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{{other uses}}{{redirect|Jiangning}}

0.1em}}}}|other_name = Nanking, Nan-chingPrefecture-level city>Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city|image_skyline = Nanjing montage.pngXuanwu Lake and Purple Mountain (Nanjing)>Purple Mountain; 2. stone sculptures at mausoleum of the southern dynasties in Nanjing "bixie"; 3. Jiming Temple; 4. Yijiang Gate with the City Wall of Nanjing; 5. Qinhuai River and Nanjing Fuzimiao>Fuzi Miao; 6. Nanjing Olympic Sports Center; 7. the spirit way of Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum; 8. Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum|image_flag = |image_seal = frame=yestype=shapestroke-color=#000000frame-lat=31.82|frame-long=118.74}}|image_map1 = ChinaJiangsuNanjing.png|map_caption1 = Location of Nanjing City jurisdiction in Jiangsu|pushpin_map = China|pushpin_label_position = bottom|pushpin_mapsize =|pushpin_map_caption = Location in China32N46region:CN-32|display=it}}|subdivision_type = Country|subdivision_name = People's Republic of ChinaProvinces of the People's Republic of China>ProvinceCounty-level division>County-levelAdministrative divisions of the People's Republic of China#Township level>Township-level|subdivision_name1 = Jiangsu|subdivision_name2 = 11|subdivision_name3 = 129|established_title = Settled|established_date = unknown (Yecheng, 495 BCE. Jinling City, 333 BCE)|parts_type = |parts = |government_type = Sub-provincial cityParty Committee Secretary>Party Secretary |leader_name = Zhang Jinghua|leader_title1 = Mayor|leader_name1 = Lan ShaominURL=HTTP://WWW.NJTJ.GOV.CN/47448/47462/INDEX_1.HTML PUBLISHER=NANJING BUREAU OF STATISTICS ACCESS-DATE=2017-10-06 ARCHIVE-DATE=2017-10-06, dead, | area_total_km2 = 6587|area_land_km2 =|area_water_km2 =|area_water_percent =|area_urban_km2 = 1398.69|elevation_footnotes = |elevation_m = |elevation_ft = 50|population_total = 8335000|population_as_of = 2017|population_footnotes = |population_density_km2 = 1237|population_density_sq_mi = 3183| population_urban = 6,525,000LAST=COXPUBLISHER=DEMOGRAPHIALOCATION=ST. LOUISACCESS-DATE=2018-06-15ARCHIVE-DATE=2018-05-03, live, |population_metro = 11.7 million|population_metro_footnotes = |population_density_metro_km2 = Nanjingese, sometimes may be translated as Nanjinese, Nankinese, Nankingese, Nanjinger, Nankiner, etc.. In Nanjing dialect there is no difference between Nanjing and Nanjin or between Nanking and Nankin. This means the two pronunciations Jing and Jin in Mandarin Chinese pronounce the same in Nanjing dialect, and king and kin are also the same.}}Postal code of China>Postal code|postal_code = 210000–211300Telephone numbers in China>25CN-JS-01)|website = City of NanjingCity trees Cedrus deodara>Deodar Cedar (Cedrus deodara),Platanus × acerifoliaHTTPS://WWW.NYTIMES.COM/2011/06/05/WORLD/ASIA/05CHINA.HTML?PAGEWANTED=ALL >TITLE = A GRASS ROOTS FIGHT TO SAVE A 'SUPER TREE' THE NEW YORK TIMES >ACCESSDATE = 2013-12-10 ARCHIVE-DATE = 2014-12-18 City flowers Prunus mume>Méi (Prunus mume)China Standard Time>China Standard|utc_offset = +08:00Gross domestic product>GDP (Nominal)|blank_info = 2018|blank1_name =  - Total|blank1_info = US$ 191.1 billion|blank2_name =  - Per capita|blank2_info = US$ 23,104|blank3_name =  - Growth|blank3_info = {{increase}} 9.43%Gross domestic product>GDP (PPP)|blank4_info = 2017|blank5_name =  - TotalUnited States dollar>US$ 334.1 billion|blank6_name =  - Per capita|blank6_info = US$ 40,084|blank7_name = Human Development Index|blank7_info = 0.859 (very high)Licence plates of the People's Republic of China>Licence plate prefixes




|y=Nàahmgìng or Nàahmgīng
|ci={{IPAc-yue|n|aam|4|.|g|ing|7}} or {{IPAc-yue|n|aam|4|.|g|ing|1}}
|l="Southern Capital"
}}Nanjing ({{audio|Chinese-Nanjing.ogg|listen|help=no}}), alternatively romanized as Nanking and Nankin, also in the Nanjing dialect as Lanjin,WEB, Romanisation of the Chinese Language,weblink Society for Anglo-Chinese Understanding, 2014-07-12,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-07-14, dead, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region,{{efn|In East China, in terms of urban population and urban area, the largest city is Shanghai, and the second largest is Nanjing.}} with an administrative area of {{convert|6600|km2|abbr=on}} and a total population of 8,270,500 {{As of|2016|lc=y}}.WEB, zh-hans,weblink zh:2016年末南京市人口状况报告年末南京市人口状况综述, Nanjing Bureau of Statistics, 2017-08-04, Archived copy, 2017-10-06,weblink" title="">weblink 2017-10-06, dead, The inner area of Nanjing enclosed by the city wall is Nanjing City (), with an area of {{convert|55|km2|abbr=on}}, while the Nanjing Metropolitan Region includes surrounding cities and areas, covering over {{convert|60000|km2|abbr=on|sigfig=2}}, with a population of over 30 million.Situated in the Yangtze River Delta region, Nanjing has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having served as the capital of various Chinese dynasties, kingdoms and republican governments dating from the 3rd century to 1949,WEB, zh-hans, zh:南京历史沿革,weblink Government of Nanjing, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-06-09, dead, and has thus long been a major center of culture, education, research, politics, economy, transport networks and tourism, being the home to one of the world's largest inland ports. The city is also one of the fifteen sub-provincial cities in the People's Republic of China's administrative structure,WEB,weblink zh:15个副省级城市中 哈尔滨市房价涨幅排列第五名, Prices rose in 15 sub-provincial cities, Harbin ranked fifth, Sohu, 2008-05-07, 2008-06-11, zh-hans, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2008-05-10, live, enjoying jurisdictional and economic autonomy only slightly less than that of a province.WEB, zh-hans,weblink zh:中央机构编制委员会印发《关于副省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发[1995]5号, 豆丁网, 1995-02-19, 2014-05-28, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-05-29, Nanjing has been ranked seventh in the evaluation of "Cities with Strongest Comprehensive Strength" issued by the National Statistics Bureau, and second in the evaluation of cities with most sustainable development potential in the Yangtze River Delta. It has also been awarded the title of 2008 Habitat Scroll of Honor of China, Special UN Habitat Scroll of Honor Award and National Civilized City.WEB,weblink Home - Women GP - Nanjing,, 2013-03-26, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-05-08, Nanjing has many high-quality universities and research institutes, with the number of universities listed in 100 National Key Universities ranking third, including Nanjing University which has a long history and is among the world top 10 universities ranked by Nature Index.100 National Key Universities are universities of Project 211 whose name comes from the abbreviation of 100 national key universities in the 21st century. There are 8 universities listed in Project 211 in Nanjing, 9 in Shanghai, and 23 in Beijing. According to Nature Index released in January 2018, Nanjing University is listed as one of the world top 10 universities. The ratio of college students to total population ranks No.1 among large cities nationwide. Nanjing is one of the top three Chinese scientific research centers, according to the Nature Index,"It will come as no surprise that the top performing Chinese cities in the Nature Index are Beijing, Shanghai and Nanjing. All three are significant players economically and politically, Beijing and Shanghai particularly. ... As the capital of the wealthy eastern coastal province of Jiangsu, Nanjing is located in a region rich in economic and technological activity. ..." – from "Three giants tighten their grip", Nature 528, S176–S178 (17 December 2015) especially strong in the chemical sciences.Nanjing, one of the nation's most important cities for over a thousand years, is recognized as one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China. It has been one of the world's largest cities, enjoying peace and prosperity despite wars and disasters.WEB, zh-hans, zh:走马南京都市圈,weblink 中国经济快讯周刊/人民网, 2003, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-11-03, WEB, zh-hans, zh:南京介绍,weblink Xinhua News, 2012-10-09, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-11-19, live, WEB, zh-hans, zh:江苏省行政区划介绍,weblink Government of Jiangsu Official Website (江苏省政府官网), Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-11-04, live, Rita Yi Man Li, "A Study on the Impact of Culture, Economic, History and Legal Systems Which Affect the Provisions of Fittings by Residential Developers in Boston, Hong Kong and Nanjing", Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal. 1:3–4. 2009. Access via Questia, an online subscription service. Nanjing served as the capital of Eastern Wu (229–280), one of the three major states in the Three Kingdoms period; the Eastern Jin and each of the Southern dynasties (Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang and Chen), which successively ruled southern China from 317–589; the Southern Tang (937–75), one of the Ten Kingdoms; the Ming dynasty when, for the first time, all of China was ruled from the city (1368–1421);{{Harvnb|Crespigny|2004|loc=3}} {{Citation not found|date=January 2018}} and the Republic of China under the right wing Kuomintang (1927–37, 1946–49) prior to its flight to Taiwan by Chiang Kai-Shek during the Chinese Civil War.WEB, zh-hant,weblink zh:南京市, Ministry of Education, ROC, 重編囯語辭典修訂本, Archived copy, 2011-09-21,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-12-22, dead, |quote= (In the 16th Year of the Republic of China [1927], the National Government established [Nanking] as the capital. At present, Taipei is the seat of the central government.)}} The city also served as the seat of the rebel Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (1853–64) and the Japanese puppet regime of Wang Jingwei (1940–45) during the Second Sino-Japanese War. It suffered severe atrocities in both conflicts, including the Nanjing Massacre.Nanjing has served as the capital city of Jiangsu province since the establishment of the People's Republic of China. It has many important heritage sites, including the Presidential Palace and Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum. Nanjing is famous for human historical landscapes, mountains and waters such as Fuzimiao, Ming Palace, Chaotian Palace, Porcelain Tower, Drum Tower, Stone City, City Wall, Qinhuai River, Xuanwu Lake and Purple Mountain. Key cultural facilities include Nanjing Library, Nanjing Museum and Nanjing Art Museum.{{anchor|Name|Etymology|Toponymy}}


The city has a number of other names, and some historical names are now used as names of districts of the city; among them there is the name Jiangning or Kiangning (), whose former character Jiang (}}, Yangtze) is the former part of the name Jiangsu and latter character Ning (}}, simplified form {{zh|labels=no |s=宁 |l=Peace}}) is the short name of Nanjing. When it was the capital of China, for instance during the ROC, Jing ({{zh|labels=no |c= |l=Capital}}) was adopted as the abbreviation of Nanjing.The city first became a Chinese national capital as early as the Jin dynasty. The name Nanjing, which means "Southern Capital" (from the Chinese characters }} for south and for capital), was officially designated for the city during the Ming dynasty, about six hundred years later.{{efn|Since becoming a southern capital, the city has been called Nanking (Nanjing, ) unofficially, and was officially named Nanjing (Nanking) after Peking (Beijing , renamed from Peping or Beiping, ) became a capital city during the early Ming dynasty; the name appears in Ming dynasty echo poem (), for example. It's also unofficially called Nandu (), and Nandu Fanhui Tu ({{zh|labels=no |t=《南都繁會圖》 |l=Nandu Prosperity Picture}}) is an example.}} Nanjing is particularly known as Jinling or Ginling (, "Gold Hill") and the old name has been used since the Warring States period in the Zhou dynasty.Nanjing is also called Jincheng (, Gold City), derived from Jinling City. In addition, Jincheng was a city in Nanjing area. In the 1st year of Hsiankang in the Jin dynasty ({{sc|ad}}{{nbsp}}335), Langya (), a prefectural governor Huan Wen stationed in Jincheng, submitted a proposal to establish the prefecture of South Langya in the land of Jiangsheng () county, and then the city Jincheng became the capital city of the newly established South Langya Prefecture (). The Jincheng later renamed Jinling township, in today's Qinhuai District. ()


