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Mohammad Mosaddegh

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Mohammad Mosaddegh
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{{short description|Prime Minister of Iran in the 1950s}}{{use dmy dates|date=January 2013}}







factoids
Tehran, Qajar dynasty>Iran|birth_name = Mirza Mohammad-Khan Mossadegh-ol-Saltaneh{{death date and age3188216|df=y}}}}Najmieh Hospital), Tehran, IranAhmadabad-e Mosaddeq>Ahmadabad-e Mosaddeq CastleZahra Khanum 1965|reason=died}}|children = 5Mirza Hedayatollah)Najm-ol-Saltaneh)| relatives = Abdol-Hossein Farman Farma (uncle)Abbas Mirza (great-grandfather)Sciences Po>Paris Institute of Political StudiesUniversity of Neuchâtel
  • National Front (1949–1967)
  • Independent (1919–1949)BOOK, Houchang E. Chehabi, Iranian Politics and Religious Modernism: The Liberation Movement of Iran Under the Shah and Khomeini, I.B.Tauris, 113, 1990, 978-1850431985,
  • Anti-Reorganization Democrat (1918–1919)BOOK, Ahmad, Bani-Jamali, fa:آشوب: مطالعه‌ای در زندگی Ùˆ شخصیت دکتر محمد مصدق
trans-title=Chaos: A Study on Life and Character of Dr. Mohammad Mosaddeqpublisher=Neyisbn=978-9643129705, 146–155,
  • Moderate Socialists' Party (1914–1918)BOOK, Jalal, Matini, Jalal Matini, fa:نگاهی به کارنامه سیاسی دکتر محمد مصدق, Persian, A Glance at the Political Career of Dr. Mohammad Mosaddeq, 2009, Ketab Co., Los Angeles, CA, 978-1595842268, 25, }}|signature = Mohammad_mossadegh_Signature.svg
embed=yestitle=Mohammad Mosaddegh's voicedescription=(:File:Mosaddeghaboutdemocracy.ogg|Recorded in the National Consultative Assembly) from the Library, Museum and Document Center of Iran Parliament}}}}Mohammad Mosaddegh{{efn|His surname is also spelt Mossadeq, Mosaddiq, Mosaddegh, Mossaddeq, Mosaddiq, Mossadeq, Mosadeck, or Musaddiq.}} (; {{IPA-fa|mohæmˈmæd(-e) mosædˈdeɢ|IPA|Fa-مصدق.ogg}};{{efn|The -{{IPA|[e]}} is the Izāfa, which is a grammatical marker linking two words together. It is not indicated in writing, and is not part of the name itself, but is used when a first and last name are used together.}} 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was the 35th prime minister of Iran, holding office from 1951 until 1953, when his government was overthrown in the 1953 Iranian coup d'état orchestrated by the United States' Central Intelligence Agency and the United Kingdom's MI6.WEB,weblink Secrets of History The C.I.A. in Iran The Coup First Few Days Look Disastrous, James Risen, nytimes.com, 2000, James Risen, WEB,weblink All the Shah's Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror, Stephen Kinzer, John Wiley, David S. Robarge, Central Intelligence Agency, 12 April 2007, An author, administrator, lawyer and prominent parliamentarian, his administration introduced a range of social and political measures such as social security, land reforms and higher taxes including the introduction of taxation of the rent on land. His government's most significant policy, however, was the nationalization of the Iranian oil industry, which had been built by the British on Persian lands since 1913 through the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC/{{abbr|AIOC|Anglo-Iranian Oil Company}}) (later British Petroleum and BP).Daniel Yergin, The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money and Power ({{ISBN|9781439110126}}).Many Iranians regard Mosaddegh as the leading champion of secular democracy and resistance to foreign domination in Iran's modern history. Following an initial, failed coup attempt by the CIA/MI6-backed General Fazlollah Zahedi, Mosaddegh resigned four days later on 19 August 1953, with Zahedi succeeding him as prime minister.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Secrets of History: The C.I.A. in Iran, James Risen, 16 April 2000, 3 November 2006, While the coup is at times referred to in the West as Operation AjaxNEWS,weblink The Spectre of Operation Ajax, 3 November 2006, Dan De Luce, 20 September 2003, Guardian Unlimited, London, after its CIA cryptonym, in Iran it is referred to as the 28 Mordad 1332 Coup d'état, after its date on the Iranian calendar.WEB,weblink Mohammad Mosaddegh and the 1953 Coup in Iran, National Security Archive, Mark Gasiorowski; Malcolm Byrne, 3 November 2006, 22 June 2004, Mosaddegh was imprisoned for three years, then put under house arrest until his death and was buried in his own home so as to prevent a political furor.WEB,weblink CIA Confirms Role in 1953 Iran Coup, August 19, 2013, nsarchive2.gwu.edu, The National Security Archive, August 21, 2018, CIA finally admits it masterminded Iran's 1953 coup RT NewsNEWS,weblink CIA admits role in 1953 Iranian coup, Saeed Kamali Dehghan, Richard Norton-Taylor, The Guardian, 19 August 2013, 20 August 2013, In 2013, the U.S. government formally acknowledged the U.S. role in the coup, as a part of its foreign policy initiatives.NEWS,weblink In declassified document, CIA acknowledges role in '53 Iran coup, Cnn.com, 2013-08-22,

