Muhammad al-Bukhari

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Muhammad al-Bukhari
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{{expand Arabic|date=April 2019}}{{hatnote|For other uses, see Bukhari (surname) and Bukhari (disambiguation)}}

C.E. 1 Shawwal 256 A.H.| death_place = Khartank, near Samarqand| resting_place = Khartank (Samarkand, Uzbekistan)Persian people>Persian| occupation = Muhaddith, Hadith compiler, Islamic scholar| denomination = SunniZahiriLUCASTITLE=THE LEGAL PRINCIPLES OF MUHAMMAD B. ISMāʿīL AL-BUKHāRī AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO CLASSICAL SALAFI ISLAMDATE=2006ISSUE=3TITLE=THE LEGAL PRINCIPLES OF MUHAMMAD B. ISMāʿīL AL-BUKHāRī AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO CLASSICAL SALAFI ISLAMDATE=2006ISSUE=3TITLE=THE LEGAL PRINCIPLES OF MUHAMMAD B. ISMāʿīL AL-BUKHāRī AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO CLASSICAL SALAFI ISLAMDATE=2006ISSUE=3TITLE=THE LEGAL PRINCIPLES OF MUHAMMAD B. ISMāʿīL AL-BUKHāRī AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO CLASSICAL SALAFI ISLAMDATE=2006ISSUE=3, 312, | era = Abbasid Caliphate| main_interests = HadithAqidah| notable_ideas =| notable_works = Sahih al-BukhariAhmad ibn Hanbal al-Shafi'i Ali ibn al-MadiniYahya ibn Ma'inIshaq Ibn Rahwayh{{Citation> last =Ibn Rāhwayh date =1990 editor-first =ʻAbd al-Ghafūr ʻAbd al-Ḥaqq Ḥusayn edition =1st pages = 150–165}}| influenced = Muslim ibn al-HajjajIbn Abi Asim}}

AbÅ« ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘īl ibn IbrāhÄ«m ibn al-MughÄ«rah ibn Bardizbah al-Ju‘fÄ« al-BukhārÄ« (‎; 21 July 810 – 1 September 870), or BukhārÄ« (}}), commonly referred to as Imam al-Bukhari or Imam Bukhari, was a PersianBOOK, The Biography of Imam Bukhaaree, December 2005, Darussalam, Translated by Faisal Shafeeq, Riyadh, 9960969053, Salaahud-Deen ibn Ê¿Alee ibn Ê¿Abdul-Maujood, 1st,weblink ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bukhari, Encyclopedia of World Biography, Bourgoin, Suzanne Michele, Byers, Paula Kay, Gale, 1998, 2nd, 112,weblink 9780787625436, ENCYCLOPEDIA, BukhārÄ«, A Guide to Eastern Literatures, Lang, David Marshall, Praeger, 1971, 33,weblink Islamic scholar who was born in Bukhara (the capital of the Bukhara Region (viloyat) of Uzbekistan). He authored the hadith collection known as Sahih al-Bukhari, regarded by Sunni Muslims as one of the most authentic (sahih) hadith collections. He also wrote other books such as Al-Adab al-Mufrad.Al-Adab al-Mufrad



Muhammad ibn Isma`il al-Bukhari al-Ju`fi was born after the Jumu'ah prayer on Friday, 21 July 810 (13 Shawwal 194 AH) in the city of Bukhara in TransoxianaWEB,weblink titlncyclopædia Britannica, {{Dead link|date=January 2019 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} (in present-day Uzbekistan).ENCYCLOPEDIA, Melchert, Christopher, al-Bukhārī, Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE, Brill Online,weblink {{dead link|date=February 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}His father, Ismail ibn Ibrahim, a scholar of hadith, was a student and associate of Malik ibn Anas. Some Iraqi scholars related hadith narrations from him.