{{see also|Timeline of Nanjing history}}

Early history and foundation

File:Nanjing XuanWuLake Purple and Mountain.jpg|thumb|right|Purple Mountain or Zijin Shan, located to the east of the walled city of Nanjing, is the origin of the nickname "Jinling". The water in the front is Xuanwu LakeXuanwu LakeArchaeological discovery shows that "Nanjing Man" lived more than 500 thousand years ago. Zun, a kind of wine vessel, was found to exist in Beiyinyangying culture of Nanjing in about 5000 years ago.WEB,weblink zh:北阴阳营遗址上发现过酒器(组图)_网易新闻, 网易,, Archived copy, 2016-01-15,weblink" title="">weblink 2016-01-28, live, In the late period of Shang dynasty, Taibo of Zhou came to Jiangnan and established Wu state, and the first stop is in Nanjing area according to some historians based on discoveries in Taowu and Hushu culture.WEB,weblink zh:陶吴发现南京最大周代土墩墓(图),, Archived copy, 2016-01-15,weblink" title="">weblink 2008-10-22, live, According to a legend quoted by an artist in Ming dynasty, Chen Yi, Fuchai, King of the State of Wu, founded a fort named Yecheng in today's Nanjing area in 495{{nbsp}}{{sc|bc}}.() (Illustrated Study of Past and Present Nanjing) Later in 473{{nbsp}}{{sc|bc}}, the State of Yue conquered Wu and constructed the fort of Yuecheng (}}) on the outskirts of the present-day Zhonghua Gate. In 333{{nbsp}}{{sc|bc}}, after eliminating the State of Yue, the State of Chu built Jinling Yi (}}) in the western part of present-day Nanjing.Here in Yecheng, Yuecheng and Jinling Yi, both Cheng and Yi mean city. It was renamed Moling (}}) during the reign of the First Emperor of Qin. Since then, the city experienced destruction and renewal many times.{{citation needed|date=September 2011}} The area was successively part of Kuaiji, Zhang and Danyang prefectures in Qin and Han dynasty, and part of Yangzhou region which was established as the nation's 13 supervisory and administrative regions in the 5th year of Yuanfeng in Han dynasty (106{{nbsp}}{{sc|bc}}). Nanjing was later the capital city of Danyang Prefecture, and had been the capital city of Yangzhou for about 400 years from late Han to early Tang.

Capital of the Six Dynasties

File:Segalen-27-Xiao-Xiu-Winged-lion-right.jpg|thumb|left|A bixie sculpture at Xiao Xiu's tomb ({{sc|ad}}{{nbsp}}518). (Stone sculptures at mausoleum of the southern dynasties in Nanjing|Stone sculpture of the southern dynasties]] is widely considered as the city's icon.NEWS,weblink zh:南京六朝石刻现状调查:在田野与工地间寻找国宝, 7 June 2006, Xinhua, zh-hans, 2 November 2013, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 20 November 2013, live, dmy-all, )Nanjing first became a state capital in {{sc|ad}}{{nbsp}}229, when the state of Eastern Wu founded by Sun Quan during the Three Kingdoms period relocated its capital to Jianye (}}), the city extended on the basis of Jinling Yi in {{sc|ad}}{{nbsp}}211. Although conquered by the Western Jin dynasty in 280, Nanjing and its neighboring areas had been well cultivated and developed into one of the commercial, cultural and political centers of China during the rule of Eastern Wu. This city would soon play a vital role in the following centuries.Shortly after the unification of the region, the Western Jin dynasty collapsed. First the rebellions by eight Jin princes for the throne and later rebellions and invasion from Xiongnu and other nomadic peoples that destroyed the rule of the Jin dynasty in the north. In 317, remnants of the Jin court, as well as nobles and wealthy families, fled from the north to the south and reestablished the Jin court in Nanjing, which was then called Jiankang (}}), replacing Luoyang.Shufen Liu, "Jiankang and the Commercial Empire of the Southern Dynasties", in Pearce, Spiro, Ebrey eds. Culture and Power, 2001:35. This marked the first time a Chinese dynastic capital moved to southern China.File:Pagoda at Qixia Temple Nanjing.jpg|upright|thumb|The ÅšarÄ«ra pagoda in ad}}{{nbsp}}601 and rebuilt in the 10th century.During the period of North–South division, Nanjing remained the capital of the Southern dynasties for more than two and a half centuries. During this time, Nanjing was the international hub of East Asia.BOOK,weblink zh:六朝名都崛起江东, zh:南京市志(第1册), Based on historical documents, the city had 280,000 registered households.:{{zh-hans icon}} Assuming an average Nanjing household consisted of about 5.1 people, the city had more than 1.4 million residents.A number of sculptural ensembles of that era, erected at the tombs of royals and other dignitaries, have survived (in various degrees of preservation) in Nanjing's northeastern and eastern suburbs, primarily in Qixia and Jiangning District.BOOK, Liang Baiquan, Nanjing-de Liu Chao Shike (Nanjing's Six Dynasties' Sculptures), 7-80614-376-9, 53–54, harv, {{inconsistent citations, }} Possibly the best preserved of them is the ensemble of the Tomb of Xiao Xiu (475–518), a brother of Emperor Wu of Liang.Albert E. Dien, Six Dynasties Civilization. Yale University Press, 2007, {{ISBN|0-300-07404-2}}. Partial text {{Webarchive|url= |date=2015-09-30 }} on Google Books. P. 190. A reconstruction of the original form of the ensemble is shown in Fig. 5.19.WEB,weblink zh:梁安成康王萧秀墓石刻,, 2013-12-10, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-10-19, dead, Six Dynasties is a collective term for six Chinese dynasties mentioned above which all maintained national capitals at Jiankang. The six dynasties were: Eastern Wu (222–280), Eastern Jin dynasty (317–420) and four southern dynasties (420-589).

Destruction and revival

|align = right|width = 420px|border = 1px|fontsize = 88%|bgcolor = #F9F9F9|qalign = left|quoted = |salign = right}}The period of division ended when the Sui dynasty reunified China and almost destroyed the entire city, turning it into a small town. The city was razed after the Sui took it over. It was renamed Shengzhou () in the Tang dynasty and resuscitated during the late Tang.BOOK,weblink zh:南唐再兴金陵城, zh:南京市志(第1册), It was chosen as the capital and called Jinling (}}) during the Southern Tang (937–976), which succeeded the state of Yang Wu.BOOK, Johannes L. Kurz, China's Southern Tang Dynasty, 937-976, 2011, Routledge, It was renamed Jiangning (}}) in the Northern Song and renamed Jiankang in the Southern Song. Jiankang's textile industry burgeoned and thrived during the Song despite the constant threat of foreign invasions from the north by the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty. The court of Da Chu, a short-lived puppet state established by the Jurchens, and the court of Song were once in the city.BOOK, Herbert, Franke, The Chin dynasty, Twitchett, John King Fairbank, The Cambridge History of China: Volume 6, Alien Regimes and Border States, 710–1368, 1994, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-24331-5, Herbert Franke (sinologist), Denis, Denis Twitchett, John K. Fairbank, 230, BOOK, Jing-Shen, Tao, The Move to the South and the Reign of Kao-tsung, Paul Jakov Smith, Denis C. Twitchett, The Cambridge History of China: Volume 5, The Sung Dynasty and Its Precursors, 907-1279, 2009, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-81248-1, 647, In the 3rd year of Jianyan (1129), Jiankang became Temporary Capital () of Song, being set as Eastern Capital. Although people like Yue Fei stood for the imperial court being in the city, eventually in the 8th year of Shaoxing (1139) it withdrew from Jiankang to Lin'an (present Hangzhou), and since then the city became Preserving Capital () of Song dynasty. The Southern Song were eventually exterminated by the Mongols; during their rule as the Yuan dynasty, the city's status as a hub of the textile industry was further consolidated.BOOK,weblink zh:隋唐州县南唐国都, zh:南京市志(第1册), {{wide image|Gu Hongzhong's Night Revels 2.jpg|1000px|Second half section of the "Night Revels of Han Xizai" (韓熙載夜宴圖) by the Southern Tang painter Gu Hongzhong showed a banquet in Yuhuatai District, Nanjing. |dir=rtl}}

