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Municipality
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{{short description|An administrative division having corporate status and usually some powers of self-government or jurisdiction}}File:Ponce City Hall.JPG|thumb|right|The Ponce City Hall, in the city of Ponce, Puerto Rico, is the seat of the government for both the city and the surrounding barriobarrioFile:Map of all City Municipalities in Slovenia.svg|thumb|right|Map of all city municipalities in Slovenia ]]A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished (usually) from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns, villages and hamlets.The term municipality may also mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality.DICTIONARY,weblink Municipality, Merriam-Webster, A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district.The term is derived from French municipalité and Latin municipalis.WEB,weblink municipality definition, Yourdictionary.com, The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium (derived from a word meaning "duty holders"), referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state (granting Roman citizenship to the inhabitants) while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments (a limited autonomy).A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass

,weblink
, Santiago de Chile – Comunas
, Mapas de Chile, Castor y Polux Ltda
,

Political powers

Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, and corporate income tax, but may also receive substantial funding from the state.

In various countries

File:5 Boroughs Labels New York City Map.svg|thumb|upright=1.1|New York City as well as its composite five boroughsboroughs

Communes

In various countries, municipalities are usually referred to as "{{visible anchor|communes}}", notably in Romance languages (derived from Latin) such as French {{wiktfra|commune}} (France, French-speaking areas of Belgium and Switzerland, French-speaking countries of Africa, e.g. Benin), Italian ', Romanian {{wiktron|comună}}, and Spanish {{wiktspa|comuna}} (Chile), and in Germanic languages such as German {{wiktdeu|Kommune}} (in political parlance, the official term being ), Swedish {{wiktswe|kommun}}, Faroese {{wiktfo|kommuna}}, Norwegian, Danish }}, Polish ', Dutch/Flemish {{wiktnl|Gemeente}} and Luxembourgish {{wiktlb|Gemeng}}.

Municipality

All of them (cognate to "municipality", mostly referred to territory or political structure){{clarify|date=July 2019}} In Spanish ' (Spain, Territory), ' (Chile, Town Hall or Territory), Catalan {{wiktca|municipi}} (Territory).

Other terms

Some people confuse the terms which refer to the Territory or the political Structure (Commune or Municipality) versus that of the Town Hall. Spanish (which refers to Town Hall).For example, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities (municipiu; urban administrative units) and communes (comună; rural units), and a commune may be part of a municipality (see more: communes of Moldova, communes of Romania).{{cn|date=June 2019}}

English-speaking

  • In Australia, the term local government area (LGA) is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are legally designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility."WEB,weblink Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC), Australian Bureau of Statistics,
  • In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation, usually within general municipal statutes.WEB, Municipal Government, The Canadian Encyclopedia > Government > Government, General > Municipal Government, Historica Foundation of Canada, 2009,weblink 2011-07-17, WEB,weblink Interim List of Changes to Municipal Boundaries, Status, and Names – From January 2, 2010 to January 1, 2011, Statistics Canada, April 2011, 2011-07-17, Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, municipalities, parishes, rural municipalities, towns, townships, villages, and villes among others. The Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower, upper, and single tiers.WEB,weblink List of Ontario Municipalities, Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing (Ontario), Ontario Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, 2011-07-04, 2011-07-17, Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include counties and regional municipalities. Nova Scotia also has regional municipalities, which include cities, counties, districts, or towns as municipal units.WEB, Municipal Government Act, Office of the Legislative Counsel, Nova Scotia House of Assembly,weblink 2010-01-07, 2011-07-17,
  • In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as previously Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were previously classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality even if their population was under 100,000. Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Generally, smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are also a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional (74th Amendment) Act,1992.
  • In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, and until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town which is organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, and also for the governing body itself. Such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, and of superior members, as aldermen and councillors".(Wikisource:1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Municipality) Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, and in Scotland as a council area. A district may be awarded borough or city status, or can retain its district title.
  • In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided. This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction.
  • In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is usually understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and later on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain, Arima and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago.
  • In the United States, "municipality" is usually understood as a city, town, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation.WEB,weblink Legal Dictionary: Municipal Law, FindLaw, In a state law context, some U.S. state codes define "municipality" more widely, from the state itself to any political subdivisions given jurisdiction over an area that may include multiple populated places and unpopulated places.WEB,weblink 2009 Nevada Code, Justia, WEB,weblink Kansas Statues, Lesterama, (See also Political divisions of the United States.)

