National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad

aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2013}}

AutonomyBilal Ag AcherifHTTP://WWW.MNLAMOV.NET/DOCUMENTS/113-BUREAU-EXECUTIF-DU-MOUVEMENT-NATIONAL-DE-LIBERATION-DE-LAZAWAD-MNLA.HTMLPUBLISHER=MNLAMOVARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120316062002/HTTP://WWW.MNLAMOV.NET/DOCUMENTS/113-BUREAU-EXECUTIF-DU-MOUVEMENT-NATIONAL-DE-LIBERATION-DE-LAZAWAD-MNLA.HTMLDEAD-URL=NO, (General Secretary)Mahmoud Ag Aghaly (President of the political bureau)Ag Mohamed Najem (head of military operations)Moussa Ag AcharatoumaneIbrahim Ag Bahanga|area = Azawad/northern Mali|headquarters = Kidal|strength =9,000-10,000 (MNLA sources)NEWS,weblink Images et témoignage exclusifs du nord du Mali: un colonel du MNLA dévoile son arsenal militaire, French, France24, 21 June 2012, 18 January 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 18 February 2013, no, Azawad}}|previous =|next =LibyaHistory of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi#Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (1977–2011)>Jamahiriya) (2011){{flagNational Transitional Council>NTC) (2011–2012){{flagicon imageAnsar Dine (2011–2012){{flagicon image>Flag_of_Jihad.svg}} Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (alleged)HTTPS://WWW.WASHINGTONPOST.COM/WORLD/AFRICA/MALI-GOVERNMENT-OFFICIAL-SAYS-AL-QAIDA-FIGHTERS-AMONG-THOSE-ATTACKING-NORTHERN-TOWNS/2012/01/27/GIQANFYCVQ_STORY.HTML>ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20190605142828/HTTPS://WWW.WASHINGTONPOST.COM/WORLD/AFRICA/MALI-GOVERNMENT-OFFICIAL-SAYS-AL-QAIDA-FIGHTERS-AMONG-THOSE-ATTACKING-NORTHERN-TOWNS/2012/01/27/GIQANFYCVQ_STORY.HTMLARCHIVE-DATE=5 JUNE 2019DATE=27 JANUARY 2012ACCESSDATE=4 FEBRUARY 2012, Mali}}{{flagMovement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa{{flagicon image>AQMI_Flag_asymmetric.svg}} Ansar Dine (since June 2012){{flagicon image|Flag_of_Jihad.svg}} Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (since 2012)|battles = 2012–present Northern Mali conflict }}{{Contains Tifinagh text}}The National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad or the Azawad National Liberation Movement{{Citation|first=Mike|last=Pflanz|title=Mali rebels seize Timbuktu|newspaper=The Telegraph|date=1 April 2012|url=|location=London|access-date=4 April 2018|archive-url=|archive-date=17 June 2018|dead-url=no}}{{Citation|title=Tuareg rebellion sparks crisis in Mali|publisher=Al Jazeera English|date=18 February 2012|url=|access-date=2 April 2012|archive-url=|archive-date=5 April 2012|dead-url=no}} (Tamasheq: WEB,weblink Mouvement National de Liberation de l'Azawad, Mnlamov, French, 9 April 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 14 April 2013, no, {{transl|ber|Tankra n Tumast ḍ Aslalu n Azawd}}, al-Ḥarakat al-Waṭaniyat Litaḥrīr ʾĀzawād, ; MNLA), formerly the National Movement of Azawad (; MNA), is a political and military organisation based in Azawad in northern Mali. The movement is mostly made up of ethnic Tuareg, some of whom are believed to have fought in the Libyan armyNEWS,weblink Tuareg rebels attack 6th town in Mali, 31 January 2012, Associated Press, Google News, Vogl, Martin, 4 February 2012, {{Dead link|date=January 2013}} during the 2011 Libyan Civil War (though other Tuareg MNLA fighters were on the side of the National Transitional Council and returned to Mali after that war{{citation needed|date=January 2013}}). The movement was founded in October 2011 and had statedBOOK,weblink With us and against us : how America's partners help and hinder the war on terror, Stephen,, Tankel,, 9780231547345, New York, 1037351563, that it includes other Saharan peoples. The Malian government has accused the movement of having links to Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb. The MNLA denies this claim. By 1 April 2012 the MNLA and Ansar Dine were in control of virtually all of northern Mali, including its three largest cities of Kidal, Gao, and Timbuktu. Tensions between the MNLA and Ansar Dine culminated in the Battle of Gao, in which the MNLA lost control of northern Malian cities to Ansar Dine and the Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa.


