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Monaco
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{{about|the city-state}}{{short description|Country in Europe}}{{Use dmy dates|date=December 2017}}{{Use British English|date=September 2019}}







factoids
{{native namePrincipatu de Mùneguname=a|In other languages of Monaco:
  • {edih}| image_flag = Flag of Monaco.svg| image_coat = Coat of Arms of Monaco.svg
laitalics=off}}()Hymne Monégasque"()(File:Monaco National Anthem.ogg)| image_map = Location Monaco Europe.pnglocation_color=green region_color=green & dark grey }}| image_map2 = | map2_width = city-state){{ref label>infoboxa}}HTTP://DATA.UN.ORG/COUNTRYPROFILE.ASPX?CRNAME=MONACO >TITLE=UNITED-NATIONS DATA, COUNTRY PROFILE ACCESSDATE=29 OCTOBER 2013, HTTP://EN.GOUV.MC/GOVERNMENT-INSTITUTIONS/INSTITUTIONS/CONSTITUTION-OF-THE-PRINCIPALITY#EZTOC1036069_10 >TITLE=CONSTITUTION OF MONACO (ART. 78): THE TERRITORY OF THE PRINCIPALITY FORMS A SINGLE COMMUNE. ACCESSDATE=29 OCTOBER 2013, 43N25type:city}}| largest_settlement = Monte Carlo| largest_settlement_type = QuartierFrench language>French22 MAY 2008 >URL=HTTP://WWW.GOUV.MC/DEVWWW/WWWNEW.NSF/1909$/036C62FE5F92F2EFC1256F5B0054FA42GB?OPENDOCUMENT&3GB ARCHIVEDATE=22 JULY 2011 PUBLISHER=COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENT (MONACO) >URL-STATUS=DEAD, dmy, Lingua franca>Common languagesMonégasque dialect >Italian language >Occitan}}Monégasque people >Italian people > French, Occitans}}Monégasque infoboxc}}}}Unitary state>Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchyMonarchy of Monaco>MonarchAlbert II, Prince of Monaco>Albert IIMinister of State (Monaco)>Minister of State| leader_name2 = Serge TelleNational Council (Monaco)>National Council| sovereignty_type = Independence| established_event1 = House of Grimaldi (under the sovereignty of the Republic of Genoa)| established_date1 = 1297Alpes-Maritimes>French Empire| established_date2 = 17 May 1814| established_event3 = from occupation of the Sixth Coalition| established_date3 = 17 June 1814| established_event4 = Franco-Monegasque Treaty| established_date4 = 1861Constitution of Monaco>Constitution| established_date5 = 1911| area_km2 = 2.2| area_rank = 194th | area_sq_mi = 1.26 ACCESSDATE=15 NOVEMBER 2009 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20091115210931/HTTP://WWW.GOUV.MC/DEVWWW/WWWNEW.NSF/E89A6190E96CBD1FC1256F7F005DBE6E/E1201DDB4E532285C125702A004775BC/$FILE/POCKET%202009.PDF DF=DMY, , Principauté de Monaco. Retrieved 7 June 2010.LANGUAGE= FR DATE=, 3 August 2016, | population_census = 38,897| population_estimate_year = 2015| population_estimate_rank = 217th| population_census_year = 2016| population_density_km2 = 18,713| population_density_sq_mi = 48,462 | population_density_rank = 1st | GDP_PPP = | GDP_PPP_year = PUBLISHER=THE WORLD BANK GROUP, 18 September 2019, infoboxb}}| GDP_nominal_rank = 148th, 1st, Euro (Euro sign>€), EURCentral European Time>CET, +1, +2Central European Summer Time>CESTDriving side>right{{cite web title=What side of the road do people drive on? date=, 28 May 2012, Telephone numbers in Monaco>+377| cctld = .mcinfoboxa}} Government offices are however, located in the Quartier of Monaco-Ville.infoboxb}} GDP per capita calculations include non-resident workers from France and Italy.infoboxc}} Monacan is the term for residents.| map2_caption = Roman Catholicism (official)HTTP://EN.GOUV.MC/GOUVERNEMENT-ET-INSTITUTIONS/LES-INSTITUTIONS/LA-CONSTITUTION-DE-LA-PRINCIPAUTE#EZTOC1036069_2 DATE=, 18 July 2017, | today = }}Monaco ({{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Monaco.ogg|ˈ|m|ɒ|n|ə|k|oʊ}}; {{IPA-fr|mɔnako}}), officially the Principality of Monaco (),{{efn|name=a}} is a sovereign city-state, country, and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea. Monaco is about {{cvt|15|km}} from the state border with Italyweblink has an area of {{convert|2.020|km2|abbr=on}}, making it the second-smallest country in the world after the Vatican. Its population as of 2018 is 38,682.WEB,weblink Population, total, World Bank, 2019-09-18, With {{convert|19,009|/km2|/mi2|adj=pre|inhabitants}}, it is the most densely-populated sovereign state in the world. Monaco has a land border of {{convert|5.47|km|abbr=on}}, the world's shortest coastline of approximately {{convert|3.83|km|abbr=on}} (regardless of the coastline paradox), and a width that varies between {{convert|1700|and|349|m|abbr=on|ft}}. The highest point in the country is a narrow pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward, which is {{convert|161|m|ft|abbr=off}} above sea level. Monaco's most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins. Through land reclamation, Monaco's land mass has expanded by 20 percent; in 2005, it had an area of only {{convert|1.974|km²|abbr=on}}. Monaco is known to be the most expensive and the wealthiest place on Earth, Vatican City excluded, due to its tax laws. In 2014, it was noted that about 30% of the population was made up of millionaires.WEB,weblink One in Three is a Millionaire in Monaco: Study, ndtv.com, Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, with Prince Albert II as head of state. Although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The House of Grimaldi has ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, since 1297.In fact Francesco Grimaldi, who captured the Rock on the night of 8 January 1297, was forced to flee Monaco only four years after the fabled raid, never to come back. The Grimaldi family was not able to permanently secure their holding until 1419 when they purchased Monaco, along with two neighbouring villages, Menton and Roquebrune. Source: BOOK, Edwards, Anne, Anne Edwards, The Grimaldis of Monaco: The Centuries of Scandal – The Years of Grace, 1992, William Morrow and Company, William Morrow, 978-0-688-08837-8, The official language is French, but Monégasque, Italian, and English are widely spoken and understood.{{efn|For further information, see languages of Monaco.}} The state's sovereignty was officially recognised by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861, with Monaco becoming a full United Nations voting member in 1993. Despite Monaco's independence and separate foreign policy, its defence is the responsibility of France. However, Monaco does maintain two small military units.Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the country's first casino, Monte Carlo, and a railway connection to Paris.WEB,weblink Monte Carlo: The Birth of a Legend, SBM Group, 23 August 2013, Since then, Monaco's mild climate, scenery, and gambling facilities have contributed to the principality's status as a tourist destination and recreation centre for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking centre and has sought to diversify its economy into the services sector and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries. The state has no income tax, low business taxes, and is well known for being a tax haven. It is also the host of the annual street circuit motor race Monaco Grand Prix, one of the original Grands Prix of Formula One. The principality has a club football team, AS Monaco, who have become French champions on multiple occasions.Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union (EU), but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs and border controls. Through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency (prior to this it used the Monégasque franc). Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004. It is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF).

History

File:Meyers b9 s0067b.jpg|thumb|Monaco in Roman Liguria in ItalyItalyMonaco's name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony. Referred to by the Ligurians as Monoikos, from the Greek "μόνοικος", "single house", from "μόνος" (monos) "alone, single"WEB,weblink μόνος, 29 June 2011, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110629164313weblink">weblink 29 June 2011, dmy, , Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library + "οἶκος" (oikos) "house",WEB,weblink οἶκος, 29 June 2011, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110629164225weblink">weblink 29 June 2011, dmy, , Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library which bears the sense of a people either settled in a "single habitation" or of "living apart" from others. According to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods.WEB,weblink History of Monaco, Monaco-montecarlo.com, 28 May 2012, As a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos. Because the only temple of this area was the "House" of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos.Strabo, Geography, Gaul, 4.6.3 at LacusCurtiousWEB,weblink μόνοικος, 29 June 2011, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110629164248weblink">weblink 29 June 2011, dmy, , Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire, which gave it to the Genoese. An ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi, contested it for a hundred years before actually gaining control. Though the Republic of Genoa would last until the 19th century, they allowed the Grimaldi family to keep Monaco, and, likewise, both France and Spain left it alone for hundreds of years. France did not annex it until the French Revolution, but after the defeat of Napoleon it was put under the care of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In the 19th century, when Sardinia became a part of Italy, the region came under French influence again but France allowed it to remain independent. Like France, Monaco was overrun by the Axis powers during the Second World War and for a short time was administered by Italy, then the Third Reich, before finally being liberated. Although the occupation lasted for just a short time, it meant the deportation of the Jewish population and execution of several resistance members from Monaco. Since then Monaco has been independent. It has taken some steps towards integration with the European Union.

Arrival of the Grimaldi family

File:Памятник Франческо Гримальди перед Гримальдийским дворцом, Монако - panoramio.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Statue of Francesco Grimaldi depicting the moment of the Rock of MonacoRock of MonacoFile:Raniero I de Mónaco.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Rainier I of Grimaldi, victor of the naval battle at Zierikzee and first sovereign Grimaldi ruler of Monaco]]Following a land grant from Emperor Henry VI in 1191, Monaco was refounded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa.WEB,weblink Monaco, State.gov, 16 November 2011, 28 May 2012, WEB,weblink Monaco Life, Monaco Life, 26 July 2011, 28 May 2012, Monaco was first ruled by a member of the House of Grimaldi in 1297, when Francesco Grimaldi, known as "Il Malizia" (translated from Italian either as "The Malicious One" or "The Cunning One"), and his men captured the fortress protecting the Rock of Monaco while dressed as Franciscan monks—a monaco in Italian, although this is a coincidence as the area was already known by this name.WEB,weblink Monaco history, Visitmonaco.com, 28 May 2012, Francesco, however, was evicted only a few years afterwards by the Genoese forces, and the struggle over "the Rock" continued for another century.WEB,weblink Histoire de Monaco, famille Grimaldi | Monte-Carlo SBM, Fr.montecarlosbm.com, 28 May 2012, The Grimaldi family was Genoese and the struggle was something of a family feud. However, the Genoese became engaged in other conflicts, and in the late 1300s Genoa became involved in a conflict with the Crown of Aragon over Corsica.WEB,weblink The Mediterranean Empire of the Crown of Aragon, explorethemed.com, The Crown of Aragon eventually became a part of Spain through marriage (see modern day Aragon) and other parts drifted into various pieces of other kingdoms and nations.

