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Moravia
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{{about|the Czech region}}{{Use dmy dates|date=September 2013}}







factoids
or "Bože, cos ráčil"220px)| map_caption = Moravia (green) in relation to the current regions of the Czech Republic| image_map1 = EU-Moravia.png| map_caption1 = Location of Moravia in the European Union49.517scale:3000000|display=inline,title}}| subdivision_type = CountryCzech Republic}}Regions of the Czech Republic>RegionsMoravian-Silesian Region, Olomouc Region, South Moravian Region, Vysočina Region>Vysočina, Zlín Region, South Bohemian Region| established_title = First mentionedRoyal Frankish Annals (year 822), pp. 111-112.HTTP://WWW.NASAMORAVA.EU/FAKTA-O-MORAVE.HTMLFIRST=INICIATIVA NAÅ¡A, Morava, Great Moravia>Consolidated AUTHORLINK = JOURNAL = EARLY MEDIEVAL EUROPE ISSUE = 3 YEAR = 2009 REF=HARV, 10.1111/j.1468-0254.2009.00279.x, | seat_type = Former capitalBrno (1641-1948)HTTP://ENCYKLOPEDIE.BRNA.CZ/HOME-MMB/?ACC=PROFIL_UDALOSTI&LOAD=550 YEAR=2004, Brno, Olomouc (until 1641)| parts_type = Major cities| parts = Brno, Ostrava, Olomouc, Zlín, Jihlava| area_total_km2 = 22348.87LAST=ARTEGA, | population_density_km2 = auto| population_demonym = MoravianCzech lands>Historical landCentral European Time>CET| utc_offset = +1Central European Summer Time>CEST| utc_offset_DST = +2| official_name = }}Moravia ({{IPAc-en|m|ɔː|ˈ|r|eɪ|v|i|É™|,_|-|ˈ|r|ɑː|-|,_|m|oÊŠ|-}} {{respell|maw|RAY|vee|É™|,_|-RAH-|,_|moh-}};"Moravia". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ; {{Audio-de|Mähren|Mähren.ogg}}; ; ) is a historical region in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The medieval and early modern Margraviate of Moravia was a crown land of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (from 1348 to 1918), an imperial state of the Holy Roman Empire (1004 to 1806), later a crown land of the Austrian Empire (1804 to 1867) and briefly also one of 17 former crown lands of the Cisleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1867 to 1918. During the early 20th century, Moravia was one of the five lands of Czechoslovakia from 1918 to 1928; it was then merged with Czech Silesia, and eventually dissolved by abolition of the land system in 1949.Moravia has an area of over 22,000 km2BOOK
, Statistický lexikon obcí v republice Československé - II. Země Moravskoslezská
, Praha
, 1935
,
, Změny v rozloze obcí a okresů.
, 149 and 151
, Czech
, and about 3 million inhabitants, which is roughly 2/7 or 30% of the whole Czech Republic. The statistics from 1921 states, that the whole area of Moravia including the enclaves in Silesia covers 22,623.41 km2.BOOK
, Statistický lexikon obcí v republice Československé. Morava a Slezsko
, Praha
, Státní úřad statistický
, 1924
,weblink
, Dodatek I. Přehled Moravy a Slezska podle žup
, 133
, Czech
, BOOK
, Statistický lexikon obcí v republice Československé. Morava a Slezsko
, Praha
, Státní úřad statistický
, 1924
,weblink
, Dodatek IV. Moravské enklávy ve Slezsku
, 138
, Czech
, The people are historically named Moravians, a subgroup of Czechs (as understood by Czechs). The land takes its name from the Morava river, which rises in the northern tip of the region and flows southward to the opposite end, being its major stream. Moravia's largest city and historical capital is Brno. Before being sacked by the Swedish army during the Thirty Years' War, Olomouc was another capital.Though officially abolished by an administrative reform in 1949, Moravia is still commonly acknowledged as a specific land in the Czech Republic. Moravian people are considerably aware of their Moravian identity and there is some rivalry between them and the Czechs from Bohemia.WEB,weblink Jsem Moravan?, Economia, a.s., 18 February 2000, WEB,weblink Říkáte celé ČR Čechy? Pro Moraváky jste ignorant, 8 February 2010, File:Moravská orlice.jpg|thumb|Moravian Banner of ArmsCONFERENCE
, Zbyšek
, Svoboda
, Pavel
, Fojtík
, Petr
, Exner
, Jaroslav
, Martykán
,
, Odborné vexilologické stanovisko k moravské vlajce
, Vexilologie. Zpravodaj České vexilologické společnosti, o.s. č. 169
, 3319, 3320
, Česká vexilologická společnost
, 2013
, Brno
,weblink
,
,
, CONFERENCE , František
, Pícha
,
, Znaky a prapory v kronice Ottokara Štýrského
, Vexilologie. Zpravodaj České vexilologické společnosti, o.s. č. 169
, 3320–3324
, Česká vexilologická společnost
, 2013
, Brno
,
weblink
,
,
, ">
, František
, Pícha
,
, Znaky a prapory v kronice Ottokara Štýrského
, Vexilologie. Zpravodaj České vexilologické společnosti, o.s. č. 169
, 3320–3324
, Česká vexilologická společnost
, 2013
, Brno
,weblink
,
,
,

Etymology

The region and former margraviate of Moravia, Morava in Czech, is named after its principal river Morava. It is theorized that the river's name is derived from Proto-Indo-European *mori: "waters", or indeed any word denoting water or a marsh.ŠRÁMEK, Rudolf, MAJTÁN, Milan, Lutterer, Ivan: Zeměpisná jména Československa, Mladá fronta (1982), Praha, str. 202.The German name for Moravia is Mähren, again from the river's German name March. Interestingly, this might hint at a different etymology, as march is a term used in the Medieval times for an outlying territory, a border or a frontier (cf. English (:wikt:march#Etymology 2|march)).

