Mozilla Thunderbird

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Mozilla Thunderbird
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{{short description|Free and open-source email client by Mozilla}}{{Use mdy dates|date=January 2019}}

Cascading Style Sheets>CSS,FIREFOX USES AN "HTML.CSS" STYLESHEET FOR DEFAULT RENDERING STYLES >URL=HTTPS://DAVIDWALSH.NAME/FIREFOX-INTERNAL-RENDERING-CSS ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 19, 2009, THE FIREFOX ADDON, STYLISH TAKES ADVANTAGE OF FIREFOX'S CSS RENDERING TO CHANGE THE APPEARANCE OF FIREFOX >URL=HTTPS://USERSTYLES.ORG/STYLES;APP ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 19, 2009 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20090523083344/HTTP://USERSTYLES.ORG/STYLES;APP Rust (programming language)>Rust, XUL, XBLWindows 7 or later; OS X 10.9 or later; FreeBSD; LinuxTHUNDERBIRD 38.6.0 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS WEBSITE=MOZILLA.ORG ACCESSDATE=MARCH 24, 2018, THUNDERBIRD 52.7.0 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS >URL=HTTPS://WWW.MOZILLA.ORG/EN-US/THUNDERBIRD/52.7.0/SYSTEM-REQUIREMENTS/ MOZILLA.ORG >PUBLISHER=MOZILLA MESSAGING website=support.mozilla.orgWindows XP and Windows Vista>Vista| platform = Megabyte>MBWORK=MOZILLA.COM, March 1, 2015, | language count = 56| language footnote = | genre = Email client, news client, feed readerMozilla Public License>MPL 2.0{{citation title=Mozilla Licensing Policies accessdate=January 5, 2012}}| alexa = weblink}}| standard = | AsOf = }}Mozilla Thunderbird is a free and open-source,WEB,weblink Debian and Mozilla – a study in trademarks,, September 18, 2010, cross-platform email client, news client, RSS, and chat client developed by the Mozilla Foundation. The project strategy was modeled after that of the Mozilla Firefox web browser. It is installed by default on Ubuntu desktop systems.On December 7, 2004, version 1.0 was released, and received more than 500,000 downloads in its first three days of release, and 1,000,000 in 10 days.WEB,weblink thunderbird breaks half a million downloads in three days, Asa Dotzler's Blog, December 10, 2004, February 9, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink February 11, 2012, yes, WEB,weblink thunderbird 1.0 reaches 1,000,000 downloads in just 10 days!, Asa Dotzler's Blog, December 18, 2004, February 9, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink July 8, 2013, yes, On July 6, 2012, Mozilla announced the company was dropping the priority of Thunderbird development because the continuous effort to extend Thunderbird's feature set was mostly fruitless. The new development model shifted to Mozilla offering only "Extended Support Releases", which deliver security and maintenance updates, while allowing the community to take over the development of new features.WEB,weblink Thunderbird: Stability and Community Innovation, Mitchell's Blog, July 6, 2012, August 18, 2012, WEB,weblink Thunderbird/New Release and Governance Model, MozillaWiki, February 14, 2015, On December 1, 2015, Mozilla Executive Chair Mitchell Baker announced in a company-wide memo that Thunderbird development needs to be uncoupled from Firefox. She referred to Thunderbird developers spending large efforts responding to changes to Mozilla technologies, while Firefox was paying a tax to support Thunderbird development. She also said that she does not believe Thunderbird has the potential for "industry-wide impact" that Firefox does.WEB, Mozilla Governance: Thunderbird, the future, mozilla-central and comm-central,weblink Google Groups, Mozilla Governance, January 2, 2016, Mitchell, Baker, WEB, Mozilla Wants To Split Off Its Thunderbird Email/Chat Client, Says Mitchell Baker Memo,weblink TechCrunch, December 4, 2015, Ingrid, Lunden, At the same time, it was announced that Mozilla Foundation will provide at least a temporary legal and financial home for the Thunderbird project.WEB, Thunderbird Active Daily Inquiries Surpass 10 Million!,weblink The Mozilla Thunderbird Blog, January 2, 2016, James, Kent, Since the memo in 2015, Mozilla has brought Thunderbird back in-house in an announcement on May 9, 2017, and continues to support its development.WEB, Kewisch, Philipp, Thunderbird's Future Home,weblink The Mozilla Thunderbird Blog, Mozilla, May 29, 2019, WEB, Mozilla promises a faster, prettier Thunderbird with better Gmail support,weblink TechCrunch, May 29, 2019, Frederic, Lardinois, The Thunderbird development team has also expanded by adding several new members and has undergone an overhaul on security and user-interface.WEB, Thunderbird in 2019,weblink The Mozilla Thunderbird Blog, Mozilla, May 29, 2019, Ryan, Sipes,