Southern capital of Ming dynasty

File:Nanjing Ming Xiaoling 2017.11.11 08-10-27.jpg|thumb|left|Ming Xiaoling is the mausoleum of the Hongwu EmperorHongwu EmperorThe first emperor of the Ming dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang (the Hongwu Emperor), who overthrew the Yuan dynasty, renamed the city Yingtian (應天), rebuilt it, and made it the dynastic capital in 1368. He constructed a {{convert|48|km|mi|abbr=on|sp=us}} long city wall around Yingtian, as well as a new Ming Palace complex, and government halls.Ebrey (1999), 191. It took 200,000 laborers 21 years to finish the project. The present-day City Wall of Nanjing was mainly built during that time and today it remains in good condition and has been well preserved.BOOK, Chinese Walled Cities 221 BC-AD 1644, Turnbull, Stephen R., Steve Noon, Osprey Publishing, 2009, 1-84603-381-0, 61, It is among the longest surviving city walls in China.BOOK, Insight Guides: China 5/E, Ansight Guides, Apa Publications, 1997, 0-395-66287-7, 268, The Jianwen Emperor ruled from 1398 to 1402.It is believed that Nanjing was the largest city in the world from 1358 to 1425 with a population of 487,000 in 1400.WEB,weblink Largest Cities Through History,, 2013-11-14, 2013-12-10,weblink" title="">weblink 2007-07-14, live, In 1421, the Yongle Emperor relocated the capital to Beijing. The city began to be called the 'southern capital' - Nanjing (南京), in comparison to the capital in the north. His successor, the Hongxi Emperor, wished to revert the relocation of the imperial capital from Nanjing to Beijing that had happened during the Yongle reign.BOOK, Dreyer, Edward L., Zheng He: China and the Oceans in the Early Ming Dynasty, 1405–1433, 2007, Pearson Longman, New York, 9780321084439, Edward L. Dreyer, 139–140, On 24 February 1425, he appointed Admiral Zheng He as the defender of Nanjing and ordered him to continue his command over the Ming treasure fleet for the city's defenses. File:Nanjing WuchaoGate1.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|The Ming PalaceMing Palace Zheng He governed the city with three eunuchs for internal matters and two military noblemen for external matters, awaiting the Hongxi Emperor's return along with the military establishment from the north. The emperor died on 29 May 1425 before this could have taken place,BOOK, Chan, Hok-lam, The Cambridge History of China, Volume 7: The Ming Dynasty, 1368–1644, Part 1, 1998, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 9780521243322, The Chien-wen, Yung-lo, Hung-hsi, and Hsüan-te reigns, 1399–1435, 282–283, . so Beijing remained the de facto capital and Nanjing remained the secondary capital. The succeeding Xuande Emperor remained in Beijing, so the aforementioned Nanjing government eventually became a permanent institution.BOOK, Dreyer, Edward L., Zheng He: China and the Oceans in the Early Ming Dynasty, 1405–1433, 2007, Pearson Longman, New York, 9780321084439, Edward L. Dreyer, 140–141, . In official Ming documents of 1425 to 1441, Nanjing was designated as the capital and Beijing was designated as the temporary capital.BOOK, Dreyer, Edward L., Zheng He: China and the Oceans in the Early Ming Dynasty, 1405–1433, 2007, Pearson Longman, New York, 9780321084439, Edward L. Dreyer, 168, In 1441, Emperor Yingzong ordered to not to prefix the word "provisional" (}}) on the Beijing Government seals any longer, while Nanjing's need to prefix "Nanjing" for distinguishing purposes remained. Hence, Nanjing still had itself imperial government with extremely limited power before 1644.Besides the city wall, other Ming-era structures in the city included the famous Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum and Porcelain Tower, although the latter was destroyed by the Taipings in the 19th century either in order to prevent a hostile faction from using it to observe and shell the cityJonathan D. Spence. God's Chinese Son, New York 1996 or from superstitious fear of its geomantic properties.Williams, S. Wells. The Middle Kingdom: a Survey of the Geography, Government, Literature, Social Life, Arts, & History of the Chinese Empire & its Inhabitants, Vol. 1. Scribner (New York), 1904.A monument to the huge human cost of some of the gigantic construction projects of the early Ming dynasty is the Yangshan Quarry (located some {{convert|15-20|km|0|abbr=on|sp=us}} east of the walled city and Ming Xiaoling mausoleum), where a gigantic stele, cut on the orders of the Yongle Emperor, lies abandoned, just as it was left 600 years ago when it was understood it was impossible to move or complete it.{{harvnb|Yang|Lu|2001|pp=616–617}}As the center of the empire, early-Ming Nanjing had worldwide connections. It was home of the admiral Zheng He, who went to sail the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and it was visited by foreign dignitaries, such as a king from Borneo ({{zh|labels=no |c=渤泥 |p=Bóní}}), who died during his visit to China in 1408. The Tomb of the King of Boni, with a spirit way and a tortoise stele, was discovered in Yuhuatai District (south of the walled city) in 1958, and has been restored.Johannes L. Kurz, "Boni in Chinese Sources: Translations of Relevant Texts from the Song to the Qing Dynasties" {{Webarchive|url= |date=2013-11-10 }}, Nalanda-Sriwijaya Centre Working Paper No 4 (July 2011).Over two centuries after the removal of the capital to Beijing, Nanjing was destined to become the capital of a Ming emperor one more time. After the fall of Beijing to Li Zicheng's rebel forces and then to the Manchu-led Qing dynasty in the spring of 1644, the Ming prince Zhu Yousong was enthroned in Nanjing in June 1644 as the Hongguang Emperor.{{harvnb|Wakeman|1985|p=346}}.{{harvnb|Struve|1988|p=644}}. His short reign was described by later historians as the first reign of the so-called Southern Ming dynasty.{{harvnb|Struve|1988|p=642}}. The prince was a grandson of the Wanli Emperor (r. 1573–1620). The Wanli Emperor's attempt to name Zhu Yousong's father as heir apparent had been thwarted by supporters of the Donglin movement because Zhu Yousong's father was not the Wanli Emperor's eldest son. Although this was three generations earlier, Donglin officials in Nanjing nonetheless feared that the prince might retaliate against them.File:南京明城墙之玄武门段(Near XuanWu Gate, NanJing Ming Great Wall) - panoramio.jpg|thumb|left|Nanjing City WallNanjing City WallZhu Yousong, however, fared a lot worse than his ancestor Zhu Yuanzhang three centuries earlier. Beset by factional conflicts, his regime could not offer effective resistance to Qing forces, when the Qing army, led by the Manchu prince Dodo approached Jiangnan the next spring.Struve (1993), p.55–56 Days after Yangzhou fell to the Manchus in late May 1645, the Hongguang Emperor fled Nanjing, and the imperial Ming Palace was looted by local residents.Struve (1993), pp. 60–61 On June 6, Dodo's troops approached Nanjing, and the commander of the city's garrison, Zhao the Earl of Xincheng, promptly surrendered the city to them.Struve (1993), pp. 62–63{{harvnb|Wakeman|1985|p=578}}. The Manchus soon ordered all male residents of the city to shave their heads in the Manchu queue way.{{harvnb|Wakeman|1985|p=647}}; {{harvnb|Struve|1988|p=662}}; {{harvnb|Dennerline|2002|p=87}} (which calls this edict "the most untimely promulgation of [Dorgon's] career." They requisitioned a large section of the city for the bannermen's cantonment, and occupied the former imperial Ming Palace, but otherwise the city was spared the mass murders and destruction that befell Yangzhou.Struve (1993), pp. 64–65, 72Despite capturing many counties in his initial attack due to surprise and having the initiative, Koxinga announced the final battle in Nanjing in 1659 ahead of time giving plenty of time for the Qing to prepare because he wanted a decisive, single grand showdown like his father succsfully did against the Dutch at the Battle of Liaoluo Bay, throwing away the surprise and initiative which led to its failure. Koxinga's attack on Qing held Nanjing which would interrupt the supply route of the Grand Canal leading to possible starvation in Beijing caused such fear that the Manchus (Tartares) considered returning to Manchuria (Tartary) and abandoning China according to a 1671 account by a French missionary.THESIS, Ho, Dahpon David, 2011, Sealords live in vain : Fujian and the making of a maritime frontier in seventeenth-century China, A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in History, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO, 149-150,weblink The commoners and officials in Beijing and Nanjing were waiting to support whichever side won. An official from Qing Beijing sent letters to family and another official in Nanjing, telling them all communication and news from Nanjing to Beijing had been cut off, that the Qing were considering abandoning Beijing and moving their capital far away to a remote location for safety since Koxinga's iron troops were rumored to be invincible. The letter said it reflected the grim situation being felt in Qing Beijing. The official told his children in Nanjing to prepare to defect to Koxinga which he himself was preparing to do. Koxinga's forces intercepted these letters and after reading them Koxinga may have started to regret his deliberate delays allowing the Qing to prepare for a final massive battle instead of swiftly attacking Nanjing.BOOK, Yim, Lawrence C.H, 2009, The Poet-historian Qian Qianyi,weblink Routledge, 109, 1134006063, Koxinga's Ming loyalists fought against a majority Han Chinese Bannermen Qing army when attacking Nanjing. The siege lasted almost three weeks, beginning on August 24. Koxinga's forces were unable to maintain a complete encirclement, which enabled the city to obtain supplies and even reinforcements—though cavalry attacks by the city's forces were successful even before reinforcements arrived. Koxinga's forces were defeated and "slipped back" (Wakeman's phrase) to the ships which had brought them.BOOK, FREDERIC WAKEMAN JR., The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-century China,weblink 1985, University of California Press, 978-0-520-04804-1, 1047–1048,

Qing dynasty and Taiping Rebellion

File:Nanjing-Mochouhu.jpg|thumb|1.1|Mochou LakeMochou LakeUnder the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), the Nanjing area was known as Jiangning and served as the seat of government for the Viceroy of Liangjiang.BOOK,weblink zh:清督驻所太平天国定鼎, zh:南京市志(第1册), It was the site of a Qing army garrison.{{citation |last=Cassel |first=Pär |contribution=Excavating Extraterritoriality: The "Judicial Sub-Prefect" as a Prototype for the Mixed Court in Shanghai |title=Late Imperial China |volume=Vol. 24, No. 2 |date=2003 |pp=156–182 }}. It had been visited by the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors a number of times on their tours of the southern provinces. Nanjing was threatened to be invaded by British troops during the close of the First Opium War, which was ended by the Treaty of Nanking in 1842. As the capital of the brief-lived rebel Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in the mid-19th century, Nanjing was known as Tianjing ({{zh|labels=no |c= |l="Heavenly Capital" or "Capital of Heaven"}}). The rebellion destroyed most of the former Ming imperial buildings in the city, including the Porcelain Tower of Nanjing.Both the Qing viceroy and the Taiping king resided in buildings that would later be known as the Presidential Palace. When Qing forces led by Zeng Guofan retook the city in 1864, a massive slaughter occurred in the city with over 100,000 estimated to have committed suicide or fought to the death."Necrometrics {{Webarchive|url= |date=2015-04-30 }}." Nineteenth Century Death Tolls cites a number of sources, some of which are reliable. Since the Taiping Rebellion began, Qing forces allowed no rebels speaking its dialect to surrender.Ho Ping-ti. STUDIES ON THE POPULATION OF CHINA, 1368–1953. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959. p. 237 This systematic mass murder of civilians occurred in Nanjing.Pelissier, Roger. THE AWAKENING OF CHINA: 1793–1949. Edited and Translated by Martin Kieffer. New York: Putnam, 1967. p. 109The New York Methodist Mission Society's Superintendent, Virgil Hart arrived in Nanking in 1881. After some time, he eventually thwarted its officials by buying a piece of property near the South Gate and Confucius Temple; to build the city's first Methodist Church, western hospital (Blackstone Methodist Hospital) and Boy's School. The hospital would later be unified with the Drum Tower Hospital and the Boy's School would be expanded by later Missionaries to become the University of Nanking and Medical School. The old Mission property would become the #13 Middle School, the city's oldest/continuous school grounds in the city."Man On A Mission" by Stanley Crawford

Capital of the republic and Nanking Massacre

{{see also|Battle of Nanking|Nanking Massacre}}File:National Government of the R.O.C.jpg|thumb|right|The Presidential Palace of the National Government of the Republic of China in Nanjing, 1927]]The Xinhai Revolution led to the founding of the Republic of China in January 1912 with Sun Yat-sen as the first provisional president and Nanjing was selected as its new capital. However, the Qing Empire controlled large regions to the north, so revolutionaries asked Yuan Shikai to replace Sun as president in exchange for the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor. Yuan demanded the capital be Beijing (closer to his power base).In 1927, the Kuomintang (KMT; Nationalist Party) under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek again established Nanjing as the capital of the Republic of China, and this became internationally recognized once KMT forces took Beijing in 1928. The following decade is known as the Nanking decade. During this decade, Nanjing was of symbolic and strategic importance. The Ming dynasty had made Nanjing a capital, the republic had been established there in 1912, and Sun Yat-sen's provisional government had been there. Sun's body was brought and placed in a grand mausoleum to cement Chiang's legitimacy. Chiang was born in the neighboring province of Zhejiang and the general area had strong popular support for him.File:Crossing river by Gate of China01.jpg|thumb|left|Japanese soldiers entering the walled city of Nanjing through the Gate of China ]]In 1927, the Nationalist government proposed a comprehensive planning proposal, the Capital Plan (首都計劃), to reconstruct the war-torn city of Nanjing into a modern capital. It was a decade of extraordinary growth with an enormous amount of construction. A lot of government buildings, residential houses, and modern public infrastructures were built. During this boom, Nanjing reputedly became one of the most modern cities in China.In 1937, the Empire of Japan started a full-scale invasion of China after invading Manchuria in 1931, beginning the Second Sino-Japanese War (often considered a theater of World War II).Fu Jing-hui, An Introduction of Chinese and Foreign History of War, 2003, p.109–111 Their troops occupied Nanjing in December and carried out the systematic and brutal Nanking Massacre (the "Rape of Nanking").John E. Woods, The Good Man of Nanking, the Diaries of John Rabe, 1998 P. 275-278 Even children, the elderly, and nuns are reported to have suffered at the hands of the Imperial Japanese Army.John E. Woods, The Good Man of Nanking, the Diaries of John Rabe, 1998 P. 275-278, 281 The total death toll, including estimates made by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal after the atomic bombings, was between 300,000 and 350,000.Document sent by former Japanese foreign minister Hirota Koki to the Japanese Embassy in Washington on January 17, 1938, (Ref. National Archives, Washington, D.C., Released in Sept. 1994.) The city itself was also severely damaged during the massacre. The Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall was built in 1985 to commemorate this event.A few days before the fall of the city, the National Government of China was relocated to the southwestern city Chungking (Chongqing) and resumed Chinese resistance. In 1940, a Japanese-collaborationist government known as the "Nanjing Regime" or "Reorganized National Government of China" led by Wang Jingwei was established in Nanjing as a rival to Chiang Kai-shek's government in Chongqing.BOOK, Imperial Japan and national identities in Asia, 1895–1945, 2003, Li, R.B., Narangoa, Cribb, Routledge, 0-7007-1482-0, 13, In 1946, after the Surrender of Japan, the KMT relocated its central government back to Nanjing.File:Hall of Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum.jpg|thumb|right|Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum is the tomb of Sun Yat-sen, the first president of the Republic of ChinaRepublic of China

Chinese Civil War and People's Republic

{{see also|Yangtze River Crossing Campaign}} On 21 April 1949, Communist forces crossed the Yangtze River. On April 23, the Communist People's Liberation Army (PLA) captured Nanjing.Zhang, Chunhou. Vaughan, C. Edwin. [2002] (2002). Mao Zedong as Poet and Revolutionary Leader: Social and Historical Perspectives. Lexington books. {{ISBN|0-7391-0406-3}}. p 65, p 58 The KMT government retreated to Canton (Guangzhou) until October 15, Chongqing until November 25, and then Chengdu before retreating to the island of Taiwan on December 10 where Taipei was proclaimed the temporary capital of the Republic of China. By late 1949, the PLA was pursuing remnants of KMT forces southwards in southern China, and only Tibet and Hainan Island were left. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in October 1949, Nanjing was initially a province-level municipality, but it was soon merged into Jiangsu province and again became the provincial capital by replacing Zhenjiang which was transferred in 1928, and retains that status to this day.


