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Minnesota
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{{about|the U.S. state of Minnesota|other uses}}{{pp-move|small=yes}}{{Use mdy dates|date=September 2019}}







factoids
| IncomeRank = 10thEagle Mountain (Minnesota)>Eagle MountainHTTP://EGSC.USGS.GOV/ISB/PUBS/BOOKLETS/ELVADIST/ELVADIST.HTML >TITLE=ELEVATIONS AND DISTANCES IN THE UNITED STATES UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY >YEAR=2001 URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=OCTOBER 15, 2011, Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.| elevation_max_ft = 2,301| elevation_max_m = 701| elevation_ft = 1,200| elevation_m = 370| elevation_min_point = Lake Superior| elevation_min_m = 183| elevation_min_ft = 602"Lake Superior Water Levels", Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. Updated daily.| Former = Minnesota Territory| AdmittanceDate = May 11, 1858| AdmittanceOrder = 32ndTim Walz (DFL)}}Peggy Flanagan (DFL)}}| Legislature = Minnesota LegislatureMinnesota Senate>SenateMinnesota House of Representatives>House of RepresentativesAmy Klobuchar (DFL)}}{{nowrap|Tina Smith (DFL)}}| Representative = 5 Democrats3 RepublicansCentral Time Zone (North America)>Central| utc_offset1 = -06:00Central Daylight Time>CDT| utc_offset1_DST = -05:00| iso_code = US-MN| postal_code = MN| TradAbbreviation = Minn.| website = mn.govSt. Louis County, Minnesota>St. Louis County| area_land_sq_mi = 79,610| area_land_km2 = 206,375| area_water_sq_mi = 7,329| area_water_km2 = 18,990}}







factoids
|Beverage = Milk|Food = {hide}ubl
|Fruit: Honeycrisp apple
|Muffin: Blueberry
|Mushroom: Morel
{edih}|Gemstone = Lake Superior agatePhotograph: Grace (photograph)>Grace|Route Marker = MN-1.svg|Quarter = 2005 MN Proof.png|QuarterReleaseDate = 2005}}Minnesota ({{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Minnesota.ogg|ˌ|m|ɪ|n|ᵻ|ˈ|s|oʊ|t|ə}}) is a state in the Upper Midwest, Great Lakes, and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U.S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has many lakes, and is known as the "Land of 10,000 Lakes". Its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord (French: Star of the North).Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U.S. states; nearly 55% of its residents live in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area (known as the "Twin Cities").WEB, Our Estimates: Latest annual estimates of Minnesota and its Economic Development Regions' population and households, 2017,weblink Population Data, Minnesota State Demographic Center, May 13, 2019, August 2018, This area has the largest concentration of transportation, business, industry, education, and government in the state. Urban centers in "Greater Minnesota" include Duluth, Mankato, Moorhead, Rochester and St. Cloud.WEB, Greater Minnesota Refined & Revisited,weblink Greater Minnesota Status Report, Minnesota State Demographic Center, May 13, 2019, January 2017, The geography of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture; deciduous forests in the southeast, now partially cleared, farmed, and settled; and the less populated North Woods, used for mining, forestry, and recreation.Before Europeans arrived, Minnesota was inhabited for thousands of years by various indigenous peoples, some of whom continue to reside in Minnesota today. French explorers, missionaries, and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is now Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, which was purchased by the United States in 1803. Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained sparsely populated and centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, many European immigrants, mainly from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture.In recent decades immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, and (to a lesser extent) Latin America has broadened Minnesota's demographics and culture. Its economy has greatly diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, and the state is also among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation.WEB, Frohlich, Thomas, America's Most (and Least) Educated States,weblink 24/7 WallStreet, 24/7 WallStreet, February 2, 2015,

Etymology

The word Minnesota comes from the DakotaWEB,weblink Good Question: How Did Minnesota Get Its Name?, 2015-05-11, en-US, 2019-09-09, name for the Minnesota River, which got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language: "Mnísóta", which means "clear blue water",New Lakota dictionary. Lakota Language Consortium (2008).WEB,weblink Mnisota,weblink October 2, 2013, Dakota Dictionary Online, University of Minnesota Department of American Indian Studies, 2010, October 6, 2016, or "Mnißota", which means "cloudy water".WEB,weblink Mnisota,weblink May 25, 2017, Dakota Dictionary Online, University of Minnesota Department of American Indian Studies, 2010, October 6, 2016, WEB, Mnisota, Dakota Dictionary Online, University of Minnesota Department of American Indian Studies, 2010,weblink September 7, 2013, dead,weblink October 2, 2013, mdy, WEB, Minnesota State, Minnesota Historical Society,weblink April 26, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070901215624weblink">weblink September 1, 2007, mdy-all, Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls ("curling water" or waterfall), Minneiska ("white water"), Minneota ("much water"), Minnetonka ("big water"), Minnetrista ("crooked water"), and Minneapolis, a hybrid word combining mni ("water") and polis (Greek for "city").WEB, Minnehaha Creek, Minnesota Historical Society,weblink April 26, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110430112357weblink">weblink April 30, 2011, mdy-all,

Geography

(File:National-atlas-minnesota.png|thumb|right|Map of Minnesota, showing roads and major bodies of water)Minnesota is the second northernmost U.S. state (after Alaska) and northernmost contiguous state. The isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states north of the 49th parallel. The state is part of the U.S. region known as the Upper Midwest and part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With {{convert|86,943|sqmi|km2}},WEB, Just the Facts,weblink Minnesota North Star (official state government site)., dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090401204836weblink">weblink April 1, 2009, Retrieved on July 4, 2009. or approximately 2.25% of the United States,WEB, Facts and figures, infoplease.com,weblink 2007, April 9, 2008, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state.WEB, Land and Water Area of States, 2008, Information Please, 2011,weblink October 13, 2014,

Geology

{{see also|List of lakes in Minnesota|List of Minnesota rivers}}File:StLouisRiver JayCooke.JPG|thumb|left|Tilted beds of the Middle Precambrian Thomson Formation in Jay Cooke State ParkBOOK, Ojakangas, Richard W., Charles L. Matsch, Illus. Dan Breedy, Minnesota's Geology, 1982, University of Minnesota PressUniversity of Minnesota PressMinnesota has some of the earth's oldest rocks, gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old (80% as old as the planet).WEB, Geologic Time: Age of the Earth, United States Geological Survey, October 9, 1997,weblink April 9, 2008, About 2.7 billion years ago basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean; the remains of this volcanic rock formed the Canadian Shield in northeast Minnesota.BOOK, Breining, Greg, Compass American Guides: Minnesota, 3rd Edition, 3rd, Fodor's, Compass American Guides, December 2005, 978-1-4000-1484-2, The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Since a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock.In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain. The Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock. This area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift.WEB, Natural history – Minnesota's geology, Minnesota DNR,weblink 2008, April 9, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061010202724weblink">weblink October 10, 2006, mdy-all, Much of the remainder of the state has 50 feet (15 m) or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago. Its bed created the fertile Red River valley, and its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling. Minnesota is geologically quiet today; it experiences earthquakes infrequently, most of them minor.WEB, Table Showing Minnesota Earthquakes, University of Minnesota, Morris,weblink April 9, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080327204634weblink">weblink March 27, 2008, dead, mdy, File:Palisade, Shovel Point (cropped).jpg|thumb|right|Palisade Head on Lake Superior was formed from a Precambrian rhyolitic lavalavaThe state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet (701 m), which is only {{convert|13|mi|km}} away from the low point of 601 feet (183 m) at the shore of Lake Superior.WEB, {{convert, 118, km, 0, on, SW of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada | website = Topographic map | publisher = U.S.G.S via terraserver.microsoft.com | date = July 1, 1964 | url =weblink | accessdate = April 13, 2010}} Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a gently rolling peneplain.Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean.WEB, Continental Divides in North Dakota and North America, National Atlas, October 2, 2007,weblink April 9, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080513163803weblink">weblink May 13, 2008, mdy-all, The state's nickname "Land of 10,000 Lakes" is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over {{convert|10|acre|ha|0}} in size.WEB, Lakes, rivers & wetlands, MN Facts, Minnesota DNR, 2008,weblink April 9, 2008, Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at {{convert|962,700|acre|ha km2}} and deepest (at {{convert|1290|ft|m|abbr=on}}) body of water in the state. Minnesota has 6,564 natural rivers and streams that cumulatively flow for {{convert|69,000|mi|km}}. The Mississippi River begins its journey from its headwaters at Lake Itasca and crosses the Iowa border {{convert|680|mi|km}} downstream. It is joined by the Minnesota River at Fort Snelling, by the St. Croix River near Hastings, by the Chippewa River at Wabasha, and by many smaller streams. The Red River, in the bed of glacial Lake Agassiz, drains the northwest part of the state northward toward Canada's Hudson Bay. Approximately {{convert|10.6|e6acre|ha km2}} of wetlands are within Minnesota's borders, the most of any state except Alaska.BOOK, Seeley, Mark W., Minnesota Weather Almanac, Minnesota Historical Society press, 2006, 978-0-87351-554-2,weblink File:Eagle Mountain, Minnesota.jpg|thumb|Eagle MountainEagle Mountain