Early life

Mosaddegh was born to a prominent Persian family of high officials in Tehran on 16 June 1882; his father, Mirza Hideyatu'llah Ashtiani, was a finance minister under the Qajar dynasty, and his mother, Princess Malek Taj Najm-es-Saltaneh, was the granddaughter of the reformist Qajar prince Abbas Mirza, and a great-granddaughter of Fath-Ali Shah Qajar.Mohammad Mossadegh: Political biography By Farhad Dība, p4The Cold War, 1945–1991: Leaders and other important figures in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, China, and the Third World by Benjamin FrankelBOOK, Afkhami, Gholam Reza, Gholam Reza Afkhami, The life and times of the Shah, 2009, University of California Press, 978-0-520-25328-5, 110,weblink When Mosaddegh's father died in 1892, his uncle was appointed the tax collector of the Khorasan province and was bestowed with the title of Mosaddegh-os-Saltaneh by Nasser al-Din Shah.{{Citation|url=https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/campaigns/iran/irankey.xml|title=Key figures|publisher=The Telegraph|accessdate=7 November 2007|location=London|date=4 June 2003}} Mosaddegh himself later bore the same title, by which he was still known to some long after titles were abolished.Peter Avery, Modern Iran (Praeger, 1965), p. 273: "Older people still speak of Dr. Musaddiq as Musaddiqu's-Saltanah."In 1901, Mosaddegh married Zahra Khanum (1879–1965), a granddaughter of Nasser al-Din Shah through her mother. The couple had five children, two sons (Ahmad and Ghulam Hussein) and three daughters (Mansura, Zia Ashraf, and Khadija).

Education

(File:Mossadegh childhood.jpg|thumb|left|A young Mosaddegh)In 1909, Mosaddegh pursued education abroad in Paris, France where he studied law at the Institut d'études politiques de Paris (Sciences Po). He studied there for 2 years, returning to Iran because of illness in 1911. After 5 months, Mosaddegh returned to Europe to study a Doctorate of Laws (doctorate en Droit) at the University of Neuchâtel in Switzerland.WEB,weblink آموزش زبان, blogfa.com, In June 1913, Mosaddegh received his doctorate and in doing so became the first Iranian to receive a PhD in Law from a European university.NEWS, Kinzer, Stephen, Inside Iran's Fury,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081003020305weblink">weblink dead, 2008-10-03, 9 August 2013, Smithsonian Magazine, October 2008, Mosaddegh taught at the Tehran School of Political Science at the start of World War I before beginning his political career.WEB,weblink IFVC, The Political Life and Legacy of Mosaddegh, Bahman Maghsoudlou, Iranian Film Directors, New Productions, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110413023823weblink">weblink 13 April 2011, dmy-all,

Early political career

Mosaddegh started his political career with the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1905–07. At the age of 24, he was elected from Isfahan to the newly inaugurated Persian Parliament, the Majlis of Iran. However, he was unable to assume his seat, because he had not reached the legal age of 30.BOOK, Kinzer, Stephen, All the Shah's men: an American coup and the roots of Middle East terror, 2003, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, N.J., 978-0471265177, 54,weblink During this period he also served as deputy leader of the Society of Humanity, under Mostowfi ol-Mamalek.WEB, Baktiar, Salar, The life of Mirza Hassan Khan, Mostofi Al Mamalek,weblink 24 November 2004, 31 July 2011, In protest at the Anglo-Persian Treaty of 1919, he relocated to Switzerland, from where he returned the following year after being invited by the new Iranian prime minister, Hassan Pirnia (Moshir-ed-Dowleh), to become his minister of justice. While en route to Tehran, he was asked by the people of Shiraz to become the governor of the Fars Province. He was later appointed finance minister, in the government of Ahmad Qavam (Qavam os-Saltaneh) in 1921, and then foreign minister in the government of Moshir-ed-Dowleh in June 1923. He then became governor of the Azerbaijan Province. In 1923, he was re-elected to the Majlis.In 1925, the supporters of Reza Khan in the Majlis proposed legislation to dissolve the Qajar dynasty and appoint Reza Khan the new Shah. Mossadegh voted against such a move, arguing that such an act was a subversion of the 1906 Iranian constitution. He gave a speech in the Majlis, praising Reza Khan's achievements as prime minister while encouraging him to respect the constitution and stay as the prime minister. On 12 December 1925, the Majlis deposed the young Shah Ahmad Shah Qajar, and declared Reza Shah the new monarch of the Imperial State of Persia, and the first Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty.Mohammad Mossadegh: political biography By Farhad Dība, p. 41 Mosaddegh then retired from politics, due to disagreements with the new regime.WEB, Centers of Power in Iran,weblink CIA, 5 August 2013, May 1972, Kinzer, All the Shah's Men (2003) p.60In 1941, Reza Shah Pahlavi was forced by the British to abdicate in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. In 1944, Mosaddegh was once again elected to parliament. This time he took the lead of Jebhe Melli (National Front of Iran, created in 1949), an organization he had founded with nineteen others such as Hossein Fatemi, Ahmad Zirakzadeh, Ali Shayegan and Karim Sanjabi, aiming to establish democracy and end the foreign presence in Iranian politics, especially by nationalizing the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company's (AIOC) operations in Iran. In 1947 Mossadegh once again announced retirement, after an electoral-reform bill he had proposed failed to pass through Majlis., Kinzer, All the Shah's Men (2003) p.135