Chinese-speaking

Municipalities by country

{{cleanup reorganize|section=yes|date=January 2014}}{{Unreferenced section|date=June 2014}}{| class="wikitable sortable"! Country! Term! Example! Subdivision of! Quantity! Notes! Further reading| Afghanistan| شاروالی یا شهرداریshārwāli (or shahr-dari)|| Provinces of Afghanistan|154|34 'provincial' municipalities of provincial capitals (shārwāli) and 120 rural or 'district' municipalities (shārwāli uluswāli)|www.km.gov.af
| Albania| bashki (urban) or komunë (rural)|||61|| Municipalities of Albania
| Algeria| baladiyah|
daïra (district), which is part of a Wilayas of Algeria>wilaya (province)| 1,541|| Municipalities of Algeria
| Andorra| parròquia| Sant Julià de Lòria||7||
| Argentina| municipalidad| Puerto Madryn| Provinces of Argentina, in some provinces they are a subdivision of departments| 2,100| Smallest administrative division; either a city, town, or township|Municipalities of Argentina
| Austria
Gemeinde (Austria)>Gemeinde|States of Austria>state (Bundesland).|1,725| The entire area of Austria is divided into municipalities, with no non-municipal gaps. This leads to some municipalities being very large despite having a small population.| Municipality (Austria)
| Bangladesh
Paurashava>Pouroshobha''|Upazilas of Bangladesh>Upazila or subdistrict, which is in turn part of a district| 311|| Municipalities of Bangladesh
| Belgium| gemeente/commune| Montigny-le-Tilleul
Provinces of regions in Belgium>provincie/province) or of the Brussels-Capital Region| 581Wallonia>Walloon and Flemish Region Communities, regions and language areas of Belgium>Regions which have the authority over the municipalities| Municipalities in Belgium
| Bolivia| municipio| Arani Municipality
province, which is part of a Department (country subdivision)>departamento.| 327 (2005)|| Municipalities of Bolivia
| Bosnia and Herzegovina| općina or opština|
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina : of a canton (Cantons of Bosnia and Herzegovina>kanton). In Republika Srpska, municipality is first order of government after entity government.|144|| Municipalities of Bosnia and Herzegovina
| Brazil
Municipalities of Brazil>município| São Paulo (most populous), Borá (least populous)States of Brazil>estados)| 5,570Federal District (Brazil)>Federal District or the Fernando de Noronha and St. Peter and St. Paul archipelagos, but encompasses all other territories nationwide| Municipalities of Brazil
|Brunei
Bandar Seri Begawan||4Mukims of Brunei>mukims and villages|Municipalities of Brunei
| Bulgaria
| Aksakovo Municipality| an oblast| 264|| Municipalities of Bulgaria
| Cambodia
Phnom Penh|| 1,446||
| Chile| municipalidad| Torres del Paine| provinces| 346| Specifically the administrative body, while subdivisions are comunas; most municipalities administer one comuna each, but occasional municipalities administer more|
| China| 直辖市| Beijing|| 4| Status equal to a province| Municipalities of China
| Colombia| municipio|
Departments of Colombia>department (departamento)| 1,102Borough>Localities and Neighborhoods in urban municipalities and into Corregimientos and Veredas in rural municipalities| Municipalities of Colombia
| Costa Rica| Municipalidad|| Province (Provinces of Costa Rica)||
Cantons of Costa Rica>Cantones of Costa Rica
| Croatia| općina|
Counties of Croatia>županija)|428|| Municipalities of Croatia
| Czech Republic| obec| Karlovy Vary| a kraj (kraj)| 6,254||
| Denmark| kommune| Aabenraa Municipality
Regions of Denmark>region| 98Counties of Denmark>amter) were abandoned in 2007| Municipalities of Denmark
| Dominican Republic| municipio|
Provinces of the Dominican Republic>province||| Municipalities of the Dominican Republic
| El Salvador| municipio| Zacatecoluca
Departments of El Salvador>departamentos| 262|| Municipalities of El Salvador
| Estonia| omavalitsus| Are vald (Are Parish)
Counties of Estonia>county (maakond)| 215| Can be either towns (linn) or parishes (vald)| Municipalities of Estonia
| Finland| kunta (in Finnish), kommun (in Swedish)| Helsinki
Regions of Finland>regionList of Finnish municipalities>311| Can choose whether to call itself a "city" (kaupunki).| Municipalities of Finland
| France
Commune in France>commune|département in France>département) which is part of a region (région)|36,600||
| Germany
Gemeinde (Germany)>Gemeinde|Districts of Germany>Kreis, literally "Circle"). Larger entities of the same level are called Stadt, plural Städte (Cities resp. Towns), which can be part of a Kreis (they are kreisangehörig, meaning "belonging to a Circle") or constituting a district on its own (kreisfrei, meaning "free of a Circle"). In less populated regions, small municipalities are often put together into consolidated superior municipalities (Verbandsgemeinde, Samtgemeinde or Amtsgemeinde)| 12,013|| Municipalities of Germany