Imam Bukhari's great-grandfather, al-Mughirah, settled in Bukhara after accepting Islam at the hands of Bukhara's governor, Yaman al-Ju`fi. As was the custom, he became a mawla of Yaman, and his family continued to carry the nisbah of "al-Ju`fi".ENCYCLOPEDIA, Robson, J., al-Bukhārī, Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Brill Online,weblink 24 April 2012, Al-Mughirah's father, Bardizbah, is the earliest known ancestor of Bukhari according to most scholars and historians. He was a Zoroastrian Magi, and died as such. As-Subki is the only scholar to name Bardizbah's father, who he says was named Bazzabah (}}). Little is known of either Bardizbah or Bazzabah, except that they were Persian and followed the religion of their people. Historians have also not come across any information on Bukhari's grandfather, Ibrahim ibn al-Mughirah.

Hadith studies and travels

The historian al-Dhahabi described his early academic life:(File:BukhariTripEnglish.jpg|thumb|300px|left|Bukhari's travels seeking and studying hadith.)At the age of sixteen, he, together with his brother and widowed mother, made the pilgrimage to Mecca. From there he made a series of travels in order to increase his knowledge of hadith. He went through all the important centres of Islamic learning of his time, talked to scholars and exchanged information on hadith. It is said that he heard from over 1,000 men, and learned over 600,000 traditions.{{Citation needed|date=January 2017}}After sixteen years absence{{Citation needed|date=January 2017}}, he returned to Bukhara, and there he drew up his al-Jami' as-Sahih, a collection of 7,275 tested traditions, arranged in chapters so as to afford a basis for a complete system of jurisprudence without the use of speculative law.His book is highly regarded among Sunni Muslims, and considered the most authentic collection of hadith, even ahead of the Muwatta Imam Malik and Sahih Muslim of Bukhari's student Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj. Most Sunni scholars consider it second only to the Quran in terms of authenticity. He also composed other books, including al-Adab al-Mufrad, which is a collection of hadiths on ethics and manners, as well as two books containing biographies of hadith narrators (see isnad).

Last years

In the year 864/250, he settled in Nishapur. It was in Nishapur that he met Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj. He would be considered his student, and eventually collector and organiser of hadith collection Sahih Muslim which is considered second only to that of al-Bukhari. Political problems led him to move to Khartank, a village near Samarkand where he died in the year 870/256.BOOK, Tabish Khair, Other Routes: 1500 Years of African and Asian Travel Writing,weblink 2006, Signal Books, 978-1-904955-11-5, 393–,


(File:Memorial Imom Al Bukhari 01.jpg|thumb|Imam Al Bukhari Memorial) Today his tomb lies within the Imam al-Bukhari Complex, in Hartang Village, 25 kilometers from Samarkand. It was restored in 1998 after centuries of neglect and dilapidation. The mausoleum complex consists of Imam al-Bukhari's tomb, a mosque, a madrassah, library, and a small collection of Qurans. Modern ground level mausoleum tombstone of Imam Bukhari is only a cenotaph, actual grave lies within a small burial crypt below the modern structure.WEB, Tomb of Imam al-Bukhari,weblink Madain Project, 12 May 2019,


Below is a summary of the discussion of Bukhari's available works in Fihrist Muṣannafāt al-Bukhāri by Umm 'Abdullāh bint Maḥrūs, Muḥammad ibn Ḥamza and Maḥmūd ibn Muḥammad.Fihris Muṣannafāt al-Bukhāri, pp. 9-61, Dār al-'Āṣimah, Riyaḍ: 1410.

Works describing narrators of hadith

Bukhari wrote three works discussing narrators of hadith with respect to their ability in conveying their material: the "brief compendium of hadith narrators," "the medium compendium" and the "large compendium" (al-Tarikh al-Kabīr, al-Tarīkh al-Ṣaghīr, and al-Tarīkh al-Awsaţ). The large compendium is published and well-identified. The medium compendium was thought to be the brief collection and was published as such. The brief compendium has yet to be found.Fihris Musannafāt al-Bukhāri, pp. 28-30. Another work, al-Kunā, is on patronymics: identifying people who are commonly known as "Father of so-and-so". Then there is a brief work on weak narrators: al-Ḍu'afā al-Ṣaghīr.