Thunderbird is an email, newsgroup, news feed, and chat (XMPP, IRC, Twitter) client. The vanilla version was not originally a personal information manager (PIM), although the Mozilla Lightning extension, which is now installed by default, adds PIM functionality. Additional features, if needed, are often available via other extensions.

Message management

Thunderbird can manage multiple email, newsgroup, and news feed accounts and supports multiple identities within accounts. Features such as quick search, saved search folders ("virtual folders"), advanced message filtering, message grouping, and labels help manage and find messages. On Linux-based systems, system mail (movemail) accounts are supported. Thunderbird provides basic support for system-specific new email notifications and can be extended with advanced notification support using an add-on.WEB,weblink GNotifier,, July 21, 2017,

Junk filtering

Thunderbird incorporates a Bayesian spam filter, a whitelist based on the included address book, and can also understand classifications by server-based filters such as SpamAssassin.WEB,weblink Mozillazine Forums,, June 18, 2009,

Extensions and themes

Extensions allow the addition of features through the installation of XPInstall modules (known as "XPI" or "zippy" installation) via the add-ons website that also features an update functionality to update the extensions.Thunderbird supports a variety of themes for changing its overall look and feel. These packages of CSS and image files can be downloaded via the add-ons website at Mozilla Add-ons.WEB,weblink Themes :: Add-ons for Thunderbird,,

Standards support

Thunderbird follows industry standards.For Email there is:
  • POP. This enables you to move your mail from your remote email server to a local folder. IMAP does not.
  • IMAP. IMAP itself has many capabilities, and Thunderbird selected many of them, plus added their own and added the de facto standards by Google and Apple.WEB,weblink MailNews:Supported IMAP extensions,,
  • LDAP address completion.
  • S/MIME Provide encryption and signing, relying on X.509 keys provided by a centralised certificate authority.
  • OpenPGP This is not native, but through add-ons such as Enigmail instead.
For web feeds (e.g. news aggregators), there is Atom and RSS.Thunderbird follows internet protocols as they evolve. For example, {{as of | 2018 }}, they are on IRCv3.1 (but don't support IRCv3.2). For usenet news groups they offer the latest NNTPS. And so on. But see {{section link | | Limits and known issues }}.

File formats supported

Thunderbird provides mailbox format support using plugins, but this feature is not yet enabled due to related work in progress.WEB,weblink 402392 – Support other message storage formats. (prelude to pluggable mail stores),, March 1, 2015, The mailbox formats supported {{as of|2014|07|lc=y}} are:
  • mbox â€“ Unix mailbox format (one file holding many emails)
  • maildir â€“ known as maildir-lite (one file per email). As this is not yet stable, Mozilla advises that this format is still "too buggy for normal use".WEB,weblink Limits – Thunderbird,, March 8, 2015,
Thunderbird also uses Mork and (since version 3) MozStorage (which is based on SQLite) for its internal database. Mork was due to be replaced with MozStorage in Thunderbird 3.0,WEB,weblink Thunderbird 3 Planning,, August 10, 2009, August 19, 2009, but the 8.0 release still uses the Mork file format. The current version of SeaMonkey, version 2.14.1, also still uses Mork for its indexes for both POP and IMAP mail folders (at least).

Big file linking

Since version 38, Thunderbird has integrated support for automatic linking of large files instead of attaching them directly to the mail message.

HTML code insertion

The Insert menu provides the ability to include HTML code. Thus, one can insert subscripts with {{code|}} and {{code|}}, the degree symbol ° with {{code|°}}, etc., into a message being composed.

Limits and known issues

As with any software, there may be limitations to the number and sizes of files and objects represented. For example, POP3 folders are subject to filesystem design limitations, such as maximum file sizes on filesystems that do not have large file support, as well as possible limitations of long filenames, and other issues.

