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{{about|the U.S. state of Missouri|the river|Missouri River|other uses}}{{semiprotected|small=yes}}{{Use mdy dates|date=March 2018}}{{short description|State of the United States of America}}

! City !! Avg. !! Jan!! Feb!! Mar!! Apr!! May!! Jun!! Jul!! Aug!! Sep!! Oct!! Nov!! Dec !!Year !!{{Average temperature table/row/F| Columbia|High|37 44 55 66 75 84 89 87 79 68 53 42 65.0}}{{Average temperature table/row/F| Columbia|Low|18 23 33 43 53 62 66 64 55 44 33 22 43.0}}{{Average temperature table/row/F| Kansas City|High|36 43 54 65 75 84 89 87 79 68 52 40 64.4}}{{Average temperature table/row/F| Kansas City|Low|18 23 33 44 54 63 68 66 57 46 33 22 44.0}}{{Average temperature table/row/F| Springfield|High|42 48 58 68 76 85 90 90 81 71 56 46 67.6}}{{Average temperature table/row/F| Springfield|Low|22 26 35 44 53 62 67 66 57 46 35 26 45.0}}{{Average temperature table/row/F| St. Louis|High|40 45 56 67 76 85 89 88 80 69 56 43 66.2}}{{Average temperature table/row/F| St. Louis|Low|24 28 37 47 57 67 71 69 61 49 38 27 48.0}}
Fullname State of Missouri|Flag = Flag of Missouri.svg|Name = Missouri|Seal = Seal of Missouri.svg|Nickname = Show Me State, Cave State, and Mother of the West|Motto = Salus populi suprema lex esto (Latin) Let the good of the people be the supreme law|StateAnthem = Missouri Waltz|Map = Missouri in United States.svg|OfficialLang = English|Languages = * English 93.9%
    Demonym Missourian

    |WidthUS = 240
    240km|disp=number}}|LengthUS = 300300km|disp=number}}|PCWater = 1.17|Latitude = 36° 0′ N to 40° 37′ N|Longitude = 89° 6′ W to 95° 46′ W|PopRank = 18th|2010Pop = 6,126,452 (2018)TITLE=MEDIAN ANNUAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME, December 9, 2016, |2010DensityUS = 87.1|2010Density = 33.7|DensityRank = 30th|IncomeRank = 37thTaum Sauk MountainHTTP://EGSC.USGS.GOV/ISB/PUBS/BOOKLETS/ELVADIST/ELVADIST.HTML PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 24, 2011ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20111015012701/HTTP://EGSC.USGS.GOV/ISB/PUBS/BOOKLETS/ELVADIST/ELVADIST.HTML DF=MDY, |HighestElevUS = 1,772|HighestElev = 540|MeanElevUS = 800|MeanElev = 244|LowestPoint = St. Francis River at Arkansas border|LowestElev = 70|LowestElevUS = 230|Former = Missouri Territory|AdmittanceDate = August 10, 1821|AdmittanceOrder = 24thMike Parson (Republican Party (United States)>R)|Lieutenant Governor = Mike Kehoe (R)|Legislature = Missouri General AssemblyMissouri Senate>SenateMissouri House of Representatives>House of RepresentativesRoy Blunt (Republican Party (United States)>R)Josh Hawley (R)|Representative = 6 Republicans 2 DemocratsCentral Time Zone>Central: Coordinated Universal Time Central Standard Time>−6/−5|ISOCode = US-MO|PostalAbbreviation = MO|TradAbbreviation = Mo.|Website =|LandAreaUS = 68,886|LandArea = 178,455}}

    |Fossil = Crinoid|Gemstone = Beryl|Mineral = Galena|Instrument = Fiddle|Rock = Mozarkite|Soil = Menfro|Route Marker = MO-5.svg|Quarter = 2003 MO Proof.png|QuarterReleaseDate = 2003}}Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.WEB, Census Regions of the United States,weblink, U.S. Census Bureau, January 9, 2017, With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union. The largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City, Springfield, and Columbia; the capital is Jefferson City. The state is the 21st-most extensive in area. Missouri is bordered by eight states (tied for the most with Tennessee): Iowa to the north, Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee (via the Mississippi River) to the east, Arkansas to the south, and Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska to the west. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber, minerals, and recreation. The Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border.Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years. The Mississippian culture built cities and mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations. The French established Louisiana, a part of New France, and founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory. Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland.Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch. The Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, and California Trail all began in Missouri.WEB,weblink Pony Express National Historic Trail (U.S. National Park Service), Mailing Address: National Trails Intermountain Region Pony Express National Historic Trail PO Box 728 Santa, Fe, NM 87504 Phone:741-1012 Contact, Us,, As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into 114 counties and the independent city of St. Louis.Missouri's culture blends elements from the Midwestern and Southern United States. The musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, and St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri. The well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, and lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is also a major center of beer brewing; Anheuser-Busch is the largest producer in the world. Missouri wine is produced in the nearby Missouri Rhineland and Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, and Branson.Well-known Missourians include U.S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, and Nelly. Some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Monsanto, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, and O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; however, Missouri's most famous nickname is the "Show Me State."WEB,weblink Hey Heidi: How did the Show Me State come about?,

