Department of Defense. The Director of the NRO Leadership of the National Reconnaissance Office is appointed by the President of the United States, by and with the consent of the Senate in accordance with Title 50 of U.S. code.WEB, Department of Defense Directive 5105.23, Change 1, 29 October, 2015,weblink Department of Defense, 31 May 2019, Traditionally, the position was given to either the Under Secretary of the Air Force or the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Space, but with the appointment of Donald Kerr as Director of the NRO in July 2005 the position is now independent. The Agency is organized as follows:NRO Organization.weblink{{Dead link|date=December 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}Principal Deputy Director of the NRO (PDDNRO)
  • Reports to and coordinates with the DNRO on all NRO activities and handles the daily management of the NRO with decision responsibility as delegated by the DNRO; and,
  • In the absence of the Director, acts on behalf of the DNRO.
Deputy Director of the NRO (DDNRO)
  • Senior USAF General Officer. Represents the civilian/uniformed USAF personnel assigned to the NRO;
  • Assists both the DNRO and PDDNRO in the daily direction of the NRO; and,
  • Coordinates activities between the USAF and the NRO.
The Corporate Staff
  • Encompasses all those support functions such as legal, diversity, human resources, security/counterintelligence, procurement, public affairs, etc. necessary for the day-to-day operation of the NRO and in support of the DNRO, PDNRO, and DDNRO.
Office of Space Launch (OSL)
  • Responsible for all aspects of a satellite launch including launch vehicle hardware, launch services integration, mission assurance, operations, transportation, and mission safety; and,
  • OSL is NRO's launch representative with industry, the USAF, and NASA.
Advanced Systems and Technology Directorate (AS&T)
  • Invents and delivers advanced technologies;
  • Develops new sources and methods; and,
  • Enables multi-intelligence solutions.
Business Plans and Operations (BPO)
  • Responsible for all financial and budgetary aspects of NRO programs and operations; and,
  • Coordinates all legislative, international, and public affairs communications.
Communications Systems Acquisition Directorate (COMM)
  • Supports the NRO by providing communications services through physical and virtual connectivity; and,
  • Enables the sharing of mission critical information with mission partners and customers.
Ground Enterprise Directorate (GED)
  • Provides an integrated ground system that sends timely information to users worldwide.
Geospatial Intelligence Systems Acquisition Directorate (GEOINT)
  • Responsible for acquiring NRO's technologically advanced imagery collection systems, which provides geospatial intelligence data to the Intelligence Community and the military.
Management Services and Operations (MS&O)
  • Provides services such as facilities support, transportation and warehousing, logistics, and other business support, which the NRO needs to operate on a daily basis.
Mission Operations Directorate (MOD)
  • Operates, maintains and reports the status of NRO satellites and their associated ground systems;
  • Manages the 24-hour NRO Operations Center (NROC) which, working with U.S Strategic Command, provides defensive space control and space protection, monitors satellite flight safety, and provides space situational awareness.
Mission Integration Directorate (MID)
  • Engages with users of NRO systems to understand their operational and intelligence problems and provide solutions in collaboration with NRO's mission partners.
  • Manages the Tactical Defense Space Reconnaissance (TacDSR) Program to directly answer emerging warfighting intelligence requirements of the Combatant Commands (CCMDs), Services, and other tactical users as funded by the Department of Defense (DoD) Military Intelligence Program (MIP)weblink
Signals Intelligence Systems Acquisition Directorate (SIGINT)
  • This directorate builds and deploys NRO's signals intelligence satellite systems that collect communication, electronic, and foreign instrumentation signals intelligence.
Systems Engineering Directorate (SED)
  • Provides beginning-to-end systems engineering for all of NRO's systems.