Cross-platform support

Thunderbird runs on a variety of platforms. Releases available on the primary distribution site support the following operating systems:WEB,weblink Mozilla Thunderbird 24.0 System Requirements,, November 13, 2013, WEB,weblink Mozilla Thunderbird,, November 13, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink May 14, 2012, yes, Unofficial ports are available for:
  • FreeBSDWEB,weblink mail/thunderbird, FreshPorts, August 18, 2012,
  • OpenBSDWEB,weblink thunderbird-31.4.0 – Mozilla e-mail, rss and usenet client, OpenBSD ports, March 1, 2015,
Other old ports may be available as for OS/2 and eComStation.WEB,weblink Warpzilla – Mozilla for OS/2,, Firefox 52esr is the last version that will be ported to OS/2., August 6, 2018, WEB,weblink Ports/os2 – MozillaWiki,, November 13, 2013, The source code is freely available and can be compiled to be run on a variety of other architectures and operating systems.

Internationalization and localization

With contributors all over the world, the client is translated into more than 50 different languages, although email addresses are currently limited to ASCII local parts.WEB,weblink Mozilla Thunderbird – Reclaim Your Inbox,, November 13, 2013, Thunderbird does not yet support SMTPUTF8 (RFC 6531) or Email Address Internationalization.


Thunderbird provides enterprise and government-grade security features such as TLS/SSL connections to IMAP and SMTP servers. It also offers native support for S/MIME secure email (digital signing and message encryption using certificates). Any of these security features can take advantage of smartcards with the installation of additional extensions.Other security features may be added through extensions. For instance, Enigmail offers PGP signing, encryption, and decryption.Optional security protections also include disabling loading of remote images within messages, enabling only specific media types (sanitizer), and disabling JavaScript.The French military uses Thunderbird and contributes to its security features, which are claimed to match the requirements for NATO's closed messaging system.WEB,weblink French Military Donated Code to Mozilla Thunderbird, Reuters, December 10, 2009, April 24, 2011, Marcel Michelson,