Prime Minister of Iran

{{see also|Government of Mohammad Mosaddegh}}

Appointment as Prime Minister

File:Mossadeghmohammad.jpg|thumb|left|Mossadegh as Prime ministerPrime ministerOn 28 April 1951, the Shah appointed Mossaddegh as Prime Minister after the Majlis (Parliament of Iran) nominated Mosaddegh by a vote of 79–12. The Shah was aware of Mosaddegh's rising popularity and political power, after a period of assassinations by Fada'iyan-e Islam and political unrest by the National Front. Demonstrations erupted in Tehran after Mosaddegh's appointment, with crowds further invigorated by the speeches of members from the National Front. There was a special focus on the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company and the heavy involvement of foreign actors and influences in Iranian affairs. Despite the fact that Iran was never a colony or a protectorate, it was still heavily controlled by foreign powers beginning with concessions provided by the Qajar Shahs, and leading up to the oil agreement signed by Reza Shah in 1933.BOOK, Cleveland, William, A History of the Modern Middle East, 2016, Westview Press, Boulder, CO, The new administration introduced a wide range of social reforms: unemployment compensation was introduced, factory owners were ordered to pay benefits to sick and injured workers, and peasants were freed from forced labor in their landlords' estates. In 1952, Mossadegh passed the Land Reform Act which forced landlords to turn over 20% of their revenues to their tenants. These revenues could be placed in a fund to pay for development projects such as public baths, rural housing, and pest controlweblink 1 May, Mosaddegh nationalized the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, canceling its oil concession (expired in 1993) and expropriating its assets. Mossadegh saw the AIOC as an arm of the British government controlling much of the oil in Iran, pushing him to seize what the British had built for Iran. The next month, a committee of five majlis deputies was sent to Khuzistan to enforce the nationalization.Abrahamian (1982) p. 268.Alan W. Ford, The Anglo-Iranian Oil Dispute of 1951–1952. University of California Press, Berkeley 1954, p. 268. Mosaddegh tried to justify his nationalization policy by claiming Iran was "the rightful owner..." of all the oil in Iran, and also pointing out Iran could use the money, in a 21 June 1951 speech:The confrontation between Iran and Britain escalated as Mosaddegh's government refused to allow the British any involvement in their former enterprise, and Britain made sure Iran could sell no oil, which is considered stolen. In July, Mosaddegh broke off negotiations with AIOC after it threatened to "pull out its employees", and told owners of oil tanker ships that "receipts from the Iranian government would not be accepted on the world market." Two months later the AIOC evacuated its technicians and closed down the oil installations. Under nationalized management, many refineries lacked the trained technicians that were needed to continue production. The British government announced a de facto blockade, reinforced its naval force in the Persian Gulf and lodged complaints against Iran before the United Nations Security Council.File:Mossadeghmohammadrezashah.jpg|thumb|Mosaddegh shaking hands with Mohammad-Reza ShahMohammad-Reza ShahThe British government also threatened legal action against purchasers of oil produced in the formerly British refineries seized by Iran and obtained an agreement with its sister international oil companies not to fill in where the AIOC was boycotting Iran. The entire Iranian oil industry came to a virtual standstill, oil production dropping from {{convert|241400000|oilbbl}} in 1950 to {{convert|10600000|oilbbl}} in 1952. This Abadan Crisis reduced Iran's oil income to almost nothing, putting a severe strain on the implementation of Mosaddegh's promised domestic reforms. At the same time, BP and Aramco doubled their production in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Iraq, to make up for lost production in Iran so that no hardship was felt in Britain.Still enormously popular in late 1951, Mosaddegh called elections. His base of support was in urban areas and not in the provinces.Abrahamian (1982), p. 268–70. This fact was reflected in the rejection of Mosaddegh's bill for electoral reform (which no longer disqualified illiterates from electoral participation) by the conservative bloc, on the grounds that it would "unjustly discriminate patriots who had been voting for the last forty years".Abrahamian (1982), pp. 268–9.According to Ervand Abrahamian: "Realizing that the opposition would take the vast majority of the provincial seats, Mosaddegh stopped the voting as soon as 79 deputies – just enough to form a parliamentary quorum—had been elected."Abrahamian (1982), p. 269. An alternative account is offered by Stephen Kinzer. Beginning in the early 1950s under the guidance of C.M. Woodhouse, chief of the British intelligence station in Tehran, Britain's covert operations network had funneled roughly £10,000 per month to the Rashidian brothers (two of Iran's most influential royalists) in the hope of buying off, according to CIA estimates, "the armed forces, the Majlis (Iranian parliament), religious leaders, the press, street gangs, politicians and other influential figures".Kinzer, All the Shah's Men, (2003) pp. 150–1. Thus, in his statement asserting electoral manipulation by "foreign agents", Mosaddegh suspended the elections. His National Front party had made up 30 of the 79 deputies elected. Yet none of those present vetoed the statement, and the elections were postponed indefinitely. The 17th Majlis convened on February 1952.Throughout Mossadegh's career, he strove to increase the power the people held versus the power of the crown. In 1952, he was granted emergency powers by the Majlis which he used to diminish the amount of power the Shah held at the time. He used these powers to place the control of the armed forces under the government, to decrease the size of the armed forces, and introduce land reforms with a more socialist approach.Tension soon began to escalate in the Majlis. Conservative opponents refused to grant Mosaddegh special powers to deal with the economic crisis caused by the sharp drop in revenue and voiced regional grievances against the capital Tehran, while the National Front waged "a propaganda war against the landed upper class".