(File:Nanjing Area - Lower Yangtse Valley & Eastern China Map.jpg|thumb|Nanjing Region - Lower Yangtze Basin and Eastern China.)Nanjing, with a total land area of {{convert|6598|km2|abbr=on}}, is situated in the heartland of the drainage area of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and in the Yangtze River Delta, one of the largest economic zones of China. The Yangtze River flows past the west side and then the north side of Nanjing City, while the Ningzheng Ridge surrounds the north, east and south sides of the city. The city is {{convert|650|km|abbr=on}} southeast of Luoyang, {{convert|900|km|abbr=on}} south-southeast of Beijing, {{convert|270|km|abbr=on}} west-northwest of Shanghai, and {{convert|1200|km|abbr=on}} east-northeast of Chongqing. The Yangtze River flows downstream from Jiujiang, Jiangxi, through Anhui and Jiangsu to the East China Sea. The northern part of the lower Yangtze drainage basin is the Huai River basin and the southern part is the Zhe River basin; they are connected by the Grand Canal east of Nanjing. The area around Nanjing is called Xiajiang (, Downstream River) region, with Jianghuai dominant in the northern part and Jiangzhe dominant in the southern part.{{efn|Huai (Huai of Jianghuai ) is a big river north of Jiang (the river Yangtze), and the Zhe (Zhe of Jiangzhe )) is a big river south of Jiang.}} The region is also well known as Dongnan (, South East, the Southeast) and Jiangnan (, and River South, South of Yangtze).{{efn|The areas covered by such geographical names as Jiangnan, Dongnan and Xiajiang are not precisely defined. In ancient times the area was known as Yangchow (). Sometimes the term Jianghai () is used because the region is where the Jiang (Yangtze, river) empties into the Hai (sea).}}Nanjing borders Yangzhou to the northeast (one town downstream when following the north bank of the Yangtze); Zhenjiang to the east (one town downstream when following the south bank of the Yangtze); and Changzhou to the southeast. On its western boundary is Anhui province, where Nanjing borders five prefecture-level cities: Chuzhou to the northwest, Wuhu, Chaohu and Ma'anshan to the west and Xuancheng to the southwest.BOOK, zh:中华人民共和国成立后中央直辖市及江苏省省会, zh:南京市志(第1册), Nanjing is at the intersection of the Yangtze River, an east-west water transport artery, and the Nanjing–Beijing railway, a north-south land transport artery, hence the name “door of the east and west, throat of the south and north”. Furthermore, the west part of the Ningzhen range is in Nanjing; the Loong-like Zhong Mountain curls round the east side of the city, while the tiger-like Stone Mountain crouches in the west of the city, hence the name “the Zhong Mountain, a dragon curling, and the Stone Mountain, a tiger crouching”.

Climate and environment

{{climate chart| Nanjing0.7| 7.2| 45.4 9.5| 53.014.2| 79.620.7| 80.326.2| 90.029.1|166.232.2|214.331.7|143.827.7| 72.922.5| 59.716.2| 55.9 9.9| 29.5|float = right|source = CMA }}File:Qixia Mountain Autumn.jpg|thumb|left=1.1|Autumn maple leaves in Qixia Mountain Temple.]]Nanjing has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) and is under the influence of the East Asian monsoon. The four seasons are distinct, with damp conditions seen throughout the year, very hot and muggy summers, cold, damp winters, and in between, spring and autumn are of reasonable length. Along with Chongqing and Wuhan, Nanjing is traditionally referred to as one of the "Three Furnacelike Cities" along the Yangtze River for the perennially high temperatures in the summertime.WEB,weblink zh:为什么重庆、武汉、南京有“三大火炉”之称?, Guangzhou Popular Science News Net (广州科普资讯网), zh-hans, 2007-09-12, 2014-11-12, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-11-12, However, the time from mid-June to the end of July is the plum blossom blooming season in which the meiyu (rainy season of East Asia; literally "plum rain") occurs, during which the city experiences a period of mild rain as well as dampness. Typhoons are uncommon but possible in the late stages of summer and early part of autumn. The annual mean temperature is around {{convert|15.91|°C|1}}, with the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranging from {{convert|2.7|°C|1}} in January to {{convert|28.1|°C|1}} in July. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from {{convert|−14.0|°C|0}} on 6 January 1955 to {{convert|40.7|°C|0}} on 22 August 1959.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2013-02-18, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-03-18, WEB,weblink zh:南京气象资料, 中国气象科学数据共享服务网, 20 July 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 March 2015, WEB,weblink Extreme Temperatures Around the World, 2010-12-01,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-08-04, live,
On average precipitation falls 115 days out of the year, and the average annual rainfall is {{convert|1090|mm|0|abbr=on}}. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 37 percent in March to 52 percent in August, the city receives 1,926 hours of bright sunshine annually.
Nanjing is endowed with rich natural resources, which include more than 40 kinds of minerals. Among them, iron and sulfur reserves make up 40 percent of those of Jiangsu province. Its reserves of strontium rank first in East Asia and the South East Asia region. Nanjing also possesses abundant water resources, both from the Yangtze River and groundwater. In addition, it has several natural hot springs such as Tangshan Hot Spring in Jiangning and Tangquan Hot Spring in Pukou.Sun Yat-sen once summarized and lauded the feature of Nanjing in his book The International Development of China ():Nanking was the old capital of China before Peking, and is situated in a fine locality which comprises high mountains, deep water and a vast level plain—a rare site to be found in any part of the world. It also lies at the center of a very rich country on both sides of the lower Yangtze. ()WEB,weblink zh:建國方略之二 物質建設 第二計劃, Archived copy,weblink 2016-10-09, live, To be more exact, surrounded by the Yangtze River and mountains, the urban area of the city enjoys its scenic natural environment. Xuanwu Lake and Mochou Lake are located in the center of the city and are easily accessible to the public, while Purple Mountain is covered with deciduous and coniferous forests preserving various historical and cultural sites. Meanwhile, a Yangtze River deep-water channel is under construction to enable Nanjing to handle the navigation of 50,000 DWT vessels from the East China Sea.WEB,weblink zh:十二点五米深水航道初通南京 长江出海口至南京全程畅行五万吨级船舶, zh-hans, 2016-07-05, Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China,weblink" title="">weblink 2017-02-02, dead, {{Clear}}{{Weather box|location = Nanjing (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1951–present)|collapsed = Y|single line = Y|metric first = Y|Jan record high C= 21.0|Feb record high C= 27.7|Mar record high C= 30.3|Apr record high C= 34.2|May record high C= 37.5|Jun record high C= 38.1|Jul record high C= 40.0|Aug record high C= 40.7|Sep record high C= 39.0|Oct record high C= 33.4|Nov record high C= 29.1|Dec record high C= 23.1|Jan high C = 7.2|Feb high C = 9.5|Mar high C = 14.2|Apr high C = 20.7|May high C = 26.2|Jun high C = 29.1|Jul high C = 32.2|Aug high C = 31.7|Sep high C = 27.7|Oct high C = 22.5|Nov high C = 16.2|Dec high C = 9.9|Jan mean C = 2.7|Feb mean C = 5.0|Mar mean C = 9.3|Apr mean C = 15.6|May mean C = 21.1|Jun mean C = 24.8|Jul mean C = 28.1|Aug mean C = 27.6|Sep mean C = 23.3|Oct mean C = 17.6|Nov mean C = 10.9|Dec mean C = 4.9|Jan low C = −0.7|Feb low C = 1.4|Mar low C = 5.3|Apr low C = 11.0|May low C = 16.5|Jun low C = 21.0|Jul low C = 24.9|Aug low C = 24.4|Sep low C = 19.9|Oct low C = 13.6|Nov low C = 6.8|Dec low C = 1.1|Jan record low C = -14.0|Feb record low C = -13.0|Mar record low C = −7.1|Apr record low C = −0.2|May record low C = 5.0|Jun record low C = 11.8|Jul record low C = 16.8|Aug record low C = 16.9|Sep record low C = 7.7|Oct record low C = 0.2|Nov record low C = −6.3|Dec record low C = −13.1|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 45.2|Feb precipitation mm = 52.1|Mar precipitation mm = 80.4|Apr precipitation mm = 79.9|May precipitation mm = 90.7|Jun precipitation mm = 162.0|Jul precipitation mm = 216.3|Aug precipitation mm = 143.5|Sep precipitation mm = 75.3|Oct precipitation mm = 59.5|Nov precipitation mm = 56.3|Dec precipitation mm = 29.5|Jan humidity = 74|Feb humidity = 73|Mar humidity = 72|Apr humidity = 71|May humidity = 71|Jun humidity = 76|Jul humidity = 80|Aug humidity = 80|Sep humidity = 78|Oct humidity = 75|Nov humidity = 76|Dec humidity = 73|unit precipitation days = 0.1 mm|Jan precipitation days = 8.7|Feb precipitation days = 9.1|Mar precipitation days = 11.8|Apr precipitation days = 10.0|May precipitation days = 9.7|Jun precipitation days = 10.6|Jul precipitation days = 12.3|Aug precipitation days = 11.8|Sep precipitation days = 8.1|Oct precipitation days = 7.8|Nov precipitation days = 7.4|Dec precipitation days = 6.2|Jan sun = 124.7|Feb sun = 120.3|Mar sun = 144.7|Apr sun = 169.2|May sun = 194.2|Jun sun = 162.8|Jul sun = 196.7|Aug sun = 201.6|Sep sun = 164.0|Oct sun = 164.2|Nov sun = 147.4|Dec sun = 137.1|source 1 = China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days, sunshine data 1971–2000)WEB
, zh:中国气象局 国家气象信息中心
, China Meteorological Administration
, zh-hans
, 2013-02-18
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 2013-03-18
, WEB,weblink zh:中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data, China Meteorological Administration, 2018-11-09, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2017-09-23, live, |date=February 2011}}


{{Panorama|image = File:玄武湖望南京天际线 - panoramio.jpg|height = 250px|caption =A panoramic view of central Nanjing from Xuanwu Lake which is located to the northeast of the walled city in 2010 }}

Environmental issues

File:Chinahaze tmo 2013341 lrg.jpg|thumb|7 December 2013 image from NASANASA{{See also|2013 Eastern China smog}}