Flora and fauna

Minnesota has four ecological provinces: prairie parkland, in the southwestern and western parts of the state; the eastern broadleaf forest (Big Woods) in the southeast, extending in a narrowing strip to the state's northwestern part, where it transitions into tallgrass aspen parkland; and the northern Laurentian mixed forest, a transitional forest between the northern boreal forest and the broadleaf forests to the south.Ecological Provinces, Ecological Classification System, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (1999). Retrieved on May 3, 2008. These northern forests are a vast wilderness of pine and spruce trees mixed with patchy stands of birch and poplar.Much of Minnesota's northern forest has undergone logging, leaving only a few patches of old growth forest today in areas such as in the Chippewa National Forest and the Superior National Forest, where the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness has some {{convert|400000|acres|sigfig=3|abbr=on}} of unlogged land.BOOK, The Boundary Waters Wilderness Ecosystem, Heinselman, Miron, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1996, 978-0-8166-2805-6, Although logging continues, regrowth and replanting keep about a third of the state forested.BOOK, Bewer, Tim, Moon Handbooks Minnesota, Avalon Travel Publishing, 2004, First, 978-1-56691-482-6,weblink Nearly all of Minnesota's prairies and oak savannas have been fragmented by farming, grazing, logging, and suburban development.WEB, Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition (NA0415), Terrestrial Ecoregions, World Wildlife Fund, 2001,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20010429031358weblink">weblink April 29, 2001, September 3, 2012, (archived from original June 11, 2008).While loss of habitat has affected native animals such as the pine marten, elk, woodland caribou, and bison,Bison disappeared in the mid-19th century; the last bison was reported in southwest Minnesota in 1879. BOOK, Big Game in Minnesota, Technical Bulletin, no. 9, Moyle, J. B., Minnesota Department of Conservation, Division of Game and Fish, Section of Research and Planning, 1965, 172, As referenced in BOOK, Southwestern Minnesota Archaeology, Anfinson, Scott F., Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1997, 978-0-87351-355-5, 20, others like whitetail deer and bobcat thrive. Minnesota has the nation's largest population of timber wolves outside Alaska,Gray Wolf Factsheet, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (January 2007). Retrieved on May 3, 2008. and supports healthy populations of black bears, moose, and gophers. Located on the Mississippi Flyway, Minnesota hosts migratory waterfowl such as geese and ducks, and game birds such as grouse, pheasants, and turkeys. It is home to birds of prey, including the largest number of breeding pairs of bald eagles in the lower 48 states as of 2007,WEB,weblink Center for Biological Diversity, www.biologicaldiversity.org, red-tailed hawks, and snowy owls. The lakes teem with sport fish such as walleye, bass, muskellunge, and northern pike, and brook, brown, and rainbow trout populate streams in the southeast and northeast.

Climate

File:Minnesota Köppen.svg|thumb|Köppen climate types of Minnesota]]Minnesota experiences temperature extremes characteristic of its continental climate, with cold winters and hot summers. The lowest temperature recorded was {{convert|-60|F|C}} at Tower on February 2, 1996, and the highest was {{convert|114|F|C}} at Moorhead on July 6, 1936.WEB, Minnesota climate extremes, University of Minnesota,weblink May 3, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061005084248weblink">weblink October 5, 2006, mdy-all, Meteorological events include rain, snow, blizzards, thunderstorms, hail, derechos, tornadoes, and high-velocity straight-line winds. The growing season varies from 90 days in the Iron Range to 160 days in southeast Minnesota near the Mississippi River, and average temperatures range from {{convert|37|to|49|F|C}}.WEB, www.ncdc.noaa.gov, Climate of Minnesota, National Weather Service Forecast Office,weblink PDF, May 3, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080528042433weblink">weblink May 28, 2008, dead, Average summer dewpoints range from about {{convert|58|F|C}} in the south to about {{convert|48|F|C}} in the north.WEB, 104 Years of Twin Cities Dew Point Temperature Records: 1902–2006, Minnesota Climatology Office, March 7, 2006,weblink April 6, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070526112144weblink">weblink May 26, 2007, mdy-all, Average annual precipitation ranges from {{convert|19|to|35|in|cm}}, and droughts occur every 10 to 50 years.{| class="wikitable sortable" style="margin:auto;"!Location!July (°F)!July (°C)!January (°F)!January (°C)Minneapolis, Minnesota>Minneapolis 83/64 28/18 23/7 −4/−13Saint Paul, Minnesota>Saint Paul 83/63 28/17 23/6 −5/−14Rochester, Minnesota>Rochester 82/63 28/17 23/3 −5/−16Duluth, Minnesota>Duluth 76/55 24/13 19/1 −7/−17St. Cloud, Minnesota>St. Cloud 81/58 27/14 18/−1 −7/−18Mankato, Minnesota>Mankato 86/62 30/16 23/3 -5/-16International Falls, Minnesota>International Falls 77/52 25/11 15/−6 −9/−21

Protected lands

File:Pose lake Minnesota.jpg|thumb|right|Pose Lake in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area WildernessBoundary Waters Canoe Area WildernessMinnesota's first state park, Itasca State Park, was established in 1891, and is the source of the Mississippi River.WEB, Itasca State Park, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources,weblink May 3, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080403192641weblink">weblink April 3, 2008, mdy-all, Today Minnesota has 72 state parks and recreation areas, 58 state forests covering about four million acres (16,000 km2), and numerous state wildlife preserves, all managed by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. The Chippewa and Superior national forests comprise {{convert|5.5|e6acre}}. The Superior National Forest in the northeast contains the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, which encompasses over a million acres (4,000 km2) and a thousand lakes. To its west is Voyageurs National Park. The Mississippi National River and Recreation Area (MNRRA) is a {{convert|72|mi|km|adj=mid|-long}} corridor along the Mississippi River through the Minneapolis–St. Paul Metropolitan Area connecting a variety of sites of historic, cultural, and geologic interest.WEB, Places To Go,weblink National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, May 3, 2008,