Resignation and uprising

On 16 July 1952, during the royal approval of his new cabinet, Mosaddegh insisted on the constitutional prerogative of the Prime Minister to name a Minister of War and the Chief of Staff, something the Shah had done up to that point. The Shah refused, seeing it as a means for Mosaddegh to consolidate his power over the government at the expense of the monarchy. In response, Mosaddegh announced his resignation appealing directly to the public for support, pronouncing that "in the present situation, the struggle started by the Iranian people cannot be brought to a victorious conclusion".Abrahamian (1982), pp. 270–1.Veteran politician Ahmad Qavam (also known as Ghavam os-Saltaneh) was appointed as Iran's new Prime Minister. On the day of his appointment, he announced his intention to resume negotiations with the British to end the oil dispute, a reversal of Mosaddegh's policy. The National Front—along with various Nationalist, Islamist, and socialist parties and groupsMosaddegh: The Years of Struggle and Opposition by Col. Gholamreza Nejati, p. 761.—including Tudeh—responded by calling for protests, assassinations of the Shah and other royalists, strikes and mass demonstrations in favor of Mosaddegh. Major strikes broke out in all of Iran's major towns, with the Bazaar closing down in Tehran. Over 250 demonstrators in Tehran, Hamadan, Ahvaz, Isfahan, and Kermanshah were killed or suffered serious injuries., Abrahamian (1982), p. 271.After five days of mass demonstrations on Siyeh-i Tir (the 30th of Tir on the Iranian calendar), military commanders ordered their troops back to barracks, fearful of overstraining the enlisted men's loyalty and left Tehran in the hands of the protesters.Abrahamian (1982), p. 272. Frightened by the unrest, Shah dismissed Qavam and re-appointed Mosaddegh, granting him the full control of the military he had previously demanded.

Reinstatement and emergency powers

More popular than ever, a greatly strengthened Mosaddegh convinced parliament to grant him emergency powers for six months to "decree any law he felt necessary for obtaining not only financial solvency, but also electoral, judicial, and educational reforms".Abrahamian (1982), p. 273. Majlis deputies elected Ayatollah Abol-Ghasem Kashani as House Speaker. Kashani's Islamic scholars, as well as the Tudeh Party, proved to be two of Mosaddegh's key political allies, although relations with both were often strained.With his emergency powers, Mosaddegh tried to limit the monarchy's powers,Zabih, Sepehr. The Mosaddegh Era: Roots of the Iranian Revolution, p. 65. cutting the Shah's personal budget, forbidding him to communicate directly with foreign diplomats, transferring royal lands back to the state and expelling the Shah's politically active sister Ashraf Pahlavi.In January 1953, Mosaddegh successfully pressed Parliament to extend his emergency powers for another 12 months. With these powers, he decreed a land reform law that established village councils and increased the peasants' share of production. This weakened the landed aristocracy, abolishing Iran's centuries-old feudal agriculture sector, replacing it with a system of collective farming and government land ownership, which centralized power in his government. Mosaddegh saw these reforms as a means of checking the power of the Tudeh Party, which had been agitating for general land reform among the peasants.However, during this time Iranians were "becoming poorer and unhappier by the day" thanks to the British boycott. As Mosaddegh's political coalition began to fray, his enemies increased in number., Kinzer, All the Shah's Men (2003) p.135-6Partly through the efforts of Iranians sympathizing with the British, and partly in fear of the growing dictatorial powers of the Prime Minister, several former members of Mosaddegh's coalition turned against him, fearing arrest. They included Mozzafar Baghai, head of the worker-based Toilers party; Hossein Makki, who had helped lead the takeover of the Abadan refinery and was at one point considered Mosaddegh's heir apparent; and most outspokenly Ayatollah Kashani, who damned Mosaddegh with the "vitriol he had once reserved for the British".Kinzer, All the Shah's Men (2003) p.159 On the other hands, the reason for difference of opinion among Makki and Mosaddegh was the sharp response of Mosaddegh to Kashani who was inoffensive scholar that attract the public supports, as Makki said. Hossein Makki strongly opposed the dissolution of the parliament by Mossadegh and evaluated in the long run at his loss because with the closure of the parliament, the right to dismiss the Prime minister was made by the Shah.BOOK, Makki, Hossein, Twenty-year-old history of Iran,

