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Nagasaki
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factoids
0.1em}}}}|native_name_lang =|official_name = Nagasaki CityCore cities of Japan>Core city|image_skyline = {{Photomontage|photo1a = |photo1b = Inasamachi, Nagasaki, Nagasaki Prefecture 852-8011, Japan - panoramio.jpg|photo2a = Nagasaki City Office Main Building 2008.jpg|photo2b = Former the archbishop hall of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Nagasaki01s3.jpg|photo3a = Nagasaki City view from Hamahira01s3.jpg|photo3b = Nagasaki Shianbashi bar street night view.jpg|size = 250|position = center|spacing = 3|color = transparent|border = 0}}|image_alt =|image_caption = |image_flag = Flag of Nagasaki, Nagasaki.svg|flag_alt =|image_seal = Nagasaki Nagasaki chapter.svg|seal_alt =|image_shield =|shield_alt =|image_blank_emblem =|nickname = City of PeaceNaples of the Orient|motto =frame=yesframe-width=265stroke-width=2zoom=8}}|image_map1 = Nagasaki in Nagasaki Prefecture Ja.svg|map_alt =|map_caption1 = Map of Nagasaki Prefecture with Nagasaki highlighted in pink|image_dot_map =|dot_mapsize =|dot_map_base_alt =|dot_map_alt =|dot_map_caption =dot_y =|pushpin_map = Japan#Asia#Earth|pushpin_label_position = |pushpin_map_alt =|pushpin_map_caption =  32N52region:JP-42|display=it}}|coor_pinpoint = |coordinates_footnotes = | subdivision_type = Country|subdivision_name = JapanList of regions of Japan>Region|subdivision_name1 = KyushuPrefectures of Japan>Prefecture|subdivision_name2 = Nagasaki Prefecture|established_title = |established_date =|founder =|named_for = |seat_type = |seat =|government_pp = |leader_party =|leader_title = Mayor|leader_name = Tomihisa Taue (2007-)|leader_title1 =|leader_name1 = |total_type = |unit_pref = |area_magnitude = |area_footnotes = |area_total_km2 = 405.86|area_total_sq_mi = |area_land_km2 = 240.71|area_land_sq_mi = |area_water_km2 = 165.15|area_water_sq_mi = |area_water_percent =|area_note =|elevation_footnotes = |elevation_m =|elevation_ft =|population_footnotes = |population_total = 412,643|population_as_of = June 1, 2019|population_density_km2 = auto|population_density_sq_mi =|population_est =|pop_est_as_of =|population_demonym = |population_note =|timezone1 = Japan Standard Time|utc_offset1 = +9|postal_code_type =|postal_code =|area_code_type = |area_code =|blank_name_sec1 = City Symbols|blank1_name_sec1 = - Tree|blank1_info_sec1 = Chinese tallow tree|blank2_name_sec1 = - Flower|blank2_info_sec1 = Hydrangea|blank3_name_sec1 =|blank3_info_sec1 =|blank4_name_sec1 =|blank4_info_sec1 =|blank5_name_sec1 =|blank5_info_sec1 =|blank6_name_sec1 =|blank6_info_sec1 =|blank7_name_sec1 =|blank7_info_sec1 =|blank_name_sec2 = Phone number|blank_info_sec2 = 095-825-5151|blank1_name_sec2 = Address|blank1_info_sec2 = 2-22 Sakura-machi, Nagasaki-shi, Nagasaki-ken850-8685weblink}}|footnotes =}}







factoids
{{nihongo|Nagasaki|||"Long Cape"|lead=yes}} is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan. It became a centre of colonial Portuguese and Dutch influence in the 16th through 19th centuries, and the Hidden Christian Sites in the Nagasaki Region have been recognized and included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Part of Nagasaki was home to a major Imperial Japanese Navy base during the First Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War. During World War II, the American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki made Nagasaki the second and, to date, last city in the world to experience a nuclear attack (at 11:02 a.m., August 9, 1945 'Japan Standard Time (UTC+9)').BOOK, Hakim, Joy, Joy Hakim, A History of US: Book 9: War, Peace, and All that Jazz, Oxford University Press, 5 January 1995, New York City, New York, 978-0195095142, A History of US, {{As of|2019|06|01}}, the city has an estimated population of 412,643 and a population density of 1,017 people per km². The total area is {{convert|405.86|km²|abbr=on}}.NEWS,weblink Land Area and Environment - Nagasaki - Japan - knoema.com, Knoema, 2017-06-08, en-US,