Geography

File:Kralicky-Sneznik-03.jpg|thumb|Rolling hills of Králický Sněžník from Horní Morava, left BohemiaBohemiaFile:Smrk a rameno Å ance 1.jpg|thumb|left|Å ance, part of the Moravian-Silesian BeskidsMoravian-Silesian BeskidsFile:Step v říjnu.jpg|thumb|left|Mohelno steppesteppeMoravia occupies most of the eastern part of the Czech Republic. Moravian territory is naturally strongly determined, in fact, as the Morava river basin, with strong effect of mountains in the west (de facto main European continental divide) and partly in the east, where all the rivers rise.Moravia occupies an exceptional position in Central Europe. All the highlands in the west and east of this part of Europe run west-east, and therefore form a kind of filter, making north-south or south north movement more difficult. Only Moravia with the depression of the westernmost Outer Subcarpathia, {{convert|14-40|km|mi|sp=us}} wide, between the Bohemian Massif and the Outer Western Carpathians (gripping the meridian at a constant angle of 30°), provides a comfortable connection between the Danubian and Polish regions, and this area is thus of great importance in terms of the possible migration routes of large mammalsJOURNAL, Antón, Mauricio, Galobart, Angel, Turner, Alan, May 2005, Co-existence of scimitar-toothed cats, lions and hominins in the European Pleistocene. Implications of the post-cranial anatomy of Homotherium latidens (Owen) for comparative palaeoecology,weblink Quaternary Science Reviews, 24, 10–11, 1287–1301, 10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.09.008, 23 June 2016, – both as regards periodically recurring seasonal migrations triggered by climatic oscillations in the prehistory, when permanent settlement started.Moravia borders Bohemia in the west, Lower Austria in the south(west), Slovakia in the southeast, Poland very shortly in the north, and Czech Silesia in the northeast. Its natural boundary is formed by the Sudetes mountains in the north, the Carpathians in the east and the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands in the west (the border runs from Králický Sněžník in the north, over Suchý vrch, across Upper Svratka Highlands and JavoÅ™ice Highlands to tripoint nearby Slavonice in the south). The Thaya river meanders along the border with Austria and the tripoint of Moravia, Austria and Slovakia is at the confluence of the Thaya and Morava rivers. The northeast border with Silesia runs partly along the Moravice, Oder and Ostravice rivers. Between 1782–1850, Moravia (also thus known as Moravia-Silesia) also included a small portion of the former province of Silesia – the Austrian Silesia (when Frederick the Great annexed most of ancient Silesia (the land of upper and middle Oder river) to Prussia, Silesia's southernmost part remained with the Habsburgs).Today Moravia including the South Moravian Region,Not only here for the beer: Moravia, the Czech Republic's wine region. The Guardian 2011 the Zlín Region, vast majority of the Olomouc Region, southeastern half of the Vysočina Region and parts of the Moravian-Silesian, Pardubice and South Bohemian regions.Geologically, Moravia covers a transitive area{{clarify|date=October 2017|comment=What is a "transitive area"? Is this a transition zone between mountain and plains?}} between the Bohemian Massif and the Carpathians (from (north)west to southeast), and between the Danube basin and the North European Plain (from south to northeast). Its core geomorphological features are three wide valleys, namely the Dyje-Svratka Valley (Dyjsko-svratecký úval), the Upper Morava Valley (Hornomoravský úval) and the Lower Morava Valley (Dolnomoravský úval). The first two form the westernmost part of the Outer Subcarpathia, the last is the northernmost part of the Vienna Basin. The valleys surround the low range of Central Moravian Carpathians. The highest mountains of Moravia are situated on its northern border in Hrubý Jeseník, the highest peak is PradÄ›d (1491 m). Second highest is the massive of Králický Sněžník (1424  m) the third are the Moravian-Silesian Beskids at the very east, with Smrk (1278 m), and then south from here Javorníky (1072). The White Carpathians along the southeastern border rise up to 970 m at Velká JavoÅ™ina. The spacious, but moderate Bohemian-Moravian Highlands on the west reach 837 m at JavoÅ™ice.The fluvial system of Moravia is very cohesive, as the region border is similar to the watershed of the Morava river, and thus almost the entire area is drained exclusively by a single stream. Morava's far biggest tributaries are Thaya (Dyje) from the right (or west) and Bečva (east). Morava and Thaya meet at the southernmost and lowest (148 m) point of Moravia. Small peripheral parts of Moravia belong to the catchment area of Elbe, Váh and especially Oder (the northeast). The watershed line running along Moravia's border from west to north and east is part of the European Watershed. For centuries, there has been plans to build a waterway across Moravia to join the Danube and Oder river systems, using the natural route through the Moravian Gate.WEB,weblink About the multipurpose water corridor Danube-Oder-Elbe, Administrator, BOOK, Klimo, Emil, Hager, Herbert, 2000, The Floodplain Forests in Europe: Current Situation and Perspectives (European Forest Institute research reports), Leiden, Brill, 48, 9789004119581,