History

File:Minnesotaterritory.PNG|thumb|left|Map of Minnesota TerritoryMinnesota TerritoryBefore European settlement of North America, a subculture of Sioux called the Dakota people lived in Minnesota. As Europeans settled the east coast, Native Americans moved away from them, causing migration of the Anishinaabe (also known as Ojibwe) and other Native Americans into the Minnesota area. The first Europeans in the area were French voyageur fur traders who arrived in the 17th century and began using the Grand Portage to access trapping and trading areas further inland. Late that century, Anishinaabe migrated westward to Minnesota, causing tensions with the Dakota people.WEB, TimePieces,weblink Minnesota Historical Society, September 19, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060917211935weblink">weblink September 17, 2006, mdy-all, Explorers such as Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut, Father Louis Hennepin, Jonathan Carver, Henry Schoolcraft, and Joseph Nicollet mapped the state.The region was part of Spanish Louisiana from 1762 to 1802.WEB,weblink Louisiana Purchase – History, Facts, & Map, WEB,weblink Spanish Colonial Louisiana – Know Louisiana, The portion of the state east of the Mississippi River became part of the United States at the end of the American Revolutionary War, when the Second Treaty of Paris was signed. Land west of the Mississippi was acquired with the Louisiana Purchase, though part of the Red River Valley was disputed until the Treaty of 1818. By the late 1700s the North West Company had established the post of Fort Charlotte at the Lake Superior end of the Grand Portage. It moved 50 miles northeast to Fort William in 1803.BOOK, William C. Wonders, Canada's Changing North,weblink 2003, McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP, 978-0-7735-2640-2, 121, In 1805 Zebulon Pike bargained with Native Americans to acquire land at the confluence of the Minnesota and Mississippi rivers. The construction of Fort Snelling followed between 1819 and 1825.BOOK, The Story of Minnesota's Past, Gilman, Rhoda R., Minnesota Historical Society Press, St. Paul, Minnesota, July 1, 1991, 978-0-87351-267-1, Its soldiers built a grist mill and a sawmill at Saint Anthony Falls, the first of the water-powered industries around which the city of Minneapolis later grew. Meanwhile, squatters, government officials, and sight-seers had settled near the fort. In 1839 the army forced them to move downriver and they settled in the area that became St. Paul.WEB,weblink Historic Fort Snelling, Minnesota Historical Society Press, July 6, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120716231055weblink">weblink July 16, 2012, dead, mdy-all, Minnesota Territory was formed on March 3, 1849. The first territorial legislature (held September 2, 1849)WEB,weblink Welcome to the City of Crystal, MN – City History, October 28, 2014, was dominated by men from New England or of New England ancestry.New England in the Life of the World: A Record of Adventure and Achievement By Howard Allen Bridgman page 112 Thousands of people had come to build farms and cut timber, and Minnesota became the 32nd U.S. state on May 11, 1858. The founding population was so overwhelmingly of New England origins that the state was dubbed "the New England of the West".A Collection of Confusible Phrases By Yuri Dolgopolov page 309Minnesota: A History of the State By Theodore Christian Blegen page 202-203Sketches of Minnesota, the New England of the West. With incidents of travel in that territory during the summer of 1849. With a map by E. S. SEYMOUR page xiiNorthern Lights: The Stories of Minnesota's Past By Dave Kenney, Hillary Wackman, Nancy O'Brien Wagner page 94File:Dakota War of 1862-stereo-right.jpg|thumb|upright|Settlers escaping the Dakota War of 1862Dakota War of 1862Treaties between European settlers and the Dakota and Ojibwe gradually forced the natives off their lands and onto smaller reservations. In 1861 residents of Mankato formed the Knights of the Forest, with a goal of eliminating all Native Americans from Minnesota. As conditions deteriorated for the Dakota, tensions rose, leading to the Dakota War of 1862.WEB, Kunnen-Jones, Marianne, Anniversary Volume Gives New Voice To Pioneer Accounts of Sioux Uprising, University of Cincinnati, August 21, 2002,weblink June 6, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080619085622weblink">weblink June 19, 2008, mdy-all, The six-week war ended with the execution of 38 Dakota and the exile of most of the rest to the Crow Creek Reservation in Dakota Territory.BOOK, Lass, William E., Minnesota: A History, 2nd, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, NY, 1998, 1977, 978-0-393-04628-1, As many as 800 white settlers died during the war.Steil, Mark and Tim Post. Hundreds of settlers killed in attacks. Minnesota Public Radio. September 26, 2002.Logging and farming were mainstays of Minnesota's early economy. The sawmills at Saint Anthony Falls and logging centers like Pine City, Marine on St. Croix, Stillwater, and Winona processed high volumes of lumber. These cities were on rivers that were ideal for transportation. Saint Anthony Falls was later tapped to provide power for flour mills. Innovations by Minneapolis millers led to the production of Minnesota "patent" flour, which commanded almost double the price of "bakers'" or "clear" flour, which it replaced.WEB, Hazen, Theodore R., New Process Milling of 1850–70, Pond Lily Mill Restorations,weblink May 11, 2007, By 1900 Minnesota mills, led by Pillsbury, Northwestern and the Washburn-Crosby Company (a forerunner of General Mills), were grinding 14.1 percent of the nation's grain.JOURNAL, Danbom, David B., Spring 2003, Flour Power: The Significance of Flour Milling at the Falls, Minnesota History, 58, 5, 271–285, File:Phelpsmill ottertailcounty.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Phelps Mill in Otter Tail County ]]The state's iron-mining industry was established with the discovery of iron in the Vermilion Range and the Mesabi Range in the 1880s, and in the Cuyuna Range in the early 20th century. The ore was shipped by rail to Duluth and Two Harbors, then loaded onto ships and transported eastward over the Great Lakes.Industrial development and the rise of manufacturing caused the population to shift gradually from rural areas to cities during the early 20th century. Nevertheless, farming remained prevalent. Minnesota's economy was hit hard by the Great Depression, resulting in lower prices for farmers, layoffs among iron miners, and labor unrest. Compounding the adversity, western Minnesota and the Dakotas were hit by drought from 1931 to 1935. New Deal programs provided some economic turnaround. The Civilian Conservation Corps and other programs around the state established some jobs for Indians on their reservations, and the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 provided the tribes with a mechanism of self-government. This gave Natives a greater voice within the state, and promoted more respect for tribal customs because religious ceremonies and native languages were no longer suppressed.After World War II, industrial development quickened. New technology increased farm productivity through automation of feedlots for hogs and cattle, machine milking at dairy farms, and raising chickens in large buildings. Planting became more specialized with hybridization of corn and wheat, and farm machinery such as tractors and combines became the norm. University of Minnesota professor Norman Borlaug contributed to these developments as part of the Green Revolution. Suburban development accelerated due to increased postwar housing demand and convenient transportation. Increased mobility in turn enabled more specialized jobs.Minnesota became a center of technology after World War II. Engineering Research Associates was formed in 1946 to develop computers for the United States Navy. It later merged with Remington Rand, and then became Sperry Rand. William Norris left Sperry in 1957 to form Control Data Corporation (CDC).WEB,weblink Engineering Research Associates Records 1946–1959, Hagley Museum and Library, November 26, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060622021939weblink">weblink June 22, 2006, Cray Research was formed when Seymour Cray left CDC to form his own company. Medical device maker Medtronic also started business in the Twin Cities in 1949.

Cities and towns

{{see also|List of cities in Minnesota|List of townships in Minnesota}}File:OwatonnaBank.JPG|thumb|right|National Farmers Bank in Owatonna by Louis SullivanLouis SullivanSaint Paul, in east-central Minnesota along the banks of the Mississippi River, has been Minnesota's capital city since 1849, first as capital of the Territory of Minnesota, and then as the state capital since 1858.Saint Paul is adjacent to Minnesota's most populous city, Minneapolis; they and their suburbs are collectively known as the Twin Cities metropolitan area, the country's 16th-largest metropolitan area and home to about 55 percent of the state's population.WEB, Hibbs, James, Analysis of the 2015 Population and Household Estimates,weblink Demographic Reports and Analysis, Minnesota State Demographics Center, 28 June 2018, 2, Presentation, November 1, 2016, Minnesota’s estimated population in 2015 is 5,485,238. Over half (54.8%) of Minnesota’s population lives in the seven Twin Cities area counties that make up Region 11.The population of Region 11 has surpassed 3 million., The remainder of the state is known as "Greater Minnesota" or, pejoratively, "Outstate Minnesota".WEB, Greater Minnesota Refined and Revisited,weblink Minnesota State Demographics Center, State of Minnesota: Department of Administration, 28 June 2018, The state has 17 cities with populations above 50,000 as of the 2010 census. In descending order of population, they are Minneapolis, Saint Paul, Rochester, Duluth, Bloomington, Brooklyn Park, Plymouth, Saint Cloud, Woodbury, Eagan, Maple Grove, Coon Rapids, Eden Prairie, Minnetonka, Burnsville, Apple Valley, Blaine, and Lakeville.WEB, Population Estimates, Minnesota Demographic Center,weblink April 7, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080307174342weblink">weblink March 7, 2008, Of these, only Rochester, Duluth, and Saint Cloud are outside the Twin Cities metropolitan area.Minnesota's population continues to grow, primarily in the urban centers. The populations of metropolitan Sherburne and Scott counties doubled between 1980 and 2000, while 40 of the state's 87 counties lost residents over the same period.WEB, Environmental Information Report, App. D Socioeconomic Information, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, May 30, 2003,weblink PDF, April 7, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080406011936weblink">weblink April 6, 2008,

Demographics

Population

(File:Minnesota population map cropped.png|thumb|right|Minnesota's population distribution)From fewer than 6,120 white settlers in 1850, Minnesota's official population grew to over 1.7 million by 1900. Each of the next six decades saw a 15 percent increase in population, reaching 3.4 million in 1960. Growth then slowed, rising 11 percent to 3.8 million in 1970, and an average of 9 percent over the next three decades to 4.9 million in the 2000 Census.The United States Census Bureau estimates the population of Minnesota was 5,611,179 on July 1, 2018, a 5.79 percent increase since the 2010 United States Census.WEB,weblink QuickFacts Minnesota; UNITED STATES, 2018 Population Estimates, United States Census Bureau, Population Division, February 10, 2019, February 10, 2019, The rate of population change, and age and gender distributions, approximate the national average. Minnesota's center of population is in Hennepin County.WEB, statecenters, U.S. Census Bureau, 2000,weblink November 21, 2006, dead,weblink September 18, 2008, mdy-all, As of the 2010 Census Minnesota's population was 5,303,925. The gender makeup of the state was 49.6% male and 50.4% female. 24.2% of the population was under the age of 18; 9.5% between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.3% from 25 to 44; 27.1% from 45 to 64; and 12.9% 65 or older.WEB, 2010 Demographic Profile Data,weblink United States Census Bureau, The table below shows the racial composition of Minnesota's population as of 2017.{|class="wikitable sortable collapsible nowrap" style="font-size: 90%; text-align: right;"weblink United States Census Bureau, February 10, 2019, ! Race !! Population (2017 est.) !! Percentage Total population 5,576,606 100% White American >| 84.3% African American >| 5.7% Native Americans in the United States >| 1.0% Asian American >| 4.5% Pacific Islander American >| 0.0% Race and ethnicity in the United States Census >| 1.6% Multiracial American >| 2.7%According to the 2017 American Community Survey, 5.1% of Minnesota's population were of Hispanic or Latino origin (of any race): Mexican (3.5%), Puerto Rican (0.2%), Cuban (0.1%), and other Hispanic or Latino origin (1.2%).WEB, 2016 American Community Survey - Demographic and Housing Estimates,weblink United States Census Bureau, November 21, 2018, The ancestry groups claimed by more than five percent of the population were: German (33.8%), Norwegian (15.3%), Irish (10.5%), Swedish (8.1%), and English (5.4%).WEB, 2016 American Community Survey - Selected Social Characteristics,weblink United States Census Bureau, November 21, 2018, In 2011 non-Hispanic whites were involved in 72.3 percent of all the births.NEWS,weblink Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot, Exner, Rich, June 3, 2012, The Plain Dealer, Minnesota's growing minority groups, however, still form a smaller percentage of the population than in the nation as a whole.WEB,weblink Minnesota QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, November 26, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061202001358weblink">weblink December 2, 2006, Minnesota has the country's largest Somali population,New Americans in the North Star State {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131226202334weblink |date=December 26, 2013 }} with an estimated 57,000 people, the largest concentration outside of the Horn of Africa.AP, "Ellison Calls on Trump to Condemn Minnesota Mosque Bombing" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170811012356weblink |date=August 11, 2017 }}. The New York Times, August 9, 2017.File:St Paul Cathedral 2012.jpg|thumb|right|The French Renaissance style Cathedral of St. Paul in the city of St. Paul]]