1400–1800

(File:Italia 1494-it.svg|thumb|Monaco in 1494)In 1419, the Grimaldi family purchased Monaco from the Crown of Aragon and became the official and undisputed rulers of "the Rock of Monaco". In 1612 Honoré II began to style himself "Prince" of Monaco.WEB,weblink Monaco – The Principality of Monaco, Monaco.me, 28 May 2012, In the 1630s, he sought French protection against the Spanish forces and, in 1642, was received at the court of Louis XIII "Duc et Pair Etranger".WEB,weblink The History Of Monaco, Monacoangebote.de, 28 May 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116210501weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, dead, dmy-all, The princes of Monaco thus became vassals of the French kings while at the same time remaining sovereign princes.with the title Duc de Valentinois and other lesser French titles, to most of which the House of Grimaldi still lays claim, Though successive princes and their families spent most of their lives in Paris, and intermarried with French and Italian nobilities, the House of Grimaldi is Italian. The principality continued its existence as a protectorate of France until the French Revolution.WEB,weblink Monaco: History, .monaco.mc, 28 May 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120629221745weblink">weblink 29 June 2012, dead, In 1793, Revolutionary forces captured Monaco and it remained under direct French control until 1814, when the Grimaldi family returned to the throne.WEB,weblink Important dates – Monaco Monte-Carlo, Monte-carlo.mc, 28 May 2012,

19th century

(File:County of nice.svg|thumb|French annexation in 1860)Between 1793 and 1814 Monaco was occupied by the French (in this period much of Europe had been overrun by the French under command of Napoleon).The principality was reestablished in 1814 only to be designated a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Monaco remained in this position until 1860 when, by the Treaty of Turin, the Sardinian forces pulled out of the principality and the surrounding county of Nice (as well as Savoy) was ceded to France.WEB,weblink 24 X 7, Infoplease.com, 28 May 2012, Monaco became a French protectorate once again. Before this time there was unrest in Menton and Roquebrune, where the townspeople had become weary of heavy taxation by the Grimaldi family. They declared their independence, hoping for annexation by Sardinia. France protested. The unrest continued until Charles III of Monaco gave up his claim to the two mainland towns (some 95% of the principality at the time) that had been ruled by the Grimaldi family for over 500 years.WEB,weblink History of the Principality of Monaco – Access Properties Monaco – Real-estate Agency Monaco, Access Properties Monaco, 28 May 2012, These were ceded to France in return for 4,100,000 francs.WEB,weblink History of Monaco, Monacodc.org, 28 May 2012, The transfer and Monaco's sovereignty were recognised by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. In 1869, the principality stopped collecting income tax from its residents—an indulgence the Grimaldi family could afford to entertain thanks solely to the extraordinary success of the casino.WEB,weblink Histoire de la Principauté – Monaco – Mairie de Monaco – Ma ville au quotidien – Site officiel de la Mairie de Monaco, Monaco-mairie.mc, 28 May 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120603055329weblink">weblink 3 June 2012, dead, dmy-all, This made Monaco not only a playground for the rich, but a favoured place for them to live.WEB,weblink MONACO, Tlfq.ulaval.ca, 28 May 2012,

20th century

File:Monegasque Revolution.jpg|thumb|left|Mayor of Monaco announcing concessions ending absolute monarchy of Prince Albert IPrince Albert IUntil the Monegasque Revolution of 1910 forced the adoption of the 1911 constitution, the princes of Monaco were absolute rulers.NEWS,weblink Monaco timeline, BBC News, 28 March 2012, 28 May 2012, The new constitution, however, barely reduced the autocratic rule of the Grimaldi family and Prince Albert I soon suspended it during the First World War.In July 1918, the Franco-Monegasque Treaty was signed, providing for limited French protection over Monaco. The treaty, endorsed in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles, established that Monegasque international policy would be aligned with French political, military, and economic interests, and resolved the Monaco Succession Crisis.WEB,weblink Monaco Politics, government, and taxation, Nationsencyclopedia.com, 28 May 2012, File:Prince Rainier III and Princess Grace.jpg|thumb|right|The marriage of the actress Grace Kelly to Prince Rainier III brought media attention to the principality.]]In 1943, the Italian Army invaded and occupied Monaco, forming a fascist administration.WEB,weblink Monaco History, History of Monaco – Allo' Expat Monaco, Monaco.alloexpat.com, 28 May 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120527162437weblink">weblink 27 May 2012, dmy-all, Shortly thereafter, following the collapse of Mussolini, the German Wehrmacht occupied Monaco and the Nazi deportation of the Jewish population began. René Blum, the prominent French Jew who founded the Ballet de l'Opera in Monte Carlo, was arrested in his Paris home and held in the Drancy deportation camp outside the French capital before being transported to the Auschwitz concentration camp, where he was later killed.Abramovici P. Un rocher bien occupé : Monaco pendant la guerre 1939–1945 Editions Seuil, Paris 2001, {{ISBN|2-02-037211-8}} Blum's colleague Raoul Gunsbourg, the director of the Opéra de Monte-Carlo, helped by the French Resistance, escaped arrest and fled to Switzerland.WEB,weblink Monaco histoire, Tmeheust.free.fr, 28 May 2012, In August 1944, the Germans executed René Borghini, Joseph-Henri Lajoux and Esther Poggio, who were Resistance leaders.Rainier III, who ruled until 2005, succeeded to the throne following the death of his grandfather, Prince Louis II, in 1949. On 19 April 1956, Prince Rainier married the American actress Grace Kelly; the event was widely televised and covered in the popular press, focusing the world's attention on the tiny principality.WEB,weblink Monaco – Principality of Monaco – Principauté de Monaco – French Riviera Travel and Tourism, Nationsonline.org, 28 May 2012, A 1962 amendment to the constitution abolished capital punishment, provided for women's suffrage, and established a Supreme Court of Monaco to guarantee fundamental liberties.In 1963, a crisis developed when Charles de Gaulle blockaded Monaco, angered by its status as a tax haven for wealthy French. The 2014 film Grace of Monaco is loosely based on this crisis.WEB,weblink Monaco royals will not be at Cannes ‘Grace of Monaco’ premiere – Page Six, Page Six, In 1993, the Principality of Monaco became a member of the United Nations, with full voting rights.WEB,weblink CIA – The World Factbook, Cia.gov, 22 March 2012,

21st century

(File:Vista de Mónaco, 2016-06-23, DD 13.jpg|thumb|View of Monaco in 2016)In 2002, a new treaty between France and Monaco specified that, should there be no heirs to carry on the Grimaldi dynasty, the principality would still remain an independent nation rather than revert to France. Monaco's military defence, however, is still the responsibility of France.WEB,weblink History of Monaco. Monaco chronology, Europe-cities.com, 28 May 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116210452weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, dead, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Monaco Military 2012, CIA World Factbook, Theodora.com, 28 May 2012, On 31 March 2005, Rainier III, who was too ill to exercise his duties, relinquished them to his only son and heir, Albert.WEB,weblink Monaco Royal Family, Yourmonaco.com, 28 May 2012, He died six days later, after a reign of 56 years, with his son succeeding him as Albert II, Sovereign Prince of Monaco.Following a period of official mourning, Prince Albert II formally assumed the princely crown on 12 July 2005,WEB,weblink Biography – Prince's Palace of Monaco, Palais.mc, 28 May 2012, in a celebration that began with a solemn Mass at Saint Nicholas Cathedral, where his father had been buried three months earlier. His accession to the Monégasque throne was a two-step event with a further ceremony, drawing heads of state for an elaborate reception, held on 18 November 2005, at the historic Prince's Palace in Monaco-Ville.WEB,weblink History of Monaco, Grimaldi family, Monte-Carlo SBM, 28 May 2012, On 27 August 2015, Albert II apologised for Monaco's role during World War II in facilitating the deportation of a total of 90 Jews and resistance fighters, of whom only nine survived. "We committed the irreparable in handing over to the neighbouring authorities women, men and a child who had taken refuge with us to escape the persecutions they had suffered in France," Albert said at a ceremony in which a monument to the victims was unveiled at the Monaco cemetery. "In distress, they came specifically to take shelter with us, thinking they would find neutrality."NEWS, Williams, Carol J., More than seven decades later, Monaco apologises for deporting Jews,weblink Los Angeles Times, 27 August 2015, 31 August 2015, In 2015, Monaco unanimously approved a modest land reclamation expansion intended primarily for some desperately needed housing and a small green/park area.WEB,weblink Monaco land reclamation project gets green light, rivieratimes.com, 8 August 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150904002030weblink">weblink 4 September 2015, dead, dmy-all, Monaco had previously considered an expansion in 2008, but called it off. The plan is for about six hectares of apartment buildings, parks, shops and offices for about 1 billion euros for the land.WEB,weblink Monaco €1 billion reclamation plan for luxury homes district, Colin Randall, thenational.ae, The development will be adjacent to the Larvotto district and also will include a small marina.WEB,weblink Monaco’s New Marina, in 10 Years from now, mooringspot.com, 8 August 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150904002029weblink">weblink 4 September 2015, dead, There were four main proposals, and the final mix of use will be finalised as the development progresses.WEB,weblink Forbes Life, forbes.com, The name for the new district is Anse du Portier.File:Panorama von Monaco-La Turbie.jpg|thumb|center|upright=2.75|Panoramic view of Monaco from the Tête de ChienTête de Chien