Hadith works

Two of Bukhari's hadith works have survived: Al-Adab al-Mufrad ("the book devoted to matters of respect and propriety") and al-Jāmi’ al-Musnad al-Sahīh al-Mukhtaṣar min umūr Rasûl Allāh wa sunnanihi wa ayyāmihi ("the abridged collection of sound reports with chains of narration going back all the way to the Prophet regarding matters pertaining to the Prophet, his practices and his times"). The latter is also known simply as Sahih al-Bukhari.

School of thought

Bukhari has been claimed as a follower of the Hanbali school of thought within Islamic jurisprudence,Imam al-Bukhari. (d. 256/870; Tabaqat al-Shafi'iya, 2.212-14 [6]) although members of the Shafi'i and Ẓāhirī schools levy this claim as well.Falih al-Dhibyani, Al-zahiriyya hiya al-madhhab al-awwal, wa al-mutakallimun 'anha yahrifun bima la ya'rifun {{webarchive|url= |date=3 July 2013 }}. Interview with Abdul Aziz al-Harbi for Okaz. 15 July 2006, Iss. #1824. Photography by Salih Ba Habri.Historical evidence suggests that Bukhari's legal positions were similar to those of the Ẓāhirīs and Hanbalis of his time, given the fact that Bukhari rejected qiyas and other forms of ra'y completely.JOURNAL, Lucas, Scott C., The Legal Principles of Muhammad B. Ismāʿīl Al-Bukhārī and Their Relationship to Classical Salafi Islam, Islamic Law and Society, 2006, 13, 3, 290–292, 303, Bukhari's positions have even been compared to those of Ibn Hazm.JOURNAL, Lucas, Scott C., The Legal Principles of Muhammad B. Ismāʿīl Al-Bukhārī and Their Relationship to Classical Salafi Islam, Islamic Law and Society, 2006, 13, 3, 290, 312, Al-Dhahabi said that Imam Bukhari was a mujtahid, a scholar capable of making his own ijtihaad without following any Islamic school of jurisprudence in particular.{{Citation needed|date=August 2017}}

Early Islamic scholars

{{Islam scholars diagram}}


  • Bukhari, Imam (194-256H) اللإمام البُخاري; An educational Encyclopedia of Islam; Syed Iqbal Zaheer

Further reading

{{Wikipedia books|1=Hadith|3=Islam}}{{Wikisource1911Enc|Bukhārī}}{{wikisourcelang|ar|مؤلف:البخاري|Muhammad al-Bukhari}}


  • Encyclopedia of Sahih Al-Bukhari by Arabic Virtual Translation Center (New York 2019, Barnes & Noble {{ISBN|9780359672653}})
  • al-BukhārÄ«, al-JāmiÊ¿ al-á¹£aḥīḥ, 9 vols. In 3, BÅ«lāq 1311–3, repr. Liechtenstein 2001
  • al-BukhārÄ«, al-TaʾrÄ«kh al-kabÄ«r, 4 vols. In 8, Hyderabad 1358–62/1941–5, 1377/19582
  • al-DhahabÄ«, TaʾrÄ«kh al-Islām, ed. Ê¿Umar Ê¿Abd al-Salām TadmurÄ« (Beirut 1407–21/1987–2000), 19 (251–60 A.H.):238–74
  • Ibn AbÄ« Ḥātim, K. al-Jarḥ wa-l-taÊ¿dÄ«l, 4 vols. In 8, Hyderabad 1360/1941
  • Ibn Ê¿AdÄ« al-Qaṭṭān, al-Kāmil fÄ« ḍuÊ¿afāʾ al-rijāl, ed. Ê¿Ä€dil Aḥmad Ê¿Abd al-MawjÅ«d et al., Beirut, 1418/1997
  • Ibn Ê¿AdÄ« al-Qaṭṭān, AsāmÄ« man rawā Ê¿anhum Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl al-BukhārÄ«, ed. Ê¿Ä€mir Ḥasan á¹¢abrÄ«, Beirut, 1414/1994
  • Ibn Ê¿Asākir, TaʾrÄ«kh madÄ«nat Dimashq, ed. Muḥibb al-DÄ«n AbÄ« SaÊ¿Ä«d al-Ê¿AmrawÄ«, 70 vols., Beirut 1415/1995
  • Ibn Ḥajar, Fatḥ al-bārÄ«, ed. Ê¿Abd al-Ê¿AzÄ«z b. Ê¿Abdallāh Ibn Bāz, 15 vols. Beirut, 1428–9/2008
  • al-Khaá¹­Ä«b al-BaghdādÄ«, TaʾrÄ«kh Baghdād aw MadÄ«nat al-Salām (Cairo 1349/1931), 2:4–34
  • al-Khaá¹­Ä«b al-BaghdādÄ«, TaʾrÄ«kh MadÄ«nat al-Salām, ed. Bashshar Ê¿Awwād MaÊ¿rÅ«f (Beirut 1422/2001), 2:322–59
  • al-NawawÄ«, TahdhÄ«b al-asmāʾ wa-l-lughāt, Cairo 1927
  • al-Qasá¹­allānÄ«, Irshād al-sārÄ« á¹¢aḥīḥ al-BukhārÄ«, ed. Muḥammad Ê¿Abd al-Ê¿AzÄ«z al-KhālidÄ«, 15 vols., Beirut 1416/1996.