Religion

The majority of Minnesotans are Protestants, including a large Lutheran contingent, owing to the state's largely Northern European ethnic makeup. Roman Catholics (of largely German, Irish, French and Slavic descent) make up the largest single Christian denomination. A 2010 survey by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life showed that 32 percent of Minnesotans were affiliated with Mainline Protestant traditions, 21 percent were Evangelical Protestants, 28 percent Roman Catholic, 1 percent each Jewish, Muslim, Buddhist, and Black Protestant, and smaller amounts of other faiths, with 13 percent unaffiliated.WEB, Religious Composition of Minnesota, Maps, U.S. Religious Landscape Survey, Pew Research Center, 2010,weblink March 19, 2010, According to the Association of Religion Data Archives, the denominations with the most adherents in 2010 were the Roman Catholic Church with 1,150,367; the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 737,537; and the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod with 182,439.WEB,weblink The Association of Religion Data Archives | State Membership Report, www.thearda.com, December 16, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131203000323weblink">weblink December 3, 2013, dead, This is broadly consistent with the results of the 2001 American Religious Identification Survey, which also gives detailed percentages for many individual denominations.WEB,weblink American Religious Identification Survey, Exhibit 15, The Graduate Center, City University of New York, November 24, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120414233611weblink">weblink April 14, 2012, The international Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference is headquartered in Mankato, Minnesota.WEB, Contact,weblink Although Christianity is dominant, Minnesota has a long history with non-Christian faiths. Ashkenazi Jewish pioneers set up Saint Paul's first synagogue in 1856.BOOK, Gilman, Rhonda R., The Story of Minnesota's Past, Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1989, Saint Paul, Minnesota, 99, 978-0-87351-267-1, Minnesota is home to over 30 mosques, mostly in the Twin Cities metro area.WEB,weblink Mosques and Islamic schools in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota – salatomatic.com: your guide to mosques & Islamic schools, October 28, 2014, The Temple of ECK, the spiritual home of Eckankar, is based in Minnesota.BOOK, Lewis, James, Cults: A Reference and Guide, 2014, 127, {{bar box|title=Religion in Minnesota (2014)The Pew Forum - America’s Changing Religious Landscape|titlebar=|left1=religion|right1=percent|float=left|bars={{bar percent|Protestant|DarkViolet|50}}{{bar percent|Catholic|DodgerBlue|22}}{{bar percent|No religion|black|20}}{{bar percent|Mormon|yellow|1}}{{bar percent|Jewish|cyan|1}}{{bar percent|Muslim|orange|1}}{{bar percent|Other faith|green|3}}{{bar percent|Don't know|pink|2}}}}{{clear}}

Economy

{{See also|List of Minnesota locations by per capita income}}Once primarily a producer of raw materials, Minnesota's economy has transformed to emphasize finished products and services. Perhaps the most significant characteristic of the economy is its diversity; the relative outputs of its business sectors closely match the United States as a whole.WEB, Environmental Information Report, App. D Socioeconomic Information, May 30, 2003, United States of America, US, MN,weblink PDF, November 19, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070205204209weblink">weblink February 5, 2007, Minnesota's economy had a gross domestic product of $262 billion in 2008,WEB, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, Bureau of Economic Analysis, October 26, 2006,weblink US, November 13, 2006, dead,weblink July 7, 2010, mdy-all, with 33 of the United States' top 1,000 publicly traded companies by revenue headquartered in Minnesota,WEB,weblink Fortune 500, 2006, States, CNN Money, March 25, 2009, including Target, UnitedHealth Group, 3M, General Mills, U.S. Bancorp, Ameriprise, Hormel, Land O' Lakes, SuperValu, Best Buy, and Valspar. Private companies based in Minnesota include Cargill, the largest privately owned company in the United States,WEB, Forbes, Largest US Private Cos,weblink 2008, January 25, 2009, and Carlson Companies, the parent company of Radisson Hotels.WEB, Our Brands, Carlson Companies,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071024112507weblink">weblink dead, October 24, 2007, January 5, 2010, mdy-all, Minnesota's per capita personal income in 2008 was $42,772, the tenth-highest in the nation.WEB, State Personal Income 2008, US, PDF, Bureau of Economic Analysis,weblink July 4, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100412133925weblink">weblink April 12, 2010, dead, mdy-all, Its three-year median household income from 2002 to 2004 was $55,914, ranking fifth in the U.S. and first among the 36 states not on the Atlantic coast.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121019051209weblink">weblink dead, October 19, 2012, United States and States – R2001. Median Household Income, Census Bureau, August 5, 2007, US, As of December 2018 the state's unemployment rate was 2.8 percentweblink

Industry and commerce

File:IDS reflecting Wells Fargo.jpg|upright|thumb|The IDS Tower, designed by Philip Johnson, is the state's tallest building,NEWS, Coleman, Nick, Capella Tower sports a cap, but it can't topple the IDS, Star Tribune, March 24, 2008,weblink November 19, 2009, reflecting César Pelli's Art Deco-style Wells Fargo Center.]]Minnesota's earliest industries were fur trading and agriculture. Minneapolis grew around the flour mills powered by St. Anthony Falls. Although less than one percent of the population is now employed in the agricultural sector,WEB,weblink Minnesota – DP-3. Profile of Selected Economic Characteristics: 2000, US, Census Bureau, November 26, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071128042857weblink">weblink November 28, 2007, it remains a major part of the state's economy, ranking sixth in the nation in the value of products sold.WEB,weblink PDF, Census of Agriculture, Minnesota State Profile, US, Department of Agriculture, December 3, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061001103025weblink">weblink October 1, 2006, dead, The state is the U.S.'s largest producer of sugar beets, sweet corn, and green peas for processing, and farm-raised turkeys. Minnesota is also a large producer of corn and soybeans,WEB,weblink Wealth of Resources, Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development, November 26, 2006, and has the most food cooperatives per capita in the United States.NEWS, The Co-Op Advantage,weblink August 2008, Greenspring, Minnesota Monthly, February 10, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130115143853weblink">weblink January 15, 2013, dead, mdy-all, Forestry remains strong, including logging, pulpwood processing and paper production, and forest products manufacturing. Minnesota was famous for its soft-ore mines, which produced a significant portion of the world's iron ore for over a century. Although the high-grade ore is now depleted, taconite mining continues, using processes developed locally to save the industry. In 2004 the state produced 75 percent of the country's usable iron ore. The mining boom created the port of Duluth, which continues to be important for shipping ore, coal, and agricultural products. The manufacturing sector now includes technology and biomedical firms, in addition to the older food processors and heavy industry. The nation's first indoor shopping mall was Edina's Southdale Center, and its largest is Bloomington's Mall of America.Minnesota is one of 42 U.S. states with its own lottery; its games include Powerball, Mega Millions, Hot Lotto (all three multi-state), Northstar Cash, and Gopher 5.