Government

File:Albert II Prince of Monaco Senate of Poland 02.JPG|thumb|right|Albert II, Prince of MonacoAlbert II, Prince of MonacoMonaco has been governed under a constitutional monarchy since 1911, with the Sovereign Prince of Monaco as head of state.WEB,weblink Monaco, State.gov, 16 November 2011, 22 March 2012, The executive branch consists of a Minister of State as the head of government, who presides over a five-member Council of Government.WEB,weblink Politics, Monaco-IQ, 28 May 2012, Until 2002, the Minister of State was a French citizen appointed by the prince from among candidates proposed by the French government; since a constitutional amendment in 2002, the Minister of State can be French or Monegasque. However, Prince Albert II appointed, on 3 March 2010, the Frenchman Michel Roger as Minister of State.WEB,weblink History « Consulate General of Monaco, Monaco-consulate.com, 28 May 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120610201643weblink">weblink 10 June 2012, dead, dmy-all, Under the 1962 constitution, the prince shares his veto power with the unicameral National Council.WEB,weblink Monaco: Government, Globaledge.msu.edu, 4 October 2004, 28 May 2012, The 24 members of the National Council are elected for five-year terms; 16 are chosen through a majority electoral system and 8 by proportional representation.WEB,weblink Monaco, Freedom House, 28 May 2012, All legislation requires the approval of the National Council, which is currently dominated by the conservative Rally and Issues for Monaco (REM) party which holds 20 seats. Union Monégasque holds three seats while Renaissance holds one seat. The principality's city affairs are directed by the Communal Council,WEB,weblink Deux listes pour une mairie, Monaco Hebdo, which consists of 14 elected members and is presided over by a mayor.WEB,weblink Les élus, Mairie de Monaco, La Mairie de Monaco, 15 April 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130515063156weblink">weblink 15 May 2013, dead, dmy-all, Unlike the National Council, councillors are elected for four-year terms,WEB,weblink Le Conseil Communal – Mairie de Monaco, La Mairie de Monaco, 15 April 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116232740weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, dead, dmy-all, and are strictly non-partisan; however, oppositions inside the council frequently form.WEB,weblink Élections communales à Monaco: vingt-quatre candidats en lice, nicematin.com,

Administrative divisions

{{Update|section|inaccurate=yes|date=July 2015|reason=wards were re-organised in 2013. See (:fr:Monaco#Organisation territoriale|Monaco#Organisation territoriale (fr))}}File:MonacoLibreDeDroits.jpg|thumb|In the centre is La Condamine. At the right with the smaller harbor is Fontvieille, with The Rock (the old town, fortress, and Palace) jutting out between the two harbors. At the left are the high-rise buildings of La Rousse/Saint Roman.]]Monaco is the second-smallest country by area in the world; only Vatican City is smaller.WEB, Robertson, Alex,weblink The 10 smallest countries in the world, Gadling.com, 1 February 2012, 28 May 2012, Monaco is also the world's second-smallest monarchy,WEB,weblink Marinas, Ports & Anchorages in Monaco, Worldmarineguide.com, 28 May 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111224013637weblink">weblink 24 December 2011, dead, dmy-all, and is the most densely populated country in the world.WEB,weblink Population Density, Geography.about.com, 28 May 2012, The state consists of only one municipality (commune), the Municipality of Monaco. There is no geographical distinction between the State and City of Monaco, although responsibilities of the government (state-level) and of the municipality (city-level) are different. According to the constitution of 1911, the principality was subdivided into three municipalities:WEB,weblink About Monaco, JCI EC 2013, 3 March 2010, 28 May 2012, The municipalities were merged into one in 1917, {{cn span|after accusations that the government was acting according to the motto "divide and conquer,"|date=May 2019}}{{how|date=May 2019}} and they were accorded the status of Wards or Quartiers thereafter.
  • Fontvieille was added as a fourth ward, a newly constructed area claimed from the sea in the 1970s;
  • Moneghetti became the fifth ward, created from part of La Condamine;
  • Larvotto became the sixth ward, created from part of Monte Carlo;
  • La Rousse/Saint Roman (including Le Ténao) became the seventh ward, also created from part of Monte Carlo.
Subsequently, three additional wards were created: An additional ward was planned by new land reclamation to be settled beginning in 2014WEB,weblink West 8 Urban Design & Landscape Architecture / projects / Cape Grace, Monaco, West8.nl, 28 May 2012, but Prince Albert II announced in his 2009 New Year Speech that he had ended plans due to the current economic climate.WEB,weblink The new Monaco skyline, CityOut Monaco, 17 March 2010, 28 May 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111011020551weblink">weblink 11 October 2011, dead, dmy-all, However, Prince Albert II in mid-2010 firmly restarted the program.NEWS, Samuel, Henry,weblink Monaco to build into the sea to create more space, The Daily Telegraph, 28 December 2009, 28 May 2012, London, WEB,weblink Prince speaks of future developments, CityOut Monaco, 29 December 2009, 28 May 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111011043404weblink">weblink 11 October 2011, dead, dmy-all, In 2015, a new development called Anse du Portier was announced.

Traditional quarters and modern geographic areas

The four traditional Quartiers of Monaco are Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte Carlo and Fontvieille.WEB,weblink Monaco – Location and size, Nationsencyclopedia.com, 2 July 2011, 28 May 2012, WEB,weblink Dictionary – Definition of Larvotto, Websters-online-dictionary.org, 1 March 2008, 28 May 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130530230643weblink">weblink 30 May 2013, dead, dmy-all, However, the suburb of Moneghetti, the high-level part of La Condamine, is generally seen today as an effective fifth Quartier of the Monaco, having a very distinct atmosphere and topography when compared with low-level La Condamine.WEB,weblink Tourist Board official website, Visitmonaco.com, 28 May 2012,

Wards

{{Update|section|date=July 2015|reason=wards were re-organised in 2013 (see (:fr:Monaco#Organisation territoriale|Monaco#Organisation territoriale).}}File:Monaco5.png|thumb|Wards of Monaco]]Currently Monaco is subdivided into ten wards, with their official numbers; either Fontvieille II or Le Portier would become the effective eleventh ward, if built:WEB, Nom (obligatoire),weblink Extension en mer: Fontvieille ou Larvotto ?, Monacohebdo.mc, 12 March 2013, WEB,weblink Monaco Commune, Statoids.com, 28 May 2012, {| class="wikitable"! Ward || Area(km²) || Population(Censusof 2008) || Density(km²)||CityBlocks(îlots)||Remarks Former municipality of MonacoMonaco-Ville > 0.19 style="text-align:right;" 5,442 style="text-align:right;"| Old City Former municipality of Monte CarloMonte Carlo>Monte Carlo/Spélugues (Bd. Des Moulins-Av. de la Madone) style="text-align:right;" 3,834 style="text-align:right;" 20 Casino and resort areaSaint Roman (community)>La Rousse/Saint Roman (Annonciade-Château Périgord) style="text-align:right;" 3,223 style="text-align:right;" 17 Northeast area, includes Le TénaoLarvotto>Larvotto/Bas Moulins (Larvotto-Bd Psse Grace) style="text-align:right;" 5,443 style="text-align:right;" 17 Eastern beach areaSaint Michel, Monaco>Saint Michel (Psse Charlotte-Park Palace) style="text-align:right;" 3,907 style="text-align:right;" 24 Central residential area Former municipality of La CondamineLa Condamine > 0.28 style="text-align:right;" 14,096 style="text-align:right;"| Northwest port areaLa Colle, Monaco>La Colle (Plati-Pasteur-Bd Charles III) style="text-align:right;" 2,829 style="text-align:right;" 15 On the western border with Cap d'AilLes Révoires (Hector Otto-Honoré Labande)> 0.09 style="text-align:right;" 28,278 style="text-align:right;"| Contains the Jardin Exotique de MonacoMoneghetti>Moneghetti/ Bd de Belgique (Bd Rainier III-Bd de Belgique) style="text-align:right;" 3,003 style="text-align:right;" 17 Central-north residential area New land reclaimed from the seaFontvieille, Monaco>Fontvieille style="text-align:right;" 3,901 style="text-align:right;" 10 Started 1981 style="background: #CCC;"LANGUAGE= FR DATE= 2.05 style="text-align:right;" 16,422 style="text-align:right;"|  (1) Not included in the total, as it is only proposedNote: for statistical purposes, the Wards of Monaco are further subdivided into 178 city blocks (îlots), which are comparable to the census blocks in the United States.
  • Other possible expansions are Le Portier, a project relaunched in 2012WEB,weblink Monaco: une extension en mer au Larvotto de nouveau à l'étude, Nice-Matin, 13 June 2012, 12 March 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116210451weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, dmy-all,
  • Another possibility was Fontvieille II Development to commence in 2013WEB,weblink Seizing the Future, google.com,
(File:Monaco depuis since 1861.png|thumb|center|upright=3.2|Land reclamation in Monaco since 1861)

Security

{{See also|Law enforcement in Monaco|Military of Monaco}}(File:The Palace Guards.jpg|thumb|left|Palace guards in Monaco)The wider defence of the nation is provided by France. Monaco has no navy or air force, but on both a per-capita and per-area basis, Monaco has one of the largest police forces (515 police officers for about 36,000 people) and police presences in the world.WEB,weblink Security in Monaco, Monte-carlo.mc, 13 May 2012, 28 May 2012, Its police includes a special unit which operates patrol and surveillance boats.WEB,weblink Division de Police Maritime et Aéroportuaire, fr, Gouv.mc, 16 August 1960, 28 May 2012, There is also a small military force. This consists of a bodyguard unit for the Prince and the palace in Monaco-Ville called the Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince (Prince's Company of Carabiniers), which is equipped with weapons such as M16A2 rifles and 9 mm pistols (Glock 17),WEB,weblink The Palace Guards – Prince's Palace of Monaco, Palais.mc, 27 January 2011, 28 May 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120423061945weblink">weblink 23 April 2012, dmy-all, and which together with the militarised, armed fire and civil defence Corps (Sapeurs-Pompiers) forms Monaco's total public forces.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 22 May 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131206010807weblink">weblink 6 December 2013, dmy, The Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince was created by Prince Honoré IV in 1817 for the protection of the principality and the Princely family. The company numbers exactly 116 officers and men; while the NCOs and soldiers are local, the officers have generally served in the French Army. In addition to their guard duties as described, the Carabiniers patrol the principality's beaches and coastal waters.WEB,weblink Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince, fr, Gouv.mc, 12 March 2013,