{{Further|Tuareg rebellion (2012)}}Since 1916 there have been at least five Tuareg rebellions. After the failure of the 2007–2009 rebellion in northern Niger and Mali, some Tuareg fighters left for Libya where they were integrated into the Libyan Army.NEWS,weblink Mali army bombs Tuareg rebels, four arrested: military, 17 January 2012, Daniel, Serge, Agence France-Presse, Google News, 5 February 2012, At the end of 2011, following the defeat of Libyan Arab Jamahiriya several Tuareg from the Libyan ArmyNEWS,weblink Mali: 47 Die in Clashes Between Troops, Rebels, 19 January 2012,, 5 February 2012,weblink 2 September 2013, no, and the rebel National Transitional Council returned to the Azawad regions of northern Mali.NEWS,weblink Mali's irrevocable crisis, Al Jazeera, 15 April 2012, 18 January 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 12 February 2013, no, WEB,weblink They are not mercenaries, Mnlamov, 22 January 2012, 9 April 2012,weblink 16 September 2012, no, Many fighters returned from Libya for either financial reasons, such as losing their savings, or due to the alleged racism of NTC fighters and militias.weblink{{dead link|date=April 2012}}The MNLA was said to have been formed after a fusion of such groups as the Northern Mali Tuareg Movement. An alleged influx of arms intended for rebels in Libya led to a huge cache in the largely ungoverned desert areas around where the Tuareg live and causing concern that much of the heavy weaponry remains unaccounted for and could be sold to the highest bidder.NEWS,weblink Loose Libyan missiles threaten air traffic, 30 January 2012, Oumar, Jemal, Ramzi, Walid, Magharebia, 5 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 31 January 2012, no, Though some analysis has denied the connections to either Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) or Muammar Gaddafi and the Libyan Civil War, although the potency of this rebellion was still read as being influenced from weapons from Libya, as well as leftovers from previous rebellions in Azawad and even from Mali's army which were taken by defecting Arab and Tuareg personnel.NEWS,weblink The Causes of the Uprising in Northern Mali, 6 February 2012, Morgan, Andy, Think Africa Press, 10 February 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 9 February 2012, The group is considered to be secular.NEWS,weblink Mali coup leaders to stand down as part of Ecowas deal, BBC, 7 April 2012, 7 April 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 7 April 2012, no, The Tuareg fighters within the ranks of the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad have been considered former allies of Muammar Gaddafi which may have organized after the Tuareg Rebellion between 2007 and 2009.BOOK,weblink The People of Uganda: A Social Perspective - Godfrey Mwakikagile, 18 January 2013,weblink 3 February 2016, no, File:MNLA flag.svg|thumb|MNLA's adopted flag for AzawadAzawadThey have also been accused by the government of Mali of cooperating with AQIM. The MNLA have denied this claim.NEWS,weblink Mali says rebels fight with Qaeda, rebels deny, 27 January 2012, Reuters, Reuters Africa, 5 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 3 February 2016, no, The MNLA was founded in October 2011;NEWS,weblink In Mali, a Tuareg rebellion _ without Gadhafi, 26 January 2012, Vogl, Martin, Associated Press, Google News, 5 February 2012, {{dead link|date=December 2015}} though it is sometimes considered to have been founded more than a year earlierNEWS,weblink Mali: Fighting In North; The New Touareg War, 20 January 2012, Eurasia Review, 10 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 24 February 2012, no, in relation to other such groups. The MNLA have presented themselves as a movement for the liberation of all the peoples of Azawad (Songhai, Arab, Fula and Tuareg). There were also rumours that the group has been supported by battle-hardened Tuaregs from Niger.WEB,weblink Mali's Tuareg rebellion: What next?, Al Jazeera, Jeremy Keenan, 20 March 2012, 1 April 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 23 March 2012, no, On the subject of its composition, the MNLA has declared:


