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Misandry
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{{short description|Hatred or dislike of men or boys}}{{Masculism sidebar |topics}}{{discrimination sidebar}}Misandry ({{IPAc-en|m|ɪ|ˈ|s|æ|n|d|r|i}}) is the hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against men or boys."Misandry" at Oxford English Dictionary Online (ODO), Third Edition, June 2002. Accessed through library subscription on 25 July 2014. Earliest recorded use: 1885. Blackwood's Edinb. Mag, Sept. 289/1 No man whom she cared for had ever proposed to marry her. She could not account for it, and it was a growing source of bitterness, of misogyny as well as misandry."Misandry" at Merriam-Webster online ("First Known Use: circa 1909")JOURNAL, Synnott, Anthony, Why Some People Have Issues With Men: Misandry is not in everyone's dictionary but it's out there, Psychology Today, 2010-10-06,weblink 24 October 2016, "Misandrous" or "misandrist" can be used as adjectival forms of the word.WEB, Definition of "misandry",weblink Dictionary.com, November 4, 2018, Misandry manifests itself in numerous ways, including sexual discrimination, denigration of men, violence against men, and sexual objectification of men.

Etymology

Misandry is formed from the Greek misos (μῖσος, "hatred") and anēr, andros (ἀνήρ, gen. ἀνδρός; "man").Oxford Dictionariesweblink Use of the word can be found as far back as the nineteenth century, including an 1871 use in The Spectator magazine.WEB, "Misandry" the Word – Its Origin,weblink 2013-03-18, Review of novel "Blanche Seymour", The Spectator, London, 1 Apr. 1871, p. 389. “We cannot, indeed, term her an absolute misandrist, as she fully admits the possibility, in most cases at least, of the reclamation of men from their naturally vicious and selfish state, though at the cost of so much trouble and vexation of spirit to women, that it is not quite clear whether she does not regard their existence as at best a mitigated evil.” It appeared in Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.) in 1952. Translation of the French "misandrie" to the German "Männerhass" (Hatred of Men)WEB,weblink Translations for Männerhaß in the German » English dictionary, PONS GmbH, Stuttgart, Pons Dictionary German To English,weblink 19 March 2014, yes, is recorded in 1803.BOOK, Johann Georg Krünitz, Oekonomische Encyklopädie oder allgemeines System der Staats-, Stadt-, Haus- u. Landwirthschaft: in alphabetischer Ordnung. Von Lebens-Art bis Ledecz : Nebst einer einzigen Fig. Friedrich's des Einzigen, u. 3 Karten, 90, 1803, Pauli, 461, wikipedia:Oekonomische Encyklopädie, Misandry is parallel in form to 'misogyny' (hatred of women or girls). A term with a similar but distinct meaning is androphobia, which constitutes fear of men.WEB,weblink Misandry, Writer Helen Pluckrose has argued that the androphobia is the more propitious term in instances where aversion to men stems from a sense of fear.WEB,weblink Androphobia — and How to Address It, 2017-10-17,

Male disposability

Educator and activist Warren Farrell has written of his views on how men are uniquely marginalized in what he calls their "disposability", the manner in which the most dangerous occupations, notably soldiering and mining, were historically performed exclusively by men and remain so today. In his book, The Myth of Male Power, Farrell argues that patriarchal societies do not make rules to benefit men at the expense of women. Farrell contends that nothing is more telling about who has benefited from "men's rules" than life expectancy, which is lower in males, and suicide rates, which are higher.Warren Farrell, The Myth of Male Power, (N.Y.: Simon & Schuster, 1993), Chp. 2Concerning male disposability, social psychologist Professor Roy F. Baumeister has written:

Within feminist movements

Academic Alice Echols, in her 1989 book Daring To Be Bad: Radical Feminism in America, 1967–1975, argued that the radical feminist Valerie Solanas, best known for her attempted murder of Andy Warhol in 1968, displayed an extreme level of misandry compared to other radical feminists of the time in her tract the SCUM Manifesto. Echols stated:.}}Andrea Dworkin criticized the biological determinist strand in radical feminism that, in 1977, she found "with increasing frequency in feminist circles" which echoed the views of Valerie Solanas that males are biologically inferior to women and violent by nature, requiring a gendercide to allow for the emergence of a "new Übermensch Womon".JOURNAL,weblink Biological Superiority: The World's Most Dangerous and Deadly Idea, Dworkin, Andrea, Summer 1978, HERESIES: A Feminist Publication on Art and Politics, 2015-05-12, #6, No. 2, 2, 46, 0146-3411, Andrea Dworkin, The author bell hooks has discussed the issue of "man hating" during the early period of women's liberation as a reaction to patriarchal oppression and women who have had bad experiences with men in non-feminist social movements. She has also criticized separatist strands of feminism as "reactionary" for promoting the notion that men are inherently immoral, inferior, and unable to help end sexist oppression or benefit from feminism.hooks, bell. (1984), Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center, South End Press; Boston.hooks, bell. (2005), The Will To Change: Men, Masculinity and Love, New York; Washington Square Press. In Feminism is For Everybody, hooks laments the fact that feminists who critiqued anti-male bias in the early women's movement never gained mainstream media attention and that "our theoretical work critiquing the demonization of men as the enemy did not change the perspective of women who were anti-male." hooks has theorized previously that this demonization led to an unnecessary rift between the men's movement and the women's movement.hooks, bell. Feminist Theory from Margin to Center. Boston, MA: South End, 1984. Print.Although hooks doesn't name individual separatist theorists, Mary Daly's utopian vision of a world in which men and heterosexual women have been eliminated is an extreme example of this tendency.Daly, Mary. (1998), Quintessence...Realizing The Archaic Future, Beacon Press; Boston. Daly argued that sexual equality between men and women was not possible and that women, due to their superior capacities, should rule men.Daly, Mary. (1990), Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism, Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press, pp. 384 & 375–376 Yet later, in an interview, Daly argued "If life is to survive on this planet, there must be a decontamination of the Earth. I think this will be accompanied by an evolutionary process that will result in a drastic reduction of the population of males."Ridle, Susan (Fall/Winter 1999). "No Man's Land". EnlightenNext MagazinePaul Nathanson and Katherine K. Young argued that "ideological feminism" as opposed to "egalitarian feminism" has imposed misandry on culture.{{Harv|Nathanson|Young|2001|p=xiv}} "[ideological feminism,] one form of feminism—one that has had a great deal of influence, whether directly or indirectly, on both popular culture and elite culture—is profoundly misandric". Their 2001 book, Spreading Misandry, analyzed "pop cultural artifacts and productions from the 1990s" from movies to greeting cards for what they considered to be pervasive messages of hatred toward men.BOOK, Paul Nathanson, Katherine K. Young, Spreading Misandry: The Teaching of Contempt for Men in Popular Culture,weblink 16 October 2001, McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP, 978-0-7735-2272-5, ix, Legalizing Misandry (2005), the second in the series, gave similar attention to laws in North America.BOOK, Paul Nathanson, Katherine K. Young, Legalizing Misandry: From Public Shame to Systemic Discrimination Against Men,weblink 2006, McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP, 978-0-7735-5999-8, Wendy McElroy, an individualist feminist,The Independent Institute wrote in 2001 that some feminists "have redefined the view of the movement of the opposite sex" as "a hot anger toward men [that] seems to have turned into a cold hatred."{{Harv|McElroy|2001|p=5}} She argued it was a misandrist position to consider men, as a class, to be irreformable or rapists.In a 2016 article, author and journalist Cathy Young described a "current cycle of misandry" in feminism.NEWS, Young, Cathy, 2016-07-04, Feminists treat men badly and it's bad for feminism,weblink The Washington Post, 2016-10-23, This cycle, she explains, includes the use of the term "mansplaining" and other neologisms using "man" as a derogatory prefix. The term "mansplaining", according to feminist writer Rebecca Solnit, was coined soon after the appearance in 2008 of her essay Men Explain Things to Me.BOOK, Solnit, Rebecca, Men Explain Things to Me, 2014, Haymarket Books, Chicago IL, 978-1-60846-457-9, 1, The term "mansplaining" was coined soon after the piece appeared, and I was sometimes credited with it. In fact, I had nothing to do with its actual creation, though my essay, along with all the men who embodied the idea, apparently inspired it.,

