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Nahapana
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| reign = 1st or 2nd century CE| coronation =| full name =| predecessor = Bhumaka| successor =| spouse =| issue =| royal house =| dynasty =| father =| mother =}File:RANNIO KSAHARATA on Nahapana coinage.jpg|thumb|The Greco-(Prakrit]] title "RANNIO KSAHARATA" ("ΡΑΝΝΙω ΞΑΗΑΡΑΤΑ(Ϲ)", Prakrit for "King Kshaharata" rendered in corrupted Greek letters) on the obverse of the coinage of Nahapana.BOOK, Cribb, Joe, Indian Ocean In Antiquity, 2013, Routledge, 9781136155314, 310,weblink en, BOOK, Alpers, Edward A., Goswami, Chhaya, Transregional Trade and Traders: Situating Gujarat in the Indian Ocean from Early Times to 1900, 2019, Oxford University Press, 9780199096138, 99,weblink en, )File:Nahapana Brahmi and Kharoshthi legends on his coinage.jpg|thumb|Nahapana Brahmi and Kharoshthi legends on his coinage "RAJNO KSHAHARATASA NAHAPANASA “Of the (Rajah]] Nahapana, the Kshaharata”.BOOK, Seaby's Coin and Medal Bulletin: July 1980, 1980, Seaby Publications Ltd., 219,weblink BOOK, Rapson, E. J. (Edward James), Catalogue of the coins of the Andhra dynasty, the Western Ksatrapas, the Traikutaka dynasty, and the "Bodhi" dynasty, 1908, London : Printed by order of the Trustees,weblink )Nahapana (Greek: ΝΑΗΑΠΑΝΑ, Kharosthi: 𐨣𐨱𐨤𐨣, Brahmi: (File:Gupta ashoka n.svg|12px)(File:Gupta ashoka h.svg|15px)(File:Gupta ashoka paa.jpg|12px)(File:Gupta ashoka n.svg|12px) Na-ha-pā-na,BOOK, Rapson, E. J. (Edward James), Catalogue of the coins of the Andhra dynasty, the Western Ksatrapas, the Traikutaka dynasty, and the "Bodhi" dynasty, 1908, London : Printed by order of the Trustees,weblink ruled 1st or 2nd century CE) was an important ruler of the Western Kshatrapas, descendant of the Indo-Scythians, in northwestern India. According to one of his coins, he was the son of Bhumaka.

Period

The exact period of Nahapana is not certain. A group of his inscriptions are dated to the years 41-46 of an unspecified era. Assuming that this era is the Shaka era (which starts in 78 CE), some scholars have assigned his reign to 119-124 CE.BOOK, Buddhist Reliquaries from Ancient India,weblink 2000, British Museum Press, 978-0-7141-1492-7, 42, Others believe that the years 41-46 are his regnal years, and assign his rule to a different period. For example, Krishna Chandra Sagar assigns his reign to 24-70 CE,BOOK, Krishna Chandra Sagar, Foreign Influence on Ancient India,weblink 1992, Northern Book Centre, 978-81-7211-028-4, 133, while R.C.C. Fynes dates it to c. 66-71 CE.{{sfn|R.C.C. Fynes|1995|p=44}}

Reign

(File:I86 drachme Nahapana MACW2682 1ar (8501310554).jpg|thumb|A coin of a silver drachma from Nahapana. Obv: Bust of the king crowned with a diadem on the right. Legend in Greek: ΡΑΝΝΙ (ω ΙΑΗΑΡΑΤΑϹ) ΝΑΗΑΠΑ (ΝΑϹ) Rev: An arrow to the left and a lightning to the right. Legend in kharoshthi on the left: Rano Chaharatasa Nahapanasa. Brahmi legend on the right: Rajna Kshaha (ratasa Nahapanasa).)The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea mentions one Nambanus as the ruler of the area around Barigaza. This person has been identified as Nahapana by modern scholars. The text describes Nambanus as follows:"The mention of 'Nambanus' whom the scholars have identified as Nahapana in the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea would help us to solve the problem of Nahapana's time.", in "History of the Andhras" {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070313210732weblink |date=March 13, 2007 }}{{Cquote|Beyond the gulf of Baraca is that of Barygaza and the coast of the country of Ariaca, which is the beginning of the Kingdom of Nambanus and of all India. That part of it lying inland and adjoining Scythia is called Abiria, but the coast is called Syrastrene. It is a fertile country, yielding wheat and rice and sesame oil and clarified butter, cotton and the Indian cloths made therefrom, of the coarser sorts. Very many cattle are pastured there, and the men are of great stature and black in color. The metropolis of this country is Minnagara, from which much cotton cloth is brought down to Barygaza.|author=Periplus 41quoted in WEB, The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century,weblink Fordham University, 11 May 2013, |}}File:Gautamiputra Sri Satakarni overstruck on a coin of Nahapana.jpg|thumb|A coin of Nahapana restruck by the Satavahana king Gautamiputra SatakarniGautamiputra SatakarniFile:Gautamiputra Yajna Satakarni over Nahapana.jpg|thumb|Coin of Gautamiputra Yajna Satakarni struck over a drachm of Nahapana. Circa 167-196 CE. UjjainUjjainHe also established the Kshatrapa coinage, in a style derived from Indo-Greek coinage. The obverse of the coins consists of the profile of the ruler, within a legend in Greek. The reverse represents a thunderbolt and an arrow, within Brahmi and Kharoshthi legends.Nahapana is mentioned as a donator in inscriptions of numerous Buddhist caves in northern India. The Nasik and Karle inscriptions refer to Nahapana's dynastic name (Kshaharata, for "Kshatrapa") but not to his ethnicity (Saka-Pahlava), which is known from other sources.weblinkNahapana had a son-in-law named Ushavadata (Sanskrit: Rishabhadatta), whose inscriptions were incised in the Pandavleni Caves near Nasik. Ushavadata was son of Dinika and had married Dakshamitra, daughter of Nahapana. According to the inscriptions, Ushavadata accomplished various charities and conquests on behalf of his father-in-law. He constructed rest-houses, gardens and tanks at Bharukachchha (Bharuch), Dashapura (Mandasor in Malva), Govardhana (near Nasik) and Shorparaga (Sopara in the Thana district). He also campaigned in the north under the orders of Nahapana to rescue the Uttamabhadras who had been attacked by the Malayas (Malavas). He excavated a cave (one of the Pandavleni Caves) in the Trirashmi hill near Nasik and offered it to the Buddhist monks.Magarastra.gov.in Ancient Period {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070303103634weblink |date=March 3, 2007 }}