The MNLA was rumoured to have factionalised, according to the sources in the Malian government,NEWS,weblink French, Rupture entre le MNLA et Ançar Dine au nord du Mali, RFI, maliweb, 20 March 2012, 1 April 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 31 May 2012, yes, dmy-all, with the Islamist Ansar Dine claiming control of the region after the capture of several cities,NEWS,weblink Agence France Presse, Google News, 20 March 2012, Armed Islamist group claims control in northeast Mali, 29 March 2012, 10 September 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink dmy-all, previously attributed to the MNLA. Though the international media has linked the MNLA to Ansar Dine and AQIM, the MNLA has distanced itself from both groups, stating that their sole goal is the independence of Azawad.WEB,weblink Warriors and websites – a new kind of rebellion in Mali?, 26 March 2012, IRIN, 3 April 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 28 March 2012, no, However, after the fall of Timbuktu it said that Azawad would be governed along with Ansar Dine.{{citation needed|date=July 2012}} On 26 May, the MNLA and Ansar Dine announced a pact in which they would merge to form an Islamist state, renamed the Islamic Republic of Azawad.NEWS,weblink Mali Tuareg and Islamist rebels agree on Sharia state, 26 May 2012, BBC News, 27 May 2012,weblink 23 November 2012, no,

Independence fight

MNLA launched its armed campaign in January 2012WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 8 December 2012, JTIC Brief: MNLA re-awakens Tuareg separatism in Mali, 2 February 2012, Jane's Information Group, 4 February 2012, NEWS,weblink Dozens of Tuareg rebels dead in Mali clash, says army, 20 January 2012, BBC, 4 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 23 January 2012, no, to free three regions of Mali from the central government's control and seeking the independence of Azawad.(File:Northern Mali conflict.svg|thumb|350px|The MNLA's fight is for their claim of Malian Azawad. (Area captured is indicated.))In January, its fighters attacked Andéramboukane, Menaka, Tessalit, Niafunke, and Aguelhoc.WEB,weblink Mali Besieged by Fighters Fleeing Libya, 2 February 2012, Stewart, Scott, Stratfor, 5 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 11 March 2012, no, They were reported to be in control of parts of northern Mali, such as Menaka on 1 February.NEWS,weblink Tuareg rebels take Mali town after army pullout, 1 February 2012, Agence France-Presse, Google News, 5 February 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 3 January 2013, dmy-all, During that time the movement was said to have opened a fifth front in the town of Lere.NEWS,weblink Tuareg rebels attack fifth town in Mali, 26 January 2012, Al Jazeera, 5 February 2012,weblink 23 November 2012, no, At the end of January, they claimed to have shot down a Malian Air Force Mig-21 with the surface-to-air missiles acquired from NATO arms drops over Libya. The military of Mali have also used helicopter gunships to target the group. On 4 February 2012, the movement's fighters attacked government forces in Kidal with the aim of taking control of the town and occupying the two military bases there.NEWS,weblink Heavy weapons fire rocks town in Mali's north, 4 February 2012, Reuters, Reuters Africa, 5 February 2012,weblink 23 November 2012, no, Further towns were seized and re-seized over the course of February and March. At the same time, following clashes in the north, Tuareg civilians were said to have left Bamako for fear of reprisals.NEWS,weblink UPDATE 1-Mali capital paralysed by anti-rebellion protests, 2 February 2012, Reuters, Reuters Africa, 5 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 22 December 2015, no, The International Committee of the Red Cross also said that 3,500 people had fled across