History

{{see also|Timeline of Nagasaki}}

Christian Nagasaki

Nagasaki was a small fishing village set in a secluded harbor and had little historical significance until contact with Portuguese explorers in 1543. An early visitor was Fernão Mendes Pinto, who came from Sagres on a Portuguese ship which landed nearby in Tanegashima.File:Macau Trade Routes.png|thumb|left|upright=0.9|Portuguese (green) and Spanish (yellow) trade routes to Macao and Nagasaki]]Soon after, Portuguese ships started sailing to Japan as regular trade freighters, thus increasing the contact and trade relations between Japan and the rest of the world, and particularly with mainland China, with whom Japan had previously severed its commercial and political ties, mainly due to a number of incidents involving Wokou piracy in the South China Sea, with the Portuguese now serving as intermediaries between the two Asian countries.Despite the mutual advantages derived from these trading contacts, which would soon be acknowledged by all parties involved, the lack of a proper seaport in Kyūshū for the purpose of harboring foreign ships posed a major problem for both merchants and the Kyushu daimyōs (feudal lords) who expected to collect great advantages from the trade with the Portuguese.In the meantime, Spanish Jesuit missionary St. Francis Xavier arrived in Kagoshima, South Kyūshū, in 1549, and soon initiated a thorough campaign of evangelization throughout Japan, and left for China in 1552 and died soon afterwards. His followers who remained behind converted a number of daimyōs. The most notable among them was Ōmura Sumitada. In 1569, Ōmura granted a permit for the establishment of a port with the purpose of harboring Portuguese ships in Nagasaki, which was finally set up in 1571, under the supervision of the Jesuit missionary Gaspar Vilela and Portuguese Captain-Major Tristão Vaz de Veiga, with Ōmura's personal assistance.Boxer, The Christian Century In Japan 1549–1650, p. 100–101The little harbor village quickly grew into a diverse port city,WEB,weblink Arrival of a Portuguese ship, and Portuguese products imported through Nagasaki (such as tobacco, bread, textiles and a Portuguese sponge-cake called castellas) were assimilated into popular Japanese culture. Tempura derived from a popular Portuguese recipe originally known as peixinho-da-horta, and takes its name from the Portuguese word, 'tempero,' seasoning, and refers to the tempora quadragesima, forty days of Lent during which eating meat was forbidden, another example of the enduring effects of this cultural exchange. The Portuguese also brought with them many goods from China.Due to the instability during the Sengoku period, Sumitada and Jesuit leader Alexandro Valignano conceived a plan to pass administrative control over to the Society of Jesus rather than see the Catholic city taken over by a non-Catholic daimyō. Thus, for a brief period after 1580, the city of Nagasaki was a Jesuit colony, under their administrative and military control. It became a refuge for Christians escaping maltreatment in other regions of Japan.Diego Paccheco, Monumenta Nipponica, 1970 In 1587, however, Toyotomi Hideyoshi's campaign to unify the country arrived in Kyūshū. Concerned with the large Christian influence in southern Japan, as well as the active and what was perceived as the arrogant role the Jesuits were playing in the Japanese political arena, Hideyoshi ordered the expulsion of all missionaries, and placed the city under his direct control. However, the expulsion order went largely unenforced, and the fact remained that most of Nagasaki's population remained openly practicing Catholic.In 1596, the Spanish ship San Felipe was wrecked off the coast of Shikoku, and Hideyoshi learned from its pilotso says the Jesuit account that the Spanish Franciscans were the vanguard of an Iberian invasion of Japan. In response, Hideyoshi ordered the crucifixions of twenty-six Catholics in Nagasaki on February 5 of the next year (i.e. the "Twenty-six Martyrs of Japan"). Portuguese traders were not ostracized, however, and so the city continued to thrive.(File:C1870`s Nagasaki Nakashima River - UCHIDA KUICHI.png|thumb|Some of Nagasaki's stone bridges over the Nakashima River in the 1870s)In 1602, Augustinian missionaries also arrived in Japan, and when Tokugawa Ieyasu took power in 1603, Catholicism was still tolerated. Many Catholic daimyōs had been critical allies at the Battle of Sekigahara, and the Tokugawa position was not strong enough to move against them. Once Osaka Castle had been taken and Toyotomi Hideyoshi's offspring killed, though, the Tokugawa dominance was assured. In addition, the Dutch and English presence allowed trade without religious strings attached. Thus, in 1614, Catholicism was officially banned and all missionaries ordered to leave. Most Catholic daimyo apostatized, and forced their subjects to do so, although a few would not renounce the religion and left the country for Macau, Luzon and Japantowns in Southeast Asia. A brutal campaign of persecution followed, with thousands of converts across Kyūshū and other parts of Japan killed, tortured, or forced to renounce their religion (see Martyrs of Japan).Catholicism's last gasp as an open religion and the last major military action in Japan until the Meiji Restoration was the Shimabara Rebellion of 1637. While there is no evidence that Europeans directly incited the rebellion, Shimabara Domain had been a Christian han for several decades, and the rebels adopted many Portuguese motifs and Christian icons. Consequently, in Tokugawa society the word "Shimabara" solidified the connection between Christianity and disloyalty, constantly used again and again in Tokugawa propaganda.{{Citation needed|date=May 2014}} The Shimabara Rebellion also convinced many policy-makers that foreign influences were more trouble than they were worth, leading to the national isolation policy. The Portuguese, who had been previously living on a specially constructed island-prison in Nagasaki harbour called Dejima, were expelled from the archipelago altogether, and the Dutch were moved from their base at Hirado into the trading island.

Seclusion era

The Great Fire of Nagasaki destroyed much of the city in 1663, including the Mazu shrine at the Kofuku Temple patronized by the Chinese sailors and merchants visiting the port.{{citation |contribution=Cultural Properties |contribution-url=http://kofukuji.com/english/properties.php |url=http://kofukuji.com |title=Official site |accessdate=23 December 2016 |location=Nagasaki |publisher=Thomeizan Kofukuji }}In 1720 the ban on Dutch books was lifted, causing hundreds of scholars to flood into Nagasaki to study European science and art. Consequently, Nagasaki became a major center of what was called rangaku, or "Dutch Learning". During the Edo period, the Tokugawa shogunate governed the city, appointing a hatamoto, the Nagasaki bugyō, as its chief administrator.(File:Nagasaki illustration2.jpeg|thumb|left|upright=0.9|Plan of Nagasaki, Hizen province, 1778)Consensus among historians was once that Nagasaki was Japan's only window on the world during its time as a closed country in the Tokugawa era. However, nowadays it is generally accepted that this was not the case, since Japan interacted and traded with the Ryūkyū Kingdom, Korea and Russia through Satsuma, Tsushima and Matsumae respectively. Nevertheless, Nagasaki was depicted in contemporary art and literature as a cosmopolitan port brimming with exotic curiosities from the Western World.Cambridge Encyclopedia of Japan, Richard Bowring and Haruko LaurieIn 1808, during the Napoleonic Wars the British Royal Navy frigate HMS Phaeton entered Nagasaki Harbor in search of Dutch trading ships. The local magistrate was unable to resist the British demand for food, fuel, and water, later committing seppuku as a result. Laws were passed in the wake of this incident strengthening coastal defenses, threatening death to intruding foreigners, and prompting the training of English and Russian translators.The Tōjinyashiki (唐人屋敷) or Chinese Factory in Nagasaki was also an important conduit for Chinese goods and information for the Japanese market. Various colourful Chinese merchants and artists sailed between the Chinese mainland and Nagasaki. Some actually combined the roles of merchant and artist such as 18th century Yi Hai. It is believed that as much as one-third of the population of Nagasaki at this time may have been Chinese.Screech, Timon. The Western Scientific Gaze and Popular Imagery in Later Edo Japan: The Lens Within the Heart. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. p15.

Meiji Japan

With the Meiji Restoration, Japan opened its doors once again to foreign trade and diplomatic relations. Nagasaki became a treaty port in 1859 and modernization began in earnest in 1868. Nagasaki was officially proclaimed a city on April 1, 1889. With Christianity legalized and the Kakure Kirishitan coming out of hiding, Nagasaki regained its earlier role as a center for Roman Catholicism in Japan.BOOK, Doak, Kevin M., Doak, Kevin M., Xavier's Legacies: Catholicism in Modern Japanese Culture, 2011, UBC Press, 9780774820240, 12–13,weblink 27 February 2018, Introduction: Catholicism, Modernity, and Japanese Culture, In 1904, Catholics in Nagasaki, with their deep ties to the past, were three times more numerous than Catholics in the rest of Japan..., During the Meiji period, Nagasaki became a center of heavy industry. Its main industry was ship-building, with the dockyards under control of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries becoming one of the prime contractors for the Imperial Japanese Navy, and with Nagasaki harbor used as an anchorage under the control of nearby Sasebo Naval District. During World War II, at the time of the nuclear attack, Nagasaki was an important industrial city, containing both plants of the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, the Akunoura Engine Works, Mitsubishi Arms Plant, Mitsubishi Electric Shipyards, Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works, several other small factories, and most of the ports storage and trans-shipment facilities, which employed about 90% of the city's labor force, and accounted for 90% of the city's industry. These connections with the Japanese war effort made Nagasaki a major target for strategic bombing by the Allies during the war.WEB, United States Strategic Bombing Survey, Chapter II The Effects of the Atomic Bombings,weblink BOOK, How Effective is Strategic Bombing?: Lessons Learned From World War II to Kosovo (World of War), 86–87, December 1, 2000, NYU Press,

Atomic bombing of Nagasaki during World War II

(File:Nagasakibomb.jpg|thumb|left|Mushroom cloud from the atomic explosion over Nagasaki at 11:02 a.m., August 9, 1945)For 12 months prior to the nuclear attack, Nagasaki had experienced five small-scale air attacks by an aggregate of 136 U.S. planes which dropped a total of 270 tons of high explosive, 53 tons of incendiary, and 20 tons of fragmentation bombs. Of these, a raid of August 1, 1945, was most effective, with a few of the bombs hitting the shipyards and dock areas in the southwest portion of the city, several hitting the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, and six bombs landing at the Nagasaki Medical School and Hospital, with three direct hits on buildings there. While the damage from these few bombs was relatively small, it created considerable concern in Nagasaki and a number of people, principally school children, were evacuated to rural areas for safety, thus reducing the population in the city at the time of the atomic attack.WEB,weblink Avalon Project - The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, BOOK, Bradley, F.J., No Strategic Targets Left, 1999, 103, Turner Publishing Company, 978-1-5631-1483-0, BOOK, Skylark, Tom, Final Months of the Pacific War, 2002, 178, Georgetown University Press, On the day of the nuclear strike (August 9, 1945) the population in Nagasaki was estimated to be 263,000, which consisted of 240,000 Japanese residents, 10,000 Korean residents, 2,500 conscripted Korean workers, 9,000 Japanese soldiers, 600 conscripted Chinese workers, and 400 Allied POWs. That day, the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Bockscar, commanded by Major Charles Sweeney, departed from Tinian's North Field just before dawn, this time carrying a plutonium bomb, code named "Fat Man". The primary target for the bomb was Kokura, with the secondary target being Nagasaki, if the primary target was too cloudy to make a visual sighting. When the plane reached Kokura at 9:44 a.m. (10:44 a.m. Tinian Time), the city was obscured by clouds and smoke, as the nearby city of Yahata had been firebombed on the previous day - the steel plant in Yahata also had their workforce intentionally set fire to containers of coal tar, to produce target-obscuring black smoke.WEB,weblink Steel mill worker reveals blocking view of U.S. aircraft on day of Nagasaki atomic bombing, Mainichi Weekly, January 23, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151122171430weblink">weblink 2015-11-22, . Unable to make a bombing attack on visual due to the clouds and smoke and with limited fuel, the plane left the city at 10:30 a.m. for the secondary target. After 20 minutes, the plane arrived at 10:50 a.m. over Nagasaki, but the city was also concealed by clouds. Desperately short of fuel and after making a couple of bombing runs without obtaining any visual target, the crew was forced to use radar in order to drop the bomb. At the last minute, the opening of the clouds allowed them to make visual contact with a racetrack in Nagasaki, and they dropped the bomb on the city's Urakami Valley midway between the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works in the south, and the Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works in the north.BOOK, The History and Science of the Manhattan Project, Bruce Cameron Reed, October 16, 2013, 400, Springer Nature, 978-3-6424-0296-8, 53 seconds after its release, the bomb exploded at 11:02 a.m. at an approximate altitude of 1,800 feet.WEB,weblink BBC - WW2 People's War - Timeline, Less than a second after the detonation, the north of the city was destroyed and 35,000 people were killed.BOOK, Welcome To Planet Earth - 2050 - Population Zero, Robert Hull, October 11, 2011, 215, AuthorHouse, 978-1-4634-2604-0, Among the deaths were 6,200 out of the 7,500 employees of the Mitsubishi Munitions plant, and 24,000 others (including 2,000 Koreans) who worked in other war plants and factories in the city, as well as 150 Japanese soldiers. The industrial damage in Nagasaki was high, leaving 68–80% of the non-dock industrial production destroyed. It was the second and, to date, the last use of a nuclear weapon in combat, and also the second detonation of a plutonium bomb. The first combat use of a nuclear weapon was the "Little Boy" bomb, which was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. The first plutonium bomb was tested in central New Mexico, United States, on July 16, 1945. The Fat Man bomb was somewhat more powerful than the one dropped over Hiroshima, but because of Nagasaki's more uneven terrain, there was less damage.BOOK, Nuke-Rebuke: Writers & Artists Against Nuclear Energy & Weapons (The Contemporary anthology series), 22–29, May 1, 1984, The Spirit That Moves Us Press, {{harvnb|Groves|1962|pp=343–346}}.{{harvnb|Hoddeson|Henriksen|Meade|Westfall|1993|pp=396–397}}

After the war

The city was rebuilt after the war, albeit dramatically changed. The pace of reconstruction was slow. The first simple emergency dwellings were not provided until 1946. The focus of redevelopment was the replacement of war industries with foreign trade, shipbuilding and fishing. This was formally declared when the Nagasaki International Culture City Reconstruction Law was passed in May 1949.WEB,weblink AtomicBombMuseum.org - After the Bomb, New temples were built, as well as new churches, owing to an increase in the presence of Christianity.WEB,weblink Nagasaki History Facts and Timeline, Some of the rubble was left as a memorial, such as a one-legged torii at Sannō Shrine and an arch near ground zero. New structures were also raised as memorials, such as the Atomic Bomb Museum. Nagasaki remains primarily a port city, supporting a rich shipbuilding industry.File:Sanno_torii_boxed_in_red.jpg|thumb|right|Torii, Nagasaki, JapanJapanOn January 4, 2005, the towns of Iōjima, Kōyagi, Nomozaki, Sanwa, Sotome and Takashima (all from Nishisonogi District) were officially merged into Nagasaki.

Geography and climate

Nagasaki and Nishisonogi Peninsulas are located within the city limits. The city is surrounded by the cities of Isahaya and Saikai, and the towns of Togitsu and Nagayo in Nishisonogi District.Nagasaki lies at the head of a long bay that forms the best natural harbor on the island of KyÅ«shÅ«. The main commercial and residential area of the city lies on a small plain near the end of the bay. Two rivers divided by a mountain spur form the two main valleys in which the city lies. The heavily built-up area of the city is confined by the terrain to less than {{convert|4|sqmi|km2}}.Nagasaki has the typical humid subtropical climate of KyÅ«shÅ« and HonshÅ«, characterized by mild winters and long, hot, and humid summers. Apart from Kanazawa and Shizuoka it is the wettest sizeable city in Japan. In the summer, the combination of persistent heat and high humidity results in unpleasant conditions, with wet-bulb temperatures sometimes reaching {{convert|26|C|F}}. In the winter, however, Nagasaki is drier and sunnier than Gotō to the west, and temperatures are slightly milder than further inland in KyÅ«shÅ«. Since records began in 1878, the wettest month has been July 1982, with {{convert|1178|mm|in|0}} including {{convert|555|mm|in|1}} in a single day, whilst the driest month has been September 1967, with {{convert|1.8|mm|in|2}}. Precipitation occurs year-round, though winter is the driest season; rainfall peaks sharply in June and July. August is the warmest month of the year. On January 24, 2016, a snowfall of {{convert|17|cm|in|1}} was recorded.あすにかけ全国的に厳しい冷え込み続く {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160127195327weblink |date=2016-01-27 }} 気象庁{{Weather box|location = Nagasaki, Nagasaki (1981~2010)|metric first = yes|single line = yes|Jan record high C = 21.3|Feb record high C = 22.6|Mar record high C = 24.4|Apr record high C = 29.0|May record high C = 34.6|Jun record high C = 36.4|Jul record high C = 37.7|Aug record high C = 37.6|Sep record high C = 36.1|Oct record high C = 33.7|Nov record high C = 27.4|Dec record high C = 23.8|year record high C = 37.7|Jan high C = 10.4|Feb high C = 11.7|Mar high C = 14.8|Apr high C = 19.7|May high C = 23.5|Jun high C = 26.4|Jul high C = 30.1|Aug high C = 31.7|Sep high C = 28.6|Oct high C = 23.8|Nov high C = 18.3|Dec high C = 13.1|year high C = 21.0|Jan mean C = 7.0|Feb mean C = 7.9|Mar mean C = 10.9|Apr mean C = 15.4|May mean C = 19.4|Jun mean C = 22.8|Jul mean C = 26.8|Aug mean C = 27.9|Sep mean C = 24.8|Oct mean C = 19.7|Nov mean C = 14.3|Dec mean C = 9.4|year mean C = 17.2|Jan low C = 3.8|Feb low C = 4.4|Mar low C = 7.3|Apr low C = 11.6|May low C = 15.8|Jun low C = 20.0|Jul low C = 24.3|Aug low C = 25.1|Sep low C = 21.8|Oct low C = 16.1|Nov low C = 10.8|Dec low C = 5.9|year low C = 13.9|Jan record low C = −5.2|Feb record low C = −4.8|Mar record low C = −3.6|Apr record low C = 0.2|May record low C = 5.3|Jun record low C = 8.9|Jul record low C = 15.0|Aug record low C = 17.0|Sep record low C = 11.1|Oct record low C = 4.9|Nov record low C = −0.2|Dec record low C = −3.9|year record low C = −5.2|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 64.0|Feb precipitation mm = 85.7|Mar precipitation mm = 132.0|Apr precipitation mm = 151.3|May precipitation mm = 179.3|Jun precipitation mm = 314.6|Jul precipitation mm = 314.4|Aug precipitation mm = 195.4|Sep precipitation mm = 188.8|Oct precipitation mm = 85.8|Nov precipitation mm = 85.6|Dec precipitation mm = 60.8|Jan snow cm = 2|Feb snow cm = 1|Mar snow cm = 0|Apr snow cm = 0|May snow cm = 0|Jun snow cm = 0|Jul snow cm = 0|Aug snow cm = 0|Sep snow cm = 0|Oct snow cm = 0|Nov snow cm = 0|Dec snow cm = 1|Jan humidity = 66|Feb humidity = 64|Mar humidity = 66|Apr humidity = 68|May humidity = 72|Jun humidity = 79|Jul humidity = 80|Aug humidity = 75|Sep humidity = 73|Oct humidity = 67|Nov humidity = 67|Dec humidity = 66|year humidity = 70|Jan precipitation days = 11.1|Feb precipitation days = 9.9|Mar precipitation days = 12.5|Apr precipitation days = 10.8|May precipitation days = 10.6|Jun precipitation days = 13.5|Jul precipitation days = 11.6|Aug precipitation days = 9.8|Sep precipitation days = 9.7|Oct precipitation days = 6.2|Nov precipitation days = 9.0|Dec precipitation days = 10.0|unit precipitation days = 0.5 mm|Jan snow days = 1.2|Feb snow days = 0.9|Mar snow days = 0.2|Apr snow days = 0.0|May snow days = 0.0|Jun snow days = 0.0|Jul snow days = 0.0|Aug snow days = 0.0|Sep snow days = 0.0|Oct snow days = 0.0|Nov snow days = 0.0|Dec snow days = 0.2|Jan sun = 102.8|Feb sun = 119.7|Mar sun = 148.5|Apr sun = 174.7|May sun = 184.4|Jun sun = 135.3|Jul sun = 178.7|Aug sun = 210.7|Sep sun = 172.8|Oct sun = 181.4|Nov sun = 137.9|Dec sun = 119.1|source 1 = Japan Meteorological AgencyWEB,weblink accessdate = 2011-12-02, Japan Meteorological Agency, |source 2 = Japan Meteorological Agency (records)WEB,weblink accessdate = 2011-12-02, Japan Meteorological Agency, |date=December 2011}}

Education

Universities

Junior colleges

  • Nagasaki Junior College
  • Nagasaki Junshin Women's Junior College
  • {{Nihongo|Tamaki Women's Junior College|玉木女子短期大学}}
  • {{Nihongo|Nagasaki Women's Junior College|長崎女子短期大学}}

Transportation

(File:Nagasaki Trolley M5199.jpg|thumb|A busy street in Nagasaki)The nearest airport is Nagasaki Airport in the nearby city of ÅŒmura. The Kyushu Railway Company (JR Kyushu) provides rail transportation on the Nagasaki Main Line, whose terminal is at Nagasaki Station. In addition, the Nagasaki Electric Tramway operates five routes in the city. The Nagasaki Expressway serves vehicular traffic with interchanges at Nagasaki and Susukizuka. In addition, six national highways crisscross the city: Route 34, 202, 206, 251, 324, and 499.

Demographics

{{expand section|date=July 2017}}On August 9, 1945 the population was estimated to be 263,000. As of 1 March 2017, the city had population of 425,723 and a population density of 1,000 persons per km2.

Sports

Nagasaki is represented in the J. League of football with its local club, V-Varen Nagasaki.

Main sites

File:NagasakiHypocenter.jpg|Monument at the atomic bomb hypocenter in NagasakiFile:Nagasaki peace memorial hall.jpg|Nagasaki National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb VictimsFile:Sofukuji Nagasaki Japan30n.jpg|Sōfuku-ji (National treasure of Japan){{wide image|Nagasaki panorama.jpg|800px|Panorama of Nagasaki}}

Events

(File:Nagasaki Lantern Festival - 01.jpg|thumb|Nagasaki Lantern Festival)The Prince Takamatsu Cup Nishinippon Round-Kyūshū Ekiden, the world's longest relay race, begins in Nagasaki each November.Kunchi, the most famous festival in Nagasaki, is held from 7–9 October.The Nagasaki Lantern Festival,WEB,weblink ja:長崎ランタンフェスティバル, Nagasaki-lantern.com, 2011-06-01, celebrating the Chinese New Year, is celebrated from February 18 to March 4.

Cuisine

Notable people

Twin towns

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in Japan}}The city of Nagasaki maintains sister cities or friendship relations with other cities worldwide.WEB,weblink Sister Cities of Nagasaki City, Nagasaki City Hall International Affairs Section, 2009-07-10, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090729002642weblink">weblink 29 July 2009,
  • {{flagdeco|JPN}} Hiroshima, Japan
  • {{flagdeco|US}} Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States, since 1955
  • {{flagdeco|BUL}} Dupnitsa, Bulgaria
  • {{flagdeco|BRA}} Santos, São Paulo, Brazil, since 1972
  • {{flagdeco|PRC}} Fuzhou, Fujian, China, since 1980
  • {{flagdeco|NED}} Middelburg, Netherlands, since 1978
  • {{flagdeco|PRT}} Porto, Portugal, since 1978WEB,weblink International Relations of the City of Porto, Municipal Directorate of the Presidency Services International Relations Office, 2009-07-10,
  • {{flagdeco|FRA}} Vaux-sur-Aure, France, since 2005; sister city of Sotome since 1978

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Bibliography

{{See also|Timeline of Nagasaki#Bibliography|l1=Bibliography of the history of Nagasaki}}
  • BOOK, Hoddeson, Lillian, Paul W., Henriksen, Roger A., Meade, Catherine L., Westfall, Critical Assembly: A Technical History of Los Alamos During the Oppenheimer Years, 1943–1945, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1993, 978-0-521-44132-2, 26764320, harv,

External links

{{Commons category|Nagasaki}}{{wikivoyage|Nagasaki}}
  • {{Official websiteweblink}} {{ja icon}}
  • {{Official websiteweblink}} {{en icon}}
  • Is Nagasaki still radioactive? - No. Includes explanation.
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140811194213weblink">Nagasaki after atomic bombing - interactive aerial map
  • Nuclear Files.org Comprehensive information on the history, and political and social implications of the US atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070117193919weblink">Nagasaki Prefectural Tourism Federation
  • Nagasaki Product Promotion Association
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080716034930weblink">Useful information for foreign residents, produced by Nagasaki International Association
  • {{osmrelation-inline|4011885}}
{{Nagasaki}}{{Metropolitan cities of Japan}}{{Most populous cities in Japan}}{{Authority control}}

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