Air pollution in 2013

A dense wave of smog began in the central and east parts of China on 2 December 2013 across a distance of around {{convert|1200|km|abbr=on|sp=us}},WEB,weblink Smog Shrouds Eastern China, Earth Observatory, 10 December 2013, 24 March 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 24 March 2014, live, dmy-all, including Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shanghai and Zhejiang. A lack of cold air flow, combined with slow-moving air masses carrying industrial emissions, collected airborne pollutants to form a thick layer of smog over the region.NEWS, Smog and fog hit east, north China,weblink 15 May 2014, Xinhua News Agency, 6 December 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 6 December 2013, live, dmy-all, The heavy smog heavily polluted central and southern Jiangsu Province, especially in and around Nanjing, with its AQI pollution Index at "severely polluted" for five straight days and "heavily polluted" for nine.WEB,weblink Environmental officials deny blame for eastern China smog, China Dialogue, 6 January 2014, 24 March 2014,weblink 24 March 2014, live, dmy-all, On 3 December 2013, levels of PM2.5 particulate matter average over 943 micrograms per cubic meter,WEB, zh:长三角遭遇重度霾 专家称石油化工和尾气是主因,weblink 人民网(转载自《新京报》), 2013-12-13, 2013-12-13, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-16, falling to over 338 micrograms per cubic meter on 4 December 2013.WEB,weblink zh:中国出现入冬以来最大范围雾霾 局地严重污染, Smog levels in China reach record levels since the end of 2013; surrounding areas severely polluted, China news agency, Liu Chen-yao, zh-hans, Archived copy, 2014-03-04,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-12, live, Between 3:00 pm, 3 December and 2:00pm, 4 December local time, several expressways from Nanjing to other Jiangsu cities were closed, stranding dozens of passenger buses in Zhongyangmen bus station.WEB,weblink zh:我国25个省现雾霾 江苏成污染重灾区全国最严重, 腾讯转现代快报, Wu Yi (吴怡), Liu Wei Wei (刘伟伟), Archived copy, 2014-03-04,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-12, live, From 5 to 6 December, Nanjing issued a red alert for air pollution and closed down all kindergarten through middle schools. Children's Hospital outpatient services increased by 33 percent; general incidence of bronchitis, pneumonia, upper respiratory tract infections significantly increased.WEB,weblink zh:雾霾天南京学校停课 儿童医院门诊量上升三分之一, Xinhua News, Sun Ying (孙莹), Archived copy, 2014-03-04,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-22, live, The smog dissipated 12 December.WEB,weblink zh:12日后受冷空气和降雨影响 南方大范围雾霾将告一段落, Government of Shanghai, Archived copy, 2014-05-11,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-14, live, Officials blamed the dense pollution on lack of wind, automobile exhaust emissions under low air pressure, and coal-powered district heating system in north China.WEB,weblink zh:三问今冬十面"霾"伏, 人民日报海外版, 综合本报和新华社电, Archived copy, 2014-05-11,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-22, live, Prevailing winds blew low-hanging air masses of factory emissions (mostly SO2) towards China's east coast.WEB,weblink Map: Shanghai's off the charts air pollution, Greenpeace, 6 December 2013, 24 March 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 7 March 2014, dead, dmy-all,


(File:Wumiao Kaoshiyuan.JPG|thumb|People's Government of Nanjing City)At present, the full name of the government of Nanjing is "People's Government of Nanjing City" and the city is under the one-party rule of the CPC, with the CPC Nanjing Committee Secretary as the de facto governor of the city and the mayor as the executive head of the government working under the secretary.

Administrative divisions

The sub-provincial city of Nanjing is divided into 11 districts.WEB,weblink zh:2013年江苏省行政区划,, 2013-02-20, Archived copy, 2014-05-29,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-12-17, live, {| class="wikitable"! style="text-align:center;"| Map! style="text-align:center;"| Subdivision! style="text-align:center;"| Chinese! style="text-align:center;"| Hanyu Pinyin! style="text-align:center;"| Population {{small|(2010)}}! style="text-align:center;"| Area {{small|(km2)}}! style="text-align:center;"| Density {{small|(/km2)}}! rowspan="16" style="background:#fff;"|{{Image label begin|image=Administrative Division Nanjing.png|width={{{1|360}}}|link=}} {{Image label|x=790|y=1020|scale={{{1|360}}}/1440|text=1}}{{Image label|x=750|y=1120|scale={{{1|360}}}/1440|text=2}}{{Image label|x=600|y=1140|scale={{{1|360}}}/1440|text=3}}{{Image label|x=670|y=1000|scale={{{1|360}}}/1440|text=4}}{{Image label|x=320|y=1020|scale={{{1|360}}}/1440|text=Pukou}}{{Image label|x=930|y=900|scale={{{1|360}}}/1440|text=Qixia}}{{Image label|x=480|y=1265|scale={{{1|360}}}/1440|text=Yuhuatai}}{{Image label|x=710|y=1400|scale={{{1|360}}}/1440|text=Jiangning}}{{Image label|x=780|y=420|scale={{{1|360}}}/1440|text=Luhe'''}}{{Image label|x=1100|y=1900|scale={{{1|360}}}/1440|text=Lishui}}{{Image label|x=970|y=2410|scale={{{1|360}}}/1440|text=Gaochun}}{{Image label|x=200|y=400|scale={{{1|360}}}/1440|text=1. Xuanwu}}{{Image label|x=200|y=480|scale={{{1|360}}}/1440|text=2. Qinhuai}}{{Image label|x=200|y=560|scale={{{1|360}}}/1440|text=3. Jianye}}{{Image label|x=200|y=640|scale={{{1|360}}}/1440|text=4. Gulou}} style="background:#d3d3d3;" City ProperXuanwu District, Nanjing>Xuanwu District {{translXuánwǔ Qū}} 651,957 75.46 8,639.77| Qinhuai District {{translQínhuái Qū}} 1,007,992 49.11 20,525.19| Jianye District {{translJiànyè Qū}} 426,999 82.93 5,148.91Gulou District, Nanjing>Gulou District {{translGǔlóu Qū}} 1,271,191 53.00 23,998.47| Qixia District {{translQīxiá Qū}} 664,503 381.01 1,744.06| Yuhuatai District {{translYǔhuātái Qū}} 391,285 132.39 2,955.55 style="background:#d3d3d3;" Suburban| Pukou District {{translPǔkǒu Qū}} 710,298 910.49 780.13| Jiangning District {{translJiāngníng Qū}} 1,145,628 1,577.75 726.12| Luhe District {{translLùhé Qū}}夏征农>EDITOR2=陈至立 TRANS-TITLE=CIHAI (SIXTH EDITION IN COLOR). LOCATION=SHANGHAI SHANGHAI LEXICOGRAPHICAL PUBLISHING HOUSE.>ISBN=9787532628599 URL=| issue = 85| date = 20 December 1962| page = 8|location = Beijing|publisher=文字改革出版社| url = 915,845 1,470.99 622.60| Lishui District {{translLìshuǐ Qū}} 421,323 1063.67 396.10| Gaochun District {{translGāochún Qū}} 417,129 790.23 527.86 style="background:#d3d3d3;"Total8,004,6806587.021,215.22 Defunct districts: Baixia District and Xiaguan District


{{See also|Population of Nanjing in December of 1937}}{| border="1" align=right; style="float:right; margin: 1em;border-collapse:collapse;"Population trendZH-HANS, Nanjing Bureau of Statistics (), zh:《南京统计年鉴2013》, 2013, China Statistics Print, 978-7-5037-6859-0,weblink Archived copy, 2014-05-29,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-06-12, dead, {|! style="background:#efefef;" | Year! style="background:#efefef; width:80px;"| Residents (in million)! style="background:#efefef; width:100px;"| natural growth rate (%) 2.5670 style="text-align:right;"|13.09 2.5670 style="text-align:right;"|15.64 2.8034 style="text-align:right;"|19.94 3.2259 style="text-align:right;"|0.23 3.4529 style="text-align:right;"|25.58 3.6053 style="text-align:right;"|20.76 3.9299 style="text-align:right;"|9.53 4.1238 style="text-align:right;"|8.84 5.0182 style="text-align:right;"|9.18{|! style="background:#efefef;" | Year! style="background:#efefef; width:80px;"| Residents (in million)! style="background:#efefef; width:100px;"| natural growth rate (%) 5.2172 style="text-align:right;"|2.62 5.2543 style="text-align:right;"|2.63 5.2982 style="text-align:right;"|2.16 5.3231 style="text-align:right;"|1.00 5.3744 style="text-align:right;"|2.01 5.4489 style="text-align:right;"|2.48 5.5304 style="text-align:right;"|1.60 5.6328 style="text-align:right;"|0.70 5.7223 style="text-align:right;"|1.50 6.0700 style="text-align:right;"|6.11At the time of the 2010 census, the total population of the City of Nanjing was 8.005 million. The OECD estimated the encompassing metropolitan area at the time as 11.7 million.BOOK, 10.1787/9789264230040-en, OECD Urban Policy Reviews: China 2015, OECD READ edition,weblink Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD, 37, OECD iLibrary, en, 18 April 2015, 2306-9341, 9789264230033, 9 December 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 27 March 2017, live, dmy-all, Linked from the OECD here {{Webarchive|url= |date=2017-12-09 }} Official statistics in 2011 estimated the city's population to be 8.11 million. The birth rate was 8.86 percent and the death rate was 6.88 percent. The urban area had a population of 6.47 million people. The sex ratio of the city population was 107.31 males to 100 females.BOOK, zh-hans, Liu Shaowu (刘绍武), zh:中华人民共和国全国分县市人口统计资料, 群众出版社, 2011, 9787501449170, WEB, zh-hans,weblink zh:南京市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报, Office of the Sixth National Census, Nanjing Bureau of Statistics, 2011-05-03, Archived copy, 2014-05-29,weblink" title="">weblink 2011-11-18, dead, As in most of eastern China the official ethnic makeup of Nanjing is predominantly Han nationality (98.56 percent), with 50 other official ethnic groups. In 1999, 77,394 residents belonged to officially defined minorities, among which the vast majority (64,832) were Hui, contributing 83.76 percent to the minority population. The second and third largest minority groups were Manchu (2,311) and Zhuang (533). Most of the minority nationalities resided in Jianye District, comprising 9.13 percent of the district's population.WEB, zh-hans,weblink zh:南京民族概况, 2012-08-26, Archived copy, 2014-05-29,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-05-17, dead,


Earlier development

(File:Bílý ďábel v Pekingu 17.jpg|thumb|right|Qinhuai River in 1920s)(File:南京城墙俯瞰老门东03.jpg|thumb|right|Old city of Nanjing 'Old Gate East')There was a massive cultivating in the area of Nanjing from the Three Kingdoms period to Southern dynasties. The sparse population led to land as royal rewards were granted for rules’ people. At first, the landless peasants benefited from it, then the senior officials and aristocratic families. Since large numbers of immigrants flooded into the area, reclamation was quite common in its remote parts, which promoted its agricultural development.The craft industries, by contrast, had a faster growth. Especially the textiles section, there were about 200,000 craftsmen by the late Qing. Several dynasties established their imperial textiles bureaus in Nanjing. The Nanjing Brocade () is their exquisite product as the cloth for the royal garments such as dragon robes. Meanwhile, the satins from Nanjing were called “tribute satins” (""), because they were usually paid as tribute to the monarchy. Besides, minting, papermaking, shipbuilding grew initially since the Three Kingdoms period. As Nanjing was the capital of the Ming dynasty, the industries further expanded, where both state-owned and numerous private businesses served the imperial court. Several place names in Nanjing remains witnessed them, such as Wangjinshi (, the market sells wangjin), Guyilang (, the corridor for garments bargain), Youfangqiao (, the bridge near an oil mill).Moreover, the trade in Nanjing was also flourishing. The Ming dynasty drawing Prosperous Nanjing ({{zh|labels=no|s= |p=Nándū Fánhuì Tújuǎn}}) depicts a vivid market scene bustling with people and full of various sorts of shops. However, the economic developments were almost wiped out by the Taiping Rebellion's catastrophe.