Pre-history

File:Vestonicka venuse edit.jpg|thumb|left|Venus of VestoniceVenus of VestoniceEvidence of the presence of Homo dates back more than 600,000 years in the paleontological area of Stránská Skála.File:Vestonicka nadrz.jpg|thumb|Pálava mountains with Věstonice Reservoir, area of palaeolithic settlement]]Attracted by suitable living conditions, early modern humans settled in the region by the Paleolithic period. The Předmostí archeological (Cro-magnon) site in Moravia is dated to between 24,000 and 27,000 years old. Caves in Moravský kras were used by mammoth hunters. Venus of Dolní Věstonice, the oldest ceramic figure in the world,Jonathan Jones: Carl Andre on notoriety and a 26,000-year-old portrait – the week in art. The Guardian 25 January 2013WEB,weblink Dolni Vestonice and Pavlov sites, was found in the excavation of Dolní Věstonice by Karel Absolon.Oldest homes were made of mammoth bone. The Times 29.8.2005

History

Roman era

Around 60 BC, the Celtic Volcae people withdrew from the region and were succeeded by the Germanic Quadi. Some of the events of the Marcomannic Wars took place in Moravia in AD 169–180. After the war exposed the weakness of Rome's northern frontier, half of the Roman legions (16 out of 33) were stationed along the Danube. In response to increasing numbers of Germanic settlers in frontier regions like Pannonia, Dacia, Rome established two new frontier provinces on the left shore of the Danube, Marcomannia and Sarmatia, including today's Moravia and western Slovakia.In the 2nd century AD, a Roman fortressWEB,weblink DetaÅ¡ované pracoviÅ¡tÄ› Dolní Dunajovice - Hradisko u MuÅ¡ova, WEB,weblink OpevnÄ›ní - DetaÅ¡ované pracoviÅ¡tÄ› Dolní Dunajovice, AÚ AV ÄŒR Brno, v. v. i., stood on the vineyards hill known as and ("hillfort"), situated above the former village MuÅ¡ov and above today's beach resort at Pasohlávky. During the reign of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, the 10th Legion was assigned to control the Germanic tribes who had been defeated in the Marcomannic Wars.BOOK,weblink Limes XX: Estudios sobre la frontera romana (Roman frontier studies), Norbert, Hanel, Ángel Morillo, Cerdán, Esperanza Martín, Hernández, 1 January 2009, Editorial CSIC - CSIC Press, Google Books, 9788400088545, In 1927, the archeologist Gnirs, with the support of president Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, began research on the site, located 80 km from Vindobona and 22 km to the south of Brno. The researchers found remnants of two masonry buildings, a praetoriumWEB,weblink Lázeňská a obytná budova - DetaÅ¡ované pracoviÅ¡tÄ› Dolní Dunajovice, AÚ AV ÄŒR Brno, v. v. i., and a balneum ("bath"), including a hypocaustum. The discovery of bricks with the stamp of the Legio X Gemina and coins from the period of the emperors Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius and Commodus facilitated dating of the locality.

Ancient Moravia

{{see also|Great Moravia}}File:Great Moravia-eng.png|thumb|Territory of Great Moravia in the 9th century: area ruled by Rastislav (846–870) map marks the greatest territorial extent during the reign of Svatopluk I (871–894), violet core is origin of Moravia ]]A variety of Germanic and major Slavic tribes crossed through Moravia during the Migration Period before Slavs established themselves in the 6th century AD. At the end of the 8th century, the Moravian Principality came into being in present-day south-eastern Moravia, Záhorie in south-western Slovakia and parts of Lower Austria. In 833 AD, this became the state of Great MoraviaFlorin Kurta. The history and archaeology of Great Moravia: an introduction. in: "Early Medieval Europe", 2009 volume 17 (3) with the conquest of the Principality of Nitra (present-day Slovakia). Their first king was Mojmír I (ruled 830–846). Louis the German invaded Moravia and replaced Mojmír I with his nephew Rastiz who became St. Rastislav.Reuter, Timothy. (1991). Germany in the Early Middle Ages, London: Longman, page 82 St. Rastislav (846–870) tried to emancipate his land from the Carolingian influence, so he sent envoys to Rome to get missionaries to come. When Rome refused he turned to Constantinople to the Byzantine emperor Michael. The result was the mission of Saints Cyril and Methodius who translated liturgical books into Slavonic, which had lately been elevated by the Pope to the same level as Latin and Greek. Methodius became the first Moravian archbishop, but after his death the German influence again prevailed and the disciples of Methodius were forced to flee. Great Moravia reached its greatest territorial extent in the 890s under Svatopluk I. At this time, the empire encompassed the territory of the present-day Czech Republic and Slovakia, the western part of present Hungary (Pannonia), as well as Lusatia in present-day Germany and Silesia and the upper Vistula basin in southern Poland. After Svatopluk's death in 895, the Bohemian princes defected to become vassals of the East Frankish ruler Arnulf of Carinthia, and the Moravian state ceased to exist after being overrun by invading Magyars in 907.BOOK, Štefan, Ivo, Macháček, Jiří, Ungerman, Šimon, Frühgeschichtliche Zentralorte in Mitteleuropa, Verlag Dr. Rudolf Habelt, Bonn, 2011, 333–354, Great Moravia, Statehood and Archaeology: The "Decline and Fall" of One Early Medieval Polity, 978-3-7749-3730-7,weblink 2013-08-27, harv, BOOK, Spiesz, Anton, Caplovic, Dusan, 2006, Illustrated Slovak History: A Struggle for Sovereignty in Central Europe, Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 978-0-86516-426-0, harv,