Energy use and production

Minnesota produces ethanol fuel and is the first to mandate its use, a ten percent mix (E10).WEB,weblink Ethanol Producer Magazine, Hawaii to meet E10 mandate with imported ethanol, December 3, 2012, In 2019 there were more than 411 service stations supplying E85 fuel, comprising 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline.WEB,weblink Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State, US Department of Energy, February 24, 2019,weblink February 11, 2019, live, A two percent biodiesel blend has been required in diesel fuel since 2005. Minnesota is ranked in the top ten for wind energy production. The state gets nearly one fifth of all its electrical energy from wind.WEB,weblink Minnesota: Profile Analysis, March 15, 2018, U.S. Energy Information Administration,

State taxes

Minnesota has a progressive income tax structure; the four brackets of state income tax rates are 5.35, 7.05, 7.85 and 9.85 percent.WEB, Minnesota Income Tax Rates and Brackets: Income Tax Rates for 2013, MN, Department of Revenue,weblink August 28, 2013, As of 2008 Minnesota was ranked 12th in the nation in per capita total state and local taxes. In 2008 Minnesotans paid 10.2 percent of their income in state and local taxes; the U.S. average was 9.7 percent.WEB, Minnesota's State and Local Tax Burden 1977–2008, The Tax Foundation, June 6, 2010,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100401070951weblink">weblink April 1, 2010, The state sales tax in Minnesota is 6.875 percent, but clothing, prescription drug medications and food items for home consumption are exempt.WEB, Sales and Use Tax Instruction Book, Department of Revenue, July 2009,weblink PDF, MN, June 6, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111027093524weblink">weblink October 27, 2011, The state legislature may allow municipalities to institute local sales taxes and special local taxes, such as the 0.5 percent supplemental sales tax in Minneapolis.WEB,weblink Department of Revenue, Local Sales Tax and Use, November 26, 2006, PDF, MN,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061009052806weblink">weblink October 9, 2006, Excise taxes are levied on alcohol, tobacco, and motor fuel. The state imposes a use tax on items purchased elsewhere but used within Minnesota. Owners of real property in Minnesota pay property tax to their county, municipality, school district, and special taxing districts.{{clear left}}

Culture

Fine and performing arts

File:Mpls arts.jpg|thumb|right|The Minneapolis Institute of Art's Neoclassical north facade, designed by McKim, Mead, and WhiteMcKim, Mead, and White Minnesota's leading fine art museums include the Minneapolis Institute of Art, the Walker Art Center, the Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum, and The Museum of Russian Art (TMORA). All are in Minneapolis. The Minnesota Orchestra and the Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra are prominent full-time professional musical ensembles that perform concerts and offer educational programs to the Twin Cities' community. The world-renowned Guthrie Theater moved into a new Minneapolis facility in 2006, boasting three stages and overlooking the Mississippi River. Attendance at theatrical, musical, and comedy events in the area is strong. In the United States, the Twin Cities' number of theater seats per capita ranks behind only New York City;WEB, Gopher Express, Coffman Info Desk, Regents of the University of Minnesota, October 12, 2006,weblink May 6, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070819091622weblink">weblink August 19, 2007, with some 2.3 million theater tickets sold annually.NEWS, Royce, Graydon Royce, New Guthrie casts a huge shadow over theater scene, Minneapolis Star-Tribune via SavetheGuthrie.org, April 1, 2006,weblink May 6, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060518153633weblink">weblink May 18, 2006, dead, The Minnesota Fringe Festival is an annual celebration of theatre, dance, improvisation, puppetry, kids' shows, visual art, and musicals. The summer festival consists of over 800 performances over 11 days in Minneapolis, and is the largest non-juried performing arts festival in the United States.WEB, How to fringe, Fresh Art Delivered Daily, Minnesota Fringe Festival, 2006,weblink November 22, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061114023612weblink">weblink November 14, 2006,

Literature

The rigors and rewards of pioneer life on the prairie are the subject of Giants in the Earth by Ole Rolvaag and the Little House series of children's books by Laura Ingalls Wilder. Small-town life is portrayed grimly by Sinclair Lewis in the novel Main Street, and more gently and affectionately by Garrison Keillor in his tales of Lake Wobegon. St. Paul native F. Scott Fitzgerald writes of the social insecurities and aspirations of the young city in stories such as Winter Dreams and The Ice Palace (published in Flappers and Philosophers). Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's epic poem The Song of Hiawatha was inspired by Minnesota and names many of the state's places and bodies of water. Minnesota native Robert Zimmerman (Bob Dylan) won the 2016 Nobel Prize in Literature. Science fiction writer Marissa Lingen lives here.

Entertainment

File:First Avenue nightclub.jpg|thumb|left|First Avenue nightclub, the heart of Minnesota's music community]]Minnesota musicians include Bob Dylan, Eddie Cochran, The Andrews Sisters, The Castaways, The Trashmen, Prince, Soul Asylum, David Ellefson, Chad Smith, John Wozniak, Hüsker Dü, Owl City, The Replacements, and Dessa . Minnesotans helped shape the history of music through popular American culture: the Andrews Sisters' "Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy" was an iconic tune of World War II, while the Trashmen's "Surfin' Bird" and Bob Dylan epitomize two sides of the 1960s. In the 1980s, influential hit radio groups and musicians included Prince, The Original 7ven, Jimmy Jam & Terry Lewis, The Jets, Lipps Inc., and Information Society.Minnesotans have also made significant contributions to comedy, theater, media, and film. The comic strip Peanuts was created by St. Paul native Charles M. Schulz. A Prairie Home Companion which first aired in 1974, became a long-running comedy radio show on National Public Radio. A cult scifi cable TV show, Mystery Science Theater 3000, was created by Joel Hodgson in Hopkins, and Minneapolis, MN. Another popular comedy staple developed in the 1990s, The Daily Show, was originated through Lizz Winstead and Madeleine Smithberg.Joel and Ethan Coen, Terry Gilliam, Bill Pohlad, and Mike Todd contributed to the art of filmmaking as writers, directors, and producers. Notable actors from Minnesota include Loni Anderson, Richard Dean Anderson, James Arness, Jessica Biel, Rachael Leigh Cook, Julia Duffy, Mike Farrell, Judy Garland, Peter Graves, Josh Hartnett, Garrett Hedlund, Tippi Hedren, Jessica Lange, Kelly Lynch, E.G. Marshall, Laura Osnes, Melissa Peterman, Chris Pratt, Marion Ross, Jane Russell, Winona Ryder, Seann William Scott, Kevin Sorbo, Lea Thompson, Vince Vaughn, Jesse Ventura, and Steve Zahn.

Popular culture

{{See also|List of television shows and movies in Minnesota}}File:MNfiddles.jpg|thumb|right|upright=.7|A youth fiddle performance at the Minnesota State FairMinnesota State FairStereotypical traits of Minnesotans include "Minnesota nice", Lutheranism, a strong sense of community and shared culture, and a distinctive brand of North Central American English sprinkled with Scandinavian expressions. Potlucks, usually with a variety of hotdishes, are popular small-town church activities. A small segment of the Scandinavian population attend a traditional lutefisk dinner to celebrate Christmas. Life in Minnesota has also been depicted or used as a backdrop, in movies such as Fargo, Grumpy Old Men, Grumpier Old Men, Juno, Drop Dead Gorgeous, Young Adult, A Serious Man, New in Town, Rio, and in famous television series like Little House on the Prairie, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, The Golden Girls, Coach, The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, How I Met Your Mother and Fargo. Major movies that were shot on location in Minnesota include That Was Then... This Is Now, Purple Rain, Airport, Beautiful Girls, North Country, Untamed Heart, Feeling Minnesota, Jingle All The Way, A Simple Plan, and The Mighty Ducks films.The Minnesota State Fair, advertised as The Great Minnesota Get-Together, is an icon of state culture. In a state of 5.5 million people, there were over 1.8 million visitors to the fair in 2014, setting a new attendance record.WEB, General Information: Attendance, Minnesota State Fair,weblink December 9, 2014, The fair covers the variety of Minnesota life, including fine art, science, agriculture, food preparation, 4-H displays, music, the midway, and corporate merchandising. It is known for its displays of seed art, butter sculptures of dairy princesses, the birthing barn, and the "fattest pig" competition. One can also find dozens of varieties of food on a stick, such as Pronto Pups, cheese curds, and deep-fried candy bars. On a smaller scale, many of these attractions are offered at numerous county fairs.Other large annual festivals include the Saint Paul Winter Carnival, the Minnesota Renaissance Festival, Minneapolis' Aquatennial and Mill City Music Festival, Moondance Jam in Walker, Sonshine Christian music festival in Willmar, the Judy Garland Festival in Grand Rapids, the Eelpout Festival on Leech Lake, and the WE Fest in Detroit Lakes.