Modern times

File:Nanjing Xinjiekou Skyline.jpg|thumb|left|Xinjiekou, NanjingXinjiekou, NanjingInto the first half of the twentieth century after the establishment of ROC, Nanjing gradually shifted from being a production hub towards being a heavy consumption city, mainly because of the rapid expansion of its wealthy population after Nanjing once again regained the political spotlight of China. A number of huge department stores such as Zhongyang Shangchang sprouted up, attracting merchants from all over China to sell their products in Nanjing. In 1933, the revenue generated by the food and entertainment industry in the city exceeded the sum of the output of the manufacturing and agriculture industry. One third of the city population worked in the service industry, .In the 1950s after PRC was established by CPC, the government invested heavily in the city to build a series of state-owned heavy industries, as part of the national plan of rapid industrialization, converting it into a heavy industry production center of east China.BOOK, 综述,weblink zh:南京市志(第5卷)·工业, Overenthusiastic in building a “world-class” industrial city, the government also made many disastrous mistakes during development, such as spending hundreds of millions of yuan to mine for non-existent coal, resulting in negative economic growth in the late 1960s. From the 1960s to 1980s there were Five Pillar Industries, namely, electronics, cars, petrochemical, iron and steel, and power, each with big state-owned firms. After the Reform and Opening recovering market economy, the state-owned enterprises found themselves incapable of competing with efficient multinational firms and local private firms, hence were either mired in heavy debt or forced into bankruptcy or privatization and this resulted in large numbers of layoff workers who were technically not unemployed but effectively jobless.


File:Zifeng Tower 2017.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Nanjing Zifeng Tower and the Purple Mountain in the background]]The current economy of the city is basically newly developed based on the past. Service industries are dominating, accounting for about 60 percent of the GDP of the city, and financial industry, culture industry and tourism industry are top 3 of them. Industries of information technology, energy saving and environmental protection, new energy, smart power grid and intelligent equipment manufacturing have become pillar industries.WEB,weblink zh:在结构调整中持续发展 南京2015年产值近万亿-新华网,, Archived copy, 2016-01-23,weblink" title="">weblink 2016-01-31, live, Big civilian-run enterprise include Suning Commerce, Yurun, Sanpower, Fuzhong, Hiteker, 5stars, Jinpu, Tiandi, CTTQ Pharmaceutical, Nanjing Iron and Steel Company and Simcere Pharmaceutical. Big state-owned firms include Panda Electronics, Yangzi Petrochemical, Jinling Petrochemical, Nanjing Chemical, Jincheng Motors, Jinling Pharmaceutical, Chenguang and NARI. The city has also attracted foreign investment, multinational firms such as Siemens, Ericsson, Volkswagen, Iveco, A.O. Smith, and Sharp have established their lines, and a number of multinationals such as Ford, IBM, Lucent, Samsung and SAP established research center there. Many China-based leading firms such as Huawei, ZTE and Lenovo have key R & D institutes in the city. Nanjing is an industrial technology research and development hub, hosting many R & D centers and institutions, especially in areas of electronics technology, information technology, computer software, biotechnology and pharmaceutical technology and new material technology.In recent years, Nanjing has been developing its economy, commerce, industry, as well as city construction. In 2013 the city's GDP was RMB 801 billion (3rd in Jiangsu), and GDP per capita(current price) was RMB 98,174(US$16041), an 11 percent increase from 2012. The average urban resident's disposable income was RMB 36,200, while the average rural resident's net income was RMB 14,513. The registered urban unemployment rate was 3.02 percent, lower than the national average (4.3 percent). Nanjing's Gross Domestic Product ranked 12th in 2013 in China, and its overall competence ranked 6th in mainland and 8th including Taiwan and Hong Kong in 2009.WEB,weblink zh:南京总部经济发展能力居全国第六, 新华报业网(来源:南京日报), 2009-10-19, 2014-05-29,weblink" title="">weblink 2011-11-09, dead,
Industrial zones
There are a number of industrial zones in Nanjing.
  • weblink" title="">Nanjing New and High-Tech Industry Development Zone

  • weblink" title="">Nanjing Economic and Technological Development Zone


Nanjing is the transportation hub in eastern China and the downstream Yangtze River area. Different means of transportation constitute a three-dimensional transport system that includes land, water and air. As in most other Chinese cities, public transportation is the dominant mode of travel of the majority of the citizens. As of October 2014, Nanjing had four bridges and two tunnels over the Yangtze River, which are tying districts north of the river with the city center on the south bank.WEB, Yangtze Bridge, Fourth Nanjing, Nanjing Yangtze Fourth Bridge to open on Dec.24 (3),weblink People's Daily Online, 17 May 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 15 December 2013, live, dmy-all,


(File:201806 Departure Floor of Nanjingnan Station.jpg|thumb|Nanjing South Railway Station)Nanjing is an important railway hub in eastern China.WEB,weblink zh:伴随江苏铁路发展 南京将成长三角铁路交通枢纽, 新华日报, 2009-07-15, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2011-05-23, It serves as rail junction for the Beijing-Shanghai (Jinghu) (which is itself composed of the old Jinpu and Huning Railways), Nanjing–Tongling Railway (Ningtong), Nanjing–Qidong (Ningqi), and the Nanjing-Xi'an (Ningxi) which encompasses the Hefei–Nanjing Railway.Nanjing is connected to the national high-speed railway network by Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway and Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu Passenger Dedicated Line, with several more high-speed rail lines under construction.Among all 17 railway stations in Nanjing, passenger rail service is mainly provided by Nanjing Railway Station and Nanjing South Railway Station, while other stations like Nanjing West Railway Station, Zhonghuamen Railway Station and Xianlin Railway Station serve minor roles. Nanjing Railway Station was first built in 1968.WEB,weblink zh:车站简介, 南京火车站, 2012, 2012-11-29, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-11-27, On November 12, 1999, the station was burnt in a serious fire.WEB,weblink zh:南京火车站12日晨发生特大火灾, 新浪网, 1999, 2012-11-29, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-05-29, live, Reconstruction of the station was finished on September 1, 2005. Nanjing South Railway Station, which is one of the 5 hub stations on Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway, has officially been claimed as the largest railway station in Asia and the second largest in the world in terms of GFA (Gross Floor Area).WEB,weblink zh:南京火车站和北京南站变身 成全国新建改建范本, 火车网, 2012, 2012-11-27,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-12-03, dead, Construction of Nanjing South Station began on 10 January 2008.WEB,weblink zh:中國評論新聞網,, Archived copy, 2014-05-17,weblink" title="">weblink 2015-09-23, live, The station was opened for public service in 2011.WEB,weblink zh:亞洲最大 京滬高鐵南京南站啟用 - 聯合報, Archived copy, 2014-05-17,weblink" title="">weblink 2011-07-02, live,


File:Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge02.jpg|thumb|Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge, built in 1968, the first bridge over the Yangtze River to be built without foreign assistance.]]As an important regional hub in the Yangtze River Delta, Nanjing is well-connected by over 60 state and provincial highways to all parts of China.Express highways such as Hu–Ning, Ning–He, Ning–Hang enable commuters to travel to Shanghai, Hefei, Hangzhou, and other important cities quickly and conveniently. Inside the city of Nanjing, there are {{convert|230|km|abbr=on|sp=us}} of highways, with a highway coverage density of 3.38 kilometers per hundred square kilometers (5.44 mi/100 sq mi). The total road coverage density of the city is 112.56 kilometers per hundred square kilometers (181.15 mi/100 sq mi).WEB,weblink zh:数字交通, 南京市交通局, 2012-11-28, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-04-15, The two artery roads in Nanjing are Zhongshan Road and Hanzhong. The two roads cross in the city center, Xinjiekou.Expresswaysï½›G+XXxx(National Express,国家高速),S+XX(省级高速)}: National Highway ï½›G1xx(which starts from Beijing ), G2xx(north-south),G3xx(west-east)}:

Public transportation

{{see also|Nanjing Metro}}(File:ULuo-NanjingMetroMapofConstructionPlan2022.jpg|thumb|Nanjing Metro Construction Plan by 2022)The city also boasts an efficient network of public transportation, which mainly consists of bus, taxi and metro systems. The bus network, which is currently run by three companies since 2011, provides more than 370 routes covering all parts of the city and suburban areas.WEB,weblink zh:南京三大公交企业新名称敲定, 凤凰网, 2012-06-26, Archived copy, 2014-05-29,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-05-29, live, At present, the Nanjing Metro system has a grand total of {{cvt|377|km}} of route and 173 stations across 10 lines. They are Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4, Line 10, Line S1, Line S3, Line S7, Line S8 and Line S9. The city is planning to complete a 17-line Metro and light-rail system by 2030.WEB,weblink zh:南京轨道交通线网共17条,, 2009-10-23, 6 March 2010, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 7 July 2011, live, dmy-all, The expansion of the Metro network will greatly facilitate the intracity transportation and reduce the currently heavy traffic congestion.


(File:201712 End of a Concourse of NKG T2.jpg|thumb|Nanjing Lukou International Airport, NKG)Nanjing's airport, Lukou International Airport, serves both national and international flights. In 2013, Nanjing airport handled 15,011,792 passengers and 255,788.6 tonnes of freight.WEB,weblink zh:2013年华东机场生产数据排序, 2014-03-06, Civil Aviation Administration of China East China Regional Administration, zh-hans, 2014-03-09, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-03-09, The airport currently has 85 routes to national and international destinations, which include Japan,WEB,weblink China Eastern Adds Nanjing - Shizuoka Service from July 2015,, 8 June 2015, 8 June 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 9 June 2015, live, dmy-all, Korea, Thailand,WEB,weblink NokScoot Revises Nanjing Launch to mid-June 2015,, 27 May 2015, 27 May 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 27 May 2015, live, dmy-all, NEWS, Bamrung, Amnatcharoenrit, AirAsia flies out of Don Mueang without a hitch,weblink Bangkok, The Nation, 2 October 2012, 2 October 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 5 October 2012, live, dmy-all, Malaysia, Singapore, United StatesNEWS, China Eastern, Delta and Hainan Airlines' new routes accelerate US-China aviation development,weblink March 11, 2015, Centre for Aviation, February 23, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink February 25, 2015, live, mdy-all, and Germany. The airport is connected by a 29-kilometer (18 mi) highway directly to the city center, and is also linked to various intercity highways, making it accessible to the passengers from the surrounding cities. A railway Ninggao Intercity Line has been built to link the airport with Nanjing South Railway Station.WEB,weblink zh:南京开建地铁机场线 第一次地铁将抵达机场, 中国江苏网, 2011-12-28, Archived copy, 2014-05-15,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-03, live, Lukou Airport was opened on 28 June 1997, replacing Nanjing Dajiaochang Airport as the main airport serving Nanjing. Dajiaochang Airport is still used as a military air base.WEB,weblink zh:大校场机场, Dajiaochang Airport, Nanjing City Government, Nanjing City Chronicles, zh-hans, 2012-09-14, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-12-03, dead, Nanjing has another airport – Nanjing Ma'an International Airport which temporarily serves as a dual-use military and civil airport.