  • Ghassan Abdul-Jabbar, Bukhari, London, 2007
  • Muḥammad Ê¿Iṣām Ê¿Arār al-ḤasanÄ«, Itḥāf al-qāriʾ bi-maÊ¿rifat juhÅ«d wa-aÊ¿māl al-Ê¿ulamāʾ Ê¿alā á¹¢aḥīḥ al-BukhārÄ«, Damascus 1407/1987
  • Jonathan Brown, The canonization of al-BukhārÄ« and Muslim, Leiden 2007
  • Eerik Dickinson, The development of early Sunnite ḥadÄ«th criticism, Leiden 2001
  • Mohammad Fadel, "Ibn Ḥajar’s Hady al-sārÄ«," JNES 54 (1995), 161–97
  • Johann W. Fück, "Beiträge zur Ãœberlieferungsgeschichte von Bukhārī’s Traditionssammlung," ZDMG 92 (n.s. 17, 1938), 60–87
  • Ignaz Goldziher, Muslim studies, ed. S. M. Stern, trans. C. R. Barber and S. M. Stern (Chicago 1968–71), 2:216–29
  • Nizār b. Ê¿Abd al-KarÄ«m b. Sulṭān al-ḤamadānÄ«, al-Imām al-BukhārÄ«, Mecca 1412/1992
  • al-ḤusaynÄ« Ê¿Abd al-MajÄ«d Hāshim, al-Imām al-BukhārÄ«, Cairo n.d.
  • AbÅ« Bakr al-KāfÄ«, Manhaj al-Imām al-BukhārÄ«, Beirut 1421/2000
  • Najm Ê¿Abd al-Raḥmān Khalaf, Istidrākāt Ê¿alā TaʾrÄ«kh al-turāth al-Ê¿ArabÄ« li-Fuʾād SizkÄ«n fÄ« Ê¿ilm al-ḥadÄ«th (Beirut 1421/2000), 135–264
  • Scott C. Lucas, "The legal principles of Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl al-BukhārÄ« and their relationship to classical Salafi Islam," ILS 13 (2006), 289–324
  • Christopher Melchert, "BukhārÄ« and early hadith criticism," JAOS 121 (2001), 7–19
  • Christopher Melchert, "BukhārÄ« and his á¹¢aḥīḥ," Le Muséon 123 (2010), 425–54
  • Alphonse Mingana, An important manuscript of the traditions of BukhārÄ«, Cambridge 1936
  • Rosemarie Quiring-Zoche, "How al-Bukhārī’s á¹¢aḥīḥ was edited in the Middle Ages. Ê¿AlÄ« al-YÅ«nÄ«nÄ« and his rumÅ«z," BEO 50 (1998), 191–222
  • Fuat Sezgin, Buhârî’nin kaynakları, Istanbul 1956
  • Umm Ê¿Abdallāh bt. MaḥrÅ«s al-Ê¿AsalÄ« et al., Fihris Muá¹£annafāt al-Imām AbÄ« Ê¿Abdallāh Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl al-Bukhārī…fÄ«mā Ê¿adā al-á¹¢aḥīḥ, Riyadh 1408/1987–8

External links

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