Geography

{{See also|Land reclamation in Monaco}}(File:Monaco satellite map.png|thumb|Satellite view of Monaco, with the Monégasque-French border shown in yellow)Monaco is a sovereign city state, with five quartiers and ten wards,WEB,weblink Monaco Districts, Monaco.me, 22 March 2012, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe. It is bordered by France's Alpes-Maritimes département on three sides, with one side bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Its centre is about {{convert|16|km|abbr=on}} from Italy and only {{convert|13|km|abbr=on}} northeast of Nice, France. It has an area of {{convert|2.02|km²|abbr=on}}, or {{convert|202|ha|acre|abbr=off}}, and a population of 38,400,WEB,weblink "monaco statistics pocket" / Publications / IMSEE - Monaco IMSEE, Government of, Monaco, Monacostatistics.mc, making Monaco the second-smallest and the most densely populated country in the world. The country has a land border of only {{convert|5.47|km|abbr=on}}, a coastline of {{convert|3.83|km|abbr=on}}, a maritime claim that extends {{Convert|22.2|km|mi|1}}, and a width that varies between {{convert|1700|and|349|m|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink Geography and Map of Monaco, mapofeurope.com, 11 September 2014, WEB,weblink Monaco's Areas / Monaco Official Site, Visitmonaco.com, 12 March 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116210456weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, dead, The highest point in the country is at the access to the Patio Palace residential building on the Chemin des Révoires (ward Les Révoires) from the D6007 (Moyenne Corniche street) at {{convert|164.4|m|ft|abbr=off}} above sea level.Highest point at ground level (Access to Patio Palace on D6007) WEB,weblink Monaco Statistics – Principality of Monaco, Monaco Statistics pocket – Edition 2014, PDF, The lowest point in the country is the Mediterranean Sea.WEB,weblink Highest and lowest points in countries islands oceans of the world, Worldatlas.com, 6 September 2012, Saint-Jean is the longest flowing body of water, around {{convert|0.19|km|m mi ft|abbr=in}} in length, and Fontvieille is the largest lake, approximately {{convert|0.5|ha|m2 acre ft2|2|abbr=on}} in area.WEB,weblink Monaco, Google Maps, 6 September 2012, Monaco's most populated quartier is Monte Carlo, and the most populated ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins.After a recent expansion of Port Hercules, Monaco's total area grew to {{convert|2.02|km²|abbr=on}} or {{convert|202|ha|acre|abbr=off}}; consequently, new plans have been approved to extend the district of Fontvieille by {{convert|0.08|km²|abbr=on}} or {{convert|8|ha|acre|abbr=off}}, with land reclaimed from the Mediterranean Sea. Current land reclamation projects include extending the district of Fontvieille.NEWS, Samuel, Henry,weblink Monaco to build into the sea to create more space, The Daily Telegraph, 28 December 2009, 22 March 2012, London, WEB, Robert Bouhnik,weblink$/3952ae296ac3807cc1256f73002bd426gb?OpenDocument&6Gb&Count=10000,weblink" title="archive.today/20121220003236weblink">weblink$/3952ae296ac3807cc1256f73002bd426gb?OpenDocument&6Gb&Count=10000, dead, 20 December 2012, Home > Files and Reports > Public works(Gb), Cloud.gouv.mc, 19 October 2010, 22 March 2012, WEB,weblink Royal Opinions – Social, Political, & Economical Affairs of Monaco, Royalopinions.proboards.com, 22 March 2012, WEB, Robert BOUHNIK,weblink$/1ddf179c1910b5fbc1256fc60036dcc6gb?OpenDocument&Count=10000&InfoChap=%20Files%20and%20Reports&InfoSujet=2002%20Archives%20-%20Extension%20of%20%22La%20Condamine%20Port%22&6Gb, Home > Files and Reports > Public works > 2002 Archives â€” Extension of "La Condamine Port"(Gb), Cloud.gouv.mc, 19 October 2010, 22 March 2012, {{Dead link|date=August 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}WEB,weblink Monaco remet sur le tapis le projet d'extension en mer, Econostrum.info, 22 March 2012, There are two ports in Monaco, Port Hercules and Port Fontvieille.WEB,weblink Presentation, Ports-monaco.com, 1 January 2006, 22 March 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120620235447weblink">weblink 20 June 2012, dead, dmy-all, Monaco's only natural resource is fishing;WEB,weblink Prince Albert of Monaco interview on fishing issues, YouTube, 30 June 2011, 22 March 2012, with almost the entire country being an urban area, Monaco lacks any sort of commercial agriculture industry. There is a neighbouring French port called Cap d'Ail that is near Monaco.File:Monaco_City_001.jpg|thumb|center|1000px|upright=3.2|Panoramic view of La Condamine and Monte CarloMonte Carlo

Architecture

{{See also|Architecture of Monaco|Monaco villas}}Monaco exhibits a wide range of architecture, but the principality's signature style, particularly in Monte Carlo, is that of the Belle Epoque. It finds its most florid expression in the 1878–9 Casino and the Salle Garnier created by Charles Garnier and Jules Dutrou. Decorative elements including turrets, balconies, pinnacles, multi-coloured ceramics and caryatids and borrowed and blended to create a picturesque fantasy of pleasure and luxury, and an alluring expression of how Monaco sought, and still seeks, to portray itself.Novella, René; Sassi, Luca Monaco : eight centuries of art and architecture', Epi Communication, 2015 This capriccio of French, Italian and Spanish elements was incorporated into hacienda villas and apartments. Following major development in the 1970s, Prince Rainier III banned high-rise development in the principality. However, his successor, Prince Albert II, overturned this Sovereign Order.WEB,weblink La tour Odéon, l'histoire d'un chantier dont les malheurs ont atteint des sommets, Fair, Vanity, 7 August 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170813111930weblink">weblink 13 August 2017, dead, dmy-all, In recent years the accelerating demolition of Monaco's architectural heritage, including its single-family villas, has created dismay.Lyall, Sarah; Baume, Maïa de la Development Blitz Provokes a Murmur of Dissent in Monaco, New York Times, 11 December 2013;weblink The principality currently has no heritage protection legislation.Monaco's Heritage In Danger?'', L'Observateur de Monaco, No141, April 2015, pp60-67weblink

Climate

Monaco has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa), which is influenced by oceanic climate (Cfb) and humid subtropical climate (Cfa). As a result, it has warm, dry summers and mild, rainy winters.WEB,weblink Monaco weather, climate and geography, Worldtravelguide.net, 6 September 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120821004256weblink">weblink 21 August 2012, dead, dmy-all, Cool and rainy interludes can interrupt the dry summer season, the average length of which is also shorter. Summer afternoons are infrequently hot (indeed, temperatures greater than {{convert|30|°C|°F|disp=or}} are rare) as the atmosphere is temperate because of constant sea breezes. On the other hand, the nights are very mild, due to the fairly high temperature of the sea in summer. Generally, temperatures do not drop below {{convert|20|°C}} in this season. In the winter, frosts and snowfalls are extremely rare and generally occur once or twice every ten years.WEB,weblink Snow in Casino Square!, Monte Carlo Daily Photo, 19 December 2009, 6 September 2012, WEB,weblink Monaco – Weather / Monaco Official Site, Visitmonaco.com, 6 September 2012, On February 27, 2018, both Monaco and Monte Carlo experienced snowfall.WEB, In Pictures: French Riviera hit by snowfall,weblink www.thelocal.fr, 26 February 2018, {{Weather box|location = Monaco (1981–2010 averages, extremes 1966–present)|metric first = yes|single line = yes|Jan record high C = 19.9|Feb record high C = 23.2|Mar record high C = 25.6|Apr record high C = 26.2|May record high C = 30.3|Jun record high C = 32.5|Jul record high C = 34.4|Aug record high C = 34.5|Sep record high C = 33.1|Oct record high C = 29.0|Nov record high C = 25.0|Dec record high C = 22.3|year record high C = 34.5|Jan high C = 13.0|Feb high C = 13.0|Mar high C = 14.9|Apr high C = 16.7|May high C = 20.4|Jun high C = 23.7|Jul high C = 26.6|Aug high C = 26.9|Sep high C = 24.0|Oct high C = 20.6|Nov high C = 16.5|Dec high C = 13.9|year high C = 19.2|Jan mean C = 10.2|Feb mean C = 10.2|Mar mean C = 12.0|Apr mean C = 13.8|May mean C = 17.5|Jun mean C = 20.9|Jul mean C = 23.8|Aug mean C = 24.2|Sep mean C = 21.1|Oct mean C = 17.9|Nov mean C = 13.8|Dec mean C = 11.2|year mean C = 16.4|Jan low C = 7.4|Feb low C = 7.4|Mar low C = 9.1|Apr low C = 10.9|May low C = 14.6|Jun low C = 18.0|Jul low C = 21.0|Aug low C = 21.4|Sep low C = 18.3|Oct low C = 15.2|Nov low C = 11.2|Dec low C = 8.5|year low C = 13.6|Jan record low C = -3.1|Feb record low C = -5.2|Mar record low C = -3.1|Apr record low C = 3.8|May record low C = 7.5|Jun record low C = 9.0|Jul record low C = 10.5|Aug record low C = 12.4|Sep record low C = 10.5|Oct record low C = 6.5|Nov record low C = 1.6|Dec record low C = -1.0|year record low C = -5.2|Jan precipitation mm = 67.7|Feb precipitation mm = 48.4|Mar precipitation mm = 41.2|Apr precipitation mm = 71.3|May precipitation mm = 49.0|Jun precipitation mm = 32.6|Jul precipitation mm = 13.7|Aug precipitation mm = 26.5|Sep precipitation mm = 72.5|Oct precipitation mm = 128.7|Nov precipitation mm = 103.2|Dec precipitation mm = 88.8|year precipitation mm = 743.6|unit precipitation days = 1.0 mm|Jan precipitation days = 6.0|Feb precipitation days = 4.9|Mar precipitation days = 4.5|Apr precipitation days = 7.3|May precipitation days = 5.5|Jun precipitation days = 4.1|Jul precipitation days = 1.7|Aug precipitation days = 2.5|Sep precipitation days = 5.1|Oct precipitation days = 7.3|Nov precipitation days = 7.1|Dec precipitation days = 6.5|year precipitation days = 62.4|Jan sun = 149.8|Feb sun = 158.9|Mar sun = 185.5|Apr sun = 210.0|May sun = 248.1|Jun sun = 281.1|Jul sun = 329.3|Aug sun = 296.7|Sep sun = 224.7|Oct sun = 199.0|Nov sun = 155.2|Dec sun = 136.5|year sun = 2574.7|source 1 = Météo FranceWEB,weblink 27 February 2018,weblink Monaco (99), Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques 1981–2010 et records, Meteo France, French, 26 February 2018, |source 2 = Monaco website (sun only)WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180302082530weblink">weblink 2 March 2018,weblink Climatological information for Monaco, Monaco Tourist Authority, French, 2 March 2018, |date=September 2010}}{|style="width:100%;text-align:center;line-height:1.2em;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto" class="wikitable mw-collapsible"!Colspan=14|Climate data for Monaco!Month!Jan!Feb!Mar!Apr!May!Jun!Jul!Aug!Sep!Oct!Nov!Dec!style="border-left-width:medium"|Year!Average sea temperature °C (°F)13.4(56.2)13.0(55.5)13.4(56.1)14.6(58.4)18.0(64.3)21.8(71.3)23.1(73.6)23.6(74.4)22.2(71.9)19.6(67.2)17.4(63.3)14.9(58.9)17.9(64.3)!Colspan=14 style="background:#f8f9fa;font-weight:normal;font-size:95%;"|Source: Weather AtlasWEB,weblink Monaco, Monaco – Climate data, Weather Atlas, 15 March 2017,