    Etymology and pronunciation

    The state is named for the Missouri River, which was named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita (wimihsooritaMcCafferty, Michael. 2004. "Correction: Etymology of Missouri" (restricted access), American Speech, 79.1:32 {{dead link|date=September 2011}}), meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers."Missouri" {{webarchive |url= |date=March 17, 2009 }}, American Heritage Dictionary This appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."Nichols, John & Nyholm, Earl "Concise Dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe" 1994. This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River usually got their translations during that time fairly accurate, often giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue(s).Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself.Buechel, Eugene & Manhart S.J., Paul "Lakota Dictionary: Lakota-English / English-Lakota, New Comprehensive Edition" 2002. This is not entirely likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" (Mah-yah soo-nee) Most likely, though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, Iowa, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska.The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations even among its present-day natives,NEWS,weblink Missouree? Missouruh? To Be Politic, Say Both, The New York Times, October 13, 2012, October 14, 2012, Wheaton, Sarah, A1, the two most common being {{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Missouri.ogg|m|ɪ|ˈ|z|ɜːr|i}} {{respell|mih|ZUR|ee}} and {{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Missouri-2.ogg|m|ɪ|ˈ|z|ɜːr|ə}} {{respell|mih|ZUR|ə}}.Missouri – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary. (August 31, 2012). Retrieved July 21, 2013.{{r|lance2003}} Further pronunciations also exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the medial consonant as either {{IPAc-en|z}} or {{IPAc-en|s}}; the vowel in the second syllable as either {{IPAc-en|ɜːr}} or {{IPAc-en|ʊər}};Oxford English Dictionary and the third syllable as {{IPAblink|i|audio=y}}, {{IPAblink|ə|audio=y}}, centralized {{IPAblink|ɪ̈|audio=y}}), or nothing.JOURNAL,weblink The Pronunciation of Missouri: Variation and Change in American English, Lance, Donald M., American Speech, Fall 2003, 78, 3, 255–284, 10.1215/00031283-78-3-255, Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English. In British received pronunciation, the preferred variant is {{IPAc-en|m|ɪ|ˈ|z|ʊər|i}} {{respell|mih|ZOOR|ee}}, with {{IPAc-en|m|ɪ|ˈ|s|ʊər|i}} {{respell|mih|SOOR|ee}} being a possible alternative.BOOK, Wells, John C., 2008, Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd, Longman, 978-1-4058-8118-0, BOOK, Roach, Peter, 2011, Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary, 18th, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-15253-2, The linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be clearly defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.JOURNAL,weblink The Pronunciation of Missouri : Variation and Change in American English, Donald M., Lance, September 17, 2003, American Speech, 78, 3, 255–284, Project MUSE, 10.1215/00031283-78-3-255, Politicians often employ multiple pronunciations, even during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners.{{r|wheaton20121013}} Often, informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations.


    There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State", which appears on its license plates. This phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton, cockleburs and Democrats, and frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, and you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not easily convinced."WEB,weblink skepticism, The Free Dictionary, However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was already in use before the 1890s.{{Citation | title = Barry Popik | contribution = I'm from Missouri – Show Me | url =weblink}} Another one states that it is a reference to Missouri miners who were taken to Leadville, Colorado to replace striking workers. Since the new men were unfamiliar with the mining methods, they required frequent instruction.WEB,weblink MO, State Archives Missouri History, FAQ, Origin of "Show-Me" Slogan, Secretary of State, February 20, 2010, Other nicknames for Missouri include "The Lead State", "The Bullion State", "The Ozark State", "The Mother of the West", "The Iron Mountain State", and "Pennsylvania of the West".{{Citation | title = Introduction to Missouri | publisher = Netstate | url =weblink}} It is also known as the "Cave State" because there are more than 6,000 recorded caves in the state (second to Tennessee). Perry County is the county with the largest number of caves and the single longest cave.WEB,weblink Fact Sheet on 6000 Caves, Scott, House, The Missouri Speleological Survey, May 14, 2005, March 16, 2008, yes,weblink" title="">weblink May 9, 2008, mdy-all, The official state motto is , which means "Let the welfare of the people be the supreme law."{{Citation | title = The Great Seal of Missouri | publisher = Secretary of State | place = MO | url =weblink}}