Health

File:MayoMedicalCentersign2006-05-14.JPG|thumb|left|The Mayo Clinic in Rochester ]]Minnesotans have low rates of premature death, infant mortality, cardiovascular disease, and occupational fatalities.WEB, America's Health Rankings 2009, United Health Foundation, 2009,weblink December 3, 2012, WEB, Statemaster Health Statistics – Death Rate per 100,000, Statemaster,weblink August 16, 2006, They have long life expectancies,WEB, Explore Minnesota Living, Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development,weblink PDF, August 16, 2006, and high rates of health insurance and regular exercise.WEB, ask.census.gov, The Percentage of People Without Health Insurance Coverage by State Using 2- and 3-year Averages: 2003 to 2005, Health Insurance Coverage: 2005, U.S. Census Bureau, Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division, August 29, 2006,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061006081530weblink">weblink dead, October 6, 2006, PDF, November 24, 2006, WEB, Statemaster Health Statistics Physical Exercise by State, Statemaster, 2002,weblink August 16, 2006, These and other measures have led two groups to rank Minnesota as the healthiest state in the nation; however, in one of these rankings, Minnesota descended from first to sixth in the nation between 2005 and 2009 because of low levels of public health funding and the prevalence of binge drinking.WEB, Health Statistics Health Index by state, Statemaster,weblink August 16, 2006, While overall health indicators are strong, Minnesota does have significant health disparities in minority populationsweblink October 1, 2007, Minnesota became the 17th state to enact the Freedom to Breathe Act, a statewide smoking ban in restaurants and bars.WEB, Put 'Em Out: Minnesota Smoking Ban Kicks In Monday, WCCO,weblink September 30, 2007, December 3, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071227004710weblink">weblink December 27, 2007, Medical care in the state is provided by a comprehensive network of hospitals and clinics operated by a number of large providers including Allina Hospitals & Clinics, CentraCare Health System, Essentia Health, Fairview Health Services, HealthPartners, and the Mayo Clinic Health System. There are two teaching hospitals and medical schools in Minnesota. The University of Minnesota Medical School is a high-rated teaching institution that has made a number of breakthroughs in treatment, and its research activities contribute significantly to the state's growing biotechnology industry.WEB, University of Minnesota Medical Milestones, University of Minnesota Medical School, 2002,weblink August 14, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060830085610weblink">weblink August 30, 2006, The Mayo Clinic, a world-renowned hospital based in Rochester, was founded by William Worrall Mayo, an immigrant from England.BOOK, Richard Burkewood Welbourn, The History of Endocrine Surgery,weblink 1990, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-275-92586-4, 353–, BOOK, Francis J. Haddy; Theresa B. Haddy, Minnesota Physicians in the 1862 Sioux Uprising,weblink 12 July 2011, AuthorHouse, 978-1-4634-0264-8, U.S. News & World Report{{'s}} 2014–2015 survey ranked 4,743 hospitals in the United States in 16 specialized fields of care, and placed the Mayo Clinic in the top four in all fields except psychiatry, where it ranked seventh. The hospital ranked #1 in eight fields and #2 in three others.Mayo Clinic: Rankings {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150512100742weblink |date=May 12, 2015 }} The Mayo Clinic and the University of Minnesota are partners in the Minnesota Partnership for Biotechnology and Medical Genomics, a state-funded program that conducts research into cancer, Alzheimer's disease, heart health, obesity, and other areas.WEB, Minnesota Partnership for Biotechnology and Medical Genomics, University of Minnesota Medical School, 2002,weblink August 14, 2006,

Education

{{see also|List of colleges and universities in Minnesota|List of high schools in Minnesota|List of school districts in Minnesota}}File:Pillsbury Hall.jpg|thumb|right|The Richardsonian Romanesque Pillsbury Hall (1889) is one of the oldest buildings on the University of MinnesotaUniversity of MinnesotaOne of the Minnesota Legislature's first acts when it opened in 1858 was the creation of a normal school in Winona. Minnesota's commitment to education has contributed to a literate and well-educated populace. In 2009, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, Minnesota had the second-highest proportion of high school graduates, with 91.5% of people 25 and older holding a diploma, and the tenth-highest proportion of people with bachelor's degrees.WEB,weblink Table 233. Educational Attainment by State: 1990 to 2009, Census.gov, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111017150539weblink">weblink October 17, 2011, In 2015, Minneapolis was named the nation's "Most Literate City", while St. Paul placed fourth, according to a major annual survey.WEB,weblink Minneapolis ranked most literate city, In a 2013 study conducted by the National Center for Educational Statistics comparing the performance of eighth-grade students internationally in math and science, Minnesota ranked eighth in the world and third in the United States, behind Massachusetts and Vermont.WEB,weblink Report: American Education Isn't Mediocre—It's Deeply Unequal, Julia, Ryan, In 2014, Minnesota students earned the tenth-highest average composite score in the nation on the ACT exam.WEB,weblink Newsroom – Press Kit, Digital Media Library, and Press Releases, ACT, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150415061951weblink">weblink April 15, 2015, mdy-all, In 2013, nationwide in per-student public education spending, Minnesota ranked 21st.WEB,weblink The states that spend the most (and the least) on education, in one map, Washington Post, While Minnesota has chosen not to implement school vouchers,NEWS, Hallman, Charles, School vouchers: Who stands to gain at what cost?, Minnesota Spokesman-Recorder, March 14, 2007,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140723221706weblink">weblink July 23, 2014, it is home to the first charter school.WEB, Charter Schools, Minnesota Department of Education, 2007,weblink May 6, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070222235406weblink">weblink February 22, 2007, dead, mdy, The state supports a network of public universities and colleges, including 37 institutions in the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities System, and five major campuses of the University of Minnesota system. It is also home to more than 20 private colleges and universities, six of which rank among the nation's top 100 liberal arts colleges, according to U.S. News & World Report.NEWS, Best Colleges 2009: Liberal Arts Rankings, USNews.com, 2009,weblink March 25, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090314061238weblink">weblink March 14, 2009,

Transportation

File:Duluth canal.jpg|thumb|left|The Aerial Lift Bridge at Duluth ]]Transportation in Minnesota is overseen by the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT) at the state level and by regional and local governments at the local level. Principal transportation corridors radiate from the Twin Cities metropolitan area and along interstate corridors in Greater Minnesota. The major Interstate highways are Interstate 35 (I-35), I-90, and I-94, with I-35 and I-94 connecting the Minneapolis–St. Paul area, and I-90 traveling east-west along the southern edge of the state.MAP, Minnesota Department of Transportation, 2007–2008 Official Highway Map,weblink PDF, April 7, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080408220510weblink">weblink April 8, 2008, In 2006, a constitutional amendment was passed that required sales and use taxes on motor vehicles to fund transportation, with at least 40 percent dedicated to public transit.WEB, Transportation amendment update, Minnesota Department of Transportation, 2006,weblink April 7, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080626041042weblink">weblink June 26, 2008, dead, There are nearly two dozen rail corridors in Minnesota, most of which go through Minneapolis–St. Paul or Duluth.MAP, Minnesota Department of Transportation, Minnesota Rail System, 2007,weblink PDF, April 7, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080408220542weblink">weblink April 8, 2008, There is water transportation along the Mississippi River system and from the ports of Lake Superior.WEB, Minnesota Ports and Waterways, Minnesota Department of Transportation,weblink April 7, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080317123114weblink">weblink March 17, 2008, File:Hiawatha LRV.jpg|thumb|right|A Metro Blue Line vehicle in Minneapolis]]Minnesota's principal airport is Minneapolis–St. Paul International Airport (MSP), a major passenger and freight hub for Delta Air Lines and Sun Country Airlines. Most other domestic carriers serve the airport. Large commercial jet service is provided at Duluth and Rochester, with scheduled commuter service to four smaller cities via Delta Connection carriers SkyWest Airlines, Compass Airlines, and Endeavor Air.WEB, Delta Air Lines Map, Delta Air Lines, 2015,weblink October 24, 2015, Public transit services are available in the regional urban centers in Minnesota including Metro Transit in the Twin Cities, opt out suburban operators Minnesota Valley Transit Authority, SouthWest Transit, Plymouth Metrolink, Maple Grove Transit and others. In Greater Minnesota transit services are provided by city systems such as Duluth Transit Authority, Mankato Transit System, MATBUS (Fargo-Moorhead), Rochester Public Transit, Saint Cloud Metro Bus, Winona Public Transit and others. Dial-a-Ride service is available for persons with disabilities in a majority of Minnesota Counties.WEB, Minnesota Public Transit Association,weblink Transit in Minnesota, Minnesota Public Transit Authority, 28 November 2018, In addition to bus services, Amtrak's daily Empire Builder (Chicago–Seattle/Portland) train runs through Minnesota, calling at the Saint Paul Union Depot and five other stations.WEB,weblink Amtrak Train and Bus Stations in the Midwest, Amtrak, January 21, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130119204439weblink">weblink January 19, 2013, mdy-all, Intercity bus providers include Jefferson Lines, Greyhound, and Megabus. Local public transit is provided by bus networks in the larger cities and by two rail services. The Northstar Line commuter rail service runs from Big Lake to the Target Field station in downtown Minneapolis. From there, light rail runs to Saint Paul Union Depot on the Green Line, and to the MSP airport and the Mall of America via the Blue Line.