Gautamiputra Satakarni

(File:Nahapana coin hoard.jpg|thumb|left|Nahapana coin hoard.)(File:Nahapana.jpg|thumb|Nahapana coin.)Overstrikes of Nahapana's coins by the powerful Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni have been found in a hoard at Jogalthambi, Nashik District.BOOK, Singh, Upinder, A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, 2008, Pearson Education India, 9788131711200, 383,weblink en, This suggests that Gautamiputra defeated Nahapana.{{sfn|R.C.C. Fynes|1995|p=44}}Earlier scholars such as James Burgess have pointed out that Gautamiputra Satakarni and Nahapana were not necessarily contemporaries, since Satakarni mentions that the areas conquered by him were ruled by Ushavadata, rather than Nahapana. According to Burgess, there might have been an interval of as much as a century between the reigns of these two kings.BOOK, Burgess, James, The Cave Temples of India,weblink 1880, Cambridge University Press, 978-1-108-05552-9, 266–268, BOOK, Chattopadhyaya, Sudhakar, Some Early Dynasties of South India,weblink 1974, Motilal Banarsidass, 978-81-208-2941-1, 77, However, most historians now agree that Gautamiputra and Nahapana were contemporaries, and that Gautamiputra defeated Nahapana.{{sfn|M. K. Dhavalikar|1996|p=135}} M. K. Dhavalikar dates this event to c. 124 CE, which according to him, was the 18th regnal year of Gautamiputra.{{sfn|M. K. Dhavalikar|1996|p=135}} R.C.C. Fynes dates event to sometime after 71 CE.{{sfn|R.C.C. Fynes|1995|p=44}}Nahapana was founder of one of the two major Saka Satrap dynasties in north-western India, the Kshaharatas ("Satraps"); the other dynasty included the one founded by Chashtana.BOOK,weblink Students' Britannica India, 4, 2000, Encyclopædia Britannica, 375, 9780852297605,

Construction of Buddhist caves

File:Karla chaitya stupa.JPG|thumb|The Chaitya cave complex at Karla CavesKarla CavesFile:Karla Caves inscription 13 of Nahapana.jpg|thumb|Karla CavesKarla CavesThe Western Satraps are known for the construction and dedication of numerous Buddhist caves in Central India, particularly in the areas of Maharashtra and Gujarat.Foreign Influence on Ancient India, Krishna Chandra Sagar, Northern Book Centre, 1992 p.150In particular, the chaitya cave complex of the Karla Caves, the largest in South Asia, was constructed and dedicated in 120 CE by Nahapana, according to several inscriptions in the cave.World Heritage Monuments and Related Edifices in India, Volume 1 ʻAlī Jāvīd, Tabassum Javeed, Algora Publishing, 2008 p.42Southern India: A Guide to Monuments Sites & Museums, by George Michell, Roli Books Private Limited, 1 mai 2013 p.72"This hall is assigned to the brief period of Kshatrapas rule in the western Deccan during the 1st century." in Guide to Monuments of India 1: Buddhist, Jain, Hindu - by George Michell, Philip H. Davies, Viking - 1989 Page 374An important inscription relates to Nahapana in the Great Chaitya at Karla Caves (Valukura is thought to be an ancient name for Karla Caves):Parts of the Nasik Caves also were carved during the time of Nahapana, and the Junnar caves also have inscriptions of Nahapana,Buddhist Critical Spirituality: Prajñā and Śūnyatā, by Shōhei Ichimura p.40 as well as the Manmodi Caves.{| class="wikitable" style="margin:0 auto;"! Cave No.10 "Nahapana Vihara" at the Nasik Caves|File:036 Cave 10, Front (33928302236).jpg|Front

References

{{reflist|30em}}

Bibliography

  • JOURNAL, M. K. Dhavalikar, Madhukar Keshav Dhavalikar, Sātavāhana Chronology: A Re-examination, Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 77, 1/4, 1996, 133–140, 41702166, harv,
  • JOURNAL, R.C.C. Fynes, The Religious Patronage of the Satavahana Dynasty, South Asian Studies, 11, 1, 1995, 43–50, harv, 10.1080/02666030.1995.9628494,
  • R.C. Senior "Indo-Scythian coins and history" Vol IV, {{ISBN|0-9709268-6-3}}

External links

{{Indo-Scythians}}{{Western Satraps}}

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