the border to Mauritania and that 10,000 people had crossed into Niger during the clashes.NEWS,weblink Mali says 20 rebels killed, thousands flee, 4 February 2012, Diallo, Tiemoko, Diarra, Adama, Reuters, 5 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 5 February 2012, no, On 8 February 2012, Tinzawaten was wrested from central government control after Malian troops took a "tactical withdrawal" following the death of one soldier and injuries to two other soldiers, amid calls by the United Nations for an halt to the offensive. One rebel was also killed and another was wounded, while the MNLA seized two military bases and the weapons storages there. The ICRC added that there were 30,000 internally displaced persons, while the UN said that over 20,000 people have fled to Burkina Faso, Algeria and Mauritania. The United Nations also warned of food shortages as a result of the fighting.NEWS,weblink UPDATE 1-Malian rebels seize key border town, civilians flee, 9 February 2012, Reuters, 10 February 2012,weblink 23 November 2012, no, The UN refugee agency estimated 22,000 people had been displaced in February.“Malian refugees in Niger await food and water,” {{Webarchive|url= |date=13 July 2012 }} AlJazeera (07 Feb 2012) The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) planned to send a team to investigate the violence.NEWS,weblink ECOWAS Team to Investigate Fighting in Mali, 8 February 2012, Clottey, Peter, Voice of America, 9 February 2012, It also condemned their actions and called for logistical support for Mali.WEB,weblink Mali News: ECOWAS warns Tuareg rebels, GlobalPost, 21 March 2012, 1 April 2012,weblink 24 November 2012, no, After the March coup d'etat the MNLA, as well as Ansar Dine, took control of several small towns and also the bigger cities of Kidal, Gao, and Timbuktu. Timbuktu was read by Reuters of being the culmination of the plan to capture northern Mali.NEWS,weblink Mali rebels say surround Timbuktu, army flees, Tiemoko Diallo and Adama Diarra, Reuters, Chicago Tribune, 1 April 2012, 1 April 2012, The MNLA announced that by taking Timbuktu it sought to "dislodge Mali's remaining political and military administration" in the region and said that it would rule the region with Ansar Dine in opposition to the administration in Bamako.NEWS,weblink Timbuktu encircled as Mali coup intensifies, Mike Pflanz, Telegraph, 1 April 2012, 1 April 2012, London,weblink 24 November 2012, no, On 6 April, in an interview with France 24, an MNLA spokesman declared the independence of Azawad as an independent state and said the movement would act as a provisional administration until the establishment of a government.NEWS,weblink Al Arabiya, Tuareg rebels declare the independence of Azawad, north of Mali, 6 April 2012, 6 April 2012,weblink 23 September 2012, no, {{cquote|Mali is an anarchic state. Therefore we have gathered a national liberation movement to put in an army capable of securing our land and an executive office capable of forming democratic institutions. We declare the independence of Azawad from this day on.|20px|20px|Mossa Ag Attaher, MLNA spokesman|6 April 2012}}In the same interview, Attaher also promised that Azawad would "respect all the colonial frontiers that separate Azawad from its neighbours" and insisted that Azawad's declaration of independence has "some international legality".NEWS,weblink Tuareg rebels declare independence in north Mali, France 24, 6 April 2012, 6 April 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 8 April 2012, no, Two days following the declaration of independence, the Arab-dominated National Liberation Front of Azawad (FLNA) were formed to defend Timbuktu from alleged Tuareg domination.NEWS,weblink Reuters, New north Mali Arab force seeks to "defend" Timbuktu, 10 April 2012, 1 July 2017,weblink 23 November 2012, no,