Law and government

File:Minnesota state coat of arms (illustrated, 1876).jpg|thumb|upright|The historical coat of arms of Minnesota in 1876]]As with the federal government of the United States, power in Minnesota is divided into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.WEB, Minnesota Government,weblink State of Minnesota, October 20, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061018193346weblink">weblink October 18, 2006,

Executive

(File:Tim Walz official photo (cropped 2).jpg|thumb|Governor Tim Walz)The executive branch is headed by the governor. Governor Tim Walz, DFL (Democratic Farmer Labor), took office on January 7, 2019. The governor has a cabinet consisting of the leaders of various state government agencies, called commissioners. The other elected constitutional offices are secretary of state, attorney general, and state auditor.Constitutional officeholders:

Legislature

File:Minnesota State Capitol.jpg|thumb|The Minnesota State Capitol in Saint Paul, designed by Cass GilbertCass GilbertThe Minnesota Legislature is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The state has 67 districts, each with about 60,000 people. Each district has one senator and two representatives, each senatorial district being divided into A and B sections for members of the House. Senators serve for four years and representatives for two years. In the November 2010 election, the Minnesota Republican Party gained 25 house seats, giving them control of the House of Representatives by a 72–62 margin.2011 House Profile Minnesota House of Representatives. Retrieved June 22, 2011. The 2010 election also saw Minnesota voters elect a Republican majority in the Senate for the first time since 1972. In 2012, the Democrats regained the House of Representatives by a margin of 73–61, picking up 11 seats; the Democrats also regained the Minnesota Senate. Control of the houses shifted back to Republicans in the 2016 election.House Leadershiweblink
  • Speaker- Mellisa Hortman (DFL-36B)
  • Majority Leader- Ryan Winkler (DFL-46A)
  • Majority Whip- Liz Olson (DFL-7B)
  • Assistant Majority Leaders- Jamie Becker-Finn (DFL-42B), Hodan Hassan (DFL-62A), Mary Kunesh-Podein (DFL-41B), Fue Lee (DFL-49A), Jamie Long (DFL-61B), Julie Sandstede (DFL-6A)
  • Minority Leader- Kurt Daudt (R-31A)
  • Deputy Minority Leaders- Anne Neu (R-32B)
  • Assistant Minority Leaders-Tony Albright (R-55B), Peggy Bennett (R-27A), Josh Heintzeman (R-10A), Jon Koznick (R-58A), Jim Nash (R-47A), Peggy Scott (R-35B)
  • Minority Whip- Dan Fabian (R-10A)
Senate Leadershiweblink
  • President- Jeremy Miller (R-28)
  • President Pro Tempore- Mary Kiffmeyer (R-30)
  • Majority Leader- Paul Gazelka (R-9)
  • Assistant Majority Leader- Gary Dahms (R-16), Karin Housley (R-39), John Jasinski (R-24), Warren Limmer (R-34), Eric Pratt (R-55)
  • Deputy Majority Leader- Michelle Benson (R-31)
  • Minority Leader- Thomas Bakk (DFL-3)
  • Jeff Hayden (DFL-62)
  • Assistant Minority Leader- Susan Kent (DFL-53), Carolyn Laine (DFL-41)
  • Minority Whip- (DFL-4), John Hoffman (DFL-36), Ann Rest (DFL-45)

Judiciary

Minnesota's court system has three levels. Most cases start in the district courts, which are courts of general jurisdiction. There are 279 district court judgeships in ten judicial districts. Appeals from the trial courts and challenges to certain governmental decisions are heard by the Minnesota Court of Appeals, consisting of 19 judges who typically sit in three-judge panels. The seven-justice Minnesota Supreme Court hears all appeals from the tax court, the workers' compensation court of appeals, first-degree murder convictions, and discretionary appeals from the court of appeals; it also has original jurisdiction over election disputes.WEB, Minnesota Supreme Court, Court Information Office, State of Minnesota,weblink doc, October 19, 2006, dead,weblink November 1, 2006, mdy, Two specialized courts within administrative agencies have been established: the workers' compensation court of appeals, and the tax court, which deals with non-criminal tax cases.Supreme Court Justiceweblink
  • Chief Justice- Lorie Gildea
Associate Justices
  • Barry Anderson
  • David Lillehaug
  • Natalie Hudson
  • Margret Chutich
  • Anne McKeig
  • Paul Thissen

Regional

In addition to the city and county levels of government found in the United States, Minnesota has other entities that provide governmental oversight and planning. Regional development commissions (RDCs) provide technical assistance to local governments in broad multi-county area of the state. Along with this Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs), such as the Metropolitan Council, provide planning and oversight of land use actions in metropolitan areas. Many lakes and rivers are overseen by watershed districts and soil and water conservation districts.

Federal

Minnesota's United States senators are Democrat Amy Klobuchar and Democrat Tina Smith. The outcome of the 2008 U.S. Senate election in Minnesota was contested until June 30, 2009; when the Minnesota Supreme Court ruled in favor of Franken, Republican Norm Coleman conceded defeat.NEWS, After 8 Months, Franken Wins Senate Seat in Minnesota, Davey, Monica, Hulse, Carl, June 30, 2009, The New York Times,weblinkMinnesota Congressional Districts>congressional districts; they are represented by Jim Hagedorn (Minnesota's 1st congressional district; R), Angie Craig (Minnesota's 2nd congressional district>2nd; DFL), Dean Phillips (Minnesota's 3rd congressional district; DFL), Betty McCollum (Minnesota's 4th congressional district>4th; DFL), Ilhan Omar (Minnesota's 5th congressional district; DFL), Tom Emmer (Minnesota's 6th congressional district>6th; R), Collin Peterson (Minnesota's 7th congressional district; DFL), and Pete Stauber (Minnesota's 8th congressional district>8th; R).Federal court cases are heard in the United States District Court for the District of Minnesota, which holds court in Minneapolis, St. Paul, Duluth, and Fergus Falls. Appeals are heard by the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals, which is based in St. Louis, Missouri and routinely also hears cases in St. Paul.

Tribal

The State of Minnesota was created by the United States federal government in the traditional and cultural range of lands occupied by the Dakota and Anishinaabe peoples as well as other Native American groups. After many years of unequal treaties and forced resettlement by the state and federal government, the tribes re-organized into sovereign tribal governments. Today, the tribal governments are divided into 11 semi-autonomous reservations that negotiate with the US and the state on a bilateral basis:Four Dakota Mdewakanton communities: Seven Anishinaabe reservations: The first six of the Anishinaabe bands compose the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, the collective federally recognized tribal government of the Bois Forte, Fond du Lac, Grand Portage, Leech Lake, Mille Lacs, and White Earth reservations.