The Port of Nanjing is the largest inland port in China, with annual cargo tonnage reached 191,970,000 t in 2012.WEB, zh:2012全国货物、集装箱、旅客吞吐量统计,weblink, 南京港(集团)有限公司, 2014-06-18, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2017-06-30, dead,
The port area is {{convert|98|km|mi|abbr=on|sp=us}} in length and has 64 berths including 16 berths for ships with a tonnage of more than 10,000.WEB, zh:集团简介,weblink, 中国港口网, 2014-06-18, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-06-16, Nanjing is also the biggest container port along the Yangtze River; in March 2004, the one million container-capacity base, Longtan Containers Port Area opened, further consolidating Nanjing as the leading port in the region. {{As of|2010}}, it operated six public ports and three industrial ports.WEB,weblink The Brief Introduction of Nanjing Port, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-04-23, The Yangtze River's 12.5-meter-deep waterway enables 50,000-ton-class ocean ships directly arrive at the Nanjing Port, and the ocean ships with the capacities of 100,000 tons or above can also reach the port after load reduction in the Yangtze River's high-tide period.WEB,weblink Yangtze-River Deep Waterway, 2016-10-23,weblink" title="">weblink 2017-05-10, dead, CSC Jinling has a large shipyard.WEB,weblink 中外运长航集团船舶重工总公司 Jinling Shipyard,, 2019-04-12,weblink" title="">weblink 2018-07-30, live,

Yangtze River crossings

(File:NJ 3rd Bridge-edit.jpg|thumb|Third Nanjing Yangtze Bridge)In the 1960s, the first Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge was completed, and served as the only bridge crossing over the Lower Yangtze in eastern China at that time. The bridge was a source of pride and an important symbol of modern China, having been built and designed by the Chinese themselves following failed surveys by other nations and the reliance on and then rejection of Soviet expertise. Begun in 1960 and opened to traffic in 1968, the bridge is a two-tiered road and rail design spanning 4,600 meters on the upper deck, with approximately 1,580 meters spanning the river itself. Since then four more bridges and two tunnels have been built. Going in the downstream direction, the Yangtze crossings in Nanjing are: Dashengguan Bridge, Line 10 Metro Tunnel, Third Bridge, Nanjing Yangtze River Tunnel(南京长江隧道), First Bridge, Second Bridge and Fourth Bridge,Nanjing Yangtze Tunnel (南京扬子江隧道). In the near future, Such Yangtze Crossings will be added as follow :Jianning West Rd. Tunnel, Xianxin Rd. Tunnel, Heyan Rd. Tunnel, Fifth Nanjing Yangtze Bridge.

Culture and art

File:南京中国科举博物馆.jpg|thumb|Jiangnan Examination HallJiangnan Examination HallBeing one of the four ancient capitals of China, Nanjing has always been a cultural center attracting intellectuals from all over the country. In the Tang and Song dynasties, Nanjing was a place where poets gathered and composed poems reminiscent of its luxurious past; during the Ming and Qing dynasties, the city was the official imperial examination center (Jiangnan Examination Hall) for the Jiangnan region, again acting as a hub where different thoughts and opinions converged and thrived.Today, with a long cultural tradition and strong support from local educational institutions, Nanjing is commonly viewed as a “city of culture” and one of the more pleasant cities to live in China.


File:Pekinguniversitykunqu4.jpg|thumb|left|KunquKunquSome of the leading art groups of China are based in Nanjing; they include the Qianxian Dance Company, Nanjing Dance Company, Jiangsu Peking Opera Institute and Nanjing Xiaohonghua Art Company among others.Jiangsu Province Kun Opera is one of the best theaters for Kunqu, China's oldest stage art.WEB,weblink A brief introduction to Jiangsu Province Kunqu Theater, It is considered a conservative and traditional troupe. Nanjing also has professional opera troupes for the Yang, Yue (shaoxing), Xi and Jing (Chinese opera varieties) as well as Suzhou pingtan, spoken theater and puppet theater.Jiangsu Art Gallery is the largest gallery in Jiangsu Province, presenting some of the best traditional and contemporary art pieces of China like the historical Master Ho-Kan;Jiangsu Art Gallery {{Webarchive|url= |date=2014-05-17 }}, Synotrip {{Webarchive|url= |date=2014-06-25 }}. many other smaller-scale galleries, such as Red Chamber Art Garden and Jinling Stone Gallery, also have their own special exhibitions.


File:Nanjing Library 2016.7.16.jpg|thumb|Nanjing LibraryNanjing LibraryMany traditional festivals and customs were observed in the old times, which included climbing the City Wall on January 16, bathing in Qing Xi on March 3, hill hiking on September 9 and others (the dates are in Chinese lunar calendar). Almost none of them, however, are still celebrated by modern Nanjingese.Instead, Nanjing, as a tourist destination, hosts a series of government-organized events throughout the year. The annual International Plum Blossom Festival held in Plum Blossom Hill, the largest plum collection in China, attracts thousands of tourists both domestically and internationally. Other events include Nanjing Baima Peach Blossom and Kite Festival, Jiangxin Zhou Fruit Festival and Linggu Temple Sweet Osmanthus Festival.


Nanjing Library, founded in 1907, houses more than 10 million volumes of printed materials and is the third largest library in China, after the National Library in Beijing and Shanghai Library. Other libraries, such as city-owned Jinling Library and various district libraries, also provide considerable amount of information to citizens. Nanjing University Library is the second largest university libraries in China after Peking University Library, and the fifth largest nationwide, especially in the number of precious collections.


File:Nanjing Museum big.jpg|thumb|left|Nanjing MuseumNanjing MuseumNanjing has some of the oldest and finest museums in China. Nanjing Museum, formerly known as National Central Museum during ROC period, is the first modern museum and remains as one of the leading museums in China having 400,000 items in its permanent collection.WEB,weblink Treasures in Nanjing Museum,, 2008-07-14, 2014-05-17, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-03-04, The museum is notable for enormous collections of Ming and Qing imperial porcelain, which is among the largest in the world.WEB,weblink Porcelain Creatures Highlight Nanjing Museum,, 2003-10-29, 2014-05-17,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-01-02, live, Other museums include the City Museum of Nanjing in the Chaotian Palace, the Oriental Metropolitan Museum,{{efn|Liuchao Gudu Bowuguan ()}} the China Modern History Museum in the Presidential Palace, the Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall, the Taiping Kingdom History Museum, Jiangning Imperial Silk Manufacturing Museum,{{efn|Jiangning Zhizao Bowuguan ()}} Nanjing Yunjin Museum, Nanjing City Wall Cultural Museum, Nanjing Customs Museum in Ganxi House,{{efn|Nanjing Minsu Bowuguan (), located in Ganxi House () which is said to be the largest Chinese private house, with the nickname Ninety Nine And A Half Rooms.}} Nanjing Astronomical History Museum, Nanjing Paleontological Museum, Nanjing Geological Museum, Nanjing Riverstones Museum, and other museums and memorials such Zheng He Memorial{{efn|A small museum and tomb honoring the 15th century seafaring admiral Zheng He although his body was buried at sea off the Malabar Coast near Calicut in western India.Levathes, Louise. When China Ruled The Seas: The Treasure Fleet of the Dragon Throne 1405-1433, p. 172. Oxford Univ. Press (New York), 1996.}} Jinling Four Modern Calligraphers Memorial.{{efn|Jinling Shufa Silao Jinianguan ()}}


Most of Nanjing's major theaters are multi-purpose, used as convention halls, cinemas, musical halls and theaters on different occasions. The major theaters include the People's Convention Hall and the Nanjing Arts and Culture Center. The Capital Theater well known in the past is now a museum in theater/film.

Night life

(File:Fuzimiaonight.JPG|thumb|Qinhuai River)Traditionally Nanjing's nightlife was mostly centered around Nanjing Fuzimiao (Confucius Temple) area along the Qinhuai River, where night markets, restaurants and pubs thrived.WEB,weblink Life on the Water's Edge: The Culture and History of the Qinhuai River -,, 2014-05-17,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-11-11, live, Boating at night in the river was a main attraction of the city. Thus, one can see the statues of the famous teachers and educators of the past not too far from those of the courtesans who educated the young men in the other arts.In the past 20 years, several commercial streets have been developed, hence the nightlife has become more diverse: there are shopping malls opening late in the Xinjiekou CBD and Hunan Road. The well-established "Nanjing 1912" district hosts a wide variety of recreational facilities ranging from traditional restaurants and western pubs to dance clubs. There are two major areas where bars are densely located; one is in 1912 block; the other is along Shanghai road and its neighborhood.Local people still very much enjoy street food, such as lamb kebabs. As elsewhere in Asia, karaoke is popular with both young and old crowds.{{citation needed|date=March 2019}}

Food and symbolism

Many of the city's local favorite dishes are based on ducks, including Nanjing salted duck, duck blood and vermicelli soup, and duck oil pancake.WEB, China Cultural Kaleidoscope,weblink 29 October 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 29 November 2013, dead, dmy-all, The radish is also a typical food representing people of Nanjing, which has been spread through word of mouth as an interesting fact for many years in China. According to, "There is a long history of growing radish in Nanjing especially the southern suburb. In the spring, the radish tastes very juicy and sweet. It is well-known that people in Nanjing like eating radish. And the people are even addressed as 'Nanjing big radish', which means they are unsophisticated, passionate and conservative. From health perspective, eating radish can help to offset the stodgy food that people take during the Spring Festival".WEB, Frying Spring Rolls at the Beginning of Spring,weblink 19 April 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2013, dead, dmy-all,

Sports and stadiums

(File:Former Central Stadium in Nanjing 2011-12.JPG|thumb|Central Stadium was built in 1937)Nanjing's planned 20,000 seat Youth Olympic Sports Park Gymnasium will be one of the venues for the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup.The Official website of the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup {{Webarchive|url= |date=2017-05-27 }},, Retrieved 9 March 2016.(File:Nanjing Youth Olympics 2014.svg|left)As a major Chinese city, Nanjing is home to many professional sports teams. Jiangsu Suning FC, the football club currently staying in Chinese Super League, is a long-term tenant of Nanjing Olympic Sports Center.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 6 April 2012, zh:俱乐部概况, Jssainty fc, 10 April 2012, Jiangsu Nangang Basketball Club is a competitive team which has long been one of the major clubs fighting for the title in China top level league, CBA. Jiangsu Volleyball men and women teams are also traditionally considered as at top level in China volleyball league.There are two major sports centers in Nanjing, Wutaishan Sports Center and Nanjing Olympic Sports Center. Both of these two are comprehensive sports centers, including stadium, gymnasium, natatorium, tennis court, etc. Wutaishan Sports Center was established in 1952 and it was one of the oldest and most advanced stadiums in early time of People's Republic of China.Nanjing hosted the 10th National Games of PRC in 2005 and hosted the 2nd summer Youth Olympic Games in 2014.WEB,weblink zh:南京成功获得2014年夏季世界青年奥运会主办权, 中国日报, 2010-02-11, Archived copy, 2014-05-29,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-11-03, live, WEB,weblink zh:南京获得2013年亚青会举办权, Tencent, QQ Sports, 2010-11-13, Archived copy, 2014-05-29,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-10-23, live, (File:Nanjing Olympic Sports Center main gym.jpg|thumb|Nanjing Olympic Sports Center)In 2005, in order to host The 10th National Game of People's Republic of China, there was a new stadium, Nanjing Olympic Sports Center, constructed in Nanjing. Compared to Wutaishan Sports Center, which the major stadium's capacity is 18,500,WEB,weblink Wutaishan Stadium, 2014-05-17,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-05-17, dead, Nanjing Olympic Sports Center has a more advanced stadium which is big enough to seat 60,000 spectators. Its gymnasium has capacity of 13,000, and natatorium of capacity 3,000.On 10 February 2010, the 122nd IOC session at Vancouver announced Nanjing as the host city for the 2nd Summer Youth Olympic Games. The slogan of the 2014 Youth Olympic Games was “Share the Games, Share our Dreams”. The Nanjing 2014 Youth Olympic Games featured all 28 sports on the Olympic programme and were held from 16 to 28 August. The Nanjing Youth Olympic Games Organising Committee (NYOGOC) worked together with the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to attract the best young athletes from around the world to compete at the highest level. Off the competition fields, an integrated culture and education programme focused on discussions about education, Olympic values, social challenges, and cultural diversity. The YOG aims to spread the Olympic spirit and encourage sports participation.


The city is recognised for its wide variety of architectures which mainly contain buildings from the imperial period, Republic of China period and contemporary age.