Overthrow of Mosaddegh

Plot to depose Mosaddegh

The British government had grown increasingly distressed over Mosaddegh's policies and were especially bitter over the loss of their control of the Iranian oil industry. Repeated attempts to reach a settlement had failed, and, in October 1952, Mosaddegh declared Britain an enemy and cut all diplomatic relations.NEWS, No traction for proposal to name street after Mosaddeq,weblink Mehr News Agency, 31 March 2017, en, 9 September 2008, News ID: 2820572, Since 1935 the Anglo-Persian Oil Company had the exclusive rights to Iranian oil. In 1914, the British government had purchased 51% of its shares and became the majority shareholder. After converting Britain's Royal Navy’s ships to oil, the corporation was considered vital to British national security and the company's profits partially alleviated Britain's budget deficit. Unsurprisingly, many Iranians resented the company's privileges and demanded a fair share of its takings.WEB, ben, cool, The Coup Against Iran's Mohammad Mossadegh,weblink 31 July 2015, Engulfed in a variety of problems following World War II, Britain was unable to resolve the issue single-handedly and looked towards the United States to settle the matter. Initially, the USA had opposed British policies. After mediation had failed several times to bring about a settlement, American Secretary of State Dean Acheson concluded that the British were "destructive, and determined on a rule-or-ruin policy in Iran."Saikal, Amin, The Rise and Fall of the Shah, Princeton University Press, 1980, p. 42.The American position shifted in late 1952 when Dwight D. Eisenhower was elected U.S. President. In November and December, British intelligence officials suggested to American intelligence that the prime minister should be ousted. British prime minister Winston Churchill suggested to the incoming Eisenhower administration that Mossadegh, despite his open disgust with socialism, was, or would become, dependent on the pro-Soviet Tudeh Party,JOURNAL,weblink Review of All the Shah's Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror, Jonathan, Schanzer, 1 June 2004, Middle East Quarterly, 21 July 2019, www.meforum.org, resulting in Iran "increasingly turning towards communism" and towards the Soviet sphere at a time of high Cold War fears.Mark J. Gasiorowski and Malcolm Byrne Mohammad Mosaddegh and the 1953 Coup in Iran, Syracuse University Press, May 2004. {{ISBN|0-8156-3018-2}}, p. 125.{{Citation|url=http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB126/iran521120.pdf|title=United States policy regarding the current situation in Iran|publisher=George Washington University|date=20 November 1952|author=James S. Lay, Jr.|accessdate=7 November 2007}} Statement of policy proposed by the National Security Council{{Citation|url=http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB126/iran530320.pdf|title=First Progress Report on Paragraph 5-1 of NSC 136/1, "U.S. Policy Regarding the Current Situation in Iran"|publisher=George Washington University|author=Walter B. Smith, Undersecretary |date=20 March 1953|accessdate=7 November 2007}}{{Citation|url=http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB126/iran530300.pdf|publisher=George Washington University|title=Measures which the United States Government Might Take in Support of a Successor Government to Mosaddegh|date=March 1953|accessdate=7 November 2007}} After the Eisenhower administration had entered office in early 1953, the United States and the United Kingdom agreed to work together toward Mosaddegh's removal and began to publicly denounce Mosaddegh's policies for Iran as harmful to the country. In the meantime, the already precarious alliance between Mosaddegh and Kashani was severed in January 1953, when Kashani opposed Mosaddegh's demand that his increased powers be extended for a period of one year. Finally, to eliminate Mossadegh's threat to prevent cheap oil supply to the West and the withdrawal of profitable oil reserves from the hands of Western companies, the US made an attempt to depose him. The domination of US over Iran was reminiscent of the access cancellation of Soviet to Persian Gulf. So the geographic location of Iran became important for the US.WEB, McQuade, Joseph, How the CIA toppled Iranian democracy,weblink WEB, Downing, Larry, Documents reveal new details about CIA's role in 1953 coup in Iran,weblink foxnews, 25 March 2015,

Operation Ajax

File:Mossadegh US24.jpg|thumb|left|Mosaddegh at the Tomb of the UnknownsTomb of the UnknownsIn March 1953, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles directed the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), which was headed by his younger brother Allen Dulles, to draft plans to overthrow Mossadegh.{{Citationtitle=The Secret CIA History of the Iran Coup, 1953editor=Malcolm Byrneaccessdate=7 November 2007}} On 4 April 1953, Allen Dulles approved $1 million to be used "in any way that would bring about the fall of Mosaddegh". Soon the CIA's Tehran station started to launch a propaganda campaign against Mossadegh. Finally, according to The New York Times, in early June, American and British intelligence officials met again, this time in Beirut, and put the finishing touches on the strategy. Soon afterward, according to his later published accounts, the chief of the CIA's Near East and Africa division, Kermit Roosevelt, Jr. the grandson of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, arrived in Tehran to direct it.THE FIFTIES> LAST=HALBERSTAMAUTHORLINK=DAVID HALBERSTAM PUBLISHER=BALLANTINE BOOKSISBN=978-0-449-90933-1 TITLE-LINK=THE FIFTIES (BOOK), In 2000, The New York Times made partial publication of a leaked CIA document titled Clandestine Service History – Overthrow of Premier Mosaddegh of Iran – November 1952 – August 1953.The plot, known as Operation Ajax, centered on convincing Iran's monarch to issue a decree to dismiss Mosaddegh from office, as he had attempted some months earlier. But the Shah was terrified to attempt such a dangerously unpopular and risky move against Mosaddegh. It would take much persuasion and many U.S. funded meetings, which included bribing his sister Ashraf with a mink coat and money, to successfully change his mind.BOOK, All The Shah's Men, Kinzer, Stephen, 2003, John Wiley &Sons, New Jersey, 978-0471265177, 7,weblink Mosaddegh became aware of the plots against him and grew increasingly wary of conspirators acting within his government.Trying to Persuade a Reluctant Shah, New York Times 7 Dec. 2009. According to Dr. Donald N. Wilber, who was involved in the plot to remove Mossadegh from power, in early August, Iranian CIA operatives pretending to be socialists and nationalists threatened Muslim leaders with "savage punishment if they opposed Mossadegh," thereby giving the impression that Mossadegh was cracking down on dissent earlier than planned, and stirring anti-Mossadegh sentiments within the religious community.NEWS, Risen, James, Secrets of History: The C.I.A. in Iran – A special report.; How a Plot Convulsed Iran in '53 (and in '79),weblink 16 July 2015, New York Times, 16 April 2000, A referendum to dissolve parliament and give the prime minister power to make law was submitted to voters, and it passed with 99 percent approval, 2,043,300 votes to 1300 votes against.Abrahamian, Iran between 2 Revolutions, 1982, (p.274) According to Mark J. Gasiorowski, "There were separate polling stations for yes and no votes, producing sharp criticism of Mosaddeq" and that the "controversial referendum...gave the CIA's precoup propaganda campaign to show up Mosaddeq as an anti-democratic dictator an easy target".BOOK, Gasiorowski, Mark J., Mohammad Mosaddeq and the 1953 coup in Iran, 2004, Syracuse Univ. Press, Syracuse, 978-0815630180, On or around 16 August, Parliament was suspended indefinitely, and Mosaddeq's emergency powers were extended.

