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Misogyny
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{{pp-semi-indef}}{{Redirect|Woman hater|other uses|Woman Hater (disambiguation)}}{{Discrimination sidebar}}{{Feminism sidebar}}Misogyny ({{IPAc-en|m|ɪ|ˈ|s|ɒ|dʒ|ɪ|n|i}}) is the hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against women or girls. Misogyny manifests in numerous ways, including social exclusion, sex discrimination, hostility, androcentrism, patriarchy, male privilege, belittling of women, disenfranchisement of women, violence against women, and sexual objectification.BOOK, Code, Lorraine, Encyclopedia of Feminist Theories, 2000, Routledge, London, 978-0-415-13274-9, 1st, 346, BOOK, Kramarae, Cheris, Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women, 2000, Routledge, New York, 978-0-415-92088-9, 1374–1377, Misogyny can be found within sacred texts of religions, mythologies, and Western philosophy and Eastern philosophy.The inverse is misandry; is the hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against men or boys.

Definitions

According to sociologist Allan G. Johnson, "misogyny is a cultural attitude of hatred for females because they are female". Johnson argues that:, ("ideology" in all small capitals in original).}}Sociologist Michael Flood at the University of Wollongong defines misogyny as the hatred of women, and notes:}}Dictionaries define misogyny as "hatred of women"The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles (Oxford: Clarendon Press (Oxford Univ. Press), [4th] ed. 1993 ({{ISBN|0-19-861271-0}})) (SOED) ("[h]atred of women").The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin, 1992 ({{ISBN|0-395-44895-6}})) ("[h]atred of women").Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged (G. & C. Merriam, 1966) ("a hatred of women"). and as "hatred, dislike, or mistrust of women".Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary (N.Y.: Random House, 2d ed. 2001 ({{ISBN|0-375-42566-7}})). In 2012, primarily in response to events occurring in the Australian Parliament,WEB,weblink Transcript of Julia Gillard's speech, The Sydney Morning Herald, 15 November 2016, the Macquarie Dictionary (which documents Australian English and New Zealand English) expanded the definition to include not only hatred of women but also "entrenched prejudices against women".NEWS, Daley, Gemma, Macquarie Dictionary has last word on misogyny,weblink 17 October 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121019181518weblink">weblink 19 October 2012, yes, The counterpart of misogyny is misandry, the hatred or dislike of men; the antonym of misogyny is philogyny, the love or fondness of women.Misogynous or misogynist can be used as adjectival forms of the word.WEB, Definition of "misogyny",weblink Dictionary.com, November 4, 2018,