Union with Bohemia

File:Trebic podklasteri bazilika velka apsida.jpg|thumb|left|Třebíč, Romanesque St. Procopius Basilica 12th century]](File:Bogemia 1138 — 1254.jpg|thumb|Bohemia and Moravia in the 12th century)File:Brno - Kostel sv. Tomáše, místodžitelský palác a alegorická postava spravedlnosti.jpg|left|thumb|Church of St. Thomas, Brno, mausoleum of Moravian branch House of LuxembourgHouse of LuxembourgFollowing the defeat of the Magyars by Emperor Otto I at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955, Otto's ally Boleslaus I, the Přemyslid ruler of Bohemia, took control over Moravia. Bolesław I Chrobry of Poland annexed Moravia in 999, and ruled it until 1019,The exact dating of the conquest of Moravia by Bohemian dukes is uncertain. Czech and some Slovak historiographers suggest the year 1019, while Polish, German and other Slovak historians suggest 1029, during the rule of Boleslaus' son, Mieszko II Lambert. when the Přemyslid prince Bretislaus recaptured it. Upon his father's death in 1034, Bretislaus became the ruler of Bohemia. In 1055, he decreed that Bohemia and Moravia would be inherited together by primogeniture, although he also provided that his younger sons should govern parts (quarters) of Moravia as vassals to his oldest son.Throughout the Přemyslid era, junior princes often ruled all or part of Moravia from Olomouc, Brno or Znojmo, with varying degrees of autonomy from the ruler of Bohemia. Dukes of Olomouc often acted as the "right hand" of Prague dukes and kings, while Dukes of Brno and especially those of Znojmo were much more insubordinate. Moravia reached its height of autonomy in 1182, when Emperor Frederick I elevated Conrad II Otto of Znojmo to the status of a margrave,There are no primary testimonies about creating a margraviate (march) as distinct political unit immediately subject to the emperor, independent of Bohemia. This status was short-lived: in 1186, Conrad Otto was forced to obey the supreme rule of Bohemian duke Frederick. Three years later, Conrad Otto succeeded to Frederick as Duke of Bohemia and subsequently canceled his margrave title. Nevertheless, the margrave title was restored in 1197 when Vladislaus III of Bohemia resolved the succession dispute between him and his brother Ottokar by abdicating from the Bohemian throne and accepting Moravia as a vassal land of Bohemian (i.e., Prague) rulers. Vladislaus gradually established this land as Margraviate, slightly administratively different from Bohemia. After the Battle of Legnica, the Mongols carried their raids into Moravia.The main line of the Přemyslid dynasty became extinct in 1306, and in 1310 John of Luxembourg became Margrave of Moravia and King of Bohemia. In 1333, he made his son Charles the next Margrave of Moravia (later in 1346, Charles also became the King of Bohemia). In 1349, Charles gave Moravia to his younger brother John Henry who ruled in the margraviate until his death in 1375, after him Moravia was ruled by his oldest son Jobst of Moravia who was in 1410 elected the Holy Roman King but died in 1411 (he is buried with his father in the Church of St. Thomas in Brno – the Moravian capital from which they both ruled). Moravia and Bohemia remained within the Luxembourg dynasty of Holy Roman kings and emperors (except during the Hussite wars), until inherited by Albert II of Habsburg in 1437.After his death followed the interregnum until 1453; land (as the rest of lands of the Bohemian Crown) was administered by the landfriedens (landfrýdy). The rule of young Ladislaus the Posthumous subsisted only less than five years and subsequently (1458) the Hussite George of Poděbrady was elected as the king. He again reunited all Czech lands (then Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Upper & Lower Lusatia) into one-man ruled state. In 1466, Pope Paul II excommunicated George and forbade all Catholics (i.e. about 15% of population) from continuing to serve him. The Hungarian crusade followed and in 1469 Matthias Corvinus conquered Moravia and proclaimed himself (with assistance of rebelling Bohemian nobility) as the king of Bohemia.The subsequent 21-year period of a divided kingdom was decisive for the rising awareness of a specific Moravian identity, distinct from that of Bohemia. Although Moravia was reunited with Bohemia in 1490 when Vladislaus Jagiellon, king of Bohemia, also became king of Hungary, some attachment to Moravian "freedoms" and resistance to government by Prague continued until the end of independence in 1620. In 1526, Vladislaus' son Louis died in battle and the Habsburg Ferdinand I was elected as his successor.{{clear}}