Economy

File:Monaco004.jpg|thumb|Fontvieille and its new harbour]]Monaco has the world's second-highest GDP nominal per capita at US$153,177, GDP PPP per capita at $132,571 and GNI per capita at $183,150.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120402032202weblink">Gross national income per capita 2010, Atlas method and PPP. World BankWEB,weblink Business And Economy, Monacodc.org, 22 March 2012, It also has an unemployment rate of 2%,WEB,weblink Central Intelligence Agency, Cia.gov, 22 March 2012, with over 48,000 workers who commute from France and Italy each day.WEB,weblink$FILE/ATTW9ZI8/Recensement2008_p8-9.pdf,weblink$FILE/ATTW9ZI8/Recensement2008_p8-9.pdf, dead, 28 May 2012, Plan General De La Principaute De Monaco, PDF, 28 May 2012, dmy-all, According to the CIA World Factbook, Monaco has the world's lowest poverty rate and the highest number of millionaires and billionaires per capita in the world.NEWS, Alleyne, Richard,weblink Prince Albert: We want more for Monaco, The Daily Telegraph, 4 October 2007, 22 March 2012, London, NEWS,weblink Piers Morgan's full Monte! The tax haven where the jewels are real and the orgasms are fake, Daily Mail, 31 January 2009, 28 May 2012, London, For the fourth year in a row, Monaco in 2012 had the world's most expensive real estate market, at $58,300 per square metre.WEB, Katya Wachtel,weblink The Wealth Report 2012, Citi Private Bank, 28 March 2012, 6 March 2013, WEB, Robert Frank,weblink The Most Expensive Real-Estate in the World, The Wall Street Journal, 28 March 2012, 6 March 2013, WEB, Julie Zeveloff,weblink Here Are The World's Most Expensive Real Estate Markets, Business Insider, 7 March 2013, 7 March 2013, One of Monaco's main sources of income is tourism. Each year many foreigners are attracted to its casino and pleasant climate.WEB,weblink Monaco: Economy >> globalEDGE: Your source for Global Business Knowledge, Globaledge.msu.edu, 22 March 2012, It has also become a major banking centre, holding over €100 billion worth of funds.WEB, Robert BOUHNIK,weblink$/607f54a31a14184fc1256a130075eb71gb?OpenDocument&6Gb,weblink" title="archive.today/20120711135421weblink">weblink$/607f54a31a14184fc1256a130075eb71gb?OpenDocument&6Gb, dead, 11 July 2012, Home > Files and Reports > Economy(Gb), Cloud.gouv.mc, 19 December 2011, 22 March 2012, Banks in Monaco specialise in providing private banking, asset and wealth management services.WEB,weblink Banks in Monaco, The principality has successfully sought to diversify its economic base into services and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries, such as cosmetics and biothermics.WEB,weblink Monaco Economy 2012, CIA World Factbook, Theodora.com, 28 May 2012, The state retains monopolies in numerous sectors, including tobacco and the postal service. The telephone network (Monaco Telecom) used to be fully owned by the state; it now owns only 45%, while the remaining 55% is owned by both Cable & Wireless Communications (49%) and Compagnie Monégasque de Banque (6%). It is still, however, a monopoly. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas.WEB,weblink CIA – The World Factbook, Cia.gov, 28 May 2012, Monaco is not a member of the European Union. However, it is very closely linked via a customs union with France and, as such, its currency is the same as that of France, the euro. Before 2002, Monaco minted its own coins, the Monegasque franc. Monaco has acquired the right to mint euro coins with Monegasque designs on its national side.

Gambling industry

File:Le casino de Monte-Carlo.JPG|thumb|Monte Carlo CasinoMonte Carlo CasinoThe plan for casino gambling was drafted during the reign of Florestan I in 1846. Under Louis-Philippe's petite-bourgeois regime, however, a dignitary such as the Prince of Monaco was not allowed to operate a gambling house. All this changed in the dissolute Second French Empire under Napoleon III. The House of Grimaldi was in dire need of money. The towns of Menton and Roquebrune, which had been the main sources of income for the Grimaldi family for centuries, were now accustomed to a much improved standard of living and lenient taxation thanks to Sardinian intervention and clamored for financial and political concession, even for separation. The Grimaldi family hoped the newly legal industry would help alleviate the difficulties they faced, above all the crushing debt the family had incurred, but Monaco's first casino would not be ready to operate until after Charles III assumed the throne in 1856.The grantee of the princely concession (licence) was unable to attract enough business to sustain the operation and, after relocating the casino several times, sold the concession to French casino magnates François and Louis Blanc for 1.7 million francs. The Blancs had already set up a highly successful casino (in fact the largest in Europe) in Bad-Homburg in the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Homburg, a small German principality comparable to Monaco, and quickly petitioned Charles III to rename a depressed seaside area known as "Les Spelegures (Den of Thieves)" to "Monte Carlo (Mount Charles)."WEB,weblink History of Monte Carlo Casino, Craps Dice Control, 28 April 2012, They then constructed their casino in the newly dubbed "Monte Carlo" and cleared out the area's less-than-savory elements to make the neighbourhood surrounding the establishment more conducive to tourism.The Blancs opened Le Grand Casino de Monte Carlo in 1858 and the casino benefited from the tourist traffic the newly built French railway system created.WEB,weblink Rick Steves' Europe: Little Europe: San Marino, Monaco, Vatican City, Liechtenstein, and Andorra, 27 April 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121114170925weblink">weblink 14 November 2012, dead, dmy-all, Due to the combination of the casino and the railroads, Monaco finally recovered from the previous half-century of economic slump and the principality's success attracted other businesses.WEB,weblink Rick Steves Europe: Little Europe: Five Microcountries, Ricksteves.com, 28 May 2012, In the years following the casino's opening, Monaco founded its Oceanographic Museum and the Monte Carlo Opera House, 46 hotels were built and the number of jewelers operating in Monaco increased by nearly five-fold. In an apparent effort to not overtax citizens, it was decreed that the Monégasque citizens were prohibited from entering the casino unless they were employees.WEB, Keremcan,weblink Why Do Monaco Laws Forbid Locals from Gambling?, Gambling Herald, 23 August 2016, 7 December 2017, By 1869, the casino was making such a vast sum of money that the principality could afford to end tax collection from the Monegasques—a master stroke that was to attract affluent residents from all over Europe in a policy that still exists today.Today, Société des bains de mer de Monaco, which owns Le Grand Casino, still operates in the original building that the Blancs constructed and has since been joined by several other casinos, including the Le Casino Café de Paris, the Monte Carlo Sporting Club & Casino and the Sun Casino. The most recent addition in Monte Carlo is the Monte Carlo Bay Casino, which sits on 4 hectares of the Mediterranean Sea and, among other things, offers 145 slot machines, all equipped with "ticket-in, ticket-out" (TITO); it is the first Mediterranean casino to use this technology.BOOK, 2006, Frommer's Provence and the Riviera (Fifth. ed.), Porter, D., D. Prince, Wiley Publishing Inc.,