Historical usage

Classical Greece

File:Seated Euripides Louvre Ma343.jpg|thumb|left|upright|EuripidesEuripidesIn his book City of Sokrates: An Introduction to Classical Athens, J.W. Roberts argues that older than tragedy and comedy was a misogynistic tradition in Greek literature, reaching back at least as far as Hesiod.BOOK,weblink City of Sokrates: An Introduction to Classical Athens, 978-0-203-19479-9, Roberts, J.W, 2002-06-01, The term misogyny itself comes directly into English from the Ancient Greek word misogunia (), which survives in several passages.The earlier, longer, and more complete passage comes from a moral tract known as On Marriage (c. 150 BC) by the stoic philosopher Antipater of Tarsus.The editio princeps is on page 255 of volume three of Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta (SVF, Old Stoic Fragments), see External links.A recent critical text with translation is in Appendix A to Will Deming, Paul on Marriage and Celibacy: The Hellenistic Background of 1 Corinthians 7, pp. 221–226.Misogunia appears in the accusative case on page 224 of Deming, as the fifth word in line 33 of his Greek text.It is split over lines 25–26 in von Arnim. Antipater argues that marriage is the foundation of the state, and considers it to be based on divine (polytheistic) decree. He uses misogunia to describe the sort of writing the tragedian Euripides eschews, stating that he "reject[s] the hatred of women in his writing" (ἀποθέμενος τὴν ἐν τῷ γράφειν μισογυνίαν). He then offers an example of this, quoting from a lost play of Euripides in which the merits of a dutiful wife are praised.38-43, fr. 63, in von Arnim, J. (ed.). Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta. Vol. 3. Leipzig: Teubner, 1903. The other surviving use of the original Greek word is by Chrysippus, in a fragment from On affections, quoted by Galen in Hippocrates on Affections.SVF 3:103. Misogyny is the first word on the page. Here, misogyny is the first in a short list of three "disaffections"—women (misogunia), wine (misoinia, μισοινία) and humanity (misanthrōpia, μισανθρωπία). Chrysippus' point is more abstract than Antipater's, and Galen quotes the passage as an example of an opinion contrary to his own. What is clear, however, is that he groups hatred of women with hatred of humanity generally, and even hatred of wine. "It was the prevailing medical opinion of his day that wine strengthens body and soul alike."Teun L. Tieleman, Chrysippus' on Affections: Reconstruction and Interpretations, (Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2003), p. 162. {{ISBN|90-04-12998-7}} So Chrysippus, like his fellow stoic Antipater, views misogyny negatively, as a disease; a dislike of something that is good. It is this issue of conflicted or alternating emotions that was philosophically contentious to the ancient writers. Ricardo Salles suggests that the general stoic view was that "[a] man may not only alternate between philogyny and misogyny, philanthropy and misanthropy, but be prompted to each by the other."Ricardo Salles, Metaphysics, Soul, and Ethics in Ancient Thought: Themes from the Work of Richard Sorabji, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2005), 485.Aristotle has also been accused of being a misogynist; he has written that women were inferior to men. According to Cynthia Freeland (1994):}}In the Routledge philosophy guidebook to Plato and the Republic, Nickolas Pappas describes the "problem of misogyny" and states:}}Misogynist is also found in the Greek—misogunēs ()—in Deipnosophistae (above) and in Plutarch's Parallel Lives, where it is used as the title of Heracles in the history of Phocion. It was the title of a play by Menander, which we know of from book seven (concerning Alexandria) of Strabo's 17 volume Geography,Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, A Greek–English Lexicon (LSJ), revised and augmented by Henry Stuart Jones and Roderick McKenzie, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940). {{ISBN|0-19-864226-1}}Strabo,Geography, Book 7 [Alexandria] Chapter 3. and quotations of Menander by Clement of Alexandria and Stobaeus that relate to marriage.Menander, The Plays and Fragments, translated by Maurice Balme, contributor Peter Brown, Oxford University Press, 2002. {{ISBN|0-19-283983-7}} A Greek play with a similar name, Misogunos (Μισόγυνος) or Woman-hater, is reported by Marcus Tullius Cicero (in Latin) and attributed to the poet Marcus Atilius.He is supported (or followed) by Theognostus the Grammarian's 9th century Canones, edited by John Antony Cramer, Anecdota Graeca e codd. manuscriptis bibliothecarum Oxoniensium, vol. 2, (Oxford University Press, 1835), p. 88.File:CiceroBust.jpg|thumb|Marcus Tullius Cicero ]]Cicero reports that Greek philosophers considered misogyny to be caused by gynophobia, a fear of women.Marcus Tullius Cicero, Tusculanae Quaestiones, Book 4, Chapter 11.In summary, Greek literature considered misogyny to be a disease—an anti-social condition—in that it ran contrary to their perceptions of the value of women as wives and of the family as the foundation of society. These points are widely noted in the secondary literature.

Religion

{{See also|Feminist theology|Sex differences in religion}}

Ancient Greek

In Misogyny: The World's Oldest Prejudice, Jack Holland argues that there is evidence of misogyny in the mythology of the ancient world. In Greek mythology according to Hesiod, the human race had already experienced a peaceful, autonomous existence as a companion to the gods before the creation of women. When Prometheus decides to steal the secret of fire from the gods, Zeus becomes infuriated and decides to punish humankind with an "evil thing for their delight". This "evil thing" is Pandora, the first woman, who carried a jar (usually described—incorrectly—as a box) which she was told to never open. Epimetheus (the brother of Prometheus) is overwhelmed by her beauty, disregards Prometheus' warnings about her, and marries her. Pandora cannot resist peeking into the jar, and by opening it she unleashes into the world all evil; labour, sickness, old age, and death.Holland, J: Misogyny: The World's Oldest Prejudice, pp. 12–13. Avalon Publishing Group, 2006.