{{anchor|Habsburg Rule (1526-1918)}} Habsburg rule (1526–1918)

File:Growth of Habsburg territories.jpg|thumb|Habsburg Empire Crown lands: growth of the Habsburg territories and Moravia's status ]](File:Verwaltungsgliederung der Markgrafschaft Mähren 1893.svg|thumb|right|Administrative division of Moravia as crown land of Austria in 1893)After the death of King Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia in 1526, Ferdinand I of Austria was elected King of Bohemia and thus ruler of the Crown of Bohemia (including Moravia). The epoch 1526–1620 was marked by increasing animosity between Catholic Habsburg kings (emperors) and the Protestant Moravian nobility (and other Crowns') estates. Moravia,Evan Rail (23 September 2011).The Castles of Moravia. NYT 23.9.2011 like Bohemia, was a Habsburg possession until the end of World War I. In 1573 the Jesuit University of Olomouc was established; this was the first university in Moravia. The establishment of a special papal seminary, Collegium Nordicum, made the University a centre of the Catholic Reformation and effort to revive Catholicism in Central and Northern Europe. The second largest group of students were from Scandinavia.Brno and Olomouc served as Moravia's capitals until 1641. As the only city to successfully resist the Swedish invasion, Brno become the sole capital following the capture of Olomouc. The Margraviate of Moravia had, from 1348 in Olomouc and Brno, its own Diet, or parliament, zemský snÄ›m (Landtag in German), whose deputies from 1905 onward were elected separately from the ethnically separate German and Czech constituencies.The oldest surviving theatre building in Central Europe, the Reduta Theatre, was established in 17th-century Moravia. Ottoman Turks and Tatars invaded the region in 1663, taking 12,000 captives.Lánové rejstříky (1656–1711) {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120312041124weblink |date=12 March 2012 }} {{cs icon}} In 1740, Moravia was invaded by Prussian forces under Frederick the Great, and Olomouc was forced to surrender on 27 December 1741. A few months later the Prussians were repelled, mainly because of their unsuccessful siege of Brno in 1742. In 1758, Olomouc was besieged by Prussians again, but this time its defenders forced the Prussians to withdraw following the Battle of Domstadtl. In 1777, a new Moravian bishopric was established in Brno, and the Olomouc bishopric was elevated to an archbishopric.WEB,weblink CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Moravia, In 1782, the Margraviate of Moravia was merged with Austrian Silesia into Moravia-Silesia, with Brno as its capital. This lasted until 1850.WEB,weblink MORAVIA - JewishEncyclopedia.com, According to Austro-Hungarian census of 1910 the proportion of Czech in the population of Moravia at the time (2.622.000) was 71,8 %, while the proportion of Germans was 27,6 %. Hans Chmelar: Höhepunkte der österreichischen Auswanderung. Die Auswanderung aus den im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreichen und Ländern in den Jahren 1905–1914. (= Studien zur Geschichte der österreichisch-ungarischen Monarchie. Band 14) Kommission für die Geschichte der Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien 1974, {{ISBN|3-7001-0075-2}}, S. 109.

20th century

File:JanCerny.jpg|thumb|left|Jan ČernýJan ČernýFollowing the break-up of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918, Moravia became part of Czechoslovakia. As one of the five lands of Czechoslovakia, it had restricted autonomy. In 1928 Moravia ceased to exist as a territorial unity and was merged with Czech Silesia into the Moravian-Silesian Land (yet with the natural dominance of Moravia). By the Munich Agreement (1938), the southwestern and northern peripheries of Moravia were annexed by Nazi Germany, and during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1939–1945), the remnant of Moravia was an administrative unit within the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. During the WW II Moravia lost 46,306 Jews according to religion.Hope for the future in Brno's Jewish cemetery BBC 3.7. 2014In 1945 after the end of World War II and Allied defeat of Germany, Czechoslovakia expelled the ethnic German minority of Moravia to Germany and Austria. The Moravian-Silesian Land was restored with Moravia as part of it. In 1949 the territorial division of Czechoslovakia was radically changed, as the Moravian-Silesian Land was abolished and Lands were replaced by "kraje" (regions), whose borders substantially differ from the historical Bohemian-Moravian border, so Moravia politically ceased to exist after more than 1100 years (833–1949) of its history. Although another administrative reform in 1960 implemented (among others) the North Moravian and the South Moravian regions (Severomoravský and Jihomoravský kraj), with capitals in Ostrava and Brno respectively, their joint area was only roughly alike the historical state and, chiefly, there was no land or federal autonomy, unlike Slovakia.After the fall of the Soviet Union and the whole Eastern Block, the Czechoslovak Federal Assembly condemned the cancellation of Moravian-Silesian land and expressed "firm conviction that this injustice will be corrected" in 1990. However, after the breakup of Czechoslovakia into Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1993, Moravian area remained integral to the Czech territory, and the latest administrative division of Czech Republic (introduced in 2000) is similar to the administrative division of 1949. Nevertheless, the federalist or separatist movement in Moravia is completely marginal.The centuries-lasting historical Bohemian-Moravian border has been preserved up to now only by the Czech Roman Catholic Administration, as the Ecclesiastical Province of Moravia corresponds with the former Moravian-Silesian Land. The popular perception of the Bohemian-Moravian border's location is distorted by the memory of the 1960 regions (whose boundaries are still partly in use).