Imperial period

Inside the walled city

File:YiJiangGate.jpg|City Wall of Nanjing and Yijiangmen GateFile:Nanjing-Zhonghua-Gate-3091.jpg|Gate of ChinaFile:Riverside near Fuzi Miao.jpg|Qinhuai RiverFile:Jiming Temple, Nanjing 20101125.jpg|Jiming TempleFile:Jinghai Si - grounds - P1070462.JPG|Jinghai Temple and Yuejiang Tower

Outside the walled city

File:2014年1月6日——南京天际线 - panoramio.jpg|Xuanwu LakeFile:Porcelain Tower of Nanjing - Night View.jpg|The Porcelain Pagoda of NanjingFile:BaoyueTingfeng Mochou Lake.jpg|Classical buildings in the Mochou LakeFile:Ming_Xiaoling_Mausoleum_Spirit_Way.jpg|Spirit Way of Ming Xiaoling MausoleumFile:Linggusu in Nanjing.JPG|Tower of Linggu TempleFile:Qixiasi00.jpg|Qixia Temple

Republic of China period

Because it was designated as the national capital, many structures were built around that time. Here is a short list:

Inside the walled city

  • Former Presidential Palace of Republic of China (中華民國總統府舊址)
  • Former National Assembly Building of Republic of China (國民大會堂舊址)
  • Former Central Government of ROC Building Group along N. Zhongshan Road (中山北路國民政府建築群)
  • Former Central Committee of KMT Buildings (中國國民黨中央黨部舊址)
  • Former Foreign Embassies in Gulou Area (鼓樓使館區舊址)
  • Nanking Officials Residence Cluster along Yihe Road (頤和路公館區)
  • Former National Central Museum (國立中央博物院舊址)
  • Former National Art Gallery Building (國立美術陳列館舊址)
  • Former Central Radio of KMT Building (中央廣播電台舊址)
  • Dahua Theater (大華電影院)
  • Former Academia Sinica Buildings (國立中央研究院舊址)
  • Former National Central University Buildings at Sipailou (國立中央大學舊址)
  • Former University of Nanking Buildings (金陵大學舊址)
  • Former Ginling College Buildings (金陵女子文理學院舊址)
  • Former Republic of China Military Academy Buildings (中央陸軍軍官學校舊址)
  • Former Bank of China Nanking Branch Building (中國銀行南京分行舊址)
  • Former Bank of Communications Nanking Branch Building (交通銀行南京分行舊址)
  • Former Central Bank of ROC Nanking Branch Building (中央銀行南京分行舊址)
  • Former Macklin Hospital Buildings (Gulou Hospital) (馬林醫院舊址)
  • Former Central Hospital Buildings (國立中央醫院舊址)
  • St. Paul's Church (聖保羅堂)
  • Central Hotel (中央飯店)
  • Former Capital Hotel (Huajiang Hotel) (首都飯店/華江飯店)
  • Yangtse Hotel (揚子飯店)
  • Lizhishe Buildings (勵志社)
File:Entrance to the Former ROC Presidents Residence(5811380323).jpg|Former Presidential PalaceFile:Nanjing Great Hall of the People front.JPG|Former National Assembly BuildingFile:Yihe Road Nanjing.jpg|Yihe RoadFile:201308 Standing Committee of Jiangsu People's Congress Building.jpg|Former Ministry of Foreign Affairs BuildingsFile:Former Capital Hotel of Nanjing 2011-10.JPG|Former Capital HotelFile:Academia Sinica site nanjing.JPG|Former Academia Sinica Buildings

Outside the walled city

File:Hall of Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum.jpg|Hall of Sun Yat-sen MausoleumFile:Gate of Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum.jpg|Gate of Sun Yat-sen MausoleumFile:Xuanwu, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China - panoramio (1).jpg|National Revolutionary Army Memorial CemeteryFile:Chairman's Residence Gate of Nationalist Government, Nanking.jpg|Gate of Presidential Residence at Purple MountainFile:天文台 - panoramio - zhanyoun.jpg|National Purple Mountain Observatory File:Former Central Stadium in Nanjing 2011-12.JPG|Central Stadium

People's Republic of China period

File:Nanjing_Yangtze_River_Bridge02.jpg|Nanjing Yangtze River BridgeFile:Martyrs monument at Yuhuatai(flickr 5811400521).jpg|Yuhuatai Memorial Park of Revolutionary MartyrsFile:Nanjing massacre memorial.jpg|Memorial Hall of the Victims in Nanjing Massacre by Japanese InvadersFile:南京新街口2018 03.jpg|Jinling HotelFile:紫峰大厦.jpeg|Zifeng Tower ranks among the tallest buildings in the world, opened for commercial operations in 2010.WEB,weblink zh:紫峰大厦开业庆典, Greenland Group, 5 March 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 March 2011, File:Youth Olympics Towers, Nanjing (Aug 2014).png|Nanjing Youth Olympic Towers


The educational center of southern China for more than 1,700 years, Nanjing has a large range of prestigious higher education institutions and research institutes and a large student population. Nanjing is ranked the 88th QS Best Student City in 2019. Nanjing University is considered to be one of the top national universities nationwide. According to the QS Higher Education top-ranking university, Nanjing University is ranked the seventh university in China, and 122nd overall in the world as of 2019. Southeast University is also among the most famous universities in China and is considered to be one of the best universities for architecture in the country. Many universities in Nanjing have satellite campuses or have moved their main campus to Xianlin University City in the eastern suburb. Some of the other biggest national universities in Nanjing are:The educational center of southern China for more than 1,700 years, the city has a large range of prestigious higher education institutions and research institutes and a large student population. {{Div col}} {{Div col end}}Private universities and colleges, such as Communication University of China, Nanjing and Hopkins-Nanjing Center are also located in the city.Some notable high schools in Nanjing are: Nanjing Foreign Language School, High School Affiliated to Nanjing Normal University, Jinling High School, Nanjing No.1 High School, Nanjing Zhonghua High School, Caulfield Grammar School (Nanjing Campus).File:Nanjing University 南京大学 (5811383105).jpg|Nanjing University, Gulou campusFile:南京大學學生活動中心 仙林校區.jpg|Nanjing University, Xianlin campusFile:Auditorium of Southeast University in winter.jpg|Southeast University, Sipailou campusFile:Building 100, Nanjing Normal University.jpg|thumb|Nanjing Normal University, Suiyuan campus

Sister cities

{{col-start}}{{col-2}} {{col-2}}
  • {{flagdeco|CAN}} London, Ontario, Canada
  • {{flagdeco|MYS}} Malacca City, Malaysia
  • {{flagdeco|MEX}} Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico
  • {{flagdeco|BLR}} Mogilev, Belarus
  • {{flagdeco|AUS}} Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  • {{flagdeco|US}} St. Louis, Missouri, United States
  • {{flagdeco|NAM}} Windhoek, Namibia
  • {{flagdeco|UK}} York, United KingdomNEWS,weblink Lord Mayor signs up for China links, York Press, 14 November 2016, 10 January 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2018, live, dmy-all, WEB,weblink International Campaign - China Focus, Visit York, 10 January 2018,
Former Sister cities
  • {{flagdeco|JPN}} Nagoya, Aichi, Japan (suspended / ended on February 21, 2012 after Nanking Massacre denialist statements by then Nagoya's mayor, Takashi Kawamura)WEB, Wang, Chuhan, Nanjing suspends official contact with Nagoya,weblink CNTV, 22 February 2012, 12 October 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 9 July 2017, live, dmy-all,

Notable people

See also







  • BOOK, Cotterell title = The Imperial Capitals of China - An Inside View of the Celestial Empire
publisher = Pimlico isbn = 978-1-84595-009-5, 304 pages,
  • BOOK, Danielson, Eric N., Nanjing and the Lower Yangzi River, Singapore, Marshall Cavendish/Times Editions, 2004, 981-232-598-0,
  • BOOK, Jun Fang, China's Second Capital – Nanjing Under the Ming, 1368-1644,weblink 23 May 2014, Routledge, 978-1-135-00845-1,
  • BOOK, Eigner, Julius, "The Rise and Fall of Nanking" in National Geographic Vol. LXXIII No.2, Washington, D.C., National Geographic, February 1938,
  • BOOK, Farmer, Edward L., Early Ming Government: The Evolution of Dual Capitals, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1976,
  • BOOK, Hobart, Alice Tisdale, Within the Walls of Nanking, New York, MacMillan,
  • BOOK, Jiang, Zanchu, Nanjing shi hua, Nanjing, Nanjing chu ban she, 1995, 7-80614-159-6,
  • BOOK, Lutz, Jessie Gregory, China and the Christian Colleges, 1850-1950, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1971,
  • BOOK, Ma, Chao Chun (Ma Chaojun), Nanking's Development, 1927-1937, Nanking, Municipality of Nanking, 1937,
  • BOOK, Michael, Franz, The Taiping Rebellion: History and Documents (3 vols.), Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1972,
  • BOOK, Mote, Frederick W., "The Transformation of Nanking, 1350–1400," in The City in Late Imperial China, G. William Skinner, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1977,
  • BOOK, Mote, Frederick W., Twitchett, Denis, The Cambridge History of China, 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1988,
  • BOOK, Musgrove, Charles D., "Constructing a National Capital in Nanjing, 1927–1937," in Remaking the Chinese City, 1900–1950, Joseph W. Esherick, Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, 2000,
  • BOOK, Nanking Women's Club, Sketches of Nanking, Nanking, Nanking Women's Club, 1933,
  • BOOK, Ouchterlony, John, The Chinese War: An Account of All the Operations of the British Forces from the Commencement to the Treaty of Nanking, London, Saunders and Otley, 1844,
  • BOOK, Prip-Moller, Johannes, "The Hall of Lin Ku Ssu (Ling Gu Si) Nanking," in Artes Monuments Vol. III, Copenhagen, Artes Monuments, 1935,
  • BOOK, Smalley, Martha L., Guide to the Archives of the United Board for Christian Higher Education in Asia (Record Group 11), New Haven, Yale University Divinity Library Special Collections, 1982,
  • BOOK, Struve, Lynn, 1988, The Southern Ming,weblink Cambridge History of China, Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368–1644, Frederic W. Mote, Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank, 641–725, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, .
  • BOOK, Struve, Lynn A., Voices from the Ming-Qing Cataclysm: China in Tigers' Jaws, Yale University Press, 1998, 0-300-07553-7, Chapter 4: "The emperor really has left": Nanjing changes hands, 55–72,
  • BOOK, Teng, Ssu Yu, Chang Hsi (Zhang Xi) and the Treaty of Nanking, 1842, Chicago, Chicago University Press, 1944,
  • BOOK, Thurston, Mrs. Lawrence (Matilda), Ginling College, New York, United Board for Christian Colleges in China, 1955,
  • BOOK, Till, Barry, In Search of Old Nanking, Hong Kong, Hong Kong and Shanghai Joint Publishing Company, 1982,
  • BOOK, Tyau, T.Z., Two Years of Nationalist China, Shanghai, Kelly and Walsh, 1930,
  • BOOK, Uchiyama, Kiyoshi, Guide to Nanking, Shanghai, China Commercial Press, 1910,
  • {{citation |last=Wakeman |first=Frederic, Jr.|author-link=Frederic Wakeman |title=The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-Century China |year=1985 |publisher=University of California Press |location=Berkeley and Los Angeles |isbn = 0-520-04804-0 }}.
  • BOOK, Wang, Nengwei, Nanjing Jiu Ying (Old Photos of Nanjing), People's Fine Arts Publishing House, 1998, Nanjing,
  • BOOK, Ye, Zhaoyan, Lao Nanjing: Jiu Ying Qinhuai (Old Nanjing: Reflections of Scenes on the Qinhuai River), Nanjing, Zhongguo Di Er Lishi Dang An Guan (China Second National Archives), 1998,
  • BOOK, Nanjing Ming-Qing Jianzhu (Ming and Qing architecture of Nanjing), Yang, Xinhua, Lu, Haiming, Nanjing Daxue Chubanshe (Nanjing University Press), 2001, 7-305-03669-2, harv

External links

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