Taxes

Monaco has high social-insurance taxes, payable by both employers and employees. The employers' contributions are between 28% and 40% (averaging 35%) of gross salary, including benefits, and employees pay a further 10% to 14% (averaging 13%).WEB,weblink Monaco Personal Taxation, 28 May 2010, (File:Tour Odéon.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Luxury residential areas in Monaco) Monaco has never levied income tax on individuals, and foreigners are thus able to use it as a "tax haven" from their own country's taxes, because as an independent country, Monaco is not obligated to pay taxes to other countries.NEWS,weblink Monaco might not charge residents income tax, but it's no tax haven, The Daily Telegraph, 16 February 2010, 28 May 2012, London, WEB,weblink Monaco Country and Foreign Investment Regime, Lowtax.net, 22 March 2012, The absence of a personal income tax in the principality has attracted to it a considerable number of wealthy "tax refugee" residents from European countries who derive the majority of their income from activity outside Monaco; celebrities such as Formula One drivers attract most of the attention, but the vast majority of them are lesser-known business people.NEWS, David Leigh,weblink The tax haven that today's super rich City commuters call home, The Guardian, 10 July 2006, 28 May 2012, London, However, due to a bilateral treaty with France, French citizens are still required to pay applicable income and wealth taxes to the French state even if they are resident in Monaco,WEB,weblink France and Monaco, U.S. Department of State, and the principality also actively discourages the registration of foreign corporations, charging a 33 per cent corporation tax on profits unless it can be shown that at least three-quarters of the turnover has been generated within its borders. Unlike classic tax havens, it does not offer offshore financial services.In 1998 the Centre for Tax Policy and Administration, part of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), issued a first report on the consequences of the financial systems of known tax havens.WEB,weblink Obscure Tax Havens, Escapeartist.com, 28 May 2012, Monaco did not appear in the list of these territories until 2004, when the OECD became indignant regarding the Monegasque situation and denounced it in a report, as well as Andorra, Liechtenstein, Liberia, and the Marshall Islands, underlining its lack of co-operation regarding financial information disclosure and availability.Declaration of 18 April 2004, by the representative of the OECD Centre for Tax Policy and Administration Gabriel Makhlouf regarding the list of alleged tax havens non-cooperatives countries comparableStage Report 2004: Project of OECD on the detrimental tax practices, OECD, Paris, 2004 However, Monaco went on to overcome the objections of the OECD and was thus removed from its "grey list" of uncooperative jurisdictions. In 2009 it went a step farther and secured a place on its "white list", after signing twelve information exchange treaties with other jurisdictions.In 2000, the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) stated: "The anti-money laundering system in Monaco is comprehensive. However, difficulties have been encountered with Monaco by countries in international investigations on serious crimes that appear to be linked also with tax matters. In addition, the FIU of Monaco (SICCFIN) suffers a great lack of adequate resources. The authorities of Monaco have stated that they will provide additional resources to SICCFIN."WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110726051252weblink">weblink 26 July 2011, Review to Identify Non-Cooperative Countries or Territories: Increasing the Worldwide Effectiveness of Anti-Money Laundering Measures, Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering, 22 June 2000, Paris, 8, 23 May 2009, live, dmy, Also in 2000, a report by the French parliamentarians Arnaud Montebourg and Vincent Peillon stated that Monaco had relaxed policies with respect to money laundering, including within its casino, and that the government of Monaco had been placing political pressure on the judiciary, so that alleged crimes were not being properly investigated.WEB,weblink Assemblee-Nationale report, Assemblee-nationale.fr, 27 July 1987, 28 August 2010, In its Progress Report of 2005, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified Monaco, along with 36 other territories, as a tax haven,Financial Centres with Significant Offshore Activities in Offshore Financial Centres. The Assessment Program. A Progress Report Supplementary Information, IMF, Washington, 2005 but in its FATF report of the same year it took a positive view of Monaco's measures against money-laundering.Review to Identify Non-Cooperative Countries or Territories: Increasing the Worldwide Effectiveness of Anti-Money Laundering Measures, FATF, Paris, 2005Review to Identify Non-Cooperative Countries or Territories: Increasing the Worldwide Effectiveness of Anti-Money Laundering Measures, FATF, Paris, 2006The Council of Europe also decided to issue reports naming tax havens. Twenty-two territories, including Monaco, were thus evaluated between 1998 and 2000 on a first round. Monaco was the only territory that refused to perform the second round, between 2001 and 2003, whereas the 21 other territories had planned implementing the third and final round, planned between 2005 and 2007.First Mutual Evaluation Report on the Principality of Monaco, Moneyval, Strasbourg, 2003

Numismatics

File:1FrancMonaco1978face.jpg|thumb|left|1978 Monégasque francMonégasque francOf interest to numismatists, in Monaco the euro was introduced in 2002, having been preceded by the Monégasque franc.WEB,weblink Monaco Euro Coins, Eurocoins.co.uk, 1 January 2002, 11 May 2017, In preparation for this date, the minting of the new euro coins started as early as 2001. Like Belgium, Finland, France, the Netherlands, and Spain, Monaco decided to put the minting date on its coins. This is why the first euro coins from Monaco have the year 2001 on them, instead of 2002, like the other countries of the Eurozone that decided to put the year of first circulation (2002) on their coins.WEB,weblink ECB: Monaco, Ecb.int, 22 March 2012, WEB,weblink Monaco Coins, Monaco.me, 1 January 2002, 22 March 2012, Three different designs were selected for the Monégasque coins.WEB,weblink Monaco – The Museum of Stamps and Coins, Visitmonaco.com, 22 March 2012, However, in 2006, the design was changed after the death of ruling Prince Rainier to have the effigy of Prince Albert.WEB,weblink Monegasque Gold Coins – Monaco, Taxfreegold.co.uk, 22 March 2012, Monaco also mints collectors' coins, with face value ranging from €5 to €100.WEB, Siam Internet Co., Ltd.,weblink Monaco Euro Coins – daily updated collectors value for every single coin, euro-coins.tv, 22 March 2012, These coins are a legacy of an old national practice of minting silver and gold commemorative coins.WEB,weblink Buy Gold Coins – Rare Gold Coins, Monacorarecoins.com, 22 March 2012, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090224123645weblink">weblink 24 February 2009, Monaco Gold Coins -World Gold Coins, Williamyoungerman.com, 22 March 2012, dead, dmy-all, Unlike normal issues, these coins are not legal tender in all the Eurozone.WEB,weblink Unique Facts About Europe: Euro, Sheppardsoftware.com, 28 May 2012, The same practice concerning commemorative coins is exercised by all eurozone countries.{{clear}}

Population

Demographics

{{Pie chart|thumb = right|caption = Monaco's PopulationFrench People>French|value1 = 28.4|color1 = #141464|label2 = Monegasques|value2 = 21.6|color2 = #649678|label3 = Italians|value3 = 18.7|color3 = #5AD282British People>British|value4 = 7.5|color4 = #DC64DC|label5 = Belgians|value5 = 2.8|color5 = #BE5A14|label6 = Germans|value6 = 2.5|color6 = #5A3C3CSwiss people>Swiss|value7 = 2.5|color7 = #325050|label8 = Americans|color8 = #414181|value8 = 1.2|label9 = Other|color9 = LightYellow|value9 = 14.8}}Monaco's total population was 38,400 in 2015.WEB,weblink Monaco Statistics office, Monacostatistics.mc, 3 August 2017, Monaco's population is unusual in that the native Monégasques are a minority in their own country: the largest group are French nationals at 28.4%, followed by Monégasque (21.6%), Italian (18.7%), British (7.5%), Belgian (2.8%), German (2.5%), Swiss (2.5%) and U.S. nationals (1.2%).WEB, General Population Census 2008: Population Recensee et Population Estimee,weblink$FILE/Recensement2008_Ch1.pdf,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110614212422weblink">weblink$FILE/Recensement2008_Ch1.pdf, 14 June 2011, Government of the Principality of Monaco, 7 October 2011, French, 2008, dead, dmy, Citizens of Monaco, whether born in the country or naturalised, are called Monégasque.WEB,weblink Culture of Monaco, Everyculture.com, 6 September 2012, Monaco has the world's highest life expectancy at nearly 90 years.WEB,weblink CIA World Factbook, Monaco, Cia.gov, 28 May 2012, WEB,weblink International Rankings of Monaco - 2018, Theodora.com, 4 July 2018,

Language

The official language of Monaco is French, while Italian is spoken by the principality's sizeable community from Italy. Thus, French and Italian supplant Monegasque, the vernacular language of the Monegasques, which is not recognised as an official language; English is used by American, British, Anglo-Canadian, and Irish residents.
The Grimaldi, princes of Monaco, have Ligurian origin, thus, the traditional national language is Monégasque, a variety of Ligurian, now spoken by only a minority of residents and as a common second language by many native residents. In Monaco-Ville, street signs are printed in both French and Monégasque.WEB,weblink Society, Monaco-IQ, 6 September 2012, WEB,weblink Principality of Monaco – Monaco Monte-Carlo, Monte-carlo.mc, 6 September 2012,

Religion {| class"wikitable sortable" style"font-size: 85%"

Religion in Monaco (2018)WEB, Joshua Project,weblink Ethnic People Groups of Monaco, Joshua Project, 2018, 21 December 2018, {{efn|Percentage based on a 38,000 person population.}}! Affiliation! colspan="2"|% of population| Christianity '''{{bartable|background:#2243B6}} Roman Catholic ''{{bartable|background:#4997D0}}'' Protestant ''{{bartable|background:#4997D0}}'' Eastern Orthodox ''{{bartable|background:#4997D0}}'' Anglican ''{{bartable|background:#4997D0}}'' Other Christian faith ''{{bartable|background:#4997D0}}''Religion>Other religion '''{{bartable|background:#006B3C}}''' Jewish ''{{bartable|background:#87A96B}}'' Muslim ''{{bartable|background:#87A96B}}'' Other faith ''{{bartable|background:#87A96B}}''Irreligion>Non-religious '''{{bartable|background:#A57164}}'''

Catholic Church

File:Monaco BW 2011-06-07 16-07-20.jpg|thumb|Cathedral of Our Lady ImmaculateCathedral of Our Lady ImmaculateFile:Église Sainte-Dévote (Monaco).jpg|thumb|Sainte-Dévote ChapelSainte-Dévote ChapelThe official religion is the Catholic Church, with freedom of other religions guaranteed by the constitution. There are five Catholic parish churches in Monaco and one cathedral, which is the seat of the archbishop of Monaco.
The diocese, which has existed since the mid-19th century, was raised to a non-metropolitan archbishopric in 1981 as the Archdiocese of Monaco and remains exempt (i.e. immediately subject to the Holy See). The patron saint is Saint Devota.Christians comprise a total of 82.6% of Monaco's population.

Protestantism

According to Monaco 2012 International Religious Freedom Report, Protestants are the second-largest group after Roman Catholics. There are various Evangelical Protestant communities that gather periodically. The report states that there are two Protestant churches, including the local Anglican church and a Reformed church.

Anglicanism

There is one Anglican church (St Paul's Church), located in the Avenue de Grande Bretagne in Monte Carlo. In 2007 this had a formal membership of 135 Anglicans resident in the principality, but was also serving a considerably larger number of Anglicans temporarily in the country, mostly as tourists. The church site also accommodates an English-language library of over 3,000 books.WEB,weblink Saint Paul's Church, Monte-Carlo, stpaulsmonaco.com, The church is part of the Anglican Diocese in Europe.

Greek Orthodoxy

Monaco's 2012 International Religious Freedom Report states that there is one Greek Orthodox church in Monaco.