Overthrow

In August 1953, the Shah finally agreed to Mossadegh's overthrow, after Roosevelt said that the United States would proceed with or without him,Kermit Roosevelt Jr. Countercoup: The Struggle for the Control of Iran (McGraw-Hill, 1979) {{ISBN|0-07-053590-6}}. and formally dismissed the prime minister in a written decree, an act that had been made part of the constitution during the Constitution Assembly of 1949, convened under martial law, at which time the power of the monarchy was increased in various ways by the Shah himself.BOOK,weblink 449, Iran at War: 1500–1988, Farrokh, Kaveh, 2011, Osprey Publishing, 978-1780962214, As a precautionary measure, he flew to Baghdad and from there hid safely in Rome. He actually signed two decrees, one dismissing Mosaddegh and the other nominating the CIA's choice, General Fazlollah Zahedi, as Prime Minister. These decrees, called Farmāns, were specifically written as dictated by Donald Wilber, the CIA architect of the plan, and were designed as a major part of Wilber's strategy to give legitimacy to the coup, as can be read in the declassified plan itself, which bears his name.File: Shaban jafari.jpg|right|thumb|Tehran strongman Shaban JafariShaban JafariSoon, massive popular protests, aided by Roosevelt's team, took place across the city and elsewhere with tribesmen at the ready to assist the coup. Anti- and pro-monarchy protesters, both paid by Roosevelt, violently clashed in the streets, looting and burning mosques and newspapers, leaving almost 300 dead. The pro-monarchy leadership, chosen, hidden and finally unleashed at the right moment by the CIA team, led by retired army General and former Minister of Interior in Mosaddegh's cabinet, Fazlollah Zahedi joined with underground figures such as the Rashidian brothers and local strongman Shaban Jafari,WEB,weblink Pahlavani: Misinformation, Misconceptions and Misrepresentations, pahlavani.com, to gain the upper hand on 19 August 1953 (28 Mordad). The military joined on cue: pro-Shah tank regiments stormed the capital and bombarded the prime minister's official residence, on Roosevelt's cue, according to his book. Mosaddegh managed to flee from the mob that set in to ransack his house, and, the following day, surrendered to General Zahedi, who was meanwhile set up by the CIA with makeshift headquarters at the Officers' Club. Mosaddegh was arrested at the Officers' Club and transferred to a military jail shortly after.C.I.A. and Moscow Are Both Surprised, New York Times 7 Dec. 2009. On 22 August, the Shah returned from Rome.Zahedi's new government soon reached an agreement with foreign oil companies to form a consortium and "restore the flow of Iranian oil to world markets in substantial quantities", giving the United States and Great Britain the lion's share of the restored British holdings. In return, the US massively funded the Shah's resulting government, until the Shah's overthrow in 1979.{{Citation|url=https://www.nytimes.com/library/world/mideast/080654iran-statements.html|date=6 August 1954|title=Statements on Iran Oil Accord|work=The New York Times|author=Associated Press|accessdate=7 November 2007}}As soon as the coup succeeded, many of Mosaddegh's former associates and supporters were tried, imprisoned, and tortured. Some were sentenced to death and executed.The Modern Middle East: A Political History Since the First World War, University of California Press, 2011-01-03, by Mehran Kamrava, page 148 The minister of foreign affairs and the closest associate of Mosaddegh, Hossein Fatemi, was executed by order of the Shah's military court. The order was carried out by firing squad on 29 October 1953.Persian Oil: A Study in Power Politics by L.P. Elwell-Sutton. 1955. Lawrence and Wishart Ltd. London. p. 315.

Trial and final years

File:Mohammad Mosaddeq, Ahmadabad 1965.jpg|thumb|upright|Mossadegh under house arresthouse arrestOn 21 December 1953, Mossadegh was sentenced to three years' solitary confinement in a military prison, well short of the death sentence requested by prosecutors. After hearing the sentence, Mossadegh was reported to have said: "The verdict of this court has increased my historical glories. I am extremely grateful you convicted me. Truly tonight the Iranian nation understood the meaning of constitutionalism."NEWS, Welles, Hangen, 22 December 1952, Mossadegh Gets 3-Year Jail Term, The New York Times,weblink Mossadegh was kept under house arrest at his Ahmadabad residence, until his death on 5 March 1967.He was denied a funeral and was buried in his living room, despite his request to be buried in the public graveyard, beside the victims of the political violence on 30 Tir 1331. (21 July 1952)Abrahamian, Ervand, Iran Between Two Revolutions by Ervand Abrahamian, (Princeton University Press, 1982), p.280Mossadegh – A Medical Biography by Ebrahim NorouziPersian Oil: A Study in Power Politics by L.P. Elwell-Sutton. 1955. Lawrence and Wishart Ltd. LondonEccentric Nationalist Begets Strange History, The New York Times 7 December 2009.WEB,weblink 1. Iran (1905–present), uca.edu, en-US, University of Arkansas (Political Science), 2018-10-05,