Gallery

Map of Moravia.jpg|General map of Moravia 1929První Československá republika do 1928.jpg|Moravia within Czechoslovakia between 1918–1928První Československá republika.SVG|Moravia as part of the Moravia-Silesia within Czechoslovakia between 1928–1938Czechoslovakia IV.png|Moravia-Silesia within Czechoslovakia between 1928–1938CZ-cleneni-Morava-wl.png|Moravia within the Czech RepublicMoravska narodnost 1991.PNG|Moravian nationality, as declared by people in the 1991 censusŘeznovice románský chrám sv. Petra a Pavla 2.JPG|Řeznovice Romanesque temple S. Peter and PaulDóm Svatého Václava, Olomouc.jpg|Saint Wenceslas Cathedral, Olomouc. Metropolitical Church of Moravia. Seat of Archbishop of OlomoucSovinec-hrad.jpg|Sovinec castle{{clear}}

Economy

{{Expand section|date=February 2012}}An area in South Moravia, around Hodonín and Břeclav, is part of the Viennese Basin. Petroleum and lignite are found there in abundance. The main economic centres of Moravia are Brno, Olomouc and Zlín, plus Ostrava lying directly on the Moravian-Silesian border. As well as agriculture in general, Moravia is noted for its viticulture; it contains 94% of the Czech Republic's vineyards and is at the centre of the country's wine industry. Wallachia have at least a 400 year old tradition of slivovitz making.WEB, Jelínek's 400-Year Tradition of Making Slivovitz Bears Fruit in the U.S.,weblink OU Kosher Certification, en, 5 October 2010, Stará huť Josefov.JPG|Oldest Iron Blast furnace near Brno, 1745Michael Thonet 14.jpg|Thonet chair No. 14File:Sportovní vůz Supersport.gif|Wikow 35, first aerodynamics car in CzechoslovakiaTatra 77.jpg|Tatra 77Zetor 25A.jpg|Zetor tractorFlexaret III.jpg|Flexaret cameraSlivovice R. JELÍNEK.jpg|Moravian SlivoviceGrapes in Pálava region (1).jpg|Moravian grapes{{clear}}

Arms industry

Moravia is also the centre of the Czech firearm industry, as the vast majority of Czech firearms manufacturers (e.g. CZUB, Zbrojovka Brno, Czech Small Arms, Czech Weapons, ZVI, Great Gun) are settled in Moravia. Almost all well-known Czech sporting, self-defence, military and hunting firearms come from Moravia. Also, Meopta rifle scopes are of Moravian origin.File:Bren1.jpg|Original Bren gunFile:YM-battlefield-Bren-1.jpg|Famous original Bren gun in fieldFile:Cz805.png|Moravian assault rifle CZ-805 BRENFile:Sa_58-JH04.jpg|Moravian assault rifle Sa vz. 58File:1977_CZ-75.png|Moravian handgun CZ 75File:Pistole_Kevin.jpg|Moravian handgun ZVI Kevin, a.k.a. Micro Desert Eagle{{clear}}

Aircraft industry

The Zlín Region hosts several aircraft manufacturers, namely Let Kunovice (also known as Aircraft Industries, a.s.), ZLIN AIRCRAFT a.s. Otrokovice (former well-known name Moravan Otrokovice), Evektor-Aerotechnik and Czech Sport Aircraft. Sport aircraft are also manufactured in Jihlava by Jihlavan Airplanes/Skyleader.Aircraft production in the region started in 1930s and there are signs of recovery in recent years and the production is expected to grow from 2013 onwards.WEB
, Hospodářské noviny IHNED, 1213-7693, 2012
, Leteckou výrobu v Česku čeká v roce 2013 růst. Pomůže modernizace L-410 (Czech aircraft production expected to grow in 2013)
,weblink
, File:Zlin XIII OK-TBZ (8190833921).jpg|Moravian aircraft Zlín Z-50File:Tatra T-131PA Jungmann AN1738496.jpg|Tatra aircraft (licensed)File:Flying Bulls Aerobatics Team 05.jpg|Moravian aircraft Zlín Z-50File:Letoun L-200D Morava (4069401562).jpg|Moravian aircraft Let L-200 MoravaFile:Let410uvpe-at-manila-domestic-airport.jpg|Moravian aircraft Let L-410File:EV-55-Outback-03.jpg|Moravian aircraft Evektor EV-55 OutbackFile:Skyleader200 brasov.jpg|Moravian aircraft Jihlavan KP-2U Skyleader{{clear}}

Machinery industry

Machinery has been the most important industrial sector in the region, especially in South Moravia, for many decades. The main centres of machinery production are Brno (Zbrojovka Brno, Zetor, První brněnská strojírna, Siemens), Blansko (ČKD Blansko, Metra), Adamov (ADAST), Kuřim (TOS Kuřim), Boskovice (Minerva, Novibra) and Břeclav (Otis Elevator Company), together with a large number of other variously sized machinery or machining factories, companies or workshops spread all over Moravia.