Buddhism

In his book The Power of Denial: Buddhism, Purity, and Gender, professor Bernard Faure of Columbia University argued generally that "Buddhism is paradoxically neither as sexist nor as egalitarian as is usually thought." He remarked, "Many feminist scholars have emphasized the misogynistic (or at least androcentric) nature of Buddhism" and stated that Buddhism morally exalts its male monks while the mothers and wives of the monks also have important roles. Additionally, he wrote:}}

Christianity

File:Maria laach eva teufel.jpg|thumb|Eve rides astride the Serpent on a capital in Laach Abbey church, 13th century]]{{See also|Complementarianism|Christian egalitarianism}}Differences in tradition and interpretations of scripture have caused sects of Christianity to differ in their beliefs with regard their treatment of women.In The Troublesome Helpmate, Katharine M. Rogers argues that Christianity is misogynistic, and she lists what she says are specific examples of misogyny in the Pauline epistles. She states:In K. K. Ruthven's Feminist Literary Studies: An Introduction, Ruthven makes reference to Rogers' book and argues that the "legacy of Christian misogyny was consolidated by the so-called 'Fathers' of the Church, like Tertullian, who thought a woman was not only 'the gateway of the devil' but also 'a temple built over a sewer'."BOOK,weblink Feminist literary studies: An introduction, 978-0-521-39852-7, Ruthven, K. K, 1990, However, some other scholars have argued that Christianity does not include misogynistic principles, or at least that a proper interpretation of Christianity would not include misogynistic principles. David M. Scholer, a biblical scholar at Fuller Theological Seminary, stated that the verse Galatians 3:28 ("There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus") is "the fundamental Pauline theological basis for the inclusion of women and men as equal and mutual partners in all of the ministries of the church."WEB, Galatians 3:28 – prooftext or context?,weblink The council on biblical manhood and womanhood, January 6, 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150206045217weblink">weblink February 6, 2015, Hove, Richard. Equality in Christ? Galatians 3:28 and the Gender Dispute (Wheaton: Crossway, 1999), p. 17. In his book Equality in Christ? Galatians 3:28 and the Gender Dispute, Richard Hove argues that—while Galatians 3:28 does mean that one's sex does not affect salvation—"there remains a pattern in which the wife is to emulate the church's submission to Christ ({{bibleverse||Eph|5:21-33|KJV}}) and the husband is to emulate Christ's love for the church."BOOK,weblink Marriage and family in the biblical world, 978-0-8308-2737-4, Campbell, Ken M, October 1, 2003, In Christian Men Who Hate Women, clinical psychologist Margaret J. Rinck has written that Christian social culture often allows a misogynist "misuse of the biblical ideal of submission". However, she argues that this a distortion of the "healthy relationship of mutual submission" which is actually specified in Christian doctrine, where "[l]ove is based on a deep, mutual respect as the guiding principle behind all decisions, actions, and plans".BOOK, Christian Men Who Hate Women: Healing Hurting Relationships, Margaret J., Rinck
Zondervan>year=1990pages=81–85, Similarly, Catholic scholar Christopher West argues that "male domination violates God's plan and is the specific result of sin".WEIGEL>FIRST=CHRISTOPHER WEST ; WITH A FOREWORD BY GEORGEYEAR=2003LOCATION=LEOMINSTER, HEREFORDSHIRE, 978-0-85244-600-3,