Electoral history {| class"wikitable" style"text-align:center;"

! Year !! Election !!Votes !! % !! Rank !! Notes1906 Persian legislative election>Parliamentcolspan=3 {{unknown}}{{small|Won but didnot take seat}}1923 Persian legislative election>Parliamentcolspan=2 {{unknown}}3rd{{won}}1926 Persian legislative election>Parliamentcolspan=3 {{unknown}}{{won}}1928 Persian legislative election>Parliamentcolspan=3 {{unknown}}{{Lost}}LABOR UNIONS AND AUTOCRACY IN IRAN>LAST=LADJEVARDIPAGE=19PUBLISHER=SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY PRESSURL=HTTPS://ARCHIVE.ORG/DETAILS/LABORUNIONSAUTOC0000LADJ, Iranian legislative election, 1943–1944>Parliament≈15,000LABOR UNIONS AND AUTOCRACY IN IRAN>LAST=LADJEVARDIPAGE=159PUBLISHER=SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY PRESSURL=HTTPS://ARCHIVE.ORG/DETAILS/LABORUNIONSAUTOC0000LADJ, {{unknown}}1st{{won}}1947 Iranian legislative election>Parliamentcolspan=3 {{unknown}}{{Lost}}1950 Iranian legislative election>Parliament30,738ELECTIONS I. UNDER THE QAJAR AND PAHLAVI MONARCHIES, 1906–79>ENCYCLOPEDIA=ENCYCLOPæDIA IRANICAORIG-YEAR=DECEMBER 15, 1998LOCATION=NEW YORK CITYVOLUME= VIIIFIRST1=FAKHREDDINEDITOR-FIRST=EHSANACCESS-DATE=MARCH 15, 2016PAGES=345–355, {{unknown}}1st{{won}}

Legacy

Iran

File:Bakhtiar and mosaddegh cartoon.jpg|thumbnail|Bakhtiar and Mosaddegh cartoon in Ettelaat newspaper 22 January 1978.]]The secret U.S. overthrow of Mosaddegh served as a rallying point in anti-US protests during the 1979 Iranian Revolution, and to this day he is one of the most popular figures in Iranian history.Noreena Hertz, The Silent Takeover: Global Capitalism and the Death of Democracy, HarperCollins, 2003, {{ISBN|0-06-055973-X}}, Page 88The withdrawal of support for Mosaddegh by the powerful Shia clergy has been regarded as having been motivated by their fear of a communist takeover.Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival, Norton (2006), p. 124. Some argue that while many elements of Mosaddegh's coalition abandoned him it was the loss of support from Ayatollah Abol-Ghasem Kashani and another clergy that was fatal to his cause, reflective of the dominance of the Ulema in Iranian society and a portent of the Islamic Revolution to come. The loss of the political clerics effectively cut Mosaddegh's connections with the lower middle classes and the Iranian masses which are crucial to any popular movement in Iran.Mackay, Sandra, The Iranians, Plume (1997), p. 203, 4.

U.S.

File: President Truman and Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh of Iran.TIF|thumb|Prime Minister Mosaddegh with US President TrumanPresident TrumanThe US role in Mosaddegh's overthrow was not formally acknowledged for many years,NEWS, Sanchez, Raf, British diplomats tried to suppress details of a MI6 role in Iran coup,weblink telegraph, 19 August 2013, although the Eisenhower administration vehemently opposed Mossadegh's policies. President Eisenhower wrote angrily about Mosaddegh in his memoirs, describing him as impractical and naive.WEB, Allen-Ebrahimian, Bethany, 64 Years Later, CIA Finally Releases Details of Iranian Coup,weblink foreignpolicy, Eventually, the CIA's involvement with the coup was exposed. This caused controversy within the organization and the CIA congressional hearings of the 1970s. CIA supporters maintained that the coup was strategically necessary, and praised the efficiency of the agents responsible. Critics say the scheme was paranoid, colonial, illegal, and immoral—and truly caused the "blowback" suggested in the pre-coup analysis. The extent of this "blowback," over time, was not completely clear to the CIA, as they had an inaccurate picture of the stability of the Shah's regime. The Iranian Revolution of 1979 caught the CIA and the US very much off guard (as CIA reporting a mere month earlier predicted no imminent insurrectionary turbulence whatsoever for the Shah's regime), and resulted in the overthrow of the Shah by a fundamentalist faction opposed to the US, headed by Ayatollah Khomeini. In retrospect, not only did the CIA and the US underestimate the extent of popular discontent for the Shah, but much of that discontent historically stemmed from the removal of Mosaddegh and the subsequent clientelism of the Shah.WEB, Norton-Taylor, Richard, CIA admits role in 1953 Iranian coup,weblink theguardian, In March 2000, Secretary of State Madeleine Albright stated her regret that Mosaddegh was ousted: "The Eisenhower administration believed its actions were justified for strategic reasons. But the coup was clearly a setback for Iran's political development and it is easy to see now why many Iranians continue to resent this intervention by America." In the same year, The New York Times published a detailed report about the coup based on declassified CIA documents.