    {{refimprove section|date=August 2017}}{{external media | width = 210px | headerimage = (File:Westminister College gym from NE 1.JPG|210px) | align = right | video1 = Missouri, Westminister College Gymnasium in Fulton, Missouri}}Indigenous peoples inhabited Missouri for thousands of years before European exploration and settlement. Archaeological excavations along the rivers have shown continuous habitation for more than 7,000 years. Beginning before 1000 CE, there arose the complex Mississippian culture, whose people created regional political centers at present-day St. Louis and across the Mississippi River at Cahokia, near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. Their large cities included thousands of individual residences, but they are known for their surviving massive earthwork mounds, built for religious, political and social reasons, in platform, ridgetop and conical shapes. Cahokia was the center of a regional trading network that reached from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. The civilization declined by 1400 CE, and most descendants left the area long before the arrival of Europeans. St. Louis was at one time known as Mound City by the European Americans, because of the numerous surviving prehistoric mounds, since lost to urban development. The Mississippian culture left mounds throughout the middle Mississippi and Ohio river valleys, extending into the southeast as well as the upper river.File:Gateway Arch edit1.jpg|thumb|The Gateway ArchGateway ArchThe first European settlers were mostly ethnic French Canadians, who created their first settlement in Missouri at present-day Ste. Genevieve, about an hour south of St. Louis. They had migrated about 1750 from the Illinois Country. They came from colonial villages on the east side of the Mississippi River, where soils were becoming exhausted and there was insufficient river bottom land for the growing population. Sainte-Geneviève became a thriving agricultural center, producing enough surplus wheat, corn and tobacco to ship tons of grain annually downriver to Lower Louisiana for trade. Grain production in the Illinois Country was critical to the survival of Lower Louisiana and especially the city of New Orleans.St. Louis was founded soon after by French fur traders, Pierre Laclède and stepson Auguste Chouteau from New Orleans in 1764. From 1764 to 1803, European control of the area west of the Mississippi to the northernmost part of the Missouri River basin, called Louisiana, was assumed by the Spanish as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, due to Treaty of FontainebleauFoley (1989), 26. (in order to have Spain join with France in the war against England). The arrival of the Spanish in St. Louis was in September 1767.St. Louis became the center of a regional fur trade with Native American tribes that extended up the Missouri and Mississippi rivers, which dominated the regional economy for decades. Trading partners of major firms shipped their furs from St. Louis by river down to New Orleans for export to Europe. They provided a variety of goods to traders, for sale and trade with their Native American clients. The fur trade and associated businesses made St. Louis an early financial center and provided the wealth for some to build fine houses and import luxury items. Its location near the confluence of the Illinois River meant it also handled produce from the agricultural areas. River traffic and trade along the Mississippi were integral to the state's economy, and as the area's first major city, St. Louis expanded greatly after the invention of the steamboat and the increased river trade.

    Nineteenth century

    {{See also|History of slavery in Missouri}}Napoleon Bonaparte had gained Louisiana for French ownership from Spain in 1800 under the Treaty of San Ildefonso, after it had been a Spanish colony since 1762. But the treaty was kept secret. Louisiana remained nominally under Spanish control until a transfer of power to France on November 30, 1803, just three weeks before the cession to the United States.Part of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase by the United States, Missouri earned the nickname Gateway to the West because it served as a major departure point for expeditions and settlers heading to the West during the 19th century. St. Charles, just west of St. Louis, was the starting point and the return destination of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, which ascended the Missouri River in 1804, in order to explore the western lands to the Pacific Ocean. St. Louis was a major supply point for decades, for parties of settlers heading west.As many of the early settlers in western Missouri migrated from the Upper South, they brought enslaved African Americans as agricultural laborers, and they desired to continue their culture and the institution of slavery. They settled predominantly in 17 counties along the Missouri River, in an area of flatlands that enabled plantation agriculture and became known as "Little Dixie." In 1821 the former Missouri Territory was admitted as a slave state, in accordance with the Missouri Compromise, and with a temporary state capital in St. Charles. In 1826, the capital was shifted to its current, permanent location of Jefferson City, also on the Missouri River.The state was rocked by the 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes. Casualties were few due to the sparse population.Originally the state's western border was a straight line, defined as the meridian passing through the Kawsmouth,Hoffhaus. (1984). Chez Les Canses: Three Centuries at Kawsmouth, Kansas City: Lowell Press. {{ISBN|0-913504-91-2}}. the point where the Kansas River enters the Missouri River. The river has moved since this designation. This line is known as the Osage Boundary.WEB,weblink MISSOURI V. IOWA, 48 U.S. 660 (1849) – US Supreme Court Cases from Justia & Oyez,, July 31, 2010, In 1836 the Platte Purchase was added to the northwest corner of the state after purchase of the land from the native tribes, making the Missouri River the border north of the Kansas River. This addition increased the land area of what was already the largest state in the Union at the time (about {{convert|66500|sqmi|km2}} to Virginia's 65,000 square miles, which then included West Virginia).Meinig, D.W. (1993). The Shaping of America: A Geographical Perspective on 500 Years of History, Volume 2: Continental America, 1800–1867. New Haven: Yale University Press. {{ISBN|0-300-05658-3}}; pg. 437File:George Caleb Bingham 001.jpg|thumb|Fur Traders Descending the Missouri by Missouri painter George Caleb BinghamGeorge Caleb BinghamIn the early 1830s, Mormon migrants from northern states and Canada began settling near Independence and areas just north of there. Conflicts over religion and slavery arose between the 'old settlers' (mainly from the South) and the Mormons (mainly from the North). The Mormon War erupted in 1838. By 1839, with the help of an "Extermination Order" by Governor Lilburn Boggs, the old settlers forcefully expelled the Mormons from Missouri and confiscated their lands.Conflicts over slavery exacerbated border tensions among the states and territories. From 1838 to 1839, a border dispute with Iowa over the so-called Honey Lands resulted in both states' calling-up of militias along the border.With increasing migration, from the 1830s to the 1860s Missouri's population almost doubled with every decade. Most of the newcomers were American-born, but many Irish and German immigrants arrived in the late 1840s and 1850s. As a majority were Catholic, they set up their own religious institutions in the state, which had been mostly Protestant. Having fled famine and oppression in Ireland, and revolutionary upheaval in Germany, the immigrants were not sympathetic to slavery{{Citation needed|reason=Most Irish Catholics were staunch Democrats, and I understand that many of them were openly pro-slavery and/or pro-Confederate during the Civil War. Also, there Also, there is no source given to show that most of Missouri's German immigrants were Catholic. Sources should be given for both of these claims.|date=September 2018}}. Many settled in cities, where they created a regional and then state network of Catholic churches and schools. Nineteenth-century German immigrants created the wine industry along the Missouri River and the beer industry in St. Louis.Most Missouri farmers practiced subsistence farming before the American Civil War. The majority of those who held slaves had fewer than five each. Planters, defined by some historians as those holding twenty slaves or more, were concentrated in the counties known as "Little Dixie", in the central part of the state along the Missouri River. The tensions over slavery chiefly had to do with the future of the state and nation. In 1860, enslaved African Americans made up less than 10% of the state's population of 1,182,012.Historical Census Browser, 1860 Federal Census, University of Virginia Library {{webarchive|url= |date=December 6, 2009 }}. Retrieved March 21, 2008. In order to control the flooding of farmland and low-lying villages along the Mississippi, the state had completed construction of {{convert|140|mi|km}} of levees along the river by 1860."Louisiana: The Levee System of the State", New York Times, 10/8/1874; Retrieved 2007-11-15