Conflict with Islamist groups

Although both the MNLA and the various Islamist groups fought against a common foe (the Malian government) in the beginning of the conflict, there were deep ideological differences between them. The goal of the MNLA, to establish a secular and independent state of Azawad out of Northern Mali, contrasted sharply with the aims of the Islamist groups, who wanted a united Mali under Sharia law. Once the Malian government's forces had been evicted the region, the two ideological camps began to turn against each other.On 26 May, the MNLA and Ansar Dine announced a pact in which they would merge to form an Islamist state. However, some later reports indicated the MNLA had decided to withdraw from the pact, distancing itself from Ansar Dine.NEWS,weblink FasoZine, Nord Mali: le MNLA refuse de se mettre "en sardine"!, Bark, Biiga, 3 June 2012, 3 June 2012, French, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 8 June 2012, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Voice of America, Mali Islamists Reopen Talks With Tuareg Rebels, 2 June 2012, 2 June 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 4 June 2012, no, On 26 June 2012, the tension came to all-out combat in Gao between the MNLA and the Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa (MOJWA), with both sides firing heavy weapons. MNLA Secretary General Bilal ag Acherif was wounded in the battle.NEWS,weblink Mali Islamists 'oust' Tuaregs from Timbuktu, 29 June 2012, News 24, Agence France-Presse, 29 June 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 1 July 2012, no, The MNLA were soon driven from the city,NEWS,weblink Trouble in Timbuktu as Islamists extend control, Zoe Flood, 29 June 2012, The Daily Telegraph, 30 June 2012, London,weblink 23 November 2012, no, and from Kidal and Timbuktu shortly after. However, the MNLA stated that it continued to maintain forces and control some rural areas in the region.NEWS,weblink As Refugees Flee Islamists in Mali, Solutions Are Elusive, Adam Nossiter, 15 July 2012, The New York Times, 29 August 2012,weblink 28 August 2012, yes, dmy-all, The following day, Ansar Dine announced that it was in control of all the cities of northern Mali.NEWS,weblink Islamists declare full control of Mali's north, Tiemoko Diallo and Adama Diarra, 28 June 2012, Reuters, 29 June 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 4 July 2012, no, File:Ansar Dine et MNLA à Ouagadougou.PNG|thumb|Ansar Dine and MNLA delegates in Ouagadougou with Burkina Faso President Blaise CompaoréBlaise CompaoréAt first, the MNLA retained control of the city of Ménaka, with hundreds of people taking refuge in the city from the rule of the Islamists, and the city of {{Interlanguage link multi|Tinzawatène|fr}} near the Algerian border.WEB,weblink The limits of military intervention, Salima Tlemçani, 11 October 2012, El Watan, 12 October 2012, yes, French,weblink" title="">weblink 15 October 2012, In the same month, a splinter group broke off from the MNLA; calling itself the Front for the Liberation of the Azawad (FPA), stating that Tuareg independence was no longer a realistic goal and that they must concentrate on fighting the Islamists.NEWS,weblink Mali's secular Tuareg rebels splinter, new group says independence unrealistic, Brahima Ouedraogo, 24 September 2012, Associated Press, The Star Tribune, 15 October 2012,weblink 15 October 2012, yes, dmy-all, On 16 November 2012, MNLA forces launched an offensive against Gao in an attempt to retake the town. However, by the end of the day, the Tuaregs were beaten back by the MOJWA forces after the Islamists laid an ambush for them.WEB,weblink New fighting breaks out in northern Mali, France 24, 16 November 2012, 12 January 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 20 December 2012, no, On 19 November 2012, MOJWA and AQIM forces took over Ménaka from the MNLA."North Mali clashes kill dozens, some unarmed: source" {{Webarchive|url= |date=1 February 2013 }} Google News (AFP), 20 November 2012On 14 January 2013, after the French intervention in the conflict had commenced, the MNLA declared it would fight alongside the French and even the Malian government to "end terrorism in Azawad".NEWS,weblink Mali conflict: France has opened gates of hell, say rebels, London, The Guardian, Afua, Hirsch, Kim, Willsher, 14 January 2013, 17 December 2016,weblink 2 December 2016, no, At the same time the MNLA warned the Malian forces not to enter territories it considered its own before an autonomy agreement was signed.NEWS,weblink Tuaregs promise to help defeat Mali rebels, Starafrica.Com, 14 January 2013, 16 January 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 8 September 2014, yes, The spokesman also declared that the MNLA would be a more effective force than those of the neighboring West African nations "because of our knowledge of the ground and the populations".