Public attitudes

Men's rights activists and other masculinist groups have criticized modern laws concerning divorce, domestic violence, and rape as examples of institutional misandry.{{refn|name=Ouellette}}WEB, Berlatsky, Noah, When Men Experience Sexism,weblink The Atlantic, The Atlantic Monthly, 8 November 2018, 29 May 2013, WEB, Thériault, Anne, The Myth Of Misandry,weblink Ravishly Media Company, Ravishly.com, 8 November 2018, en, In a study of 488 college students regarding ambivalent sexism towards men, researchers found that women who did not identify as feminists were more likely to be hostile towards men than self-identified feminists, but also more likely to hold benevolent views towards men.JOURNAL, 10.1111/j.1471-6402.2009.01491.x, Are Feminists man Haters? Feminists' and Nonfeminists' Attitudes Toward Men, Psychology of Women Quarterly, 33, 2, 216–224, 2009, Anderson, Kristin J., Kanner, Melinda, Elsayegh, Nisreen, 10.1.1.692.9151, BOOK, Brannon, Lynda, Gender : Psychological Perspectives, 19 December 2016, Taylor & Francis, Chapter Three, 9781317221111, Seventh,weblink 8 November 2018, In a study of 503 self-identified heterosexual females, social psychologists found an association between insecure attachment styles and women's hostile sexism towards men.Joshua Hart, Peter Glick and Rachel E. Dinero, (2013), "She Loves Him, She Loves Him Not: Attachment Style as a Predictor of Women's Ambivalent Sexism Towards Men", Psychology of Women Quarterly, Vol. 37: 507-517BOOK, Kite, Mary E., Whitley, Bernard E., Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination, 10 June 2016, Taylor & Francis, Chapter Four, 9781317227236, First,weblink 8 November 2018, Religious studies professors Paul Nathanson and Katherine Young examined the institutionalization of misandry in the public sphere in their 2001 three-book series Beyond the Fall of Man,{{Harv|Nathanson|Young|2001|pp=4–6}} which refers to misandry as a "form of prejudice and discrimination that has become institutionalized in North American society", writing, "The same problem that long prevented mutual respect between Jews and Christians, the teaching of contempt, now prevents mutual respect between men and women."BOOK, Nathanson, Paul, Young, Katherine K., Spreading misandry the teaching of contempt for men in popular culture, 2001, McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal, Que., 9780773569690, 6,weblink 11 November 2016, Stanford University Professor Philip Zimbardo writing for Psychology Today, argued that there was an empathy gap between young men and young women, with young women receiving more empathy and sympathy, and that young men were sometimes demonized and given conflicting messages about acceptable behavior and that this contributed to negative effects such as high young male suicide rates. The piece was part of a promotion for his book "Man, Interrupted: Why Young Men are Struggling & What We Can Do About It".WEB, Young Men and the Empathy Gap: Why we should be guiding, not demonizing our sons., Psychology Today, Philip Zimbardo,weblink Aug 15, 2017,

In government policy

In November 2015, it was reported that the Canadian government was going to resettle thousands of Syrian refugees, but they would exclude single men. Only single women, families and unaccompanied minors would be taken in.NEWS, The Guardian, Patrick Kingsley, Nov 25, 2015, Canada's exclusion of single male refugees may exacerbate Syrian conflict,weblink NEWS, Canada’s plan to accept refugees excludes single straight men,weblink November 25, 2015, Hanna Kozlowska, www.qz.com, In 2017, an article on newsdeeply claimed that similar policies were still being carried out. The author went on the say that resettlement countries are acting on the bigoted stereotype of Arab men as dangerous potential terrorists, rather than as the vulnerable refugees and survivors.WEB,weblink Politics of Fear Excludes Single Syrian Men From Resettlement, Lewis Turner, www.newsdeeply.com, Feb 13, 2017,