    American Civil War

    File:NPS CW at a Glance Western 1864.jpg|right|thumb|Price's Raid in the Trans-Mississippi Theater, 1864]]After the secession of Southern states began in 1861, the Missouri legislature called for the election of a special convention on secession. The convention voted decisively to remain within the Union. Pro-Southern Governor Claiborne F. Jackson ordered the mobilization of several hundred members of the state militia who had gathered in a camp in St. Louis for training. Alarmed at this action, Union General Nathaniel Lyon struck first, encircling the camp and forcing the state troops to surrender. Lyon directed his soldiers, largely non-English-speaking German immigrants, to march the prisoners through the streets, and they opened fire on the largely hostile crowds of civilians who gathered around them. Soldiers killed unarmed prisoners as well as men, women and children of St. Louis in the incident that became known as the "St. Louis Massacre".These events heightened Confederate support within the state. Governor Jackson appointed Sterling Price, president of the convention on secession, as head of the new Missouri State Guard. In the face of Union General Lyon's rapid advance through the state, Jackson and Price were forced to flee the capital of Jefferson City on June 14, 1861. In the town of Neosho, Missouri, Jackson called the state legislature into session. They enacted a secession ordinance. However, even under the Southern view of secession, only the state convention had the power to secede. Since the convention was dominated by unionists, and the state was more pro-Union than pro-Confederate in any event, the ordinance of secession adopted by the legislature is generally given little credence. The Confederacy nonetheless recognized it on October 30, 1861.With the elected governor absent from the capital and the legislators largely dispersed, the state convention was reassembled with most of its members present, save 20 that fled south with Jackson's forces. The convention declared all offices vacant, and installed Hamilton Gamble as the new governor of Missouri. President Lincoln's administration immediately recognized Gamble's government as the legal Missouri government. The federal government's decision enabled raising pro-Union militia forces for service within the state as well as volunteer regiments for the Union Army.Fighting ensued between Union forces and a combined army of General Price's Missouri State Guard and Confederate troops from Arkansas and Texas under General Ben McCulloch. After winning victories at the battle of Wilson's Creek and the siege of Lexington, Missouri and suffering losses elsewhere, the Confederate forces retreated to Arkansas and later Marshall, Texas, in the face of a largely reinforced Union Army.Though regular Confederate troops staged some large-scale raids into Missouri, the fighting in the state for the next three years consisted chiefly of guerrilla warfare. "Citizen soldiers" or insurgents such as Captain William Quantrill, Frank and Jesse James, the Younger brothers, and William T. Anderson made use of quick, small-unit tactics. Pioneered by the Missouri Partisan Rangers, such insurgencies also arose in portions of the Confederacy occupied by the Union during the Civil War. Historians have portrayed stories of the James brothers' outlaw years as an American "Robin Hood" myth.JOURNAL, Steckmesser Kent L, 1966, Robin Hood and the American Outlaw: A Note on History and Folklore, Journal of American Folklore, 79, 312, 348–355, 538043, The vigilante activities of the Bald Knobbers of the Ozarks in the 1880s were an unofficial continuation of insurgent mentality long after the official end of the war, and they are a favorite theme in Branson's self-image.Mary Hartman and Elmo Ingenthron. Bald Knobbers: Vigilantes on the Ozarks Frontier (1988)File:PASSENGERS JAM THE INTERIOR OF THE ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI, UNION STATION IN A COPYRIGHTED PICTURE TAKEN BY B.A. ATWATER... - NARA - 556056.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|left|Union Station in St. Louis was the largest and busiest train station in the world when it opened in 1894.]]File:Child workers in Kirksville, MO.jpg|thumb|Child shoe workers in Kirksville, Missouri, 1910. Photographed by Lewis HineLewis Hine