Judaism

The Association Culturelle Israélite de Monaco (founded in 1948) is a converted house containing a synagogue, a community Hebrew school, and a kosher food shop, located in Monte Carlo.WEB,weblink Synagogues in Monte Carlo – Shuls in Monte Carlo – Jewish Temples in Monte Carlo, Mavensearch.com, 6 July 2007, 28 May 2012, The community mainly consists of retirees from Britain (40%) and North Africa. Two-thirds of the Jewish population is Sephardic, mainly from North Africa, while the other third is Ashkenazi.Details at Jewish Virtual Library

Islam

The Muslim population of Monaco consists of about 280 people, most of whom are residents not citizens.WEB,weblink Muslim populations by country: how big will each Muslim population be by 2030?, Simon Rogers, the Guardian, The majority of the Muslim population of Monaco are Arabs, though there are smaller Turkish minorities as well.WEB,weblink Islam in Monaco, muslimpopulation.com, Monaco does not have any official mosques.WEB,weblink Islam in Monaco, islamicpopulation.com, There is a mosque in nearby Beausoleil, France, within easy walking distance of Monaco.

Sports

Formula One

File:Grand Prix Monaco96 131954710.jpg|thumb|Formation lap for the 1996 Monaco Grand Prix1996 Monaco Grand PrixSince 1929, the Monaco Grand Prix has been held annually in the streets of Monaco.WEB,weblink Monaco Grand Prix, 3 March 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120303200854weblink">weblink 3 March 2012, dmy-all, It is widely considered to be one of the most prestigious automobile races in the world. The erection of the Circuit de Monaco takes six weeks to complete and the removal after the race takes another three weeks. The circuit is incredibly narrow and tight and its tunnel, tight corners and many elevation changes make it perhaps the most demanding Formula One track.WEB, liam mcmurray, lesley kazan-pinfield,weblink Monaco Formula One Grand Prix, Monaco-f1grandprix.com, 6 September 2012, Driver Nelson Piquet compared driving the circuit to "riding a bicycle around your living room".Despite the challenging nature of the course it has only had one fatality, Lorenzo Bandini, who crashed, burned and died three days later from his injuries in 1967."Hulme Wins Monte Carlo; Bandini Hurt", Sheboygan Press, 8 May 1967, Page 13. Two other drivers had lucky escapes after they crashed into the harbour, the most famous being Alberto Ascari in the 1955 Monaco Grand Prix and Paul Hawkins, during the 1965 race.Monaco also holds a Grand Prix winner, in the form of Charles Leclerc, who has won two races so far in his career, at the 2019 Belgian Grand Prix and 2019 Italian Grand Prix.

Formula E

Starting in 2015 Formula E started racing biennially with the Historic Grand Prix of Monaco on the Monaco ePrixWEB,weblink Formula E set to race on shorter version of Monaco circuit, Watkins, Gary, Autosport.com, en, 2019-05-12, and used a shorter course of the full Formula 1 course.

Monte Carlo Rally

Since 1911 part of the Monte Carlo Rally has been held in the principality, originally held at the behest of Prince Albert I. Like the Grand Prix, the rally is organised by Automobile Club de Monaco. It has long been considered to be one of the toughest and most prestigious events in rallying and from 1973 to 2008 was the opening round of the World Rally Championship (WRC).WEB, Federall,weblink ACM – Automobile Club de Monaco, Acm.mc, 6 September 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121109144441weblink">weblink 9 November 2012, dead, dmy-all, From 2009 until 2011, the rally served as the opening round of the Intercontinental Rally Challenge.NEWS,weblink Rallye Monte Carlo Historique, The Daily Telegraph, London, 6 September 2012, The rally returned to the WRC calendar in 2012 and has been held annually since.WEB,weblink 2012 World Rally Championship events announced, wrc.com, 27 April 2012, 28 May 2012, Due to Monaco's limited size, all but the ending of the rally is held on French territory.

Football

File:Panoramio - V&A Dudush - stade Louis II.jpg|thumb|left|Stade Louis II, home of AS Monaco FCAS Monaco FCMonaco hosts two major football teams in the principality: the men's football club, AS Monaco FC, and the women's football club, OS Monaco. AS Monaco plays at the Stade Louis II and competes in Ligue 1 the first division of French football. The club is historically one of the most successful clubs in the French league, having won Ligue 1 eight times (most recently in 2016–17) and competed at the top level for all but six seasons since 1953. The club reached the 2004 UEFA Champions League Final, with a team that included Dado Pršo, Fernando Morientes, Jérôme Rothen, Akis Zikos and Ludovic Giuly, but lost 3–0 to Portuguese team FC Porto. French World Cup-winners Thierry Henry, Fabien Barthez, David Trezeguet, and Kylian Mbappe have played for the club. The Stade Louis II also played host to the annual UEFA Super Cup (1998–2012) between the winners of the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League.The women's team, OS Monaco, competes in the women's French football league system. The club currently plays in the local regional league, deep down in the league system. It once played in the Division 1 Féminine, in the 1994–95 season, but was quickly relegated. Current France women's national football team goalkeeper Sarah Bouhaddi had a short stint at the club before going to the INF Clairefontaine academy.The Monaco national football team represents the nation in association football and is controlled by the Monégasque Football Federation, the governing body for football in Monaco. However, Monaco is one of only three sovereign states in Europe (along with the Vatican City) that is not a member of UEFA and so does not take part in any UEFA European Football Championship or FIFA World Cup competitions. The team plays its home matches in the Stade Louis II.

Rugby

Monaco's national rugby team, as of April 2019, is 101st in the World Rugby Rankings.WEB,weblink Men's Rankings, World Rugby, 14 April 2019, 22 April 2019,

Other sports

(File:2011 Monaco Porsche Supercup.jpg|thumb|left|A view of the 2011 Monaco Porsche Supercup. Motor racing is very popular, with one course encompassing almost the whole country.)The Monte-Carlo Masters is held annually in neighbouring Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, France, as a professional tournament for men as part of tennis's ATP Masters Series.WEB,weblink Tennis – Tournament Fact Sheet, Monte-Carlo Rolex Masters, 30 September 2011, 28 May 2012, The tournament has been held since 1897. Golf's Monte Carlo Open was also held at the Monte Carlo Golf Club at Mont Agel in France between 1984 and 1992.Monaco has a national Davis Cup team, who plays in the European/African Zone.Monaco has also competed in the Olympic Games, although, no athlete from Monaco has ever won an Olympic medal.The 2009 Tour de France, the world's premier cycle race, started from Monaco with a {{convert|15|km|0|adj=mid}} closed-circuit individual time trial starting and finishing there on the first day, and the {{convert|182|km|0|adj=mid}} second leg starting there on the following day and ending in Brignoles, France.WEB,weblink Tour de France 2008 – Grand start 2009, Letour.com, 28 May 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116210455weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, dead, dmy-all, Monaco also stage part of the Global Champions Tour (International Show-jumping). Acknowledged as the most glamorous of the series, Monaco will be hosting the world's most celebrated riders, including Monaco's own Charlotte Casiraghi, in a setting facing out over the world's most beautiful yachts, and framed by the Port Hercules and Prince's palace.WEB,weblink Monte-Carlo, Global Champions Tour, 6 September 2012, In 2009, the Monaco stage of the Global Champions tour took place between 25–27 June.The Monaco Marathon is the only marathon in the world to pass through three separate countries, those of Monaco, France and Italy, before the finish at the Stade Louis II.The Monaco Ironman 70.3 triathlon race is an annual event with over 1,000 athletes competing and attracts top professional athletes from around the world. The race includes a {{convert|1.9|km|1|adj=mid|abbr=off}} swim, {{convert|90|km|0|adj=mid|abbr=off}} bike ride and {{convert|21.1|km|1|adj=mid|abbr=off}} run.Since 1993, the headquarters of the International Association of Athletics Federations,WEB,weblink Headquarters, iaaf.org, 10 June 1994, 28 May 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120605031229weblink">weblink 5 June 2012, dead, dmy-all, the world governing body of athletics, is located in Monaco.WEB,weblink Inside IAAF Intro, iaaf.org, 28 May 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120604054507weblink">weblink 4 June 2012, dead, dmy-all, An IAAF Diamond League meet is annually held at Stade Louis II.WEB,weblink Usain BOLT and Yelena ISINBAEVA for Herculis, Diamondleague-monaco.com, 30 April 2012, 28 May 2012, A municipal sports complex, the Rainier III Nautical Stadium in the Port Hercules district consists of a heated saltwater Olympic-size swimming pool, diving boards and a slide.WEB, Rainer III Nautical Stadium,weblink Marie de Monaco – Rainier III Nautical Stadium, Marie de Monaco, 25 May 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130517044436weblink">weblink 17 May 2013, dmy-all, The pool is converted into an ice rink from December to March.From 10–12 July 2014 Monaco inaugurated the Solar1 Monte Carlo Cup, a series of ocean races exclusively for solar-powered boats.The Riviera Times, Issue 148, July 2014,WEB,weblink PDF, Monte-Carlo Cup, Solar1races.com, 3 August 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171010190230weblink">weblink 10 October 2017, dead, File:Hafen und Felsen von Monaco-La Turbie.jpg|thumb|center|1000px|upright=3.2|Panoramic view of the Monaco City and of the port of Fontvieille ]]

Culture

Music

File:Monaco - panoramio (68).jpg|thumb|Seaside façade of the Salle Garnier, home of the Opéra de Monte-CarloOpéra de Monte-CarloMonaco has an opera house, a symphony orchestra and a classical ballet company.WEB,weblink Culture of Monaco, everyculture.com,

Visual arts

Monaco has a national museum of contemporary visual art at the New National Museum of Monaco. The country also has numerous works of public art, statues, museums, and memorials (see list of public art in Monaco).