Personnel

{{See also|Leadership of the National Reconnaissance Office}}In 2007, the NRO described itself as "a hybrid organization consisting of some 3,000 personnel and jointly staffed by members of the armed services, the Central Intelligence Agency and DOD civilian personnel."WEB
,weblink
, NRO Factsheet
, 2007-01-15
, Word Document
, 1
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061211085904weblink">weblink
, 2006-12-11
, Between 2010 and 2012, the workforce is expected to increase by 100. The majority of workers for the NRO are private corporate contractors, with $7 billion of the agency's $8 billion budget going to private corporations.BOOK, Paglen, Trevor, Blank Spots On the Map: The Dark Geography of the Pentagon's Secret World, Dutton, New York, February 2009, {{rp|178}}

Budget

(File:NRObudgetFY2004FY2013.png|thumb|NRO budget FY 2004 to 2013)The NRO derives its funding both from the US intelligence budget and the military budget. In 1971, the annual budget was estimated to be around $1 billion (inflation adjusted $ {{formatnum:{{Inflation|US|1.0|1971|r=1}}}} billion in {{CURRENTISOYEAR}}). A 1975 report by Congress's Commission on the Organization of the Government for the Conduct of Foreign Policy states that the NRO had "the largest budget of any intelligence agency". By 1994, the annual budget had risen to $6 billion (inflation adjusted $ {{formatnum:{{Inflation|US|6.0|1994|r=1}}}} billion in {{CURRENTISOYEAR}}),WEB, Ultra-Secret Office Gets First Budget Scrutiny,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20130130194345weblink">weblink dead, 2013-01-30, Tim Weiner, New York Times, 2010-12-22, 1994-08-09, and for 2010 it is estimated to amount to $15 billion (inflation adjusted $ {{formatnum:{{Inflation|US|15|2010|r=1}}}} billion in {{CURRENTISOYEAR}}).WEB, FY2010 Intelligence Budget,weblink John Pike, www.globalsecurity.org, 2010-12-22, 2010, This would correspond to 19% of the overall US intelligence budget of $80 billion for FY2010.WEB,weblink Overall U.S. intelligence budget tops $80 billion, Los Angeles Times, 2011-01-08, 2010-10-28, Ken, Dilanian, For Fiscal Year 2012 the budget request for science and technology included an increase to almost 6% (about $600 million) of the NRO budget after it had dropped to just about 3% of the overall budget in the years before.WEB, National Reconnaissance Office Update,weblink Bruce Carlson, Air & Space Conference and Technology Exposition 2010, 2010-11-25, 2010-09-13,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101206140015weblink">weblink 2010-12-06, dead,

NRO directives and instructions

Under the Freedom of Information Act, the NRO declassified a list of secret directives for internal use. The following is a list of the released directives, which are weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111007212128weblink">available for download:
  • NROD 10-2 – "National Reconnaissance Office External Management Policy"
  • NROD 10-4 – "National Reconnaissance Office Sensitive Activities Management Group"
  • NROD 10-5 – "Office of Corporate System Engineer Charter"
  • NROD 22-1 – "Office of Inspector General"
  • NROD 22-2 – "Employee Reports of Urgent Concerns to Congress"
  • NROD 22-3 – "Obligations to report evidence of Possible Violations of Federal Criminal Law and Illegal Intelligence Activities"
  • NROD 50-1 – "Executive Order 12333 – Intelligence Activities Affecting United States Persons"
  • NROD 61-1 – "NRO Internet Policy, Information Technology"
  • NROD 82-1a – "NRO Space Launch Management"
  • NROD 110-2 – "National Reconnaissance Office Records and Information Management Program"
  • NROD 120-1 – The NRO Military Uniform Wear Policy
  • NROD 120-2 – "The NRO Awards and Recognition Programs"
  • NROD 120-3 – "Executive Secretarial Panel"
  • NROD 120-4 – "National Reconnaissance Pioneer Recognition Program"
  • NROD 120-5 – "National Reconnaissance Office Utilization of the Intergovernmental Personnel Act Mobility Program"
  • NROD 121-1 – "Training of NRO Personnel"
  • NROI 150-4 – "Prohibited Items in NRO Headquarters Buildings/Property"

Coordination with USSPACECOM

At a press event prior to the establishment of USSPACECOM, the Commander of USSPACECOM, US Air Force General Raymond stated that the NRO will “respond to the direction of the United States Space Command commander” to “protecting and defending those (space) capabilities”. General Raymond further stated that “we (NRO and USSPACECOM) have a shared concept of operations, we have a shared vision and a shared concept of operations. We train together, we exercise together, we man the same C2 center, if you will, at the National Space Defense Center”weblink