    Twentieth century

    The Progressive Era (1890s to 1920s) saw numerous prominent leaders from Missouri trying to end corruption and modernize politics, government and society. Joseph "Holy Joe" Folk was a key leader who made a strong appeal to middle class and rural evangelical Protestants. Folk was elected governor as a progressive reformer and Democrat in the 1904 election. He promoted what he called "the Missouri Idea", the concept of Missouri as a leader in public morality through popular control of law and strict enforcement. He successfully conducted antitrust prosecutions, ended free railroad passes for state officials, extended bribery statutes, improved election laws, required formal registration for lobbyists, made racetrack gambling illegal, and enforced the Sunday-closing law. He helped enact Progressive legislation, including an initiative and referendum provision, regulation of elections, education, employment and child labor, railroads, food, business, and public utilities. A number of efficiency-oriented examiner boards and commissions were established during Folk's administration, including many agricultural boards and the Missouri library commission.Steven L. Piott, Holy Joe: Joseph Folk and the Missouri Idea (1997)Between the Civil War and the end of World War II, Missouri transitioned from a rural economy to a hybrid industrial-service-agricultural economy as the Midwest rapidly industrialized. The expansion of railroads to the West transformed Kansas City into a major transportation hub within the nation. The growth of the Texas cattle industry along with this increased rail infrastructure and the invention of the refrigerated boxcar also made Kansas City a major meatpacking center, as large cattle drives from Texas brought herds of cattle to Dodge City and other Kansas towns. There, the cattle were loaded onto trains destined for Kansas City, where they were butchered and distributed to the eastern markets. The first half of the twentieth century was the height of Kansas City's prominence and its downtown became a showcase for stylish Art Deco skyscrapers as construction boomed.In 1930, there was a diphtheria epidemic in the area around Springfield, which killed approximately 100 people. Serum was rushed to the area, and medical personnel stopped the epidemic.During the mid-1950s and 1960s, St. Louis and Kansas City suffered deindustrialization and loss of jobs in railroads and manufacturing, as did other Midwestern industrial cities. In 1956 St. Charles claims to be the site of the first interstate highway project.WEB,weblink First interstate project,, May 6, 2014, Such highway construction made it easy for middle-class residents to leave the city for newer housing developed in the suburbs, often former farmland where land was available at lower prices. These major cities have gone through decades of readjustment to develop different economies and adjust to demographic changes. Suburban areas have developed separate job markets, both in knowledge industries and services, such as major retail malls.

    Twenty-first century

    In 2014, Missouri received national attention for the protests and riots that followed the shooting of Michael Brown by a police officer of Ferguson,Eliott C. McLaughlin, "What we know about Michael Brown's shooting", CNN, August 15, 2014,weblink Carr, "View of #Ferguson Thrust Michael Brown Shooting to National Attention", The New York Times, August 17, 2014,weblink Bouiewhich, "Why the Fires in Ferguson Won’t End Soon", Slate (magazine)'', August 19, 2014,weblink which led Governor Jay Nixon to call out the Missouri National Guard.NEWS, Davey, Monica, Eligon, John, Blinder, Alan, National Guard Troops Fail to Quell Unrest in Ferguson,weblink The New York Times, August 19, 2014, August 19, 2014, WEB, Hartmann, Margaret, National Guard Deployed After Chaotic, Violent Night in Ferguson,weblink NY Magazine, August 18, 2014, A grand jury declined to indict the officer, and the U.S. Department of Justice concluded, after careful investigation, that the police officer legitimately feared for his safety.U.S. Department of Justice, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REPORT REGARDING THE CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION INTO THE SHOOTING DEATH OF MICHAEL BROWN BY FERGUSON, MISSOURI POLICE OFFICER DARREN WILSON, March 4, 2015,weblink However, in a separate investigation, the Department of Justice also found that the Ferguson Police Department and the City of Ferguson relied on unconstitutional practices in order to balance the city's budget through racially motivated excessive fines and punishments,NEWS, Apuzzo, Matt, Ferguson Police Routinely Violate Rights of Blacks, Justice Dept. Finds,weblink March 4, 2015, New York Times, March 3, 2015, that the Ferguson police "had used excessive and dangerous force and had disproportionately targeted blacks,"NBC News, "Ferguson Officials Suspended After DOJ Report Have Resigned, City Confirms", March 7, 2015,weblink and that the municipal court "emphasized revenue over public safety, leading to routine breaches of citizens' constitutional guarantees of due process and equal protection under the law."NBC News, "Report on Ferguson Exposes Broader Effort to Reform Municipal Courts", March 3, 2015,weblinkA series of student protests at the University of Missouri against what the protesters viewed as poor response by the administration to racist incidents on campus began in September 2015.NEWS, Students march through MU Student Center in protest of racial injustice, Naskidashvili, Nana, Columbia Missourian, October 1, 2015, November 11, 2015,weblink NEWS, Second 'Racism Lives Here' event calls for administration to act on social injustices, Plaster, Madison, The Maneater, October 1, 2015, November 11, 2015,weblink On June 7, 2017, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People issued a warning to prospective African-American travelers to Missouri. This is the first NAACP warning ever covering an entire state.WEB,weblink retrieved August 7, 2017., Nancy Coleman, "NAACP issues its first statewide travel advisory, for Missouri", CNN, August 3, 2017,weblink According to a 2018 report by the Missouri Attorney General's office, for the past 18 years, "African Americans, Hispanics and other people of color are disproportionately affected by stops, searches and arrests."NEWS, Black Drivers Stopped in Missouri at a Rate 85 Percent Higher Than Whites, Alison, Gold, June 1, 2018, Riverfront Times,weblink The same report found that the biggest discrepancy was in 2017, when "black motorists were 85% more likely to be pulled over in traffic stops".NEWS, 'Predatory police': the high price of driving while black in Missouri, The Guardian, Jamiles, Lartey, July 5, 2018,weblink


    (File:National-atlas-missouri.png|thumb|Missouri, showing major cities and roads.)Missouri is landlocked and borders eight different states as does its neighbor, Tennessee. No state in the U.S. touches more than eight. Missouri is bounded by Iowa on the north; by Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee across the Mississippi River on the east; on the south by Arkansas; and by Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska (the last across the Missouri River) on the west. Whereas the northern and southern boundaries are straight lines, the Missouri Bootheel protrudes southerly into Arkansas. The two largest rivers are the Mississippi (which defines the eastern boundary of the state) and the Missouri River (which flows from west to east through the state) essentially connecting the two largest metros of Kansas City and St. Louis.Although today it is usually considered part of the Midwest,WEB,weblink Midwest Region Economy at a Glance,, July 31, 2010, WEB,weblink UNC-CH surveys reveal where the 'real' South lies,, June 2, 1999, July 31, 2010, Missouri was historically seen by many as a border state, chiefly because of the settlement of migrants from the South and its status as a slave state before the Civil War, balanced by the influence of St. Louis. The counties that made up "Little Dixie" were those along the Missouri River in the center of the state, settled by Southern migrants who held the greatest concentration of slaves.In 2005, Missouri received 16,695,000 visitors to its national parks and other recreational areas totaling {{convert|101000|acre|km2}}, giving it $7.41 million in annual revenues, 26.6% of its operating expenditures.BOOK, Almanac of the 50 States (Missouri), Information Publications (Woodside, California), 2008, 203,


    (File:US mo physiographic map.jpg|thumb|left|A physiographic map of Missouri)North of, and in some cases just south of, the Missouri River lie the Northern Plains that stretch into Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. Here, rolling hills remain from the glaciation that once extended from the Canadian Shield to the Missouri River. Missouri has many large river bluffs along the Mississippi, Missouri, and Meramec Rivers. Southern Missouri rises to the Ozark Mountains, a dissected plateau surrounding the Precambrian igneous St. Francois Mountains. This region also hosts karst topography characterized by high limestone content with the formation of sinkholes and caves.WEB,weblink Missouri's Karst Wonderland – Missouri State Parks and Historic Sites, DNR,, June 6, 2008, February 20, 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink February 28, 2010, mdy-all, File:Bell Mountain.jpg|right|thumb|upright=1.6|The Bell Mountain Wilderness of southern Missouri's Mark Twain National ForestMark Twain National ForestThe southeastern part of the state is known as the Missouri Bootheel region, which is part of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain or Mississippi embayment. This region is the lowest, flattest, warmest, and wettest part of the state. It is also among the poorest, as the economy there is mostly agricultural.WEB,weblink Income Inequality in Missouri,, December 21, 2001, July 31, 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink January 7, 2010, mdy-all, It is also the most fertile, with cotton and rice crops predominant. The Bootheel was the epicenter of the four New Madrid Earthquakes of 1811 and 1812.


    (File:Missouri Köppen.svg|thumb|Köppen climate types of Missouri)Missouri generally has a humid continental climate with cold snowy winters and hot, humid, and wet summers. In the southern part of the state, particularly in the Bootheel, the climate becomes humid subtropical. Located in the interior United States, Missouri often experiences extreme temperatures. Without high mountains or oceans nearby to moderate temperature, its climate is alternately influenced by air from the cold Arctic and the hot and humid Gulf of Mexico. Missouri's highest recorded temperature is {{convert|118|F|C}} at Warsaw and Union on July 14, 1954, while the lowest recorded temperature is {{convert|-40|F|C}} also at Warsaw on February 13, 1905.Located in Tornado Alley, Missouri also receives extreme weather in the form of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes. The most recent tornado in the state to cause damage and casualties was the 2011 Joplin tornado, which destroyed roughly one-third of the city of Joplin. The tornado caused an estimated $1–3 billion in damages, killed 159 (+1 non-tornadic), and injured over 1,000 people. It was the first EF5 to hit the state since 1957 and the deadliest in the U.S. since 1947, making it the seventh deadliest tornado in American history and 27th deadliest in the world. St. Louis and its suburbs also have a history of experiencing particularly severe tornadoes, the most recent memorable one being an EF4 tornado that damaged Lambert-St. Louis International Airport on April 22, 2011. One of the worst tornadoes in American history struck St. Louis on May 27, 1896, killing at least 255 and causing $10 mil. damage ($3.9 bil. damage in 2009) or ${{Formatprice| {{Inflation|US|3900000000|2009|r=2}}}} in today's dollars.{| class="wikitable" "text-align:center;font-size:88%;"
    Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Missouri cities in °F (°C).


    File:Lower Missouri River.jpg|thumb|right|Missouri River near Rocheport, MissouriRocheport, MissouriMissouri is home to a diversity of both flora and fauna. There is a large amount of fresh water present due to the Mississippi River, Missouri River, Table Rock Lake and Lake of the Ozarks, with numerous smaller tributary rivers, streams, and lakes. North of the Missouri River, the state is primarily rolling hills of the Great Plains, whereas south of the Missouri River, the state is dominated by the Oak-Hickory Central U.S. hardwood forest.


    (File:Missouri population map (2000).png|thumb|upright=1.6|Missouri population density map.){{US Census population|1810= 19783|1820= 66586|1830= 140455|1840= 383702|1850= 682044|1860= 1182012|1870= 1721295|1880= 2168380|1890= 2679185|1900= 3106665|1910= 3293335|1920= 3404055|1930= 3629367|1940= 3784664|1950= 3954653|1960= 4319813|1970= 4676501|1980= 4916686|1990= 5117073|2000= 5595211|2010= 5988927|estimate= 6126452|estyear= 2018|align-fn=centerYEAR=2010 ACCESSDATE=DECEMBER 24, 2012 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20111028064539/HTTP://2010.CENSUS.GOV/2010CENSUS/DATA/APPORTIONMENT-POP-TEXT.PHP DF=MDY, 2018 estimateHTTPS://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/QUICKFACTS/FACT/TABLE/MO,US/PST045218>TITLE=QUICKFACTS MISSOURI; UNITED STATESWEBSITE=2018 POPULATION ESTIMATESUNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, POPULATION DIVISION>DATE=FEBRUARY 6, 2019, February 6, 2019, }}The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Missouri was 6,126,452 on July 1, 2018, a 2.30% increase since the 2010 United States Census.Missouri had a population of 5,988,927, according to the 2010 Census; an increase of 137,525 (2.3 percent) since the year 2010. From 2010 to 2018, this includes a natural increase of 137,564 people since the last census (480,763 births less 343,199 deaths), and an increase of 88,088 people due to net migration into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 50,450 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 37,638 people. Over half of Missourians (3,294,936 people, or 55.0%) live within the state's two largest metropolitan areas–St. Louis and Kansas City. The state's population density 86.9 in 2009, is also closer to the national average (86.8 in 2009) than any other state.In 2011, the racial composition of the state was: In 2011, 3.7% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race).{{Citation | url =weblink | title = Quick facts | publisher = Census | place = US | deadurl = yes | archiveurl =weblink" title="">weblink | archivedate = August 14, 2005 | df = mdy-all }}{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible"|+ Missouri racial breakdown of population! Racial composition !! 1990WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, July 25, 2008, Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States, Population Division, Laura K. Yax, mdy-all, !! 2000WEB,weblink Population of Missouri: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts, !! 2010WEB,weblink 2010 Census Data, White American>White 87.7% 84.9% 82.8%African American>Black 10.7% 11.3% 11.6%Asian American>Asian 0.8% 1.1% 1.6%Native Americans in the United States>Native 0.4% 0.4% 0.5%Native Hawaiian andPacific Islander>other Pacific Islander – 0.1% 0.1%Race and ethnicity in the United States Census>Other race 0.4% 0.8% 1.3%Multiracial American>Two or more races – 1.5% 2.1%The U.S. Census of 2010 found that the population center of the United States is in Texas County, while the 2000 Census found the mean population center to be in Phelps County. The center of population of Missouri is in Osage County, in the city of Westphalia.WEB, Population and Population Centers by State, 2000, United States Census Bureau, December 5, 2008,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, December 12, 2001, mdy-all, In 2004, the population included 194,000 foreign-born (3.4 percent of the state population).The five largest ancestry groups in Missouri are: German (27.4 percent), Irish (14.8 percent), English (10.2 percent), American (8.5 percent) and French (3.7 percent).German Americans are an ancestry group present throughout Missouri. African Americans are a substantial part of the population in St. Louis (56.6% of African Americans in the state lived in St. Louis or St. Louis County as of the 2010 census), Kansas City, Boone County and in the southeastern Bootheel and some parts of the Missouri River Valley, where plantation agriculture was once important. Missouri Creoles of French ancestry are concentrated in the Mississippi River Valley south of St. Louis (see Missouri French). Kansas City is home to large and growing immigrant communities from Latin America esp. Mexico and Colombia, Africa (i.e. Sudan, Somalia and Nigeria), and Southeast Asia including China and the Philippines; and Europe like the former Yugoslavia (see Bosnian American). A notable Cherokee Indian population exists in Missouri.In 2004, 6.6 percent of the state's population was reported as younger than 5 years old, 25.5 percent younger than 18, and 13.5 percent was 65 or older. Females were approximately 51.4 percent of the population. 81.3 percent of Missouri residents were high school graduates (more than the national average), and 21.6 percent had a bachelor's degree or higher. 3.4 percent of Missourians were foreign-born, and 5.1 percent reported speaking a language other than English at home.In 2010, there were 2,349,955 households in Missouri, with 2.45 people per household. The home ownership rate was 70.0 percent, and the median value of an owner-occupied housing unit was $137,700. The median household income for 2010 was $46,262, or $24,724 per capita. There were 14.0 percent (1,018,118) of Missourians living below the poverty line in 2010.The mean commute time to work was 23.8 minutes.