Islam

{{See also|Namus|Islam and domestic violence}}The fourth chapter (or sura) of the Quran is called "Women" (An-Nisa). The 34th verse is a key verse in feminist criticism of Islam."Verse 34 of Chapter 4 is an oft-cited Verse in the Qur'an used to demonstrate that Islam is structurally patriarchal, and thus Islam internalizes male dominance."Dahlia Eissa, "Constructing the Notion of Male Superiority over Women in Islam: The influence of sex and gender stereotyping in the interpretation of the Qur'an and the implications for a modernist exegesis of rights", Occasional Paper 11 in Occasional Papers (Empowerment International, 1999).The verse reads: "Men are the maintainers of women because Allah has made some of them to excel others and because they spend out of their property; the good women are therefore obedient, guarding the unseen as Allah has guarded; and (as to) those on whose part you fear desertion, admonish them, and leave them alone in the sleeping-places and beat them; then if they obey you, do not seek a way against them; surely Allah is High, Great."In his book Popular Islam and Misogyny: A Case Study of Bangladesh, Taj Hashmi discusses misogyny in relation to Muslim culture (and to Bangladesh in particular), writing:In his book (No god but God: The Origins, Evolution, and Future of Islam|No god but God), University of Southern California professor Reza Aslan wrote that "misogynistic interpretation" has been persistently attached to An-Nisa, 34 because commentary on the Quran "has been the exclusive domain of Muslim men".NEWS,weblink Washington Post, Clothes Aren't the Issue, October 22, 2006, Asra Q., Nomani,

Sikhism

File:Sikh Gurus with Bhai Bala and Bhai Mardana.jpg|thumb|right|Guru NanakGuru Nanak{{See also|Women in Sikhism}}Scholars William M. Reynolds and Julie A. Webber have written that Guru Nanak, the founder of the Sikh faith tradition, was a "fighter for women's rights" that was "in no way misogynistic" in contrast to some of his contemporaries.BOOK, 87, Expanding curriculum theory: dis/positions and lines of flight, Julie A. Webber, Psychology Press, 2004, 978-0-8058-4665-2,

Scientology

{{See also|Scientology and abortion|Scientology and gender|Scientology and marriage|Scientology and sex}}In his book Scientology: A New Slant on Life, L. Ron Hubbard wrote the following passage:In the same book, he also wrote:These passages, along with other ones of a similar nature from Hubbard, have been criticised by Alan Scherstuhl of The Village Voice as expressions of hatred towards women.NEWS, The Church of Scientology does not want you to see L. Ron Hubbard's woman-hatin' book chapter, The Village Voice, Alan, Scherstuhl, June 21, 2010,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100625003539weblink">weblink June 25, 2010, However, Baylor University professor J. Gordon Melton has written that Hubbard later disregarded and abrogated much of his earlier views about women, which Melton views as merely echoes of common prejudices at the time. Melton has also stated that the Church of Scientology welcomes both genders equally at all levels—from leadership positions to auditing and so on—since Scientologists view people as spiritual beings.WEB,weblink Gender and Sexuality, Patheos.com, 2012-07-26, 2013-10-01,

Misogynistic ideas among prominent western thinkers

Numerous influential Western philosophers have been expressed ideas that can be characterized as misogynistic, including Aristotle, René Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, David Hume, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, G. W. F. Hegel, Arthur Schopenhauer, Friedrich Nietzsche, Charles Darwin, Sigmund Freud, Otto Weininger, Oswald Spengler, and John Lucas.BOOK, Clack, Beverley, Misogyny in the Western Philosophical Tradition: A Reader, 1999, Routledge, New York, 978-0-415-92182-4, 95–241, Because of the influence of these thinkers, feminist scholars trace misogyny in western culture to these philosophers and their ideas.{{Citation|last=Witt|first=Charlotte|title=Feminist History of Philosophy|date=2017|url=https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2017/entries/feminism-femhist/|work=The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy|editor-last=Zalta|editor-first=Edward N.|edition=Spring 2017|publisher=Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University|access-date=2018-08-21|last2=Shapiro|first2=Lisa}}