Technology

{{See also|List of NRO satellites}}NRO's technology is likely more advanced than its civilian equivalents. In the 1980s, the NRO had satellites and software that were capable of determining the exact dimensions of a tank gun. In 2012 the agency donated two space telescopes to NASA. Despite being stored unused, the instruments are superior to the Hubble Space Telescope. One journalist observed, "If telescopes of this caliber are languishing on shelves, imagine what they're actually using."NEWS,weblink NASA Adopts Two Spare Spy Telescopes, Each Maybe More Powerful than Hubble, Popular Science, June 5, 2012, Popular Science Technology Group, June 5, 2012, Boyle, Rebecca,

Spacecraft

(File:KH9 Hexagon integration.png|thumb|KH-9 Hexagon during integration at Lockheed)The NRO maintains four main satellite constellationsWEB, NRO Systems Overview - Module 2: Orbital Mechanics,weblink National Reconnaissance Office, 2018-10-11, 13 February 2012, :
  • NRO SIGINT constellation
  • NRO GEOINT constellation
  • NRO Communications Relay constellation
  • NRO Reconnaissance constellation
The NRO spacecraft include:WEB, FY 2013 Congressional Budget Justification, Volume 1, National Intelligence Program Summary, Resource Exhibit No. 13, February 2012, James R., Clapper, DNI,weblink

GEOINT imaging

  • Keyhole series – Imagery intelligence:
    • KH-1, KH-2, KH-3, KH-4, KH-4A, KH-4B Corona (1959–1972)
    • KH-5 – Argon (1961–1962)
    • KH-6— Lanyard (1963)
    • KH-7 – Gambit (1963–1967)Center for the Study of National Reconnaissance: Bulletin, Combined 2002 Issue: "Declassification of Early Satellite Reconnaissance Film"
    • KH-8 – Gambit (1966–1984)
    • KH-9 – Hexagon and Big Bird (1971–1986)
    • KH-10 – Dorian (cancelled)
    • KH-11 – Kennan (or Kennen), Crystal, Improved Crystal, Ikon, and Evolved Enhanced CRYSTAL System (1976–2013)
  • Samos – photo imaging (1960–1962)
  • Misty/Zirconic – stealth IMINT
  • Next Generation Electo-Optical (NGEO), modular system, designed for incremental improvements (in development).WEB, The National Reconnaissance Office At 50 Years: A Brief History,weblink Dr. Bruce Berkowitz, Center for the Study of National Reconnaissance, 2011-10-24, September 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111015044849weblink">weblink 2011-10-15, dead,

GEOINT radar

SIGINT

Space communications

  • Quasar, communications relay
  • NROL-1 through NROL-66 – various secret satellites. NROL stands for National Reconnaissance Office Launch.
This list is likely to be incomplete, given the classified nature of many NRO spacecraft.

NMIS network

The NRO Management Information System (NMIS) is a computer network used to distribute NRO data classified as Top Secret. It is also known as the Government Wide Area Network (GWAN).WEB,weblink 2009 National Intelligence / A Consumer's Guide, Office of the Director of National Intelligence, 2009, 2013-08-19, (page 74)

Locations

(File:NRO GroundStation.png|thumb|NRO ground station at Buckley Air Force Base, Aurora, CO)In October 2008, NRO declassified five mission ground stations: three in the United States, near Washington, D.C.; Aurora, Colorado; and Las Cruces, New Mexico, and a presence at RAF Menwith Hill, UK, and at the Joint Defence Facility Pine Gap, Australia.

In popular culture

  • The NRO is featured in Dan Brown's novel Deception Point.
  • The NRO maintains a YouTube page atweblink

Image gallery

File:NRO_Organization_1971.PNG|NRO Organization, circa 1971File:NRO Organization 2009.jpg|NRO Organization, circa 2009File:NRO L11 missionpatch.jpg|Patch commemorating launch of a classified payloadFile:Nrol-39.jpg|The official mission patch from Launch-39File:National Reconnaissance Operations Center.PNG|National Reconnaissance Operations CenterFile:Aerospace Data Facility-East logo.PNG|ADF-East LogoFile:Aerospace Data Facility-Southwest logo.PNG|ADF-Southwest LogoFile:Aerospace Data Facility-Colorado.PNG|ADF-Colorado Logo

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

{{Intelligence agencies of USA}}{{DOD agencies}}{{Public sector space agencies}}{{Coord|38|52|55|N|77|27|01|W|region:US-VA_type:landmark_source:dewiki|display=title}}{{Authority control}}

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