(File:Mozilla Thunderbird logo.png|thumb|upright=0.5|Logo of Thunderbird 2009–2018)(File:Mozilla Thunderbird old logo.png|thumb|upright=0.5|Logo of Thunderbird until 2009)Originally launched as Minotaur shortly after Phoenix (the original name for Mozilla Firefox), the project failed to gain momentum. With the success of the latter, however, demand increased for a mail client to go with it, and the work on Minotaur was revived under the new name of Thunderbird, and migrated to the new toolkit developed by the Firefox team.Significant work on Thunderbird restarted with the announcement that from version 1.5 onward, the main Mozilla suite would be designed around separate applications using this new toolkit. This contrasts with the previous all-in-one approach, allowing users to mix and match the Mozilla applications with alternatives. The original Mozilla Suite continues to be developed as SeaMonkey.On December 23, 2004, Project Lightning was announced which tightly integrated calendar functionality (scheduling, tasks, etc.) into Thunderbird. Lightning will support the full range of calendar mechanisms and protocols supported by the Mozilla Calendar infrastructure, just as with modern (post-0.2) Sunbird.On October 11, 2006, Qualcomm and the Mozilla Foundation announced that "future versions of Eudora will be based upon the same technology platform as the open source Mozilla Thunderbird email program."PRESS,weblink QUALCOMM Launches Project in Collaboration with Mozilla Foundation to Develop Open Source Version of Eudora Email Program,, October 11, 2006, November 13, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink October 1, 2013, yes, The project is code-named Penelope.In late 2006, Debian rebranded Thunderbird as Icedove due to trademark and copyright reasons. This was the second product to be rebranded.WEB,weblink Uses Mozilla Firefox trademark without permission – Debian Bug Tracker, Debian, September 18, 2010, On July 26, 2007, the Mozilla Foundation announced that Thunderbird would be developed by an independent organization, because the Mozilla Corporation (a subsidiary of the foundation) was focusing on Mozilla Firefox development.NEWS, Thomas, Claburn, Mozilla Gives Thunderbird E-Mail The Boot,weblink Internet section, July 27, 2007, July 31, 2007, On September 17, 2007, the Mozilla Foundation announced the funding of a new internet communications initiative with Dr. David Ascher of ActiveState. The purpose of this initiative was "to develop Internet communications software based on the Thunderbird product, code, and brand".PRESS,weblink Mozilla Launches Internet Mail and Communications Initiative,, September 17, 2007, June 18, 2009, On February 19, 2008, Mozilla Messaging started operations as a subsidiary of the Mozilla Foundation responsible for the development of email and similar communications. Its initial focus was on the then upcoming version of Thunderbird 3. Alpha Preview releases of Thunderbird 3 were codenamed "Shredder".On April 4, 2011, Mozilla Messaging was merged into the Mozilla Labs group of the Mozilla Foundation.WEB,weblink Thunderbird returns to nest as Mozilla Messaging rejoins Mozilla, Paul, Ryan, Ars Technica, April 5, 2011, April 5, 2011, On July 6, 2012, a confidential memo from Jb Piacentino, the Thunderbird Managing Director at Mozilla, was leaked and published to TechCrunch.WEB,weblink So, That's It For Thunderbird, Sarah Perez, TechCrunch, July 6, 2012, August 18, 2012, The memo indicated that Mozilla would be moving some of the team off the project and further development of new features would be left up to the community. The memo was slated for release on July 9, 2012. A subsequent article by the Executive Chair of Mozilla, Mitchell Baker, stated Mozilla's decision to make a transition of Thunderbird to a new release and governance model.On November 25, 2014, Kent James of the volunteer-led Thunderbird Council announced on the Thunderbird blog that active contributors to Thunderbird gathered at the Mozilla office in Toronto and discussed the future of the application. They have decided that more staff are required working full-time on Thunderbird so that the Thunderbird Team can release a stable and reliable product and make progress on features that have been frequently requested by the community.WEB,weblink Thunderbird Reorganizes at 2014 Toronto Summit, The Mozilla Thunderbird Blog, November 25, 2014, February 1, 2015, On December 1, 2015, Mitchell Baker suggested in a company-wide memo that Thunderbird should be uncoupled from Firefox's infrastructure. She referred to Thunderbird as being a tax on Firefox and said that she does not believe Thunderbird has the potential for "industry-wide impact" that Firefox does.WEB,weblink Mozilla Wants To Split Off Its Thunderbird Email/Chat Client, Says Mitchell Baker Memo, TechCrunch, December 1, 2015, December 2, 2015, Mozilla remains interested in having a role in Thunderbird, but is seeking more assistance to help with development.WEB,weblink Thunderbird Update {{!, Mitchell's Blog||access-date=October 13, 2016}}On May 9, 2017, Philipp Kewisch announced that the Mozilla Foundation will continue to serve as the legal and fiscal home for the Thunderbird project, but that Thunderbird will migrate off Mozilla Corporation infrastructure, separating the operational aspects of the project.WEB, Kewisch, Philipp, Thunderbird's Future Home,weblink The Mozilla Thunderbird Blog, Mozilla, May 11, 2017, The interim/beta versions Thunderbird 57 and 58, released in late 2017, began to make changes influenced by Firefox Quantum, including a new "Photon" user interface.NEWS,weblink Mozilla's Thunderbird email client isn't dead yet, Ghoshal, Abhimanyu, December 20, 2017, The Next Web, December 26, 2017, WEB,weblink New Thunderbird Releases and New Thunderbird Staff, The Mozilla Thunderbird Blog, December 26, 2017, Despite the removal in Firefox Quantum of support for XUL-based legacy add-ons in favor of WebExtensions, the stable/ESR release of Thunderbird 60 in mid-2018 continued to support them, although most will require updates, and it does not support WebExtensions except for Themes.WEB, September 24, 2018, Thunderbird/Add-ons Guide 57 - MozillaWiki,weblink, WEB, September 24, 2018, Thunderbird — Release Notes (60.0),weblink Thunderbird, In 2018, according to Mozilla, work was underway for planned support in Thunderbird 63 of WebExtensions and to continue to "somewhat" support legacy addons.WEB, September 24, 2018, Thunderbird/Add-ons Guide 63 - MozillaWiki,weblink,


Thunderbird development releases occur in three stages, called Beta, Earlybird, and Daily, which correspond to Firefox's Beta, Aurora, and Nightly stages. The release dates and Gecko versions are exactly the same as Firefox; for example, Firefox 7 and Thunderbird 7 were both released on September 27, 2011, and were both based on Gecko 7.0.{{Timeline Mozilla Thunderbird}}



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