    Birth data

    In 2011, 28.1% of Missouri's population younger than age 1 were minorities.NEWS,weblink Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot, Exner, Rich, June 3, 2012, The Plain Dealer, Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.{| class="wikitable"|+ Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of Mother! Race! 2013WEB,weblink data,, PDF, ! 2014WEB,weblink data,, PDF, ! 2015WEB,weblink data,, PDF, ! 2016WEB,weblink data,, PDF, ! 201weblinkWhite Americans>White:| 61,097 (81.1%)| 60,968 (80.9%)| 60,913 (81.1%)| ...| ... Non-Hispanic whites>Non-Hispanic White| 57,361 (76.2%)| 57,150 (75.8%)| 57,092 (76.1%)| 55,455 (74.2%)| 53,800 (73.7%)African Americans>Black| 11,722 (15.6%)| 11,783 (15.6%)| 11,660 (15.5%)| 10,445 (14.0%)| 10,495 (14.4%)Asian Americans>Asian| 2,075 (2.8%)| 2,186 (2.9%)| 2,129 (2.8%)| 1,852 (2.5%)| 1,773 (2.4%)Pacific Islands Americans>Pacific Islander| ...| ...| ...| 199 (0.3%)| 183 (0.3%)Native Americans in the United States>American Indian| 402 (0.5%)| 423 (0.6%)| 359 (0.5%)| 156 (0.2%)| 167 (0.2%)Hispanic and Latino Americans>Hispanic (of any race)| 3,931 (5.2%)| 3,959 (5.3%)| 4,042 (5.4%)| 4,136 (5.5%)| 4,156 (5.7%)| Total Missouri| 75,296 (100%)| 75,360 (100%)| 75,061 (100%)| 74,705 (100%)| 73,034 (100%)
    • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.


    The vast majority of people in Missouri speak English. Approximately 5.1% of the population reported speaking a language other than English at home. The Spanish language is spoken in small Latino communities in the St. Louis and Kansas City Metro areas.WEB,weblink Latinos in Missouri, Missouri is home to an endangered dialect of the French language known as Missouri French. Speakers of the dialect, who call themselves Créoles, are descendants of the French pioneers who settled the area then known as the Illinois Country beginning in the late 17th century. It developed in isolation from French speakers in Canada and Louisiana, becoming quite distinct from the varieties of Canadian French and Louisiana Creole French. Once widely spoken throughout the area, Missouri French is now nearly extinct, with only a few elderly speakers able to use it.BOOK, Status and Function of Languages and Language Varieties, Ammon, Ulrich, 1989, Walter de Gruyter, 978-0-89925-356-5, 306–8,weblink September 3, 2010, ; International Sociological Association.JOURNAL, Carrière, J-M, 1939, Creole Dialect of Missouri, American Speech, 14, 2, 109–19, 451217, 10.2307/451217,


    {{bar boxDATE=MAY 11, 2015, left1=Religion float=right|bars ={{bar percent|Protestant|purple|58}}{{bar percent|None|black|20}}{{bar percent|Catholic|dodgerblue|16}}{{bar percent|Mormon|yellow|1}}{{bar percent|Buddhist|orange|1}}{{bar percent|Other faith|grey|4}}}}According to a Pew Research study conducted in 2014, 80% of Missourians identify with a religion. 77% affiliate with Christianity and its various denominations, and the other 3% are adherents of non-Christian religions. The remaining 20% have no religion, with 2% specifically identifying as atheists and 3% identifying as agnostics (the other 15% do not identify as "anything in particular").Broken down, the religious demographics of Missouri are as follows:
    • Christian – 77%
      • Protestant – 58%
        • Evangelical Protestant – 36%
        • Mainline Protestant – 16%
        • Historically Black Protestant – 6%
      • Catholic – 16%
      • Mormon – 1%
      • Orthodox Christian –

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