Electrical industry

The beginnings of the electrical industry in Moravia date back to 1918. The biggest centres of electrical production are Brno (VUES, ZPA Brno, EM Brno), Drásov, Frenštát pod Radhoštěm and Mohelnice (currently Siemens).

Cities

Statutory cities

Other cities

People

File:Moravian Slovak Costumes during Jizda Kralu.jpg|thumb|right|Male and female Moravian Slovak costumes worn during the Jízda králů ("Ride of the KingsRide of the KingsThe Moravians are generally a Slavic ethnic group who speak various (generally more archaic) dialects of Czech. Before the expulsion of Germans from Moravia the Moravian German minority also referred to themselves as "Moravians" (Mährer). Those expelled and their descendants continue to identify as Moravian.Bill Lehane: ČSÚ (Czech statistical office) plays down census disputes – Campaign want to include Moravian language in count (Moravian identity). The Prague Post 9.3.2011 20 Some Moravians assert that Moravian is a language distinct from Czech; however, their position is not widely supported by academics and the public.WEB,weblink Číšník tvoří spisovnou moravštinu, Kolínková, Eliška, 26 December 2008, Mladá fronta DNES, iDnes, 7 December 2011, cs, NEWS,weblink Moravané tvoří spisovnou moravštinu, Zemanová, Barbora, 12 November 2008, denik.cz, 7 December 2011, cs, Brněnský Deník, O spisovné moravštině a jiných „malých“ jazycích (Naše řeč 5, ročník 83/2000) {{cs icon}}WEB,weblink Amatérský jazykovědec prosazuje moravštinu jako nový jazyk, Kolínková, Eliška, 30 December 2008, Mladá fronta DNES, iDnes, 7 December 2011, cs, Some Moravians identify as an ethnically distinct group; the majority consider themselves to be ethnically Czech. In the census of 1991 (the first census in history in which respondents were allowed to claim Moravian nationality), 1,362,000 (13.2%) of the Czech population identified as being of Moravian nationality (or ethnicity). In some parts of Moravia (mostly in the centre and south), majority of the population identified as Moravians, rather than Czechs. In the census of 2001, the number of Moravians had decreased to 380,000 (3.7% of the country's population).BOOK, Robert B. Kaplan, Richard B. Baldauf, Language Planning and Policy in Europe,weblink 1 January 2005, Multilingual Matters, 978-1-85359-813-5, 27–, In the census of 2011, this number rose to 522,474 (4.9% of the Czech population).BOOK, Lynn Tesser, Ethnic Cleansing and the European Union: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Security, Memory and Ethnography,weblink 14 May 2013, Palgrave Macmillan, 978-1-137-30877-1, 213–, BOOK, Ibp, Inc, Czech Republic Mining Laws and Regulations Handbook - Strategic Information and Basic Laws,weblink 10 September 2013, Int'l Business Publications, 978-1-4330-7727-2, 8–, {{Historical populations|type =|footnote =c. 500000c. 580000c. 65000011346741656397134680214438041643637170399517936742103847216047122853212447121 26930272662884 2827648 2610650 3125000|source = BOOK
, Historický lexikon obcí České republiky 1869–2005
, Historical lexicon of municipalities in the Czech Republic 1869–2005
, Český statistický úřad
, Czech
, 2006
, 51–54
, 978-80-250-1311-3
,weblink$File/13n106cd1.pdf
, Díl I
display-authors=etal, }}Moravia historically had a large minority of ethnic Germans, some of whom had arrived as early as the 13th century at the behest of the Přemyslid dynasty. Germans continued to come to Moravia in waves, culminating in the 18th century. They lived in the main city centres and in the countryside along the border with Austria (stretching up to Brno) and along the border with Silesia at Jeseníky, and also in two language islands, around Jihlava and around Moravská Třebová. After the Second World War, Czechoslovakia almost fully expelled them in retaliation for Nazi German efforts to create a Greater Germanic Reich in Central Europe.

Moravians

File:Johan_amos_comenius_1592-1671.jpg|ComeniusFile:Gregor_Mendel_oval.jpg|Gregor MendelFile:Jan Vilímek - František Palacký.jpg|František PalackýFile:Jasomir Mundy.jpg|Jaromír MundyFile:Tomáš_Garrigue_Masaryk_1925.PNG|Tomáš Garrigue MasarykFile:Leoš_Janáček.jpg|Leoš JanáčekFile:Sigmund Freud, by Max Halberstadt (cropped).jpg|Sigmund FreudFile:Edmund_Husserl_1910s.jpg|Edmund HusserlFile:Alfons_Mucha_LOC_3c05828u.jpg|Alphonse MuchaFile:Adolfloos.2.jpg|Adolf LoosFile:Tomas_Bata.jpg|Tomáš BaťaFile:Kurt_gödel.jpg|Kurt GödelFile:Fotothek_df_roe-neg_0006305_003_Emil_Zátopek-2.jpg|Emil ZátopekFile:Milan Kundera redux.jpg|Milan KunderaFile:Lendl_CU.jpg|Ivan LendlNotable people from Moravia include (in order of birth):{{see also|List of people from Moravia}} (File:Obyvatelstvo moravské.jpg|thumb|right|Old ethnic division of Moravians according to an encyclopaedia of 1878)