Georgia (country)>Georgia| munits'ipaliteti|||76| self-governing towns/cities (k'alak'i) and communities (t'emi)Municipalities of Georgia (country)>Municipalities of Georgia
| Greece| demos (δήμος, pl. δήμοι) or koinoteta (κοινότητα, pl. κοινότητες)||| 325| Demoi and koinotetes are both considered municipalities; the latter are less populous| Municipalities and communities of Greece
| Greenland| kommunea| Kujalleq||4| First-level administrative division| Municipalities of Greenland
| Haiti| commune|| an arrondissement, which is part of a department (département).|||
| Honduras| municipio|| was in 1895 originally the subdivision of the district (distrito), but as districts have fallen into disuse, it is now the subdivision of the department (departamento).| 298|| Municipalities of Honduras
| Hungary| település|| a county (megye).| 3,168 (in 2005)||
| Iceland| sveitarfélag| Reykjavík
Regions of Iceland>Regions| 74| The country's only self-governing local administrative units| Municipalities of Iceland
| India|| Sainthia||| Excludes both villages and large cities; typically has more than twenty thousand residents, but cannot exceed five hundred thousand| Municipalities of India
| Indonesia| Kabupaten (regency) or Kotamadya (city)|||| Provinces of Indonesia| List of regencies and cities of Indonesia
| Iraq| Qadhaa| Al-Hamdaniya District
Districts of Iraq>district () which is part of a Governorate (Region or Province, Arabic: Mouhafatha).| 130| Second-level, below the governorateDistricts of Iraq>Municipalities of Iraq
| Israel| Iri'ya (עיריה, City Government), Moatsa (מועצה, Council)|||
city council (Israel)>city councils (large municipalities), local council (Israel) (small municipalities), and regional council (Israel)>regional councils (a group of communities; often rural)|
| Italy| comune|
Provinces of Italy>provincia) which is part of a region (regione).| 7,982comuni, especially in Rome; municipio indicates the city hall; in some case, they are joined in mountain communities (comunità montane)The law provides for the possibility of overlapping of the office of President of the mountain community with that of mayor of one of the municipalities of the community: BUONOMOTITLE= COMPATIBILE IL SINDACO-DIRIGENTE DELLA LOCALE COMUNITà MONTANADATE=2001via=Questia}}| List of comuni of Italy
| Japan|市町村Shichoson|||1,719
Cities of Japan>shi (cities), List of towns in Japan, and Villages of Japan>son (villages)| Municipalities of Japan
| Kenya||||| a municipality is one of four types of local authorities. Nearly 50 major towns are given the municipality status.|
| Latvia| singular: novads, plural: novadi| Aglonas novads (Aglona Municipality)||110
Amalgamation (politics)>amalgamated parishes (singular: pagasts, plural: pagasti).| Municipalities of Latvia
| Lebanon||
Districts of Lebanon>district () which is part of a Governorate (Region or Province, Arabic: Mouhafazah).|||
| Libya||||
Basic People's Congress (country subdivision)>Basic People's Congress. Large cities are subdivided.| Municipalities of Libya
| Lithuania| savivaldybė| Kalvarijos savivaldybė (Kalvarija Municipality)| a district (apskritis) and is subdivided into elderates (seniūnija).||| Municipalities of Lithuania
| Luxembourg
communes of Luxembourg>commune (in French); Gemeng, plur. Gemengen(in Luxembourgish)||part of a canton (Luxembourgish: Kantoun) which itself is part of a district|105| are the lowest divisions|
| Malta| Kunsill Lokali (Local Council)| Valletta Local Council| none| 68| established 1993, one new council created since then (Mtarfa)| Local councils of Malta
| Mauritius||||| a municipality: The administration of all the main towns in Mauritius is done by the municipality of the respective towns.Most of the towns are found in the district of Plaines Wilhems. The capital city, Port-Louis is managed by the Municipality of Port-Louis, found in the district of Port Louis. The other seven districts are administered by are called district councils.|
| Mexico| municipio / delegación| Asientos Municipality
States of Mexico>estado) or the DF|2,466delegación) is a subdivision of the Federal District (Mexico)>Federal District| Municipalities of Mexico and boroughs of the Mexican Federal District
| Moldova| municipiu| Municipiul Chișinău||32| is a main city or town and surrounding villages ranked by law at this level.| Moldova#Administrative divisions