British

Mossadeq's overthrow had a direct relationship with the creation of an Islamic revolution and the collapse of the Pahlavi government. America's close relationship with the Shah and the subsequent hostility of the United States to the Islamic Republic and Britain's profitable interventions caused pessimism for Iranians, stirring nationalism and suspicion of foreign interference.

Mosaddegh in the media

  • Mosaddegh was named man of the year in 1951 by Time. Others considered for that year's title included Dean Acheson, General (and future President) Dwight D. Eisenhower and General Douglas MacArthur.NEWS,weblink Mohammad Mosaddegh, Man of the Year, Time, 19 November 2006, 7 January 1951,
  • The figure of Mosaddegh was an important element in the 2003 French TV production Soraya,{{Citation|url=https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0348076/|publisher=Internet Movie Database|title=Soraya (2003) (TV)|accessdate=7 November 2007}} which deals with the life of the Shah's second wife and former Queen of Iran, Princess Soraya Esfandiary Bakhtiari. Mosaddegh's role was played by the French actor Claude Brasseur.
  • A short 24-minute film named Mossadegh, directed by Roozbeh Dadvand, was released in 2011. The role of Mosaddegh was played by Iranian-American actor, David Diaan.WEB,weblink Mossadegh, clevelandfilm.org, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120802183705weblink">weblink 2 August 2012, dmy-all,
  • An independent video game called The Cat and the Coup was released in 2011. It features the player playing as Mosaddegh's cat reversing Mossaddegh's life to the beginning.
  • In the 2016 Democratic presidential primaries, Senator Bernie Sanders, during debates, interviews, and speeches, repeatedly praised Mossadegh's "secular, democratic government", while commenting on the 1953 CIA-backed coup, stating that it is a "bad example of U.S. foreign policy", resulting in "negative unintended consequences and dictatorships".WEB,weblink Bernie Sanders on Regime Change and Mossadegh, Maz451, 12 February 2016, YouTube, WEB,weblink Bernie Sanders, Dr. Mossadegh, and US foreign policy, Joe, Picard, 29 February 2016, WEB,weblink Bernie Sanders – The Young Turks Interview (FULL), The Young Turks, 23 March 2016, YouTube, Another candidate, Governor Martin O'Malley also said similar things.WEB,weblink Martin O'Malley: Imagine If Iran Had Continued On A Democratic Path, Mossadegh, Project,

See also

Notes

{{notelist}}

References

{{reflist}}

Further reading

  • {{fr icon}} Yves Bomati et Houchang Nahavandi: Mohammad Réza Pahlavi, le dernier shah – 1919–1980. Editions Perrin, 2013. (({{ISBN|2262035873}})) ((EAN 978-2262035877))
  • Abrahamian, Ervand, Khomeinism: essays on the Islamic Republic. Berkeley: University of California Press, c 1993. 0-520-08173-0
  • Abrahamian, Ervand, Iran Between Two Revolutions, By Ervand Abrahamian, Princeton University Press, 1982
  • Amir Taheri, The Persian Night: Iran under the Khomeinist Revolution. Encounter Books, 2009, {{ISBN|978-1-59403-240-0}}
  • Farhad Diba, Mohammad Mossadegh; A Political Biography. London: Croom Helm, 1986, {{ISBN|0-7099-4517-5}}
  • Mostafa Elm, Oil, Power, and Principle: Iran's Oil Nationalization and Its Aftermath. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1994, {{ISBN|0-8156-2642-8}}
  • Mark Gasiorowski, U.S. Foreign Policy and the Shah: Building a Client State in Iran, Cornell University Press, 1991, {{ISBN|0-8014-2412-7}}
  • Mary Ann Heiss, Empire and Nationhood: The United States, Great Britain, and Iranian Oil, 1950–1954, Columbia University Press,1997, {{ISBN|0-231-10819-2}}
  • Sattareh Farman Farmaian & Dona Munker, Daughter of Persia: A Woman's Journey from Her Father's Harem through the Islamic Revolution. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2006. {{ISBN|0-307-33974-2}}
  • Stephen Kinzer, (All the Shah's Men|All The Shah's Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror), John Wiley & Sons, 2003, {{ISBN|0-471-26517-9}}
  • Stephen Kinzer, (Overthrow (book)|Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq), Times Books, 2006, {{ISBN|0-8050-7861-4}}
  • Nikki R. Keddie, Modern Iran: Roots and Results of Revolution, Yale University Press, 2003, {{ISBN|0-300-09856-1}}
  • Homa Katouzian, Musaddiq and the Struggle for Power in Iran, I B Tauris & Co, 1991, {{ISBN|1-85043-210-4}}
  • Mohammad Mosaddeq and the 1953 Coup in Iran, edited by Mark J. Gasiorowski and Malcolm Byrne. Translated into Persian as Mosaddegh va Coup de Etat by Ali Morshedizad, Ghasidehsara Pub. Co.
  • JOURNAL, Gasiorowski, Mark J., The 1953 Coup D'etat in Iran, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 1471-6380, 19, 3, 1987, 261–86, 163655,
  • Tom Gabbay The Tehran Conviction. William Morrow, 2009 {{ISBN|978-0-06-118860-2}}.
  • Christopher de Bellaigue, Patriot of Persia, {{ISBN|978-1-84792-108-6}}.

External links

{{Commons category|Mohammad Mosaddegh}}{{Wikisource|The Single Article Law of March 20, 1951}} {{IranPMs}}{{Iranian elections}}{{Time Persons of the Year 1951–1975}}{{Authority control}}

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