Museums in Monaco

File:Monaco BW 2011-06-07 17-50-43.jpg|thumb|Oceanographic MuseumOceanographic Museum

Events, festivals and shows

The Principality of Monaco hosts major international events such as :

Education

Primary and secondary schools

File:Le Lycée Albert 1er de Monaco.jpg|thumb|Lycée Albert PremierLycée Albert PremierMonaco has ten state-operated schools, including: seven nursery and primary schools; one secondary school, Collège Charles III;WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511103100weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, Collège Charles III, College-charles3.mc, 28 August 2010, dead, dmy, one lycée that provides general and technological training, Lycée Albert 1er;WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110722170522weblink">weblink 22 July 2011, Lycée Albert 1er, Lycee-albert1er.mc, 28 August 2010, dead, dmy, and one lycée that provides vocational and hotel training, Lycée technique et hôtelier de Monte-Carlo.WEB, Lycée technique et hôtelier de Monte-Carlo,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110722170522weblink">weblink 22 July 2011, Monaco, French, 23 May 2009, dead, dmy, There are also two grant-aided denominational private schools, Institution François d'Assise Nicolas Barré and Ecole des Sœurs Dominicaines, and one international school, the International School of Monaco,WEB,weblink The International School Of Monaco, ismonaco.org, WEB, Education System,weblink$/e72b5e7946917f37c1257339004c433dgb?OpenDocument&2Gb#EDUCATION%20SYSTEM, 15 February 2013, founded in 1994.WEB, School Website,weblink 19 April 2017,

Colleges and universities

There is one university located in Monaco, namely the International University of Monaco (IUM), an English-language school specializing in business education and operated by the Institut des hautes études économiques et commerciales (INSEEC) group of schools.

Flag

File:Coat of arms and flag of Monaco.jpg|thumb|right|Monaco's flag and Coat of armsCoat of armsThe flag of Monaco is one of the world's oldest national flag designs.WEB,weblink Monaco Flag - World Flags 101 - Monacan Flags, Worldflags101.com, Adopted by Monaco on April 4, 1881, it is almost identical to the flag of Indonesia (adopted by Indonesia in August 17, 1945) except for the ratio of height to width.WEB,weblink Monaco Flag, Worldflags101.com, 2 July 2011,

Transport

{{further|Rail transport in Monaco}}The Monaco-Monte Carlo station is served by the SNCF, the French national rail system. The Monaco Heliport provides helicopter service to the closest airport, Côte d'Azur Airport in Nice, France.The Monaco bus company (CAM) covers all the tourist attractions, museums, Exotic garden, business centres, and the Casino or the Louis II Stadium.WEB, Monaco Bus Line,weblink

Relations with other countries

(File:Monacoc1890.jpg|thumb|right|Le Rocher in 1890)Monaco is so old that it has outlived many of the nations and institutions that it has had relations with. The Crown of Aragon and Republic of Genoa became a part of other countries, as did the Kingdom of Sardinia. Honoré II, Prince of Monaco secured recognition of his independent sovereignty from Spain in 1633, and then from Louis XIII of France by the Treaty of Péronne (1641).Monaco made a special agreement with France in 1963 in which French customs laws apply in Monaco and its territorial waters. Monaco uses the euro but is not a member of the European Union. Monaco shares a {{convert|6|km|mi|adj=mid|abbr=off}} border with France but also has about {{convert|2|km|mi|1|adj=mid|abbr=off}} of coastline with the Mediterranean sea.WEB,weblink The World Factbook, cia.gov, Two important agreements that support Monaco's independence from France include the Franco-Monégasque Treaty of 1861 and the French Treaty of 1918 (see also Kingdom of Sardinia). The United States CIA Factbook records 1419 as the year of Monaco's independence. There are two embassies in Monaco: those of France and Italy.WEB,weblink Monaco – Embassies and Consulates, embassypages.com, There are about another 30 or so consulates. By the 21st century Monaco maintained embassies in Belgium (Brussels), France (Paris), Germany (Berlin), the Vatican, Italy (Rome), Spain (Madrid), Switzerland (Bern), United Kingdom (London) and the United States (Washington).In the year 2000 nearly two-thirds of the residents of Monaco were foreigners.WEB,weblink Monaco, encyclopedia.com, In 2015 the immigrant population was estimated at 60% However, it is reported to be difficult to gain citizenship in Monaco, or at least in relative number there are not many people who do so. In 2015 an immigration rate of about 4 people per 1,000 was noted, which works out to about 100–150 people a year.WEB,weblink The World Factbook, cia.gov, 8 August 2015,weblink 5 September 2015, dead, dmy-all, The population of Monaco went from 35,000 in 2008 to 36,000 in 2013, and of that about 20 percent were native MonegasqueWEB,weblink Monaco, populationfun.com, (see also Nationality law of Monaco).A recurring issue Monaco encounters with other countries is the attempt by foreign nationals to use Monaco to avoid paying taxes in their own country. Monaco actually collects a number of taxes including a 20% VAT and 33% on companies unless they make over 75% of their income inside Monaco. Monaco does not allow dual citizenship, but does have multiple paths to citizenship including by declaration and naturalisation.WEB,weblink Principality of Monaco, flagtheory.com, In many cases the key issue for obtaining citizenship, rather than attaining residency in Monaco, is the person's ties to their departure country. For example, French citizens must still pay taxes to France even if they live full-time in Monaco unless they resided in the country before 1962 for at least 5 years. In the early 1960s there was some tension between France and Monaco over taxation.WEB,weblink Lessons from history – The Monaco crisis from 1962–1963 and the emancipation of tax havens, Charlotte Geiger, finance-watch.org, There are no border formalities entering or leaving France. For visitors a souvenir passport stamp is available on request at Monaco's tourist office. This is located on the far side of the gardens that face the Casino.{|class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%;line-height:1.2"valign="bottom"! Microstate! Association Agreement! EurozoneWEB, The euro outside the euro area, Europa (web portal),weblink 26 February 2011, ! Schengen Area! EU single market! EU customs territoryWEB,weblink EU Customs Union, 18 June 2015, European Commission,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150619052718weblink">weblink 19 June 2015, dead, ! EU VAT areaWEB,weblink Taxation and Customs Union – Within the EU, 9 September 2012, European Commission, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121111165632weblink">weblink 11 November 2012, dmy-all, ! Dublin RegulationMonaco–European Union relations>relations)Negotiating}}HTTP://EC.EUROPA.EU/AVSERVICES/VIDEO/PLAYER.CFM?REF=I100473>TITLE=RECORDED HRVP FEDERICA MOGHERINI HOST THE CEREMONY ON THE OCCASION OF THE LAUNCHING OF THE ASSOCIATION AGREEMENT(S) NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE PRINCIPALITY OF ANDORRA, THE PRINCIPALITY OF MONACO AND THE REPUBLIC OF SAN MARINOACCESSDATE=18 MARCH 2015, European Commission, Monegasque euro coins}}{{efn>International status and usage of the euro#Sovereign states to issue euros.>name=euros}}de facto}}{{efnSchengen Agreement, has an Schengen Area#Status of the European microstates>open border with France and Schengen laws are administered as if it were a part of France.HTTP://EUR-LEX.EUROPA.EU/LEXURISERV/LEXURISERV.DO?URI=SWD:2012:0388:FIN:EN:HTML>TITLE=OBSTACLES TO ACCESS BY ANDORRA, MONACO AND SAN MARINO TO THE EU'S INTERNAL MARKET AND COOPERATION IN OTHER AREASACCESSDATE=30 MARCH 2013, HTTP://EUR-LEX.EUROPA.EU/LEXURISERV/LEXURISERV.DO?URI=CELEX:41998D0019:EN:HTML>TITLE= THE SCHENGEN ACQUIS – DECISION OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF 23 JUNE 1998 ON MONEGASQUE RESIDENCE PERMITSACCESSDATE=9 SEPTEMBER 2012, Official Journal of the European Union, }}Through an agreement with France.EU relations with the Principality of Andorra, the Republic of San Marino and the Principality of Monaco: "If France adopts internal legislation transposing EU directives in certain areas covered by bilateral Agreements with Monaco, the Principality directly applies the French legislation in certain areas"}}Through an Franco-Monegasque Treaty with France. Part of the EU Customs territory, administered as part of France.HTTP://EC.EUROPA.EU/TAXATION_CUSTOMS/COMMON/FAQ/FAQ_1178_EN.HTMPUBLISHER=EUROPEAN COMMISSIONURL-STATUS=DEADARCHIVEDATE=8 JUNE 2012JOURNAL=OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN UNIONACCESSDATE=12 SEPTEMBER 2012, |name=france}}Also part of the EU excise territory.HTTP://EC.EUROPA.EU/TAXATION_CUSTOMS/RESOURCES/DOCUMENTS/CUSTOMS/PROCEDURAL_ASPECTS/GENERAL/SAD/GUIDE/1619-08ANNEXI_EN.PDF>TITLE=ANNEX 1: OVERVIEW OF EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIESEUROPEAN COMMISSION>URL-STATUS=DEADARCHIVEDATE=4 MAY 2014Through an agreement with France. Administered as a part of France for taxation purposes.HTTP://EUR-LEX.EUROPA.EU/LEXURISERV/LEXURISERV.DO?URI=OJ:L:2009:009:0012:0030:EN:PDF>TITLE=COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 2008/118/EC OF 16 DECEMBER 2008 CONCERNING THE GENERAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR EXCISE DUTY AND REPEALING DIRECTIVE 92/12/EECACCESSDATE=10 SEPTEMBER 2012, Official Journal of the European Union, }}|{{No}}

See also

{{clear}}

Notes

{{notelist|25em}}

References

{{Reflist}}

External links

{{Sister project links|voy=Monaco}}
Government


General information
  • {{CIA World Factbook link|mn|Monaco}}
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080607085244weblink">Monaco from UCB Libraries GovPubs
  • {{curlie|Regional/Europe/Monaco}}
  • Monaco from the BBC News
  • [https://www.monacodailynews.com/ English-language Monaco news source and publisher of daily newsletter Good Morning Monaco.
  • Monaco information about Monaco
  • History of Monaco: Primary documents
  • {{Wikiatlas|Monaco}}
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Travel


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  • Order of the doctors of Monaco {{fr icon}}
  • Monacolife.net English news portal
  • The Monaco Times â€“ a regular feature in The Riviera Times is the English language newspaper for the French â€“ Italian Riviera and the Principality of Monaco provides monthly local news and information about the business, art and culture, people and lifestyle, events and also the real estate market.
  • Monaco-IQ Monaco information and news aggregator
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M.R.M. Parrott
Biographies
GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014
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