Aristotle

Aristotle believed women were inferior and described them as "deformed males".BOOK, Spring 2016, Feminist History of Philosophy,weblink 2016-01-01, Charlotte, Witt, Lisa, Shapiro, Edward N., Zalta, JOURNAL, Plato and Aristotle on the Nature of Women,weblink Journal of the History of Philosophy, 467–478, 21, 4, 10.1353/hph.1983.0090, Nicholas D., Smith, 1983, In his work Politics, he states as regards the sexes, the male is by nature superior and the female inferior, the male ruler and the female subject 4 (1254b13-14).Another example is Cynthia's catalog where Cynthia states "Aristotle says that the courage of a man lies in commanding, a woman's lies in obeying; that 'matter yearns for form, as the female for the male and the ugly for the beautiful'; that women have fewer teeth than men; that a female is an incomplete male or 'as it were, a deformity'. Aristotle believed that men and women naturally differed both physically and mentally. He claimed that women are "more mischievous, less simple, more impulsive ... more compassionate[,] ... more easily moved to tears[,] ... more jealous, more querulous, more apt to scold and to strike[,] ... more prone to despondency and less hopeful[,] ... more void of shame or self-respect, more false of speech, more deceptive, of more retentive memory [and] ... also more wakeful; more shrinking [and] more difficult to rouse to action" than men.History of Animals, 608b. 1–14

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau is well known for his views against equal rights for women for example in his treatise Emile, he writes: "Always justify the burdens you impose upon girls but impose them anyway... . They must be thwarted from an early age... . They must be exercised to constraint, so that it costs them nothing to stifle all their fantasies to submit them to the will of others." Other quotes consist of "closed up in their houses", "must receive the decisions of fathers and husbands like that of the church".JOURNAL, Rousseau and Feminist Revision,weblink Eighteenth-Century Life, 51–54, 34, 3, 10.1215/00982601-2010-012, C., Blum, 2010,

Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin wrote on the subject female inferiority through the lens of human evolution.JOURNAL, The history of the human female inferiority ideas in evolutionary biology, Rivista di Biologia, 2002-12-01, 0035-6050, 12680306, 379–412, 95, 3, Gerald, Bergman, He noted in his book The Descent of Men: "young of both sexes resembled the adult female in most species" which he extrapolated and further reasoned "males were more evolutionarily advanced than females". Darwin believed all savages, children and women had smaller brains and therefore led more by instinct and less by reason. Such ideas quickly spread to other scientists such as Professor Carl Vogt of natural sciences at the University of Geneva who argued "the child, the female, and the senile white" had the mental traits of a "grown up Negro", that the female is similar in intellectual capacity and personality traits to both infants and the "lower races" such as blacks while drawing conclusion that women are closely related to lower animals than men and "hence we should discover a greater apelike resemblance if we were to take a female as our standard". Darwin's beliefs about women were also reflective of his attitudes towards women in general for example his views towards marriage as a young man in which he was quoted ""how should I manage all my business if obligated to go everyday walking with my wife – Ehau!" and that being married was "worse than being a Negro". Or in other instances his concern of his son marrying a woman named Martineau about which he wrote "... he shall be not much better than her "nigger." Imagine poor Erasmus a nigger to so philosophical and energetic a lady ... Martineau had just returned from a whirlwind tour of America, and was full of married women's property rights ... Perfect equality of rights is part of her doctrine...We must pray for our poor "nigger.""

Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer has been noted as a misogynist by many such as the philosopher, critic, and author Tom Grimwood.JOURNAL, The Limits of Misogyny: Schopenhauer, "On Women",weblink Kritike: An Online Journal of Philosophy, 2008-01-01, 131–145, 2, 2, Tom, Grimwood, 10.3860/krit.v2i2.854, In a 2008 article Grimwood wrote published in the philosophical journal of Kritique, Grimwood argues that Schopenhauer's misogynistic works have largely escaped attention despite being more noticeable than those of other philosophers such as Nietzsche. For example, he noted Schopenhauer's works where the latter had argued women only have "meagre" reason comparable that of "the animal" "who lives in the present". Other works he noted consisted of Schopenhauer's argument that women's only role in nature is to further the species through childbirth and hence is equipped with the power to seduce and "capture" men. He goes on to state that women's cheerfulness is chaotic and disruptive which is why it is crucial to exercise obedience to those with rationality. For her to function beyond her rational subjugator is a threat against men as well as other women, he notes. Schopenhauer also thought women's cheerfulness is an expression of her lack of morality and incapability to understand abstract or objective meaning such as art. This is followed up by his quote "have never been able to produce a single, really great, genuine and original achievement in the fine arts, or bring to anywhere into the world a work of permanent value". Arthur Schopenhauer also blamed women for the fall of King Louis XIII and triggering the French Revolution, in which he was later quoted as saying:"At all events, a false position of the female sex, such as has its most acute symptom in our lady-business, is a fundamental defect of the state of society. Proceeding from the heart of this, it is bound to spread its noxious influence to all parts."Schopenhauer has also been accused of misogyny for his essay "On Women" (Über die Weiber), in which he expressed his opposition to what he called "Teutonico-Christian stupidity" on female affairs. He argued that women are "by nature meant to obey" as they are "childish, frivolous, and short sighted". He claimed that no woman had ever produced great art or "any work of permanent value". He also argued that women did not possess any real beauty:BOOK, Durant, Will, The Story of Philosophy, 1983, Simon and Schuster, New York, N.Y., 978-0-671-20159-3, 257,

Nietzsche

In Beyond Good and Evil, Friedrich Nietzsche stated that stricter controls on women was a condition of "every elevation of culture".BOOK, Nietzsche, Friedrich, 1886, Beyond Good and Evil,weblink Germany, January 23, 2014, In his Thus Spoke Zarathustra, he has a female character say "You are going to women? Do not forget the whip!"BOOK, Burgard, Peter J., Nietzsche and the Feminine, May 1994, University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville, VA, 978-0-8139-1495-4, 11, In Twilight of the Idols, Nietzsche writes "Women are considered profound. Why? Because we never fathom their depths. But women aren't even shallow."BOOK, Nietzsche, Friedrich, 1889, Twilight of the Idols,weblink Germany, 978-0-14-044514-5, January 23, 2014, There is controversy over the questions of whether or not this amounts to misogyny, whether his polemic against women is meant to be taken literally, and the exact nature of his opinions of women.Robert C. Holub, Nietzsche and The Women's Question. weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060907092224weblink">Coursework for Berkley University.

Hegel

Hegel's view of women can be characterized as misogynistic.BOOK, Gallagher, Shaun, Hegel, history, and interpretation, 1997, SUNY Press, 978-0-7914-3381-2, 235,weblink Passages from Hegel's Elements of the Philosophy of Right illustrate the criticism:BOOK,weblink Feminist Reflections on the History of Philosophy, 978-1-4020-2488-7, Alanen, Lilli, Witt, Charlotte, 2004,

Online misogyny

Misogynistic rhetoric is prevalent online and has grown rhetorically more aggressive. The public debate over gender-based attacks has increased significantly, leading to calls for policy interventions and better responses by social networks like Facebook and Twitter.JOURNAL, Jane, Emma Alice, 'Back to the kitchen, cunt': speaking the unspeakable about online misogyny, (Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies), 28, 4, 2014, 558–570, 10.1080/10304312.2014.924479, JOURNAL, Philipovic, Jill, Blogging While Female: How Internet Misogyny Parallels Real-World Harassment, Yale Journal of Law and Feminism, 19, 2, 295–303, 2007, A 2016 study conducted by the think tank Demos concluded that 50% of all misogynistic tweets on Twitter come from women themselves.Twitter abuse - '50% of misogynistic tweets from women', BBCMost targets are women who are visible in the public sphere, women who speak out about the threats they receive, and women who are perceived to be associated with feminism or feminist gains. Authors of misogynistic messages are usually anonymous or otherwise difficult to identify. Their rhetoric involves misogynistic epithets and graphic and sexualized imagery, centers on the women's physical appearance, and prescribes sexual violence as a corrective for the targeted women. Examples of famous women who spoke out about misogynistic attacks are Anita Sarkeesian, Laurie Penny, Caroline Criado Perez, Stella Creasy, and Lindy West.The insults and threats directed at different women tend to be very similar. Sady Doyle who has been the target of online threats noted the "overwhelmingly impersonal, repetitive, stereotyped quality" of the abuse, the fact that "all of us are being called the same things, in the same tone".

Psychological impact

Internalized misogyny

Internalized sexism is when an individual enacts sexist actions and attitudes towards themselves and people of their own sex.Bearman, Steve, Neill Korobov, and Avril Thorne. "The fabric of internalized sexism." Journal of Integrated Social Sciences 1, no. 1 (2009): 10-47. On a larger scale, internalized sexism falls under the broad topic of internalized oppression, which "consists of oppressive practices that continue to make the rounds even when members of the oppressor group are not present". Women who experience internalized misogyny may express it through minimizing the value of women, mistrusting women, and believing gender bias in favor of men.Szymanski, Gupta, and Carr. 2009. "Internalized Misogyny as a Moderator of the Link between Sexist Events and Women’s Psychological Distress." Sex Roles 16, no. 1-2: 101–109. Women, after hearing men demean the value and skills of women repeatedly, eventually internalize their beliefs and apply the misogynistic beliefs to themselves and other women.Bearman, Steve; Korobov, Neill; Thorne, Avril. 2009. "The fabric of internalized sexism." Journal of Integrated Social Sciences 1, no. 1: 10-47. A common manifestation of internalized misogyny is lateral violence.

Feminist theory

Subscribers to one model say that some misogyny results from the Madonna–whore complex, which is the inability to see women as anything other than "mothers" or "whores"; people with this complex place each encountered woman into one of these categories. Another variant model alleges that one cause of misogyny is some men thinking in terms of a virgin/whore dichotomy, which results in them considering as "whores" any women who do not adhere to an Abrahamic standard of moral purity.JOURNAL, Leah M., Wyman, George N., Dionisopolous, 2000, Transcending The Virgin/Whore Dichotomy: Telling Mina's Story in Bram Stoker's Dracula, Women's Studies in Communication, 23, 2, 209–237, 10.1080/07491409.2000.10162569, In the late 20th century, second-wave feminist theorists argued that misogyny is both a cause and a result of patriarchal social structures.E.g., Kate Millet's Sexual Politics, adapted from her doctoral dissertation is normally cited as the originator of this viewpoint; though Katharine M Rogers had also published similar ideas previously.Sociologist Michael Flood has argued that "misandry lacks the systemic, trans-historic, institutionalized, and legislated antipathy of misogyny".BOOK,weblink International encyclopedia of men and masculinities, 978-0-415-33343-6, Flood, Michael, 2007-07-18,

British legal situation

In recent years there has been increasing discussion in the UK of misogyny being added to the list of aggravating factors that are commonly referred to by the media as “hate crimes”. Aggravating factors in criminal sentencing currently include hostility to a victim due to characteristics such as sexuality, race or disability."Aggravating and mitigating factors", Sentencing Council.In 2016, Nottinghamshire Police began a pilot project to record misogynistic behaviour as either hate crime or hate incidents, depending on whether the action was a criminal offence.Brooks, Libby, "UK police chiefs urged to adopt harassment of women as hate crime", The Guardian, July 9, 2018. Over two years (April 2016-March 2018) there were 174 reports made, of which 73 were classified as crimes and 101 as incidents."Misogyny hate crime in Nottinghamshire gives 'shocking' results", BBC News, July 9, 2018.In September 2018 it was announced that the Law Commission would conduct a review into whether misogynistic conduct, as well as hostility due to ageism, misandry or towards groups such as goths, should be treated as a hate crime."Misogyny could become hate crime as legal review is announced", BBC News, September 6, 2018.Grierson, Jamie, "Review of UK hate crime law to consider misogyny and ageism", The Guardian, October 16, 2018.In October 2018, two senior police officers, Sara Thornton, chair of the National Police Chiefs' Council, and Cressida Dick, Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, stated that police forces should focus on more serious crimes such as burglary and violent offences, and not on recording incidents which are not crimes.Tobin, Olivia, "Met chief Cressida Dick backs senior police officer Sara Thornton on tackling burglars and violence ahead of hate crimes", Evening Standard, November 2, 2018. Thornton said that "treating misogyny as a hate crime is a concern for some well-organised campaigning organisations", but that police forces "do not have the resources to do everything"."Focus on violent crime not misogyny, says police chief", BBC News, November 1, 2018.