| Montenegro| opština| Andrijevica Municipality| the country (top-level)||| Municipalities of Montenegro
| Nepal| Nagarpalika and Gaunpalika||| 276 Municipalities (by Constitution of Nepal, 2015 and amendments thereafter)
metropolitan area>metropolitan city.|
| Netherlands| gemeente|
Provinces of the Netherlands>provincie)Special municipality (Netherlands)>special municipalities|List of municipalities of the Netherlands>Municipalities in the Netherlands
| New Zealand||||| a municipality is part of either a "city" (mostly urban) or a "district" (mostly rural). The term "municipality" has become rare in New Zealand since about 1979 and has no legal status. (See territorial authorities of New Zealand.)|
| Nicaragua| municipio|| a department (departamento) or of one of the two Autonomous Regions, North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region and South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region.|| Municipalities of Nicaragua|
| North Macedonia| opština| Aračinovo Municipality| The country (top-level) or the City of Skopje| 84 (2004)| Current set established in 2004, reduced from 123 created in 1996.| Municipalities of North Macedonia
| Norway| kommune| Røyken kommune
Counties of Norway>fylke)| 430 (2009)|| Municipalities of Norway
| Palestinian National Authority|||| 105| municipalities are localities with populations over 4,000 and have 13-15 council members.| Municipality (Palestinian Authority)
| Pakistan||
Districts of Pakistan>district".|149|| Local government in Pakistan
| Paraguay| municipalidad|
Department (country subdivision)>departament (departamento)|||
| Peru| municipio|
Provinces of Peru>province (provincia), which is part of a department (departamento). As of 2002 a department is now called a region (región).|Districts of Peru>district (distrito) and is the lower-level administrative subdivision.|
| Philippines
municipalities of the Philippines>bayan or Municipio or Municipalidad>munisipalidad|Philippine province>province|Provinces of the Philippines>lalawigan or Provinces of the Philippines) (except for the independent municipality of Pateros, Metro Manila in the Metro Manila>National Capital Region). Municipalities are not the smallest division of local government and are composed of barangays.|
| Poland| gmina| Gmina Annopol| county (powiat).|||
| Portugal
concelho or concelho>municípioOeiras, Portugal>Oeiras| District| 308Concelho is a directly elected local area authority generally consisting of a main city or town and surrounding villages, with wide-ranging local administration powers. Apart from the municipality of Corvo (Azores)>Corvo, however, municípios are not the smallest administrative unit in Portugal, that being the freguesia (civil parish). For central government purposes, Portuguese municipalities are grouped into districts (''Districts of Portugal). In Portugal, a municipality (Municipalities of Portugal>município/Concelhos of Portugal) is the primary local administrative unit. Although part of a district (Districts of Portugal>distrito) for certain national administrative purposes, the municipality is not subordinate to the district and decentralization is doing away with the districts. A municipality contains one or more freguesias''.| Municipalities of Portugal
| Puerto Rico| municipio|||
barrios comprising the municipality. It has a popularly elected administration and a municipal mayor. The seat of the municipal government is located in such urban area and serves the entire municipal jurisdiction.Ayuda: Divulgación de Resultados de la Comisión Estatal de Elecciones – Municipio. Comision Estatal de Elecciones. Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico. San Juan, Puerto Rico. 2004. Retrieved 6 December 2011.Autonomous Municipalities Law. (in Spanish) {{webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101205024802weblink |date=2010-12-05 }} Retrieved 24 October 2011.| Municipalities of Puerto Rico
| Romania| municipiu / oraș / comună
Deva, Romania>DevaJudeÈ›>County (judeÈ›)| 103 + 217 + 2856Municipiu>municipality (municipiu) is a special status given to cities which fulfill certain criteria related to size, influence and development, as defined by Law no. 351/2001 (on the National Territorial Management Plan). Localities which do not meet the criteria are designated "cities" (''List of cities and towns in Romania) or "communes" (Communes of Romania>comune'').| Municipalities of RomaniaCities of RomaniaCommunes of Romania
| Russia||||
subdivisions of Russia#Municipal divisions>subdivisions of Russia|
| San Marino||||| there are also eight minor municipalities, castelli.|