Asymmetry with misogyny

Sociologist Allan G. Johnson argues in (The Gender Knot: Unraveling our Patriarchal Legacy) that accusations of man-hating have been used to put down feminists and to shift attention onto men, reinforcing a male-centered culture.BOOK,weblink 107, The Gender Knot: Unraveling Our Patriarchal Legacy, 2, revised, Johnson, Alan G., Temple University Press, 2005, 978-1592133840, Johnson asserts that culture offers no comparable anti-male ideology to misogyny and that "people often confuse men as individuals with men as a dominant and privileged category of people" and that "[given the] reality of women's oppression, male privilege, and men's enforcement of both, it's hardly surprising that every woman should have moments where she resents or even hates 'men'".Marc A. Ouellette argues in International Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities that "misandry lacks the systemic, transhistoric, institutionalized, and legislated antipathy of misogyny"; in his view, assuming a parallel between misogyny and misandry overly simplifies relations of gender and power.BOOK, Ouellette, Marc, Flood, Michael, Michael Flood, etal, International Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities, Misandry, 442–3,weblink 2007, Routledge, Abingdon, UK; New York, N.Y., 978-0-415-33343-6, Anthropologist David D. Gilmore also argues that misogyny is a "near-universal phenomenon" and that there is no male equivalent to misogyny,Gilmore, David G. Misogyny: The Male Malady. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009, pp. 10–13, {{ISBN|978-0-8122-1770-4}}. further defending manifestations of perceived misandry as not "hatred of men's traditional male role" and a "culture of machismo". He argues that misandry is "different from the intensely ad feminam aspect of misogyny that targets women no matter what they believe or do".

In literature

Ancient Greek literature

Classics professor Froma Zeitlin of Princeton University discussed misandry in her article titled "Patterns of Gender in Aeschylean Drama: Seven against Thebes and the Danaid Trilogy". She writes:
Princeton University, paper given at the Department of Classics, University of California, Berkeley}}

Shakespeare

Literary critic Harold Bloom argued that even though the word misandry is relatively unheard of in literature it is not hard to find implicit, even explicit, misandry. In reference to the works of Shakespeare Bloom argued "I cannot think of one instance of misogyny whereas I would argue that misandry is a strong element. Shakespeare makes perfectly clear that women in general have to marry down and that men are narcissistic and not to be trusted and so forth. On the whole, he gives us a darker vision of human males than human females."Brockman, Elin Schoen. (25 July 1999) "In the Battle Of the Sexes, This Word Is a Weapon", New York Times, weblink

Modern literature

Racialized misandry occurs in both "high" and "low" culture and literature. For instance, African-American men have often been disparagingly portrayed as either infantile or as eroticized and hyper-masculine, depending on prevailing cultural stereotypes.{{refn|name=Ouellette}}Critic of mainstream feminism Christina Hoff Sommers has described Eve Ensler's play The Vagina Monologues as misandric in that "there are no admirable males ... the play presents a rogues’ gallery of male brutes, sadists, child-molesters, genital mutilators, gang rapists and hateful little boys" which she finds out of step with the reality that "most men are not brutes. They are not oppressors".What’s Wrong and What’s Right with Contemporary Feminism?, Hamilton College. Retrieved 2014-01-27. Sommers, Christina Hoff. (2008), {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120302081135weblink |date=2 March 2012 }}Julie M. Thompson, a feminist author, connects misandry with envy of men, in particular "penis envy", a term coined by Sigmund Freud in 1908, in his theory of female sexual development.Emphasis added. Julie M. Thompson, Mommy Queerest: Contemporary Rhetorics of Lesbian Maternal Identity, (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2002). Nancy Kang has discussed "the misandric impulse" in relation to the works of Toni Morrison.Kang, N. (2003), "To Love and Be Loved: Considering Black Masculinity and the Misandric Impulse in Toni Morrison's "Beloved", Callaloo, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 836-854.In his book, Gender and Judaism: The Transformation of Tradition, Harry Brod, a Professor of Philosophy and Humanities in the Department of Philosophy and Religion at the University of Northern Iowa, writes:

See also

{{div col|colwidth=20em}} {{div col end}}

References

{{reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • Baumeister, Roy F. (2010), Is There Anything Good About Men? How Cultures Flourish By Exploiting Men, New York; Oxford University Press.
  • Benatar, D. (2012), The Second Sexism: Discrimination Against Men and Boys, Malden; Wiley-Blackwell.
  • hooks, bell., (2005), The Will To Change: Men, Masculinity and Love, New York; Washington Square Press.
  • BOOK, Who Stole Feminism? How Women Have Betrayed Women, Sommers, Christina Hoff, Christina Hoff Sommers, 1995, First published 1994, Simon & Schuster, 978-0-684-80156-8, Who Stole Feminism? How Women Have Betrayed Women,
  • BOOK, The Myth of Male Power: Why Men Are the Disposable Sex, Farrell, Warren, Warren Farrell, 2001, First published 1993, Berkley Books, Berkley Trade, 978-0-425-18144-7,
  • BOOK, Misogyny, Misandry, and Misanthropy, Ferguson, Frances, Frances Ferguson, Bloch, R. Howard, R. Howard Bloch, 1989, University of California Press, Berkeley, 978-0-520-06546-8,
  • BOOK, My Enemy, My Love: Man-Hating and Ambivalence in Women's Lives, Levine, Judith, Judith Levine, 1992, Da Capo Press, 978-1-56025-568-0,
  • MacNamara, J.R. (2006), Media and Male Identity: The Making and Remaking of Men, Palgrave Macmillan; New York.
  • BOOK, McElroy, Wendy, Sexual Correctness: The Gender-Feminist Attack on Women, Harper Paperbacks, 2001, McFarland & Company, New York, 978-0-7864-1144-3, harv,
  • Synnott, Anthony (2009), Re-Thinking Men: Heroes, Villains and Victims, Ashgate Publishing. {{ISBN|1409491951}}.
  • Smith, William A., Yosso, Tara J., Solorzano, Daniel G. (2007), "Racial Primes and Black Misandry on Historically White Campuses: Toward Critical Race Accountability in Educational Administration", Educational Administration Quarterly, vol. 43 no. 5, pp. 559–585.
  • Rosenblum, Darren (2010), "Beyond Victimisation and Misandry", International Journal of Law in Context, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 114–116.
  • BOOK, Nathanson, Paul, Paul Nathanson, Young, Katherine R., Katherine K. Young, Spreading Misandry: The Teaching of Contempt for Men in Popular Culture, Harper Paperbacks,weblink 2001, McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal, 978-0-7735-3099-7, harv,
  • BOOK, Nathanson, Paul, Paul Nathanson, Young, Katherine R., Katherine K. Young, Legalizing Misandry: From Public Shame to Systemic Discrimination Against Men,weblink 2006, McGill-Queen's University Press, Montreal, 978-0-7735-2862-8, harv,
  • BOOK, Katherine K. Young, Paul Nathanson, Sanctifying Misandry: Goddess Ideology and the Fall of Man,weblink 2010, MQUP, 978-0-7735-8544-7,
  • Nathanson, Paul, Young, Katherine K., (2012), "Misandry and Emptiness: Masculine Identity in a Toxic Cultural Environment", New Male Studies: An International Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 4–18.
  • BOOK, The Revolt of the Primitive: An Inquiry into the Roots of Political Correctness, Schwartz, Howard, Revised, 2003, Transaction Publishers, 978-0-7658-0537-9,
  • Nathanson, Paul and Katherine Young. (2009), "Coming of Age As a Villain: What Every Boy Needs to Know in A Misandric World", Thymos: Journal of Boyhood Studies, Vol. 3, p. 2, pp. 155–177.
  • Vilar, Esther. The Manipulated Man. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1972.

External links

{{Wiktionary|Wikisaurus:misandrist}}
  • JOURNAL, Bailée, Susan, 2001, Misandry in the Classroom, The Hudson Review, 54, 1, 148–54, My rough-and-tumble first grader, Mark, came home from school yesterday and nonchalantly told me a story about his day that set me shivering, 10.2307/3852834, 3852834, Sommers, Christina Hoff, harv,
  • WEB,weblink Misandry: From the Dictionary of Fools, 2007-12-28, Leader, Richard, 2007, Adonis Mirror, article critical of the use of the term
  • WEB,weblink Androphobia: The only respectable bigotry, 2007-12-28, Wilson, Robert Anton, Robert Anton Wilson, April 1996, The Backlash!, Shameless Men Press,
  • Lay off men, Lessing tells feminists.
{{Sexual abuse}}{{Sexual identities}}{{Discrimination}}{{Use dmy dates|date=June 2011}}

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