Return of Malian troops to Azawad

Following the French intervention in Mali, Malian troops and the MNLA signed a peace agreement. This allowed for Malian troops to return to such cities as Kidal. There were still reports of conflict between those who supported the presence of the 200 Malian soldiers at a local barracks and those that supported the MNLA, who sought to keep Malian soldiers out. Kidal's Deputy Mayor Abda Ag Kazina said: "The Malian army arrived in Kidal. There were two demonstrations, one was to support the army and the other was to prevent the army from returning. There were shots fired in the air and the protesters dispersed."NEWS,weblink Mali's army returns to northern city of Kidal, Aljazeera, 6 July 2013, 6 July 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 6 July 2013, no, On 28 November 2013, after a few hundreds Tuareg protesters were violently confronted by Malian soldiers over the visit of Malian Prime Minister Oumar Tatam Ly to MNLA-controlled Kidal, one of the MNLA founders, Attaye Ag Mohamed, said: "The political and military wings of the Azawad declare the lifting of the ceasefire with the central government in Bamako. All our military positions are on alert."NEWS,weblink Mali's Tuareg fighters end ceasefire, Aljazeera, 30 November 2013, 30 November 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 3 December 2013, no,



One of the founding leaders was said to be Moussa Ag Acharatoumane. Another influential leader in the group was Ibrahim Ag Bahanga (as well as his father-in-law Hama Ag Sid'Ahmed, who was also a spokesman for a group in the previous rebellion) from the 1990 and 2006 rebellions. After he was defeated and forced into exile in Libya, he was said to have met with other leaders of the 1990 rebellion who had taken up posts in a new unit of the Libyan army to fight desert warfare. Ibrahim sought to have a proficient force to fight against the Malian state and outside the media spotlight. He was killed on 26 August 2011.{{citation needed|date=September 2012}} One of the officers he had met in Libya was Colonel Ag Mohamed Najem, who is said by the movement to be the head of its military wing. He is of Malian origin but resigned from the Libyan Army shortly after the uprising to join the Tuareg rebellion in Mali.NEWS,weblink Returning Malian Mercenaries Present a Challenge for Mali and the West, 2 February 2012, Stewart, Scott, The Cutting Edge News, 5 February 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 1 June 2012, no, Colonel Dilal Ag Alsherif is another military leader of the movement.WEB,weblink The Associated Press: Mali state TV goes off air; fear of countercoup, Google, 23 March 2012, 1 April 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 25 March 2012, no, There are said to be about 40 officers in the MNLA movement. There are also deserters from the Malian Army, including officers. Colonel Nagim is one such officer, who led the charge to capture two cities.WEB,weblink Après la prise de Tessalit: Le MNLA continue sa conquête du nord-Mali, Fratmat, French, 16 March 2012, 1 April 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 4 August 2012, yes, dmy-all, The General Secretary of the movement is Bilal Ag Acherif. The spokesman for the MNLA's political wing is Hama Ag Mahmoud.WEB,weblink Tuareg rebels ready for Mali talks, 2 April 2012, Al Jazeera, 3 April 2012,weblink 22 July 2013, no, Following the independence declaration, Mahmoud Ag Aghaly was appointed as the head of the interim Executive Committee of the MNLA that was said to govern Azawad.WEB,weblink Communiqué du Président du bureau politique du MNLA, Mahmoud Ag Aghaly, Temoust, 1 April 2012, French, 9 April 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 4 April 2012, yes,

Armed forces and equipment

Following their victory over the Malian army, the MNLA established their main base at the airport of Gao where they had stocked 30 functional tanks and 10 being repaired. An unnamed commander of the MNLA said that at the beginning they were mainly armed from weapons brought by fighters returning from Libya, but that later of their equipment was seized from the Malian army.WEB,weblink Images et témoignage exclusifs du nord du Mali: un colonel du MNLA dévoile son arsenal militaire, French, Peggy Bruguière, 21 June 2012, France 24, 2 July 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 24 June 2012, no,


Ibrahim Ag Mohamed Assaleh, a former external relations representative of the MNLA, split off from the party in March 2014 and formed the Coalition for the People of Azawad. He was said to be frustrated at the hardline negotiations position Bilal Ag Acherif took when dealing with the Malian government.WEB, Andrew McGregor,weblink New rebel movement declared in Northern Mali, Terrorism Monitor, 12, 7, 4 April 2014, 1 February 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 29 September 2015, no,



External links

  • {{Official websiteweblink}} {{Fr icon}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 2:03am EDT - Sun, Sep 15 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott