Muslim world

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Muslim world
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{{Distinguish|Arab world|Arab League}}{{Use dmy dates|date=September 2017}}{{Use dmy dates|date=December 2018}}

Albania}}Algeria}}Azerbaijan}}Bahrain}}Bangladesh}}Bosnia and Herzegovina}}Brunei}}Burkina Faso}}Chad}}Comoros}}Djibouti}}Egypt}}The Gambia}}Guinea}}Guinea-Bissau}}Indonesia}}Iran}}Iraq}}Ivory Coast}}Jordan}}Kazakhstan}}Kosovo}}Kuwait}}Kyrgyzstan}}Libya}}Lebanon}}Malaysia}}Maldives}}Mali}}Mauritania}}Morocco}}Niger}}Nigeria}}Northern Cyprus}}Oman}}Pakistan}}State of Palestine}}Qatar}}Sahrawi Republic}}Saudi Arabia}}Senegal}}Sierra Leone}}Somalia}}Somaliland}}Sudan}}Syria}}Tajikistan}}Tunisia}}Turkey}}Turkmenistan}}United Arab Emirates}}Uzbekistan}}Yemen}}}}| label3 = Languages| data3 ={{collapsible list| titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;date=May 2019}}| National official languagesArabic language>ArabicAlbanian language>AlbanianStandard Moroccan Berber>AmazighAzerbaijani language>AzerbaijaniBambara language>BambaraBengali language>BengaliBosnian language>BosnianChechen language>ChechenCircassian language>CircassianComorian language>ComorianCroatian language>CroatianMaldivian language>DhivehiDari language>DariEnglish Language>EnglishFrench Language>FrenchIndonesian language>IndonesianKazakh language>KazakhKurdish languages>KurdishKyrgyz language>KyrgyzMalay language>MalayMalaysian language>MalaysianPashto Language >PashtoPersian language>PersianPortuguese language>PortugueseRussian language>RussianSerbian language>SerbianSomali language>SomaliSpanish language>SpanishTajik language>TajikTurkish language>TurkishTurkmen language>Turkmen| UrduUzbek language>Uzbek| Some regionally recognized languagesAbaza language>AbazaAbkhaz language>AbkhazNeo-Aramaic languages>AramaicAfshar language>AfsharBalti language>BaltiBalochi language>BalochiBrahui language>Brahui| Burushaski| Balkan Gagauz TurkishCoptic language>CopticDomari language>DomariDameli language>DameliDomaaki language>DomaakiGreek language>GreekGilaki language>Gilaki| HindkoHindi language>HindiJavanese language>JavaneseKabardian language>KabardianKarakalpak language>KarakalpakKumyk language>KumykKurbet language>KurbetKhowar language>KhowarIndus Kohistani>KohistaniKashmiri language>KashmiriLaz language>LazLuri language>LurishMarathi language>Marathi| MalayalamMazanderani language>MazanderaniMoghol language>MogholNobiin language>NobiinPunjabi language>PunjabiPashto language >PashtoQashqai language>QashqaiSiwa language>SiwaSyriac language>SyriacSpanish language>SpanishSindhi language >SindhiSaraiki language>SaraikiShina language>ShinaTagalog language>TagalogTalysh language>TalyshTamil language>TamilTelugu language>TeluguTosk Albanian>ToskTuroyo language>TuroyoUyghur language>UyghurWakhi language>WakhiYiddish language>YiddishYidgha language>YidghaZaza language>Zaza}}| label4 = Time zones| data4 = All of the countries are located within UTC+0 and (UTC+09:00)| label5 = Largest and prominent citiesclass=nowrap TUR}} IstanbulPAK}} KarachiBAN}} DhakaPAK}} LahoreINA}} JakartaIRN}} TehranEGY}} CairoKSA}} RiyadhEGY}} AlexandriaUAE}} DubaiQatar}} DohaAlgeria}} AlgiersMorocco}} RabatBahrain}} ManamaYemen}} SanaʽaUAE}} Abu DhabiIRQ}} BaghdadMaldives}} MaléKazakhstan}} Nur-SultanUzbekistan}} TashkentTurkmenistan}} AshgabatMalaysia}} Kuala Lumpur}}}}The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam,ENCYCLOPEDIA, Britannica,weblink Islamic world, Marilyn R. Waldman, Malika Zeghal, 2009, 29 January 2017,weblink 2 February 2017, no, dmy-all, or to societies where Islam is practiced.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Preface, The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, John L. Esposito, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2009, The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World (OEIW) deals with all aspects of Islam—the world's second largest and fastest-growing religion—and the societies in which it exists, including their religion, politics, economics, everyday life, culture, and thought., 10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001, 9780195305135, ENCYCLOPEDIA, Asma Afsaruddin, Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History (2 ed.), William H. McNeill, Islamic World, 1, Berkshire Publishing Group, 2016, The Islamic world is generally defined contemporaneously as consisting of nation-states whose population contains a majority of Muslims. [...] in the contemporary era, the term Islamic world now includes not only the traditional heartlands of Islam, but also Europe and North America, both of which have sizeable minority Muslim populations, 10.1093/acref/9780190622718.001.0001, 9781933782652, In a modern geopolitical sense, these terms refer to countries where Islam is widespread, although there are no agreed criteria for inclusion.NEWS,weblink Foreign Policy, What Muslim World?, Scott Carpenter, Soner Cagaptay, 2 June 2009, 10 March 2017,weblink 26 March 2017, no, dmy-all, The term Muslim-majority countries is an alternative often used for the latter sense.BOOK, Jones, Gavin W., 2005, Islam, the State and Population,weblink C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 11–14, 9781850654933, 19 September 2017, The history of the Muslim world spans about 1400 years and includes a variety of socio-political developments, as well as advances in the arts, science, philosophy, and technology, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age. All Muslims look for guidance to the Quran and believe in the prophetic mission of Muhammad, but disagreements on other matters have led to appearance of different religious schools and branches within Islam. In the modern era, most of the Muslim world came under influence or colonial domination of European powers. The nation states that emerged in the post-colonial era have adopted a variety of political and economic models, and they have been affected by secular and as well as religious trends.BOOK, Ira M. Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, Cambridge University Press (Kindle edition), 2014, 978-0-521-51430-9, 829–834, {{as of|2013}}, the combined GDP (nominal) of 49 Muslim majority countries was US$5.7 trillion,NEWS,weblink Economies of the ummah, 16 December 2017,weblink 16 December 2017, no, dmy-all, {{as of|2016}}, they contributed 8% of the world's total.WEB,weblink Muslim countries make thin contribution to global economy, September 22, 2016, 16 December 2017,weblink 13 August 2018, no, dmy-all, As of 2015, 1.8 billion or about 24.1% of the world population are Muslims.NEWS,weblink Why Muslims are the world’s fastest-growing religious group, Michael Lipka & Conrad Hackett, Pew Research Center, 6 April 2017, 14 February 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 23 August 2017, no, dmy-all, By the percentage of the total population in a region considering themselves Muslim, 91% in the Middle East-North Africa (MENA),WEB,weblink Region: Middle East-North Africa, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, Pew Research Center, 3 January 2012,weblink 5 April 2013, no, dmy-all, 27 January 2011, 89% in Central Asia,WEB,weblink The Global Religious Landscape, December 2012, Pew,weblink" title="">weblink 24 September 2015, yes, dmy-all, 40% in Southeast Asia,WEB,weblink Oxford Islamic Studies Online,, en, 14 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 20 March 2017, no, dmy-all, 31% in South Asia,WEB,weblink Region: Asia-Pacific, 27 January 2011, Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project, 13 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 10 October 2017, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink The moment American Muslims were waiting for, Editor, Daniel Burke, CNN Religion, 13 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 12 March 2017, no, dmy-all, 30% in Sub-Saharan Africa,WEB,weblink Region: Sub-Saharan Africa, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, Pew Research Center, 3 January 2012,weblink 5 April 2013, no, dmy-all, 25% in Asia–Oceania,WEB,weblink Region: Asia-Pacific, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, Pew Research Center, 3 January 2012,weblink 5 April 2013, no, dmy-all, around 6% in Europe,WEB,weblink Region: Europe, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, Pew Research Center, 3 January 2012,weblink 5 April 2013, no, dmy-all, and 1% in the Americas.WEB,weblink Region: Americas, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, Pew Research Center, 3 January 2012,weblink 5 April 2013, no, dmy-all, WEB, Number of Muslims ahead of Catholics, says Vatican,weblink The Guardian, Tom Kington, 31 March 2008, 17 November 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 2 September 2013, no, dmy-all, WEB, Muslim Population,weblink, 17 November 2008,weblink 5 April 2013, no, dmy-all, WEB, Field Listing Religions,weblink 17 November 2008,weblink 4 June 2011, no, dmy-all, Most Muslims are of one of two denominations; Sunni (75–90%) or Shia (10-20%). About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the largest Muslim-majority country;WEB,weblink 10 Countries With the Largest Muslim Populations, 2010 and 2050date=2015-04-02, Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project, 2017-02-07, {{#expr: 100 * 480/1570 round 0}}% of Muslims live in South Asia,BOOK, {{google books, y, kaubzRxh-U0C, |page=193 |title=South Asian Religions: Tradition and Today|last=Pechilis|first=Karen|last2=Raj|first2=Selva J.|date=2013|publisher=Routledge|isbn=9780415448512 |language=en}} the largest population of Muslims in the world;NEWS,weblink How South Asia Will Save Global Islam, Diplomat, Akhilesh Pillalamarri, The, The Diplomat, 2017-02-07, en-US, {{#expr: 100 * 315/1571 round 0 }}% in the Middle East–North Africa,NEWS,weblink Middle East-North Africa Overview, 2009-10-07, Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project, 2018-01-18, en-US, where it is the dominant religion;WEB,weblink Region: Middle East-North Africa, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, Pew Research Center, 22 December 2011, 27 January 2011, and 15% in Sub-Saharan Africa.WEB,weblink Region: Sub-Saharan Africa, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, Pew Research Center, 22 December 2011, 27 January 2011, Sizeable Muslim communities are also found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, China, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, and Russia.WEB,weblink Muslim Population by Country, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, Pew Research Center,weblink" title="">weblink 9 February 2011, yes, 22 December 2011, WEB,weblink Islam in Russia,, Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world.NEWS,weblink Main Factors Driving Population Growth, 2015-04-02, Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project, 2018-10-23, en-US, NEWS,weblink The world's fastest-growing religion is ..., Burke, Daniel, April 4, 2015, 18 April 2015, CNN, WEB,weblink No God But God, Lippman, Thomas W., Islam is the youngest, the fastest growing, and in many ways the least complicated of the world's great monotheistic faiths. It is based on its own holy book, but it is also a direct descendant of Judaism and Christianity, incorporating some of the teachings of those religions—modifying some and rejecting others., U.S. News & World Report, 2008-04-07, 2013-09-24,


File:TabulaRogeriana upside-down.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by Al-Idrisi in 1154, one of the most advanced ancient world mapsancient world mapsMuslim history involves the history of the Islamic faith: as it was revealed 1400 years ago as a religion and as a social institution. The history of Islam began its development in the Arabian Peninsula when the Islamic prophet Muhammad received the first revelation of the Quran in the 7th century in the cave of Hira in the month of Ramadan. According to Islamist tradition, he was commanded by Allah to convey this message to the people of Mecca and others around it, and to be patient with those hostile to it. These included the leaders and supporters of the Quraysh: the ruling tribe of Mecca, who opposed the assertion of tawhid (monotheism) and abolishing what Muhammed branded "idolatry", meaning the worship of gods other than Allah at the Kaaba, such as Hubal and the goddesses al-Lāt, Al-‘Uzzá and Manāt. After a little more than 13 years spreading this message, with increased persecution by the Quraysh, Muhammad and his followers migrated to Medina to establish a new state under the prophet's leadership and away from persecution. This migration in 622, called the Hijra, marks the first year of the Islamic calendar. Islam then spread to other parts of the Arabian Peninsula over the course of Muhammad's life.After Muhammad died in 632, his successors (the Caliphs) continued to lead the Muslim community based on his teachings and guidelines of the Quran. The majority of Muslims consider the first four successors to be 'rightly guided' or Rashidun. The Rashidun Caliphate's conquests spread Islam beyond the Arabian Peninsula, stretching from northwest India, across Central Asia, the Near East, North Africa, southern Italy, and the Iberian Peninsula, to the Pyrenees. The Arab Muslims were unable to conquer the entire Christian Byzantine Empire in Asia Minor, however. The succeeding Umayyad Caliphate attempted two failed sieges of Constantinople in 674–678 and 717–718. Meanwhile, the Muslim community tore itself apart into the rivalling Sunni and Shia sects since the killing of caliph Uthman in 656, resulting in a succession crisis that has never been resolved.Encarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "islam. §7. Sektevorming". Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum. The following First, Second and Third Fitnas and finally the Abbasid Revolution (746–750) also definitively destroyed the political unity of the Muslims, who have been inhabiting multiple states ever since.Encarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "Omajjaden §1. De Spaanse tak". Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum.Subsequent empires dominated by Muslims, such as those of the Abbasids, Fatimids, Almoravids, Seljukids, Ajuran, Adal and Warsangali in Somalia, Mughals in the Indian subcontinent (India, Bangladesh, Afghanistan e.t.c), Safavids in Persia and Ottomans in Anatolia, were among the influential and distinguished powers in the world. 19th-century colonialism and 20th-century decolonisation have resulted in several independent Muslim-majority states around the world, with vastly differing attitudes towards and political influences granted to, or restricted for, Islam from country to country. These have revolved around the question of Islam's compatibility with other ideological concepts such as secularism, nationalism (especially Arab nationalism and Pan-Arabism, as opposed to Pan-Islamism), socialism (see also Arab socialism and socialism in Iran), democracy (see Islamic democracy), republicanism (see also Islamic republic), liberalism and progressivism, feminism, capitalism and more.

Classical culture

File:1541-Battle in the war between Shah Isma'il and the King of Shirvan-Shahnama-i-Isma'il.jpg|Battle between Ismail of the Safaviyya and the ruler of Shirvan, Farrukh YassarFile:Shah Abbas I and Vali Muhammad Khan.jpg|Shah of Safavid Empire Abbas I meet with Vali Muhammad KhanFile:Mir Sayyid Ali - Portrait of a Young Indian Scholar.jpg|Mir Sayyid Ali, a scholar writing a commentary on the Quran, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah JahanFile:Ottoman Dynasty, Portrait of a Painter, Reign of Mehmet II (1444-1481).jpg|Portrait of a painter during the reign of Ottoman Sultan Mehmet IIFile:6 Dust Muhammad. Portrait of Shah Abu'l Ma‘ali. ca. 1556 Aga Khan Collection.jpg|A Persian miniature of Shah Abu'l Ma‘ali, a scholarFile:DiezAlbumsStudyingTheKoran.jpg|Ilkhanate Empire ruler, Ghazan, studying the QuranFile:Laila and Majnun in School, New-York.jpg|Layla and Majnun studying together, from a Persian miniature paintingThe term "Islamic Golden Age" has been attributed to a period in history wherein science, economic development and cultural works in most of the Muslim-dominated world flourished.George Saliba (1994), A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam, pp. 245, 250, 256–7. New York University Press, {{ISBN|0-8147-8023-7}}.JOURNAL, 10.1086/353360, King, David A., 1983, The Astronomy of the Mamluks, Isis, 74, 4, 531–555, harv, The age is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786–809) with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, where scholars from various parts of the world sought to translate and gather all the known world's knowledge into Arabic,Medieval India, NCERT, {{ISBN|81-7450-395-1}}Vartan Gregorian, "Islam: A Mosaic, Not a Monolith", Brookings Institution Press, 2003, pg 26–38 {{ISBN|0-8157-3283-X}} and to have ended with the collapse of the Abbasid caliphate due to Mongol invasions and the Siege of Baghdad in 1258.BOOK, Islamic Radicalism and Multicultural Politics, {{Google books, yes, JdC90uc8PfQC, 9, |accessdate=26 August 2012|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=978-1-136-95960-8|page=9|date=2011-03-01}} The Abbasids were influenced by the Quranic injunctions and hadiths, such as "the ink of a scholar is more holy than the blood of a martyr," that stressed the value of knowledge. The major Islamic capital cities of Baghdad, Cairo, and Córdoba became the main intellectual centers for science, philosophy, medicine, and education.BOOK,weblink A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam, George Saliba, July 1995, 24 October 2012, 9780814780237, During this period, the Muslim world was a collection of cultures; they drew together and advanced the knowledge gained from the ancient Greek, Roman, Persian, Chinese, Indian, Egyptian, and Phoenician civilizations.Vartan Gregorian, "Islam: A Mosaic, Not a Monolith", Brookings Institution Press, 2003, pp. 26–38 {{ISBN|0-8157-3283-X}}


{{Further|Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam}}File:Shatranj.jpg|thumb|A Seljuq, shatranj (chess) set, glazed fritwarefritwareBetween the 8th and 18th centuries, the use of ceramic glaze was prevalent in Islamic art, usually assuming the form of elaborate pottery.Mason, Robert (1995)."New Looks at Old Pots: Results of Recent Multidisciplinary Studies of Glazed Ceramics from the Islamic World". Muqarnas V 12 p.1 Tin-opacified glazing was one of the earliest new technologies developed by the Islamic potters. The first Islamic opaque glazes can be found as blue-painted ware in Basra, dating to around the 8th century. Another contribution was the development of fritware, originating from 9th-century Iraq.Mason, Robert (1995)."New Looks at Old Pots: Results of Recent Multidisciplinary Studies of Glazed Ceramics from the Islamic World". Muqarnas V 12 p. 5 Other centers for innovative ceramic pottery in the Old world included Fustat (from 975 to 1075), Damascus (from 1100 to around 1600) and Tabriz (from 1470 to 1550).Mason, Robert (1995)."New Looks at Old Pots: Results of Recent Multidisciplinary Studies of Glazed Ceramics from the Islamic World". Muqarnas V 12 p. 7


{{Further|Islamic poetry}}File:Brooklyn Museum - Manuscript of the Hadiqat al-Su`ada (Garden of the Blessed) of Fuzuli - Muhammad bin Sulayman known as Fuzuli2.jpg|Hadiqatus-suada by Oghuz Turkic poet FuzûlîFile:Princess Parizade Bringing Home the Singing Tree.jpg|The story of Princess Parizade and the Magic Tree.The Thousand and One Nights; Or, The Arabian Night's Entertainments - David Claypoole Johnston - Google Books. Retrieved on 23 September 2013.File:Ali-Baba cropped.jpg|Ali Baba by Maxfield Parrish.File:Vasnetsov samolet.jpg|The Magic carpet.The best known work of fiction from the Islamic world is One Thousand and One Nights (In Persian: hezār-o-yek šab > Arabic: ʔalf-layl-at-wa-l’-layla= One thousand Night and (one) Night) or *Arabian Nights, a name invented by early Western translators, which is a compilation of folk tales from Sanskrit, Persian, and later Arabian fables. The original concept is derived from a pre-Islamic Persian prototype Hezār Afsān (Thousand Fables) that relied on particular Indian elements.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Marzolph, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Arabian Nights, 2007, Brill, I, Leiden, It reached its final form by the 14th century; the number and type of tales have varied from one manuscript to another.Grant & Clute, p. 51 All Arabian fantasy tales tend to be called Arabian Nights stories when translated into English, regardless of whether they appear in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights or not. This work has been very influential in the West since it was translated in the 18th century, first by Antoine Galland.L. Sprague de Camp, Literary Swordsmen and Sorcerers: The Makers of Heroic Fantasy, p. 10 {{ISBN|0-87054-076-9}} Imitations were written, especially in France.Grant & Clute, p 52 Various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin, Sinbad the Sailor and Ali Baba.A famous example of Arabic poetry and Persian poetry on romance (love) is Layla and Majnun, dating back to the Umayyad era in the 7th century. It is a tragic story of undying love. Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, the national epic of Iran, is a mythical and heroic retelling of Persian history. Amir Arsalan was also a popular mythical Persian story, which has influenced some modern works of fantasy fiction, such as The Heroic Legend of Arslan.Ibn Tufail (Abubacer) and Ibn al-Nafis were pioneers of the philosophical novel. Ibn Tufail wrote the first Arabic novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan (Philosophus Autodidactus) as a response to Al-Ghazali's The Incoherence of the Philosophers, and then Ibn al-Nafis also wrote a novel Theologus Autodidactus as a response to Ibn Tufail's Philosophus Autodidactus. Both of these narratives had protagonists (Hayy in Philosophus Autodidactus and Kamil in Theologus Autodidactus) who were autodidactic feral children living in seclusion on a desert island, both being the earliest examples of a desert island story. However, while Hayy lives alone with animals on the desert island for the rest of the story in Philosophus Autodidactus, the story of Kamil extends beyond the desert island setting in Theologus Autodidactus, developing into the earliest known coming of age plot and eventually becoming the first example of a science fiction novel.Dr. Abu Shadi Al-Roubi (1982), "Ibn Al-Nafis as a philosopher", Symposium on Ibn al-Nafis, Second International Conference on Islamic Medicine: Islamic Medical Organization, Kuwait (cf. Ibn al-Nafis As a Philosopher {{webarchive |url= |date=6 February 2008 }}, Encyclopedia of Islamic World).Nahyan A. G. Fancy (2006), "Pulmonary Transit and Bodily Resurrection: The Interaction of Medicine, Philosophy and Religion in the Works of Ibn al-Nafīs (d. 1288) {{Webarchive|url= |date=4 April 2015 }}", pp. 95–101, Electronic Theses and Dissertations, University of Notre Dame.Theologus Autodidactus,Muhammad b. Abd al-Malik Ibn Tufayl. Philosophus autodidactus, sive Epistola Abi Jaafar ebn Tophail de Hai ebn Yokdhan: in qua ostenditur, quomodo ex inferiorum contemplatione ad superiorum notitiam ratio humana ascendere possit. E Theatro Sheldoniano, excudebat Joannes Owens, 1700.Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi. The Theologus autodidactus of Ibn al-Nafīs. Clarendon P., 1968 written by the Arabian polymath Ibn al-Nafis (1213–1288), is the first example of a science fiction novel.Gregory Claeys (2010), The Cambridge Companion to Utopian Literature, Cambridge University Press, p. 236 It deals with various science fiction elements such as spontaneous generation, futurology, the end of the world and doomsday, resurrection, and the afterlife. Rather than giving supernatural or mythological explanations for these events, Ibn al-Nafis attempted to explain these plot elements using the scientific knowledge of biology, astronomy, cosmology and geology known in his time. Ibn al-Nafis' fiction explained Islamic religious teachings via science and Islamic philosophy.Dr. Abu Shadi Al-Roubi (1982), "Ibn Al-Nafis as a philosopher", Symposium on Ibn al Nafis, Second International Conference on Islamic Medicine: Islamic Medical Organization, Kuwait (cf. Ibnul-Nafees As a Philosopher {{webarchive |url= |date=6 February 2008 }}, Encyclopedia of Islamic World).A Latin translation of Ibn Tufail's work, Philosophus Autodidactus, first appeared in 1671, prepared by Edward Pococke the Younger, followed by an English translation by Simon Ockley in 1708, as well as German and Dutch translations. These translations might have later inspired Daniel Defoe to write Robinson Crusoe, regarded as the first novel in English.Nawal Muhammad Hassan (1980), Hayy bin Yaqzan and Robinson Crusoe: A study of an early Arabic impact on English literature, Al-Rashid House for Publication.Cyril Glasse (2001), New Encyclopaedia of Islam, p. 202, Rowman Altamira, {{ISBN|0-7591-0190-6}}.Amber Haque (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists", Journal of Religion and Health 43 (4): 357–77 [369].Martin Wainwright, Desert island scripts {{Webarchive|url= |date=17 January 2008 }}, The Guardian, 22 March 2003. Philosophus Autodidactus, continuing the thoughts of philosophers such as Aristotle from earlier ages, inspired Robert Boyle to write his own philosophical novel set on an island, The Aspiring Naturalist.Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy,The Inferno. Dante Alighieri. Bickers and Son, 1874. derived features of and episodes about BolgiaSee Inferno (Dante); Eighth Circle (Fraud) from Arabic works on Islamic eschatology:Miguel Asín Palacios, Julián Ribera, Real Academia Española. La Escatologia Musulmana en la Divina Comedia. E. Maestre, 1819.See also: Miguel Asín Palacios. the Hadith and the Kitab al-Miraj (translated into Latin in 1264 or shortly beforeI. Heullant-Donat and M.-A. Polo de Beaulieu, "Histoire d'une traduction," in Le Livre de l'échelle de Mahomet, Latin edition and French translation by Gisèle Besson and Michèle Brossard-Dandré, Collection Lettres Gothiques, Le Livre de Poche, 1991, p. 22 with note 37. as Liber Scale MachometiTr. The Book of Muhammad's Ladder) concerning the ascension to Heaven of Muhammad,Transliterated as Maometto. and the spiritual writings of Ibn Arabi.The Review: May-Dec. 1919, Volume 1. The National Weekly Corp., 1919. p. 128. The Moors also had a noticeable influence on the works of George Peele and William Shakespeare. Some of their works featured Moorish characters, such as Peele's The Battle of Alcazar and Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice, Titus Andronicus and Othello, which featured a Moorish Othello as its title character. These works are said to have been inspired by several Moorish delegations from Morocco to Elizabethan England at the beginning of the 17th century.Professor Nabil Matar (April 2004), Shakespeare and the Elizabethan Stage Moor, Sam Wanamaker Fellowship Lecture, Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre (cf. Mayor of London (2006), Muslims in London {{Webarchive|url= |date=26 June 2008 }}, pp. 14–15, Greater London Authority)


{{Further|Logic in Islamic philosophy|Ilm al-Kalam}}File:BAE09705.jpg|thumb|Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Muslim polymath from SpainSpainOne of the common definitions for "Islamic philosophy" is "the style of philosophy produced within the framework of Islamic culture.""Islamic Philosophy" {{webarchive|url=;jsessionid=B31B033F077DD5E68E09CC9D35C02105 |date=3 May 2015 }}, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (1998) Islamic philosophy, in this definition is neither necessarily concerned with religious issues, nor is exclusively produced by Muslims. The Persian scholar Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980–1037) had more than 450 books attributed to him. His writings were concerned with various subjects, most notably philosophy and medicine. His medical textbook The Canon of Medicine was used as the standard text in European universities for centuries. He also wrote The Book of Healing, an influential scientific and philosophical encyclopedia.One of the most influential Muslim philosophers in the West was Averroes (Ibn Rushd), founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, whose works and commentaries affected the rise of secular thought in Europe.Majid Fakhry (2001). Averroes: His Life, Works and Influence. Oneworld Publications. {{ISBN|1-85168-269-4}}. He also developed the concept of "existence precedes essence".JOURNAL, Jones, Irwin, Averroes' Reason: A Medieval Tale of Christianity and Islam, Autumn 2002, The Philosopher, LXXXX, 2, Another figure from the Islamic Golden Age, Avicenna, also founded his own Avicennism school of philosophy, which was influential in both Islamic and Christian lands. He was also a critic of Aristotelian logic and founder of Avicennian logic, developed the concepts of empiricism and tabula rasa, and distinguished between essence and existence.{{Citation needed|date=October 2010}}Yet another influential philosopher who had an influence on modern philosophy was Ibn Tufail. His philosophical novel, Hayy ibn Yaqdha, translated into Latin as Philosophus Autodidactus in 1671, developed the themes of empiricism, tabula rasa, nature versus nurture,Russell (1994), pp. 224–62, condition of possibility, materialism,Dominique Urvoy, "The Rationality of Everyday Life: The Andalusian Tradition? (Aropos of Hayy's First Experiences)", in Lawrence I. Conrad (1996), The World of Ibn Tufayl: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Ḥayy Ibn Yaqẓān, pp. 38–46, Brill Publishers, {{ISBN|90-04-09300-1}}. and Molyneux's problem.Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik Ibn Tufail and Léon Gauthier (1981), Risalat Hayy ibn Yaqzan, p. 5, Editions de la Méditerranée. European scholars and writers influenced by this novel include John Locke,Russell (1994), pp. 224–39 Gottfried Leibniz, Melchisédech Thévenot, John Wallis, Christiaan Huygens,Russell (1994) p. 227 George Keith, Robert Barclay, the Quakers,Russell (1994), p. 247 and Samuel Hartlib.G. J. Toomer (1996), Eastern Wisedome and Learning: The Study of Arabic in Seventeenth-Century England, p. 222, Oxford University Press, {{ISBN|0-19-820291-1}}.Islamic philosophers continued making advances in philosophy through to the 17th century, when Mulla Sadra founded his school of Transcendent theosophy and developed the concept of existentialism.BOOK, Mulla Sadra's Transcendent Philosophy, Muhammad, Kamal, 2006, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 978-0-7546-5271-7, 9, 39, 224496901, Other influential Muslim philosophers include al-Jahiz, a pioneer in evolutionary thought; Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), a pioneer of phenomenology and the philosophy of science and a critic of Aristotelian natural philosophy and Aristotle's concept of place (topos); Al-Biruni, a critic of Aristotelian natural philosophy; Ibn Tufail and Ibn al-Nafis, pioneers of the philosophical novel; Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi, founder of Illuminationist philosophy; Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, a critic of Aristotelian logic and a pioneer of inductive logic; and Ibn Khaldun, a pioneer in the philosophy of history.Dr. S.R.W. Akhtar (1997). "The Islamic Concept of Knowledge", Al-Tawhid: A Quarterly Journal of Islamic Thought & Culture 12 (3).


{{See also|Physics in medieval Islam|Psychology in medieval Islam|Mathematics in medieval Islam|Astronomy in medieval Islam|Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam}}{| class="toccolours" style="float:right; clear:right; margin:0 0 1em 1em;"Sciences|File:Tusi_manus.jpg|Nasir al-Din al-Tusi's ''Astrolabe. (13th century)File:Mansur1911.jpg|One of Mansur ibn Ilyas (Ak Koyunlu era) colored illustrations of human anatomy.|File:Zahrawi1.png|Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi's Kitab al-TasrifSurgical instruments illustrations. (11th century)File:Banu musa mechanical.jpg|A self-trimming lamp from Banū Mūsā's work On Mechanical Devices on Automation.|File:Lunar eclipse al-Biruni.jpg|An illustration from al-Biruni's astronomical works, explains the different phases of the moon.File:Al-jazari elephant clock.png|The Elephant Clock was one of the most famous inventions of Al-Jazari.|File:Khayyam-paper-1stpage.png|"Cubic equations and intersections of conic sections", of Omar Khayyam.File:Lagari.jpg|Lagâri Hasan Çelebi's rocket flight depicted in a 17th-century engraving.|Muslim scientists contributed to advances in the sciences. They placed far greater emphasis on experiment than had the Greeks. This led to an early scientific method being developed in the Muslim world, where progress in methodology was made, beginning with the experiments of Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) on optics from circa 1000, in his Book of Optics. The most important development of the scientific method was the use of experiments to distinguish between competing scientific theories set within a generally empirical orientation, which began among Muslim scientists. Ibn al-Haytham is also regarded as the father of optics, especially for his empirical proof of the intromission theory of light. Some have also described Ibn al-Haytham as the "first scientist."WEB, Al-Khalili, Jim,weblink BBC News, BBC News, 4 January 2009, 11 April 2014,weblink 3 May 2015, no, dmy-all, al-Khwarzimi's invented the log base systems that are being used today, he also contributed theorems in trigonometry as well as limits.Plofker, Kim (2009), Mathematics in India: 500 BCE–1800 CE, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 384., {{ISBN|0-691-12067-6}}. Recent studies show that it is very likely that the Medieval Muslim artists were aware of advanced decagonal quasicrystal geometry (discovered half a millennium later in the 1970s and 1980s in the West) and used it in intricate decorative tilework in the architecture.Peter J. Lu, Harvard's Office of News and Public Affairs {{webarchive|url= |date=14 March 2007 }}Muslim physicians contributed to the field of medicine, including the subjects of anatomy and physiology: such as in the 15th-century Persian work by Mansur ibn Muhammad ibn al-Faqih Ilyas entitled Tashrih al-badan (Anatomy of the body) which contained comprehensive diagrams of the body's structural, nervous and circulatory systems; or in the work of the Egyptian physician Ibn al-Nafis, who proposed the theory of pulmonary circulation. Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine remained an authoritative medical textbook in Europe until the 18th century. Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (also known as Abulcasis) contributed to the discipline of medical surgery with his Kitab al-Tasrif ("Book of Concessions"), a medical encyclopedia which was later translated to Latin and used in European and Muslim medical schools for centuries. Other medical advancements came in the fields of pharmacology and pharmacy.Turner, H. (1997) pp. 136–38In astronomy, Muḥammad ibn Jābir al-Ḥarrānī al-Battānī improved the precision of the measurement of the precession of the Earth's axis. The corrections made to the geocentric model by al-Battani, Averroes, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Mu'ayyad al-Din al-'Urdi and Ibn al-Shatir were later incorporated into the Copernican heliocentric model. Heliocentric theories were also discussed by several other Muslim astronomers such as Al-Biruni, Al-Sijzi, Qotb al-Din Shirazi, and Najm al-Dīn al-Qazwīnī al-Kātibī. The astrolabe, though originally developed by the Greeks, was perfected by Islamic astronomers and engineers, and was subsequently brought to Europe.Some most famous scientists from the medieval Islamic world include Jābir ibn Hayyān, al-Farabi, Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi, Ibn al-Haytham, Al-Biruni, Avicenna, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, and Ibn Khaldun.


File:Illustration of al-Hariri Maqamat spinning wheel.jpg|thumb|left|The Spinning wheel is believed to have been invented in the medieval era (of what is now the Greater Middle East), it is considered to be an important device that contributed greatly to the advancement of the Industrial Revolution. (scene from Al-Maqamat, painted by al-Wasiti 1237)]]In technology, the Muslim world adopted papermaking from China. The knowledge of gunpowder was also transmitted from China via predominantly Islamic countries,Arming the Periphery. Emrys Chew, 2012. p. 1823. where formulas for pure potassium nitrateAhmad Y. al-Hassan, Potassium Nitrate in Arabic and Latin Sources {{webarchive |url= |date=26 February 2008 }}, History of Science and Technology in Islam.Ahmad Y. al-Hassan, Gunpowder Composition for Rockets and Cannon in Arabic Military Treatises In Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries {{webarchive|url= |date=26 February 2008 }}, History of Science and Technology in Islam. were developed.Advances were made in irrigation and farming, using new technology such as the windmill. Crops such as almonds and citrus fruit were brought to Europe through al-Andalus, and sugar cultivation was gradually adopted by the Europeans. Arab merchants dominated trade in the Indian Ocean until the arrival of the Portuguese in the 16th century. Hormuz was an important center for this trade. There was also a dense network of trade routes in the Mediterranean, along which Muslim-majority countries traded with each other and with European powers such as Venice, Genoa and Catalonia. The Silk Road crossing Central Asia passed through Muslim states between China and Europe.Muslim engineers in the Islamic world made a number of innovative industrial uses of hydropower, and early industrial uses of tidal power and wind power,Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (1976). Taqi al-Din and Arabic Mechanical Engineering, pp. 34–35. Institute for the History of Arabic Science, University of Aleppo. fossil fuels such as petroleum, and early large factory complexes (tiraz in Arabic).Maya Shatzmiller, p. 36. The industrial uses of watermills in the Islamic world date back to the 7th century, while horizontal-wheeled and vertical-wheeled water mills were both in widespread use since at least the 9th century. A variety of industrial mills were being employed in the Islamic world, including early fulling mills, gristmills, paper mills, hullers, sawmills, ship mills, stamp mills, steel mills, sugar mills, tide mills and windmills. By the 11th century, every province throughout the Islamic world had these industrial mills in operation, from al-Andalus and North Africa to the Middle East and Central Asia.Adam Robert Lucas (2005), "Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe", Technology and Culture 46 (1), pp. 1–30 [10]. Muslim engineers also invented crankshafts and water turbines, employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, and pioneered the use of dams as a source of water power, used to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines.Ahmad Y. al-Hassan, Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part II: Transmission Of Islamic Engineering {{webarchive|url= |date=18 February 2008 }} Such advances made it possible for industrial tasks that were previously driven by manual labour in ancient times to be mechanized and driven by machinery instead in the medieval Islamic world. The transfer of these technologies to medieval Europe had an influence on the Industrial Revolution.Adam Robert Lucas (2005), "Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe", Technology and Culture 46 (1), pp. 1–30.

Gunpowder Empires

Scholars often use the term Gunpowder Empires to describe the Islamic empires of the Safavid, Ottoman and Mughal. Each of these three empires had considerable military exploits using the newly developed firearms, especially cannon and small arms, to create their empires.WEB,weblink The Gunpowder Empires, Charles T, Evans, Northern Virginia Community College, 28 December 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 26 May 2011, no, dmy-all, They existed primarily between the fourteenth and the late seventeenth centuries.WEB,weblink The Islamic Gunpowder Empires, 1300–1650, Civilization Past & Present, Pearson Education, 28 December 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 24 July 2011, dmy-all, During the 17th–18th centuries, when the Indian subcontinent was ruled by Mughal Empire's sixth ruler Muhammad Auranzgeb through sharia and Islamic economics,Islamic and European Expansion: The Forging of a Global Order, Michael Adas, Temple University Press (Philadelphia, PA), 1993.BOOK, Chapra, Muhammad Umer, Morality and Justice in Islamic Economics and Finance, 2014, Edward Elgar Publishing, 9781783475728, 62–63, en, India became the world's largest economy, valued 25% of world GDP,Maddison, Angus (2003): Development Centre Studies The World Economy Historical Statistics: Historical Statistics, OECD Publishing, {{ISBN|9264104143}}, pages 259–261 having better conditions to 18th-century Western Europe, prior to the Industrial Revolution,BOOK, The Ashgate Companion to the History of Textile Workers, 1650-2000, Lex Heerma van Voss, Els Hiemstra-Kuperus, Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk, The Long Globalization and Textile Producers in India, Ashgate Publishing, 2010, 255,weblink causing the emergence of the period of proto-industrialization.BOOK, The Ashgate Companion to the History of Textile Workers, 1650–2000, Lex Heerma van Voss, Els Hiemstra-Kuperus, Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk, The Long Globalization and Textile Producers in India, Ashgate Publishing, 2010, 255,weblink File:Canonnier Persan. Auguste Wahlen. Moeurs, usages et costumes de tous les peuples du monde. 1843.jpg|Safavid Empire's Zamburak.File:Bullocks dragging siege-guns up hill during the attack on Ranthambhor Fort.jpg|Bullocks dragging siege-guns up hill during Mughal Emperor Akbar's Siege of Ranthambore Fort in 1568.WEB, Unknown,weblink Bullocks dragging siege-guns up hill during Akbar's attack on Ranthambhor Fort, 1590–95, the Akbarnama, File:The capture of Orchha by imperial forces (October 1635).jpg|The Mughal Army under the command of Islamist Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.File:OttomanJanissariesAndDefendingKnightsOfStJohnSiegeOfRhodes1522.jpg|Gun-wielding Ottoman Janissaries in combat against the Knights of Saint John at the Siege of Rhodes in 1522.File:Ottoman and Acehnese guns after the Dutch conquest of Aceh in 1874 Illustrated London News.jpg|Cannons and guns belonging to the Aceh Sultanate (in modern Indonesia).

Great Divergence

}}The Great Divergence and British colonialism were the reason why European colonial powers militarily defeated preexisting Oriental powers like the Mughal Empire, starting from the wealthy Bengal Subah, Tipu Sultan's Kingdom of Mysore, the Ottoman Empire and many smaller states in the pre-modern Greater Middle East, and initiated a period known as 'colonialism'.File:Shah Alam II, Mughal emperor of india, reviewing the East India Companys troops.jpg|Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II negotiates with the British East India Company after being defeated during the Battle of Buxar.File:Tipu Sultan, Indian warrior Emperor of Mysore.gif|Anglophobe Tipu Sultan, friend of Napoleone Bonaparte, confronts his opponents during the Siege of Srirangapatna.File:Clive.jpg|East India Company's Robert Clive meeting the Nawabs of Bengal before the Battle of PlasseyFile:January Suchodolski - Ochakiv siege.jpg|Siege of Ochakov (1788), an armed conflict between the Ottomans and the Russian Tsardom.File:Сражение под Елисаветполем.jpeg|Combat during the Russo-Persian Wars).File:Bataille du mont-thabor.jpg|French campaign in Egypt and Syria against the Mamluks and Ottomans


(File:World 1914 empires colonies territory.PNG|thumb|left|Map of colonial powers throughout the world in the year 1914 (note colonial powers in the pre-modern Muslim world).)Beginning with the 15th century, colonialism by European powers (particularly, but not exclusively, Britain, Spain, Portugal, France, the Netherlands, Italy, Germany, Russia, Austria, and Belgium) profoundly affected Muslim-majority societies in Africa, Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Colonialism was often advanced by conflict with mercantile initiatives by colonial powers and caused tremendous social upheavals in Muslim-dominated societies.{{citation needed|date=October 2017}}A number of Muslim-majority societies reacted to Western powers with zealotry and thus initiating the rise of Pan-Islamism; or affirmed more traditionalist and inclusive cultural ideals; and in rare cases adopted modernity that was ushered by the colonial powers.BOOK, Levy, Jacob T., Colonialism and Its Legacies, 2011, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Group, Lanham, (Contributors: Alfred T, Chakabarty D, Dussel E, Eze E, Hsueh V, Kohn M, Bhanu Mehta P, Muthu S, Parekh B, Pitts J, Schutte O, Souza J, Young IM), 9780739142943, The only Muslim-majority regions not to be colonized by the Europeans were Saudi Arabia, Iran, Turkey, and Afghanistan.{{citation needed|date=October 2017}} Turkey was one of the first colonial powers of the world with the Ottoman empire ruling several states for over 6 centuries.File:Siege_of_Buda_1686_Frans_Geffels.jpg|The Christian reconquest of Buda, Ottoman Hungary, 1686File:Nicolaas Pieneman - The Submission of Prince Dipo Negoro to General De Kock.jpg|The submission of Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830File:Vernet-Combat de Somah.jpg|French conquest of Algeria (1830–1857)File:Battle of Omdurman.jpg|Anglo-Egyptian invasion of Sudan 1896–1899File:1 5 Campaña Africa 1909.jpg|The Melilla War between Spain and Rif Berbers of Morocco in 1909

Postcolonial era

{{Further|Decolonization}}{{expand section|date=August 2014}}The end of the European colonial domination has led to creation of a number of nation states with significant Muslim populations. These states drew on Islamic traditions to varying degree and in various ways in organizing their legal, educational and economic systems.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Britannica,weblink Islamic world,


File:Jakarta Indonesia Kindergarten-children-visiting-National-Museum-01.jpg|thumb|IndonesiaIndonesiaBecause the terms "Muslim world" and "Islamic world" are disputed, since all countries have some non-Muslims and there is not universal agreement on what proportion of the population would be required or if other factors (such as state recognition) should qualify a given country.BOOK, Nawaz, Maajid, 2012, Radical: My Journey out of Islamist Extremism,weblink WH Allen, XXII–XIII, 9781448131617, 19 September 2017, WEB,weblink Hitchens '07: Danish Muhammad Cartoons, Christopher Hitchens, Christopher Hitchens and Tim Rutten in discussion, 2007, 19 September 2017, 21 ambassadors from Muslim – so-called "Muslim states". How do they dare to call themselves "Muslim"? In what sense is Egypt a "Muslim" country? You can't denominate a country as religious.,weblink 22 April 2016, no, dmy-all, {{rp|at=4:35}} One commonly supported rule of thumb is a Muslim population of more than 50%. According to the Pew Research Center in 2015 there were 50 Muslim-majority countries.WEB,weblink What is each country's second-largest religious group?, 22 June 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 22 June 2015, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Muslim-Majority Countries, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, Pew Research Center, 22 December 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 20 November 2011, no, dmy-all, 27 January 2011, (April 2017) identified 45 'Islamic countries'. Among the Islamic states are: Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Mauritania, Oman, and Yemen. Other states where Islam is the politically defined state religion are: Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Algeria, Malaysia, Maldives, Morocco, Libya, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Somalia and Brunei. Other Muslim-majority countries include: Niger, Indonesia, Sudan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sierra Leone, Djibouti, Albania, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Chad, The Gambia, Guinea, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Mali, Northern Cyprus, Nigeria, Senegal, Syria, Lebanon, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Turkey and Uzbekistan.NEWS, Islamic Countries Of The World,weblink WorldAtlas, 25 April 2017, en, 27 September 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 27 September 2017, no, dmy-all, According to a 2010 study and released January 2011,WEB,weblink Muslim Population by Country, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, Pew Research Center, 22 December 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 9 February 2011, dmy, {{citation|url=|title=Preface|work=The Future of the Global Muslim Population|publisher=Pew Research Center|access-date=6 August 2014|archive-url=|archive-date=25 July 2013|dead-url=no|df=dmy-all|date=27 January 2011}} Jones (2005) defines a "large minority" as being between 30% and 50%, which described nine countries in 2000, namely Bosnia and Herzegovina, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kazakhstan, Macedonia, Nigeria, and Tanzania. Islam has 1.5 billion adherents, making up c. 22% of the world population.WEB,weblink Executive Summary, Pew Research Center, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, 22 December 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 5 August 2013, no, dmy-all, 27 January 2011, WEB,weblink Christian Population as Percentages of Total Population by Country, Pew Research Center, Global Christianity, 22 December 2011, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 7 January 2012, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Turmoil in the world of Islam, Deccan Chronicle, 6 August 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 15 July 2014, no, dmy-all, 14 June 2014,


File:WsaragihJakarta.jpg|thumb|upright=1.1|Skyline of Jakarta, capital of IndonesiaIndonesiaMore than 24.1% of the world's population is Muslim.WEB,weblink Executive Summary, 27 January 2011, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, Pew Research Center, 3 January 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 10 August 2017, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink The World Factbook, CIA Factbook, 8 December 2010,weblink 1 February 2010, no, dmy-all, Current estimates conclude that the number of Muslims in the world is around 1.8 billion. Muslims are the majority in 49 countries,WEB,weblink Muslim-Majority Countries, 27 January 2011, The Future of the Global Muslim Population, Pew Research Center, 5 January 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 20 November 2011, no, dmy-all, they speak hundreds of languages and come from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Major languages spoken by Muslims include Arabic, Bengali, Urdu, Hindi, Punjabi, Malay, Javanese, Sundanese, Swahili, Hausa, Fula, Berber, Tuareg, Somali, Albanian, Spanish, Bosnian, Russian, Turkish, Azeri, Kazakh, Uzbek, Tatar, Persian, Kurdish, Pashto, Tamil, Telugu, Balochi, Sindhi, Malayalam, and Kashmiri, among many others.


The two main denominations of Islam are the Sunni and Shia sects. They differ primarily upon of how the life of the ummah ("faithful") should be governed, and the role of the imam. Sunnis believe that the true political successor of the Prophet according to the Sunnah should be selected based on ٍShura (consultation), as was done at the Saqifah which selected Abu Bakr, Muhammad's father-in-law, to be Muhammad's political but not his religious successor. Shia, on the other hand, believe that Muhammad designated his son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib as his true political as well as religious successor.WEB,weblink Comparison Chart of Sunni and Shia Islam, ReligionFacts, 24 October 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 29 April 2011, no, dmy-all, The overwhelming majority of Muslims in the world, between 87–90%, are Sunni.WEB, ANALYSIS,weblink Mapping the Global Muslim Population, Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, 7 October 2009, 24 October 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 24 October 2012, no, dmy-all, Shias and other groups make up the rest, about 10–13% of overall Muslim population. The countries with the highest concentration of Shia populations are: Iran – 89%,WEB,weblink The World Factbook, 14 February 2015,weblink 3 February 2012, no, dmy-all, Azerbaijan – 85%,WEB,weblink Administrative Department of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan – Presidential Library – Religion, 19 July 2015,weblink 21 August 2011, no, dmy-all, Iraq – 60/70%,John Esposito, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford University Press 2003 Bahrain – 70%, Yemen – 47%,WEB,weblink The population of Shia: How many Shia are there in the world?, 10 August 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 29 July 2016, no, dmy-all, Turkey – 28%,WEB,weblink Archived copy, 27 June 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 23 April 2012, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Shi'a,, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 10 January 2011, dmy-all, "Pew Forum on Religious & Public life".weblink {{Webarchive|url= |date=4 January 2012 }} Lebanon – 27%,Syria – 17%, Afghanistan – 15%, Pakistan – 5%/10%,WEB,weblink Country Profile: Pakistan, February 2005, Library of Congress Country Studies on Pakistan, Religion: The overwhelming majority of the population (96.3 percent) is Muslim, of whom approximately 97 percent are Sunni and 3 percent Shia., Library of Congress, 1 September 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 17 July 2005, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity, 9 August 2012, Pew Research Center, 26 December 2016, On the other hand, in Pakistan, where 6% of the survey respondents identify as Shia, Sunni attitudes are more mixed: 50% say Shias are Muslims, while 41% say they are not.,weblink" title="">weblink 23 December 2016, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Religions: Muslim 95% (Sunni 75%, Shia 20%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 5%, 24 August 2010, Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook on Pakistan, 2010,weblink 28 May 2010, no, dmy-all, BOOK,weblink Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population, Miller, Tracy, October 2009, Pew Research Center, 7 October 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 14 December 2015, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Pakistan, Islam in, 29 August 2010, Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies, Approximately 97 percent of Pakistanis are Muslim. The majority are Sunnis following the Hanafi school of Islamic law. Between 10 and 15 percent are Shias, mostly Twelvers., Oxford University Press,weblink" title="">weblink 18 June 2013, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Pakistan - International Religious Freedom Report 2008, The majority of Muslims in the country are Sunni, with a Shi'a minority ranging between 10 to 20 percent., United States Department of State, 28 August 2010, dmy-all, 19 September 2008, WEB,weblink THE TROUBLE WITH MADRASSAHS, 11 August 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 1 August 2017, no, dmy-all, 16 June 2015, WEB,weblink Early Warning Signs of Shia Genocide in Pakistan, 11 August 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 1 August 2017, no, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Suicide bombs kill 39 near Shi'ite mosques in Pakistan, Javed, Hussain, Jibran, Ahmad, Reuters, 26 July 2013, 11 August 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 24 September 2015, no, dmy-all, and India – 5%.WEB,weblink Shiite Islam,, 23 July 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 5 March 2016, no, dmy-all, The Kharijite Muslims, who are less known, have their own stronghold in the country of Oman holding about 75% of the population.Aminah Beverly McCloud, Scott W. Hibbard and Laith Saud (2013), An Introduction to Islam in the 21st Century. John Wiley & Sons. p. 112File:عزاداری شیعیان در ماه محرم 02.jpg|Shi'a Muslims in Iran commemorate AshuraFile:Saying Juma Namaz (Friday prayer for Muslims), Dhaka, Bangladesh NK.JPG|Friday prayer for Sunni Muslims in Dhaka, Bangladesh

Islamic schools and branches

File:Madhhab Map2a.png|thumb|upright=1.35|The main Islamic madh'habmadh'habThe first centuries of Islam gave rise to three major sects: Sunnis, Shi'as and Kharijites. Each sect developed distinct jurisprudence schools (madhhab) reflecting different methodologies of jurisprudence (fiqh).The major Sunni madhhabs are Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali.The major Shi'a branches are Twelver (Imami), Ismaili (Sevener) and Zaidi (Fiver). Isma'ilism later split into Nizari Ismaili and Musta’li Ismaili, and then Mustaali was divided into Hafizi and Taiyabi Ismailis.Öz, Mustafa, Mezhepler Tarihi ve Terimleri Sözlüğü (The History of madh'habs and its terminology dictionary), Ensar Publications, İstanbul, 2011. It also gave rise to the Qarmatian movement and the Druze faith. Twelver Shiism developed Ja'fari jurisprudence whose branches are Akhbarism and Usulism, and other movements such as Alawites, Shaykism"Muhammad ibn Āliyy’ūl Cillī aqidah" of "Maymūn ibn Abu’l-Qāsim Sulaiman ibn Ahmad ibn at-Tabarānī fiqh" (Sūlaiman Affandy, Al-Bākūrat’ūs Sūlaiman’īyyah – Family tree of the Nusayri Tariqat, pp. 14–15, Beirut, 1873.) and Alevism.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 10 January 2012, Alevi İslam Din Hizmetleri Başkanlığı, 5 March 2015, BOOK, Edinburgh University Press, 978-0-7486-1888-0, Halm, Heinz, Shi'ism, 21 July 2004, 154, Shi'ism, Similarly, Kharijites were initially divided into five major branches: Sufris, Azariqa, Najdat, Adjarites and Ibadis. Among these numerous branches, only Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali, Imamiyyah-Ja'fari-Usuli, Nizārī Ismā'īlī, Alevi,Alevi-Islam Religious Services – The message of İzzettin Doğan {{Webarchive|url= |date=4 March 2016 }}, Zafer Mah. Ahmet Yesevi Cad. No: 290, Yenibosna / Istanbul, Turkey. Zaydi, Ibadi, Zahiri, Alawite,WEB,weblink Alawi Islam, John Pike, 15 February 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 19 March 2015, no, dmy-all, Druze and Taiyabi communities have survived. In addition, new schools of thought and movements like Quranist Muslims, Ahmadi Muslims and African American Muslims later emerged independently.File:Drummer at Hamed el-Nil Mosque (8625532075).jpg|A Sufi dervish drums up the Friday afternoon crowd in Omdurman, SudanFile:Flickr - Government Press Office (GPO) - Nebi Shueib Festival.jpg|Druze dignitaries celebrating the Nabi Shu'ayb festival at the tomb of the prophet in HittinFile:Ghardaia01.jpg|Ibadis living in the M'zab valley in Algerian SaharaFile:Sanaa street.jpg|Zaydi Imams ruled in Yemen until 1962File:Hunza Valley Karimabad.jpg|Most of the inhabitants of the Hunza Valley in Pakistan are Ismaili Muslims


According to the UNHCR, Muslim-majority countries hosted 18 million refugees by the end of 2010.{{Citation needed|date=November 2017}}Since then Muslim nations have absorbed refugees from recent conflicts, including the uprising in Syria.NEWS, OIC to hold conference on refugees in Muslim world in Turkmenistan,weblink Zaman (newspaper), Zaman, 24 April 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 3 May 2012, dmy, In July 2013, the UN stated that the number of Syrian refugees had exceeded 1.8 million.WEB,weblink UN Calls Syrian Refugee Crisis Worst Since Rwandan Genocide, ABC News, 17 July 2013, 10 August 2013, In Asia, an estimated 625,000 refugees from Rakhine, Myanmar, mostly Muslim, had crossed the border into Bangladesh since August 2017.WEB,weblink Rohingya widows find safe haven in Bangladesh camp, 7 December 2017, Reuters, 16 January 2018,


In some Muslim-majority countries, illiteracy is a problem, whereas in others literacy rates are high. In Egypt, the largest Muslim-majority Arab country, the youth female literacy rate exceeds that for males.WEB, Egypt Literacy rate,weblink 6 September 2018,weblink 6 September 2018, no, dmy-all, Lower literacy rates are more prevalent in South Asian countries such as in Afghanistan and Pakistan, but are rapidly increasing.WEB, Pakistan Literacy rate,weblink 6 September 2018,weblink 6 September 2018, no, dmy-all, In the Eastern Middle East, Iran has a high level of youth literacy at 98%,WEB, Iran Literacy rate,weblink 6 September 2018,weblink 10 July 2018, no, dmy-all, whereas Iraq's youth literacy rate has sharply declined from 85% to 57%, during the American-led war and subsequent occupation.WEB, Iraq Literacy rate,weblink 6 September 2018,weblink 6 September 2018, no, dmy-all, Indonesia, the largest Muslim-majority country in the world, has a very high youth literacy rate at 99%.WEB, Indonesia Literacy rate,weblink 6 September 2018,weblink 6 September 2018, no, dmy-all, In Afghanistan, seminaries are operated by politically active religious organizations and have taken the place of basic education not provided and funded by the government.{{citation needed|date=January 2018}}A 2016 Pew Research Center study about religion and education around the world found that Muslims have the lowest average levels of education after Hindus, with an average of 5.6 years of schooling.WEB, 19 December 2011, Religion and Education Around the World,weblink Pew Research Center, 13 December 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 22 December 2016, no, dmy-all, About 36% of all Muslims have no formal schooling, Muslims have also the lowest average levels of higher education of any major religious group, with only 8% having graduate and post-graduate degrees.The highest of years of schooling among Muslim-majority countries found in Uzbekistan (11.5), Kuwait (11.0) and Kazakhstan (10.7). In addition, the average of years of schooling in countries where Muslims are the majority is 6.0 years of schooling, which lag behind the global average (7.7 years of schooling). In the youngest age (25–34) group surveyed, Young Muslims have the lowest average levels of education of any major religious group, with an average of 6.7 years of schooling, which lag behind the global average (8.6 years of schooling). The study found that Muslims have a significant amount of gender inequality in educational attainment, since Muslim women have an average of 4.9 years of schooling; compare to an average of 6.4 years of schooling among Muslim men.File:Schoolgirls in Bamozai.JPG|Young school girls in Paktia Province of Afghanistan.File:Niger_primary_school_MCC3500.jpg|A primary classroom in Niger.File:Girls lining up for class - Flickr - Al Jazeera English.jpg|Schoolgirls in Gaza lining up for class, 2009.File:Medical students before exam in saloon of moulages 1.JPG|Medical students of anatomy, before an exam in moulage, IranFile:Bosniak youth in Novi Pazar, Serbia (7798130046).jpg|Bosniak students in Novi Pazar, Serbia


The literacy rate in the Muslim world varies. Azerbaijan is in second place in the Index of Literacy of World Countries. Some members such as Iran, Kuwait, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan have over 97% literacy rates, whereas literacy rates are the lowest in Mali, Afghanistan, Chad and parts of Africa. In 2015, the International Islamic News Agency reported that nearly 37% of the population of the Muslim world is unable to read or write, basing that figure on reports from the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.NEWS, Nearly 40% of Muslim world’s population unable read or write: IINA Report,weblink 14 December 2015, International Islamic News Agency,weblink" title="">weblink 22 December 2015, no, dmy-all,


Several Muslim-majority countries like Turkey, Iran, Egypt, and Pakistan exhibit high rate of citable scientific publications.WEB, SCI, Scimago Journal & Country Rank,weblink Scimago Journal, 1 November 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 31 October 2017, no, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Science-Matrix: 30 Years in Science – Secular Movements in Knowledge Creation,, 24 October 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 13 September 2012, no, dmy-all,


{{See also|Economy of the Middle East}}The Muslim world has been afflicted with economic stagnation for many centuries.WEB,weblink Economic Development, Religious Competition, and the Rise and Fall of Muslim Science, Chaney, Eric, October 24, 2007,, August 3, 2016, WEB,weblink Islamic world faces intellectual stagnation,,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-08-28, yes, 2014-08-18, In 2011, U.S. President Barack Obama stated that apart from crude oil, the exports of the entire Greater Middle East with its 400 million population roughly equals that of Switzerland.NEWS,weblink The economics of Obama's Arab Spring speech, Singletary, Michelle, 19 May 2011, The Washington Post, It has also been estimated that the exports of Finland, a European country of only five million, exceeded those of the entire 370 million-strong Arab world, excluding oil and natural gas.WEB,weblink How the Islamic World Lost Its Edge,, 7 January 2015,


Throughout history, Muslim cultures have been diverse ethnically, linguistically and regionally.{| class="toccolours" style="float:right; clear:right; margin:0 0 1em 1em;"Islamic architecture|File:TajMahalbyAmalMongia.jpg|The Taj Mahal situated in Agra city of India is one of the most notable example of Islamic architecture.It was constructed during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan.File:Charminar-Pride of Hyderabad.jpg|Charminar, translating to "Four Pillars", is a monument and mosque located in Old City in Hyderabad.|File:Chinese-style minaret of the Great Mosque.jpg|A Chinese pavilion instead of a minaret at the Great Mosque of Xi'an, one of China's largest mosques.File:Spain Andalusia Cordoba BW 2015-10-27 13-54-14.jpg|The 10th-century Grand Mosque of Cordoba.|File:Hassan II Mosque (by kgbo).jpeg|Hassan II Mosque in Morocco.File:Dome of Rock, Temple Mount, Jerusalem.jpg|Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem


The term "Islamic art and architecture" denotes the works of art and architecture produced from the 7th century onwards by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations.Ettinghausen (2003), p. 3{{Clarify|date=November 2010|reason=Need full name and work cited}}"Islamic Art and Architecture", The Columbia Encyclopedia (2000)


Encompassing both secular and religious styles, the design and style made by Muslims and their construction of buildings and structures in Islamic culture included the architectural types: the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace and the Fort. Perhaps the most important expression of Islamic art is architecture, particularly that of the mosque."Islam", The New Encyclopædia Britannica (2005) Through Islamic architecture, effects of varying cultures within Islamic civilization can be illustrated. Generally, the use of Islamic geometric patterns and foliage based arabesques were striking. There was also the use of decorative calligraphy instead of pictures which were haram (forbidden) in mosque architecture. Note that in secular architecture, human and animal representation was indeed present.The North African and Iberian Islamic architecture, for example, has Roman-Byzantine elements, as seen in the Great Mosque of Kairouan which contains marble columns from Roman and Byzantine buildings,Elizabeth Allo Isichei, A history of African societies to 1870, p. 175. Cambridge University Press, 1997. (13 April 1997). Retrieved on 11 May 2012. in the Alhambra palace at Granada, or in the Great Mosque of Cordoba.Persian-style mosques are characterized by their tapered brick pillars, large arcades, and arches supported each by several pillars. In South Asia, elements of Hindu architecture were employed, but were later superseded by Persian designs.


No Islamic visual images or depictions of God are meant to exist because it is believed that such artistic depictions may lead to idolatry. Moreover, Muslims believe that God is incorporeal, making any two- or three- dimensional depictions impossible. Instead, Muslims describe God by the names and attributes that, according to Islam, he revealed to his creation. All but one sura of the Quran begins with the phrase "In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful". Images of Mohammed are likewise prohibited. Such aniconism and iconoclasmWEB
, Muslim Iconoclasm
, Encyclopedia of the Orient
, 23 February 2007
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 14 March 2007
, no
, dmy-all
, can also be found in Jewish and some Christian theology.


Islamic art frequently adopts the use of geometrical floral or vegetal designs in a repetition known as arabesque. Such designs are highly nonrepresentational, as Islam forbids representational depictions as found in pre-Islamic pagan religions. Despite this, there is a presence of depictional art in some Muslim societies, notably the miniature style made famous in Persia and under the Ottoman Empire which featured paintings of people and animals, and also depictions of Quranic stories and Islamic traditional narratives. Another reason why Islamic art is usually abstract is to symbolize the transcendence, indivisible and infinite nature of God, an objective achieved by arabesque.Madden (1975), pp. 423–30 Islamic calligraphy is an omnipresent decoration in Islamic art, and is usually expressed in the form of Quranic verses. Two of the main scripts involved are the symbolic kufic and naskh scripts, which can be found adorning the walls and domes of mosques, the sides of minbars, and so on.Distinguishing motifs of Islamic architecture have always been ordered repetition, radiating structures, and rhythmic, metric patterns. In this respect, fractal geometry has been a key utility, especially for mosques and palaces. Other features employed as motifs include columns, piers and arches, organized and interwoven with alternating sequences of niches and colonnettes.Tonna, Jo (1990). "The Poetics of Arab-Islamic Architecture", Muqarnas BRILL, 7, pp. 182–97 The role of domes in Islamic architecture has been considerable. Its usage spans centuries, first appearing in 691 with the construction of the Dome of the Rock mosque, and recurring even up until the 17th century with the Taj Mahal. And as late as the 19th century, Islamic domes had been incorporated into European architecture.Grabar, Oleg (2006), "Islamic art and beyond". Ashgate. Vol 2, p. 87File:Interlaced-Triangles quasi-Arabesque Brunnian-link.svg|Example of an ArabesqueFile:Brunnian-link-12crossings-nonBorromean-quasi-Arabesque.svg|Example of an ArabesqueFile:Interlaced-Triangles Brunnian-link alternate.svg|Example of an Arabesque


Girih is an Islamic decorative art form used in architecture and handicrafts (book covers, tapestry, small metal objects), consisting of geometric lines that form an interlaced strapwork.File:Girih tiles.svg|Girih tilesFile:Darbeimam subdivision rule.svg|The subdivision rule used to generate the Girih pattern on the spandrel.File:Girih compass straightedge example.svg|Girih pattern that can be drawn with compass and straight edge.

Islamic calligraphy

Islamic calligraphy, is the artistic practice of handwriting, calligraphy, and by extension, of bookmaking, in the lands sharing a common Islamic cultural heritage.File:Kufic Quran, sura 7, verses 86-87.jpg|Kufic script from an early Qur'an manuscript, 7th century. (Surah 7: 86–87)File:Bismillah.svg|Bismallah calligraphy.File:Seven sleepers islam.jpg|Islamic calligraphy represented for amulet of sailors in the Ottoman Empire.File:Shiite Calligraphy symbolising Ali as Tiger of God.svg|Islamic calligraphy praising Ali.File:Planets by ibrahimabutouq.jpg|Modern Islamic calligraphy representing various planets.


Islamic lunar calendar

File:The Book of the Table Regarding the Knowledge of the Time and the Heavens for the Calculation of the Beginning of the Islamic and Christian Months WDL4294.pdf|page 16|thumb|left|upright=0.45|al-Ḥusayn ibn Zayd ibn ‘Alī ibn Jaḥḥāf's work on the Islamic CalendarIslamic CalendarThe Islamic calendar, Muslim calendar or Hijri calendar (AH) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to date events in many Muslim-majority countries and determines the proper days on which to observe the annual fast (see Ramadan), to attend Hajj, and to celebrate other Islamic holidays and festivals.

Solar Hijri calendar

File:Jalaali_Leap_Year.svg|thumb|Jalali calendar also called Solar Hijri calendarSolar Hijri calendarThe Solar Hijri calendar, also called the Shamsi Hijri calendar, and abbreviated as SH, is the official calendar of Iran and Afghanistan. It begins on the vernal equinox. Each of the twelve months corresponds with a zodiac sign. The first six months have 31 days, the next five have 30 days, and the last month has 29 days in usual years but 30 days in leap years. The year of Prophet Muhammad's migration to Medina (622 CE) is fixed as the first year of the calendar, and the New Year's Day always falls on the March equinox.

Contemporary developments

{{refimprove section|date=November 2015}}File:Museum Islamic Art Doha 3470122137 354168dabf.jpg|Ceiling with Islamic patterns at the Museum of Islamic Art, Doha.File:Flag of the Red Crescent.svg|The Red Crescent is recognized in 33 countries.File:Silk route.jpg|By the medieval era most of the countries on the Silk Road were Muslim majority.File:Muhammad yunus at weforum.jpg|Muhammad Yunus was awarded the Nobel Prize, for his concepts in Microcredit and Microfinance.As of 2015 Islam has 1.8 billion adherents, making up over 24.1% of the world population. Due to globalization, Islam today has taken root and influenced cultures in places far from the traditional boundaries of the Muslim world.McAlister, Elizabeth. 2005."Globalization and the Religious Production of Space. {{Webarchive|url= |date=6 May 2014 }}" Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 44, No 3, September 2005., 249–255.


Democracy and compulsion indexes

The Open Doors USA organization, in its 2012 survey of countries around the world that persecute Christians, listed 37 members of the Muslim world amongst the top 50 countries where Christians face the most severe persecution. 9 of the top 10 countries are Islamic-majority states.WEB,weblink Islamic-Majority Countries Top Open Doors 2012 World Watch List,, 2 January 2012, 24 October 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 14 January 2012, dmy-all,

Religion and state

{{Original research section|date=January 2018}}{{Further|Political aspects of Islam|Islam and secularism}}File:Muslim Constitution Religion.svg|thumb|upright=2.75|center|Muslim-majority countries classified by constitutional role for religion.{{legend|#ff0000|(:en:Islamic state|Islamic state)}}{{legend|#ff781f|State religion}}{{legend|#008080|Secular state}}{{legend|#e0c146|Unclear / No declaration}}]]As the Muslim world came into contact with secular ideals, societies responded in different ways. Some Muslim-majority countries are secular. Azerbaijan became the first secular republic in the Muslim world, between 1918 and 1920, before it was incorporated into the Soviet Union.WEB, 93 years pass since establishment of first democratic republic in the east – Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, Azerbaijan Press Agency,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 21 November 2011, 28 May 2011, BOOK
, Kazemzadeh
, Firuz, Firuz Kazemzadeh
, The Struggle for Transcaucasia: 1917–1921
, The New York Philosophical Library
, 1951
, 978-0-8305-0076-5
, 124, 222, 229, 269–70, BOOK
, Swietochowski
, Tadeusz
, Tadeusz Swietochowski
, Russian Azerbaijan, 1905–1920: The Shaping of a National Identity in a Muslim Community
, Cambridge University Press
, 2004
, 978-0-521-52245-8
, 129
, 17 January 2018
, 17 January 2018
, no
, dmy-all
, {{failed verification|date=January 2018|reason=Page 129 does not claim Azerbaijan was "first secular republic in the Muslim world". It doesn't even claim Azerbaijan is part of the "Muslim world". OR.}} Turkey has been governed as a secular state since the reforms of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh (2009), The Gülen Movement: A Sociological Analysis of a Civic Movement Rooted in Moderate Islam. Springer, p. 116 By contrast, the 1979 Iranian Revolution replaced a mostly secular regime with an Islamic republic led by the Ayatollah, Ruhollah Khomeini.See:
  • Esposito (2004), p. 84{{cnf|date=October 2013}}
  • Lapidus (2002), pp. 502–07, 845{{cnf|date=October 2013}}
  • Lewis (2003), p. 100{{cnf|date=October 2013}}
Some countries have declared Islam as the official state religion. In those countries, the legal code is largely secular. Only personal status matters pertaining to inheritance and marriage are governed by Sharia law.

Islamic states

Islamic states have adopted Islam as the ideological foundation of state and constitution.{{Div col}}
  • {{flag|Afghanistan}}WEB,weblink Constitution of Afghanistan 2004, 23 February 2017,weblink 23 February 2017, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Iran}}WEB,weblink Islamic Republic of Iran Constitution, 23 February 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 25 February 2008, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Mauritania}}WEB,weblink Mauritania's Constitution of 1991 with Amendments through 2012, 23 February 2017,weblink 4 May 2017, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Oman}}WEB,weblink Oman's Constitution of 1996 with Amendments through 2011, 23 February 2017,weblink 27 January 2017, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Saudi Arabia}}WEB,weblink Basic Law of Saudi Arabia, 6 January 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 26 December 2011, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Yemen}}WEB,weblink Yemen's Constitution of 1991 with Amendments through 2001, 23 February 2017,weblink 27 January 2017, no, dmy-all, {{Div col end}}

State religion

The following Muslim-majority nation-states have endorsed Islam as their state religion.{{Div col}}
  • {{flag|Algeria}}WEB,weblink Of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, 23 February 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 4 May 2017, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Bahrain}}WEB,weblink Constitution of the Kingdom of Bahrain (2002), 23 February 2017,weblink 23 February 2017, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Brunei}}WEB,weblink The World Factbook,, 30 December 2013,weblink 21 July 2015, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Comoros}}WEB,weblink Comoros's Constitution of 2001 with Amendments through 2009, 23 February 2017,weblink 4 May 2017, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Djibouti}}WEB,weblink Djibouti's Constitution of 1992 with Amendments through 2010, 23 February 2017,weblink 25 June 2016, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Egypt}}WEB,weblink Egypt's Constitution of 2014, 23 February 2017,weblink 4 May 2017, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Iraq}}WEB,weblink Constitution of Iraq, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 28 November 2016, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Jordan}}"Jordan country report" {{Webarchive|url= |date=29 June 2011 }}, The World Factbook, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 24 August 2012
  • {{flag|Kuwait}}WEB,weblink International Religious Freedom Report, US State Department, 2002, 24 June 2017, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Libya}}WEB,weblink Libya's Constitution of 2011 with Amendments through 2012, 23 February 2017,weblink 27 January 2017, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Maldives}}WEB,weblink Constitution of the Republic of Maldives 2008, 23 February 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 19 May 2017, yes, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Malaysia}}WEB,weblink Constitution of Malaysia, 23 February 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 14 May 2011, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Morocco}}WEB,weblink Morocco's Constitution of 2011, 23 February 2017,weblink 27 January 2017, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Qatar}}WEB,weblink Qatar's Constitution of 2003, 23 February 2017,weblink 27 January 2017, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Sahrawi Republic}}BOOK, Janos, Besenyo, 2009, Western Sahara, Publikon Publishers, Pécs, 978-963-88332-0-4,weblink 23 February 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 7 January 2016, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Somalia}}WEB,weblink Provisional Constitution of the Federal Republic of Somalia, 23 February 2017,weblink 27 January 2017, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Tunisia}}WEB,weblink Tunisia's Constitution of 2014, 23 February 2017,weblink 27 January 2017, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|United Arab Emirates}}WEB,weblink United Arab Emirates's Constitution of 1971 with Amendments through 2009, 23 February 2017,weblink 29 October 2016, no, dmy-all,
{{Div col end}}
  • {{flag|Pakistan}}WEB,weblink The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 27 November 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 9 July 2011, no, dmy-all,

Unclear or no declaration

These are neutral states where the constitutional or official announcement regarding status of religion is not clear or unstated.
  • {{flag|Indonesia}}WEB,weblink Indonesia's Constitution of 1945, Reinstated in 1959, with Amendments through 2002, 23 February 2017,weblink 27 January 2017, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Sudan}}
  • {{flag|Syria}}WEB,weblink Syrian Arab Republic's Constitution of 2012, 23 February 2017,weblink 27 January 2017, no, dmy-all,
{{Div col end}}
  • {{flag|Bangladesh}}

Secular states

Secular states in the Muslim world have declared separation between civil/government affairs and religion.{{Div col|colwidth=}}
  • {{flag|Albania}}WEB,weblink Albania – Constitution, ICL, 18 March 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 24 September 2015, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Azerbaijan}}WEB,weblink Article 7.1 of Constitution, 23 February 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 26 October 2011, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Bosnia-Herzegovina}}WEB,weblink Bosnia and Herzegovina – Constitution, ICL, 18 March 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 3 October 2014, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Burkina Faso}}weblink" title="">Article 31 of Constitution
  • {{flag|Chad}}weblink" title="">Article 1 of Constitution
  • {{flag|Cote d'Ivoire}}
  • {{flag|The Gambia}}WEB,weblink Archived copy, 24 June 2017, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Guinea}}Article 1 of Constitution {{webarchive|url= |date=13 September 2004 }}
  • {{flag|Guinea-Bissau}}WEB,weblink$FILE/Constitution%20Guinea%20Bissau.doc, Article 1 of Constitution, 2013-11-05,weblink" title="">weblink$FILE/Constitution%20Guinea%20Bissau.doc, 5 November 2013, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Kazakhstan}}WEB,weblink Archived copy, 24 November 2014, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 24 September 2014, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Kosovo}}Republic of Kosovo constitution {{webarchive|url= |date=21 November 2013 }}, Republic of Kosovo constitution,
  • {{flag|Kyrgyzstan}}Article 1 of Constitution {{webarchive|url= |date=4 February 2007 }}
  • {{flag|Lebanon}}WEB,weblink Lebanon, 5 June 2018, dmy-all, WEB,weblink The Lebanese Constitution (as amended up to September 21, 1990), 5 June 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 6 November 2018, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Mali}}Preamble of Constitution {{webarchive|url= |date=12 September 2012 }}
  • {{flag|Niger}}John L. Esposito. The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press US, (2004) {{ISBN|0-19-512559-2}} pp. 233–34
  • {{flag|Nigeria}}WEB,weblink Nigerian Constitution, Nigeria Law, 17 July 2015,weblink 21 August 2011, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Northern Cyprus}}
  • {{flagicon|State of Palestine}} PalestineWEB,weblink The World Factbook, CIA, 23 February 2017,weblink 6 May 2014, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Senegal}}WEB,weblink Senegal, U.S. Department of State, 18 March 2015, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Sierra Leone}}WEB,weblink Sierra Leone's Constitution of 1991, Reinstated in 1996, with Amendments through 2008, 23 February 2017,weblink 30 October 2016, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Tajikistan}}WEB,weblink Tajikistan's Constitution of 1994 with Amendments through 2003, 23 February 2017,weblink 2 January 2017, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Turkey}}WEB,weblink Article 2 of Constitution, 18 March 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 1 December 2010, yes, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Turkmenistan}}WEB,weblink Constitution of Turkmenistan, 18 March 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 14 April 2015, no, dmy-all,
  • {{flag|Uzbekistan}}WEB,weblink Uzbekistan's Constitution of 1992 with Amendments through 2011, 23 February 2017,weblink 27 January 2017, no, dmy-all,
{{Div col end}}

Law and ethics

{{unreferenced section|date=January 2018}}{{Further|Islamic ethics}}File:Use of Sharia by country.svg|upright=1.35|thumb|(Application of Islamic law by country|Use of Sharia by country]]:{{legend|#179C86|Sharia plays no role in the judicial system}}{{legend|#F6DD4F|Sharia applies in personal status issues only}}{{legend|#706EA4|Sharia applies in full, including criminal law}}{{legend|#FF9950|Regional variations in the application of sharia}})In some nations, Muslim ethnic groups enjoy considerable autonomy.In some places, Muslims implement Islamic law, called sharia in Arabic. The Islamic law exists in a number of variations, but the main forms are the five (four Sunni and one Shia) and Salafi and Ibadi schools of jurisprudence (fiqh){{clarify|what is the following bulletized list in aid of? What is its objective? Lebanon does not implement sharia, for example. Six forms are listed below, five are counted above|date=March 2013}}
  • Hanafi school in Pakistan, North India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Turkey, Albania, Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, other Balkan States, Lower Egypt, Spain, Canada, Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq, Russia, Caucasus Republics, China, Central Asian Republics, European Union, other countries of North and South America.
  • Maliki in North Africa, West Africa, Sahel, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait.
  • Shafi'i in Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, Eritrea, Somalia, Yemen, Maldives, Sri Lanka and South India
  • Hanbali in Saudi Arabia,
  • Jaferi in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain and Azerbaijan. These four are the only "Muslim states" where the majority is Shia population. In Yemen, Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Turkey, and Syria, are countries with Sunni populations. In Lebanon, the majority Muslims (54%) were about equally divided between Sunni and Shia in 2010.
  • Ibadi in Oman and small regions in North Africa
In a number of Muslim-majority countries the law requires women to cover either their legs, shoulders and head, or the whole body apart from the face. In strictest forms, the face as well must be covered leaving just a mesh to see through. These hijab rules for dressing cause tensions, concerning particularly Muslims living in Western countries, where restrictions are considered both sexist and oppressive. Some Muslims oppose this charge, and instead declare that the media in these countries presses on women to reveal too much in order to be deemed attractive, and that this is itself sexist and oppressive.


{{Further|Islamic revival|Liberal movements within Islam}}File:Benazir bhutto 1988.jpg|thumb|Benazir Bhutto, the former (prime minister of Pakistan]] became the first woman elected to lead a Muslim-majority country."Benazir Bhutto: Daughter of Tragedy" by Muhammad Najeeb, Hasan Zaidi, Saurabh Shulka and S. Prasannarajan, India Today, 7 January 2008)During much of the 20th century, the Islamic identity and the dominance of Islam on political issues have arguably increased during the early 21st century. The fast-growing interests of the Western world in Islamic regions, international conflicts and globalization have changed the influence of Islam on the world in contemporary history.weblink" title="">Milestones of Islamic History


{{refimprove section|date=January 2018}}Some people in Muslim-majority countries also see Islam manifested politically as Islamism.Political Islam: Religion and Politics in the Arab World. By Nazih Ayub. Routledge, 19 June 2004. p. 9 Political Islam is powerful in some Muslim-majority countries. Islamic parties in Turkey, Pakistan and Algeria have taken power at the provincial level. Some in these movements call themselves Islamists, which also sometimes describes more militant Islamic groups. The relationships between these groups (in democratic countries there is usually at least one Islamic party) and their views of democracy are complex.Some of these groups are accused of practicing Islamic terrorism.

Islam-based intergovernmental organizations

{{unreferenced section|date=January 2018}}{{Life in OIC}}The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) is an inter-governmental organization grouping fifty-seven states. 49 are Muslim-majority countries, the others have significant Muslim minorities. The organization claims to be the collective voice of the Muslim world to safeguard the interest and ensure the progress and well-being of their peoples and those of other Muslims in the world over.{{citation needed|date=September 2017}}


File:Kazakh wedding 3.jpg|A Kazakh wedding ceremony in a mosqueFile:COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Een marabout gaat voor in het gebed tijdens een naamgevingsfeest TMnr 20018270.jpg|A group of marabouts – West African religious leaders and teachers of the Quran.File:Muslim girls at Istiqlal Mosque jakarta.png|Muslim girls at Istiqlal Mosque in JakartaFile:Chadian delegation.jpg|A tribal delegation in Chad

See also




  • BOOK, Ankerl, Guy, Global communication without universal civilization, 2000, INU societal research, Vol.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations : Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western, INU Press, Geneva, 978-2-88155-004-1, 2000, 223231547,
  • Graham, Mark, How Islam Created the Modern World (2006)
  • BOOK, Tausch, Arno, Arno Tausch, What 1.3 Billion Muslims Really Think: An Answer to a Recent Gallup Study, Based on the "World Values Survey". Foreword Mansoor Moaddel, Eastern Michigan University, Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2009, 1st, 978-1-60692-731-1, World Values Survey,
  • BOOK, Tausch, Arno, Arno Tausch, The political algebra of global value change. General models and implications for the Muslim world. With Almas Heshmati and Hichem Karoui, Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2015, 1st, 978-1-62948-899-8,
  • BOOK, Russell, G. A., The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England, Brill Publishers, 1994, 978-90-04-09459-8,
  • WEB,weblink top_muslim_powers,
  • BOOK, Kraemer, Joel L., Humanism in the Renaissance of Islam, 1992, Brill Publishers, 978-90-04-07259-6,
  • BOOK, Grant, John, John Grant (author), Clute, John, John Clute, The Encyclopedia of Fantasy, Arabian fantasy, 978-0-312-19869-5, 15 March 1999,

External links

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