Criticism of the concept

Camille Paglia, a self-described "dissident feminist" who has often been at odds with other academic feminists, argues that there are serious flaws in the Marxism-inspired"Marxist feminists reduced the historical cult of woman’s virginity to her property value, her worth on the male marriage market.", Paglia, 1991, Sexual Persona, p. 27. interpretation of misogyny that is prevalent in second-wave feminism. In contrast, Paglia argues that a close reading of historical texts reveals that men do not hate women but fear them.Paglia, Camille (1991). Sexual Personae, NY: Vintage, Chapter 1 and passim. Christian Groes-Green has argued that misogyny must be seen in relation to its opposite which he terms philogyny. Criticizing R. W. Connell's theory of hegemonic masculinities, he shows how philogynous masculinities play out among youth in Maputo, Mozambique.JOURNAL, Groes-Green, Christian, 2011, Philogynous Masculinities: Contextualizing Alternative Manhood in Mozambique, Men and Masculinities, en, 15, 2, 91–111, 10.1177/1097184x11427021,

See also

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Notes and references

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Bibliography

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  • Brownmiller, Susan. Against Our Will: Men, Women, and Rape. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1975.
  • Clack, Beverley, comp. Misogyny in the Western Philosophical Tradition: a reader. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1999.
  • Dijkstra, Bram. Idols of Perversity: Fantasies of Feminine Evil. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
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  • Ferguson, Frances and R. Howard Bloch. Misogyny, Misandry, and Misanthropy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989. {{ISBN|978-0-520-06544-4}}
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  • Gilmore, David D. Misogyny: the Male Malady. 2001.
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  • Holland, Jack. Misogyny: The World's Oldest Prejudice. 2006.
  • Kipnis, Laura. The Female Thing: Dirt, Sex, Envy, Vulnerability. 2006. {{ISBN|0-375-42417-2}}
  • Klein, Melanie. The Collected Writings of Melanie Klein. 4 volumes. London: Hogarth Press, 1975.
  • Marshall, Gordon. 'Misogyny'. In Oxford Dictionary of Sociology. Oxford University Press, 1998.
  • Johnson, Allan G. 'Misogyny'. In Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology: A User's Guide to Sociological Language. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2000.
  • Millett, Kate. Sexual Politics. New York: Doubleday, 1970.
  • Morgan, Fidelis. A Misogynist's Source Book.
  • Patai, Daphne, and Noretta Koertge. Professing Feminism: Cautionary Tales from the Strange World of Women's Studies. 1995. {{ISBN|0-465-09827-4}}
  • Penelope, Julia. Speaking Freely: Unlearning the Lies of our Fathers' Tongues. Toronto: Pergamon Press Canada, 1990.
  • Rogers, Katharine M. The Troublesome Helpmate: A History of Misogyny in Literature. 1966.
  • Smith, Joan. Misogynies. 1989. Revised 1993.
  • Tumanov, Vladimir. "Mary versus Eve: Paternal Uncertainty and the Christian View of Women." ''Neophilologus 95 (4) 2011: 507–521.
  • von Arnim, J. (ed.). Stoicorum veterum fragmenta Vol. 3. Leipzig: Teubner, 1903.
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External links

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