| Serbia| opština|| a district (okrug)|||
| Slovakia| obec|
okres>district (okres) which is part of a kraj (kraj)List of villages and municipalities in Slovakia>2,891||
| Slovenia| občina|| region (regija)| 212
Municipalities of Slovenia>občina) is the primary local administrative unit. There are 212 of them, 11 of which have a special "Urban" status with additional autonomy.| Municipalities of Slovenia
| South Africa||||
District municipality (South Africa)>district municipalities and Metropolitan municipality (South Africa) are subdivisions of the Provinces of South Africa>provinces, and local municipalities are subdivisions of district municipalities.|
| Spain| municipio / municipi / concello / udalerria||| 8,122
municipio) is the primary local administrative unit. It is a part of a province (Provinces of Spain>provincia) for all national administrative purposes. In the Galicia (Spain) region, the municipalities are called, in Galician language, concellos, and in the Principality of Asturias region, a municipality is called a concejo (in Spanish language) or a conceyu (in Asturian language). In these two regions a municipality contains one or more parroquia (Spain)>parroquias (parishes).| Municipalities of Spain
| Sweden| kommun|Stockholm MunicipalityGothenburg MunicipalityMalmö MunicipalityAle Municipality|County Councils of Sweden (Swedish: landsting) self-governing local authority, covering 21 counties, each comprising one or more of the municipalities.| 290| is self-governing according to the Swedish constitution and constitutes local government. Before 1971, a municipality could be called a town (stad), a köping or a rural municipality (landskommun); present municipalities which used to be towns are still commonly called towns. Sweden is also divided in 2 523 districts (Swedish: distrikt) since 1 January 2016.SFS 2015:493, Svensk författningssamling: Förordning om distrikt.| Municipalities of Sweden
| Switzerland
commune/Gemeinde (Switzerland)>Gemeinde/comune|Cantons of Switzerland>canton/Kanton/cantone) and defined by cantonal law.|2,596|| Municipalities in Switzerland
| Thailand| thesaban|| None| 1,602| There are three levels of municipalities, and municipalities are not self-governed except for Bangkok and Pattaya. Municipalities introduced in 1935, Bangkok became self-governed in 1972, and Pattaya became self-governed in 1978.| Thesaban
| Turkey| belediye| Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality
Provinces of Turkey>il(province)| 2,920| is a local government authority and there are two types of municipalities: metropolitan (büyükşehir) municipality, district (alt/ilçe) municipality.|
| Ukraine||||
ispolkom (an executive committee) of local community council. Functions of ispolkom in Kiev and Sevastopol performs a state administration due to the status of those cities. For other populated places, there are mainly two types of municipalities: urban and rural. Both are referred to after their governing body as council (i.e. miskrada, selyshchna rada or silrada). They are considered the lowest administrative division in the country and better known as the local government. Urban municipalities are more complex and divided into city municipalities (miskrada) and town municipalities (selyshchna rada). The most complex municipalities are the city of regional significance (Ukraine)>cities of regional significance which are referred to simply as cities and create a sort of ambiguity.|
| United Arab Emirates||| an emirate|| is defined by the law of the specific emirates.|
| Uruguay| municipio|||89|| Municipalities of Uruguay
| Venezuela| municipio| Anaco Municipality
Capital District (Venezuela)>Capital District (estado)||| Municipalities of Venezuela
| Vietnam| Direct-controlled municipality| Ho Chi Minh City (largest)||5
direct-controlled municipality (Thành phố trực thuộc trung ương) is a city with equal status to a Provinces of Vietnam>province| Municipalities of Vietnam
  • In Portuguese language usage, there are two words to distinguish the territory and the administrative organ. When referring to the territory, the word concelho is used, when referring to the organ of State, the word município is used. This differentiation is in use in Portugal and some of its former overseas provinces, but it's no longer in use in Brazil.

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

{{Wiktionary}}
  • EB9, Elton, Charles Isaac, Charles Isaac Elton, Municipality, 17, x,
{{Terms for types of administrative territorial entities}}

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