Ethnographic regions

Moravia can be divided on dialectal and lore basis into several ethnographic regions of comparable significance. In this sense, it is more heterogenous than Bohemia. Significant parts of Moravia, usually those formerly inhabited by the German speakers, are dialectally indifferent, as they have been resettled by people from various Czech (and Slovak) regions.The principal cultural regions of Moravia are:

Places of interest

{{expand section|date=June 2016}}(File:Zámek_Lednice.jpg|thumb|right|Lednice Castle)(File:Punkevní_jeskyně12.jpg|thumb|right|Punkevní Cave in the Moravian Karst)

World Heritage Sites

Other

See also

References

Further reading

  • The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society (1877) for the Diffusion of Useful ..., volume 15. London, Charles Knight. Moravia. pg. 397–398
  • The New Encyclopædia Britannica (2003). Chicago, New Delhi, Paris, Seoul, Sydney, Taipei, Tokyo. Volume 8. pg. 309. Moravia. {{ISBN|0-85229 961-3}}
  • Filip, Jan (1964) The Great Moravia exhibition. ÄŒSAV (Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences)
  • GaluÅ¡ka, LudÄ›k, Mitáček Jiří, Novotná, Lea /eds./ (2010) Treausures of Moravia – story of historical land. Brno, Moravian Museum. {{ISBN|978-80-7028-371-4}}.
  • National Geographic Society. Wonders of the Ancient World; National Geographic Atlas of Archaeology, Norman Hammond, Consultant, Nat'l Geogr. Soc., (Multiple Staff authors), (Nat'l Geogr., R.H.Donnelley & Sons, Willard, OH), 1994, 1999, Reg or Deluxe Ed., 304 pgs. Deluxe ed. photo (pg 248): "Venus, Dolni VÄ›stonice, 24,000 B.C." In section titled: The Potter's Art, pp 246–253.
  • Dekan, Jan (1981). Moravia Magna: The Great Moravian Empire, Its Art and Time, Minneapolis: Control Data Arts. {{ISBN|0-89893-084-7}}
  • Hugh, Agnew (2004). The Czechs and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown.Hoower Press, Stanford. {{ISBN|0-8179-4491-5}}
  • Róna-Tas, András (1999) Hungarians & Europe in the Early Middle Ages: An Introduction to Early Hungarian History translated by Nicholas Bodoczky, Central European University Press, Budapest, {{ISBN|963-9116-48-3}} ;
  • Wihoda, Martin (2015), Vladislaus Henry: The Formation of Moravian Identity. Brill Publishers {{ISBN|9789004250499}}
  • Kirschbaum, Stanislav J. (1996) A History of Slovakia: The Struggle for Survival St. Martin's Press, New York, {{ISBN|0-312-16125-5}} ;
  • Constantine Porphyrogenitus De Administrando Imperio edited by Gy. Moravcsik, translated by R.J.H. Jenkins, Dumbarton Oaks Edition, Washington D.C. (1993)
  • Hlobil, Ivo, Daniel, Ladislav (2000), The last flowers of the middle ages : from the gothic to the renaissance in Moravia and Silesia. Olomouc/Brno, Moravian Galery, Muzeum umÄ›ní Olomouc {{ISBN| 9788085227406|date=April 2017}}
  • David, Jiří (2009). "Moravian estatism and provincial councils in the second half of the 17th century". Folia historica Bohemica. 1 24: 111–165. {{ISSN|0231-7494}}.
  • Svoboda, Jiří A. (1999), Hunters between East and West : the paleolithic of Moravia. New York, Plenum Press {{ISSN|0231-7494}}.
  • Absolon, Karel (1949), The diluvial anthropomorphic statuettes and drawings, especially the so - called Venus statuettes, discovered in Moravia New York, Salmony 1949. {{ISSN|0231-7494}}.
  • Musil, Rudolf (1971), G. Mendel's Discovery and the Development of Agricultural and Natural Sciences in Moravia. Brno, Moravian Museum
  • Å imsa, Martin (2009), Open-Air Museum of Rural Architecture in South-East Moravia. Strážnice, National Institute of Folk Culture. {{ISBN|9788087261194|date=April 2017}}.
  • Miller, Michael R. (2010), The Jews of Moravia in the Age of Emancipation, Cover of Rabbis and Revolution edition. Stanford university press. {{ISBN|9780804770569}}
  • Bata, Thomas J. (1990), Bata: Shoemaker to the World. Stoddart Publishers Canada. {{ISBN|9780773724167}}

External links

{{Commons category|Moravia}}{{NIE Poster|year=1905|Moravia}} {{Czech lands}}{{Authority control}}

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