Politics

{{see also|List of political parties in Minnesota|United States congressional delegations from Minnesota|Minnesota's congressional districts|Political party strength in Minnesota}}{| class="wikitable" style="float:right; font-size:95%; margin:10px"! Year! Office! GOP! DFL! Others2018Minnesota gubernatorial election, 2018>Governor 42.4%53.9% 3.7%United States Senate election in Minnesota, 2018>Senator 36.2% 60.3% 3.4%United States Senate special election in Minnesota, 2018>Senator 42.4% 53.0% 4.6%2016United States presidential election in Minnesota, 2016>President44.9%46.4%8.6%2014Minnesota gubernatorial election, 2014>Governor 44.5% 50.1% 5.4%United States Senate election in Minnesota, 2014>Senator 42.9% 53.2% 3.9%2012United States presidential election in Minnesota, 2012>President 45.1% 52.8% 2.1%United States Senate election in Minnesota, 2012>Senator 30.6% 65.3% 4.1%2010Minnesota gubernatorial election, 2010>Governor43.2%43.7%13.1%2008United States presidential election in Minnesota, 2008>President 43.8% 54.1% 2.1%United States Senate election in Minnesota, 2008>Senator 42.0% 42.0% 16.0%2006Minnesota gubernatorial election, 2006>Governor46.7%45.7%7.6%United States Senate election in Minnesota, 2006>Senator37.9%58.1%4.0%2004United States presidential election in Minnesota, 2004>President47.6%51.1%1.3%2002Minnesota gubernatorial election, 2002>Governor44.4%33.5%22.1%United States Senate election in Minnesota, 2002>Senator49.5%47.3%1.0%2000United States presidential election in Minnesota, 2000>President45.5%47.9%6.6%United States Senate election in Minnesota, 2000>Senator43.3%48.8%7.9%1998Minnesota gubernatorial election, 1998>Governor34.3%28.1%37.6%1996United States presidential election in Minnesota, 1996>President35.0%51.1%13.9%United States Senate election in Minnesota, 1994>Senator41.3%50.3%8.4%1994Minnesota gubernatorial election, 1994>Governor63.3%34.1%2.6%United States Senate election in Minnesota, 1994>Senator49.1%44.1%6.8%1992United States presidential election in Minnesota, 1992>President31.9%43.5%24.6%Minnesota is known for a politically active citizenry, and populism has been a long-standing force among the state's political parties.WEB, Leigh, Pomeroy, Populism Is Alive and Well in Southern Minnesota, 2007, Minnesota Monitor, August 4, 2008,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071008194926weblink">weblink October 8, 2007, dead, WEB, Grayson, Katharine, Study: Minnesota tops nation in voter turnout, Minneapolis St. Paul Business Journal, September 18, 2006,weblink August 4, 2008, Minnesota has a consistently high voter turnout. In the 2008 U.S. presidential election, 78.2% of eligible Minnesotans voted—the highest percentage of any U.S. state—versus the national average of 61.2%.WEB, Michael P. McDonald, 2008 Unofficial Voter Turnout, United States Elections Project, George Mason University,weblink November 20, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081113104435weblink">weblink November 13, 2008, Voters can register on election day at their polling places with evidence of residency.WEB,weblink 201.061 – 2011 Minnesota Statutes, www.revisor.mn.gov, Hubert Humphrey brought national attention to the state with his address at the 1948 Democratic National Convention. Minnesotans have consistently cast their Electoral College votes for Democratic presidential candidates since 1976, longer than any other state. Minnesota is the only state in the nation that did not vote for Ronald Reagan in either of his presidential runs. Minnesota has gone for the Democratic Party in every presidential election since 1960, with the exception of 1972, when it was carried by Republican Richard Nixon.Both the Democratic and Republican parties have major-party status in Minnesota, but its state-level "Democratic" party is actually a separate party, officially known as the Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (DFL). It was formed out of a 1944 alliance of the Minnesota Democratic and Farmer-Labor parties.The state has had active third-party movements. The Reform Party, now the Independence Party, was able to elect former mayor of Brooklyn Park and professional wrestler Jesse Ventura to the governorship in 1998. The Independence Party has received enough support to keep major-party status. The Green Party, while no longer having major-party status, has a large presence in municipal government,WEB, Office Holders, Green Party of Minnesota,weblink April 18, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070107163820weblink">weblink January 7, 2007, dead, notably in Minneapolis and Duluth, where it competes directly with the DFL party for local offices. Major-party status in Minnesota (which grants state funding for elections) is reserved to parties whose candidates receive five percent or more of the vote in any statewide election (e.g., Governor, Secretary of State, U.S. President).The state's U.S. Senate seats have generally been split since the early 1990s, and in the 108th and 109th Congresses, Minnesota's congressional delegation was split, with four representatives and one senator from each party. In the 2006 mid-term election, Democrats were elected to all state offices, except governor and lieutenant governor, where Republicans Tim Pawlenty and Carol Molnau narrowly won re-election. The DFL posted double-digit gains in both houses of the legislature, elected Amy Klobuchar to the U.S. Senate, and increased the party's U.S. House caucus by one. Keith Ellison (DFL) was elected as the first African American U.S. Representative from Minnesota, as well as the first Muslim elected to Congress nationwide.NEWS, Minnesota Democrat becomes first Muslim to win seat in Congress, International Herald Tribune, Associated Press, November 7, 2006,weblink December 11, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061128232133weblink">weblink November 28, 2006, In 2008, DFLer and former comedian and radio talk show host Al Franken beat incumbent Republican Norm Coleman in the United States Senate race by 312 votes out of 3 million cast.In the 2010 election, Republicans took control of both chambers of the Minnesota legislature for the first time in 38 years and, with Mark Dayton's election, the DFL party took the governor's office for the first time in 20 years. Two years later, the DFL regained control of both houses, and with Dayton in office, the party had same-party control of both the legislative and executive branches for the first time since 1990. Two years later, the Republicans regained control of the Minnesota House,Pugmire, Tim, Minn. House: Republicans take control, Minnesota Public Radio, November 5, 2014 and in 2016, the GOP also regained control of the State Senate.MPR News Staff, Republicans take full control of Minnesota Legislature, Minnesota Public Radio, November 5, 2014In 2018, the DFL retook control of the Minnesota House, while electing DFLer Tim Walz as Governor.

Media

File:KSTP studios.jpg|thumb|right|upright=.75|KSTP studios ]]The Twin Cities area is the fifteenth-largest media market in the United States, as ranked by Nielsen Media Research. The state's other top markets are Fargo–Moorhead (118th nationally), Duluth–Superior (137th), Rochester–Mason City–Austin (152nd), and Mankato (200th).WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060517010320weblink">weblink May 17, 2006, 210 Designated Market Areas – 03-04, Nielsen Media, November 26, 2006, Broadcast television in Minnesota and the Upper Midwest started on April 27, 1948, when KSTP-TV began broadcasting.WEB,weblink 5 EYEWITNESS NEWS History, kstp.com, March 28, 2007, Hubbard Broadcasting, which owns KSTP, is now the only locally owned television company in Minnesota. Twin Cities CBS station WCCO-TV and FOX station KMSP-TV are owned-and-operated by their respective networks. There are 39 analog broadcast stations and 23 digital channels broadcast over Minnesota.The four largest daily newspapers are the Star Tribune in Minneapolis, the Pioneer Press in Saint Paul, the Duluth News Tribune in Duluth, and the Post-Bulletin in Rochester. The Minnesota Daily is the largest student-run newspaper in the U.S.WEB, Daily Board of Directors,weblink The Minnesota Daily, April 28, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080408053528weblink">weblink April 8, 2008, dead, Sites offering daily news on the Web include The UpTake, MinnPost, the Twin Cities Daily Planet, business news site Finance and Commerce and Washington D.C.-based Minnesota Independent. Weeklies including City Pages and monthly publications such as Minnesota Monthly are available.Two of the largest public radio networks, Minnesota Public Radio (MPR) and Public Radio International (PRI), are based in the state. MPR has the largest audience of any regional public radio network in the nation, broadcasting on 46 radio stations as of 2019.WEB, About MPR, Minnesota Public Radio,weblink August 17, 2006, WEB,weblink MPR Stations, Minnesota Public Radio, en-US, 2019-10-11, PRI weekly provides more than 400 hours of programming to almost 800 affiliates.WEB, PRI factsheet,weblink Public Radio International, May 7, 2007, The state's oldest radio station, KUOM-AM, was launched in 1922 and is among the 10-oldest radio stations in the United States. The University of Minnesota-owned station is still on the air, and since 1993 broadcasts a college rock format.

Sports, recreation and tourism

Minnesota has an active program of organized amateur and professional sports. Tourism has become an important industry, especially in the Lake region. In the North Country, what had been an industrial area focused on mining and timber has largely been transformed into a vacation destination. Popular interest in the environment and environmentalism, added to traditional interests in hunting and fishing, has attracted a large urban audience within driving range.Aaron Shapiro, The Lure of the North Woods: Cultivating Tourism in the Upper Midwest (University of Minnesota Press, 2015).

Organized sports

File:2006 WCHA Final Five.jpg|thumb|right|The University of North Dakota and St. Cloud State University during the WCHA Final Five at the Xcel Energy CenterXcel Energy CenterMinnesota has professional men's teams in all major sports.The Minnesota Vikings have played in the National Football League since their admission as an expansion franchise in 1961. They played in Metropolitan Stadium from 1961 through 1981 and in the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome from 1982 until its demolition after the 2013 season for the construction of the team's new home, U.S. Bank Stadium. The Vikings' current stadium hosted Super Bowl LII in February, 2018. Super Bowl XXVI was played in the Metrodome. The Vikings have advanced to the Super Bowl Super Bowl IV, Super Bowl VIII, Super Bowl IX, and Super Bowl XI, losing all four games to their AFC/AFL opponentThe Minnesota Twins have played in the Major League Baseball in the Twin Cities since 1961. The Twins began play as the original Washington Senators, a founding member of the American League in 1901, relocating to Minnesota in 1961. The Twins won the 1987 and 1991 World Series in seven game matches where the home team was victorious in all games. The Twins also advanced to the 1965 World Series, where they lost to the Los Angeles Dodgers in seven games. The team has played at Target Field since 2010.The Minneapolis Lakers of the National Basketball Association played in the Minneapolis Auditorium from 1947 to 1960, after which they relocated to Los Angeles. The Minnesota Timberwolves joined the NBA in 1989, and have played in Target Center since 1990.The National Hockey League's Minnesota Wild play in St. Paul's Xcel Energy Center, and reached 300 consecutive sold-out games on January 16, 2008.WEB, Recap, Flames 3, Wild 2, SO, Minnesota Wild, January 17, 2008,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080118091528weblink">weblink dead, January 18, 2008, April 7, 2008, mdy, Previously, the Minnesota North Stars competed in NHL from 1967 to 1993, which played in and lost the 1981 and 1991 Stanley Cup Finals.Minnesota United FC joined Major League Soccer as an expansion team in 2017, having played in the lower-division North American Soccer League from 2010 to 2016. The team plays at Allianz Field in St. Paul.NEWS, Van Berkel, Jessie, December 12, 2016, Minnesota United officials say 'big dig' at stadium site will begin in spring,weblink Star-Tribune, April 7, 2017, Previous professional soccer teams have included the Minnesota Kicks, which played at Metropolitan Stadium from 1976 to 1981, and the Minnesota Strikers from 1984 to 1988.Minnesota also has minor-league professional sports teams. The Minnesota Swarm of the National Lacrosse League played at the Xcel Energy Center until the team moved to Georgia in 2015. Minor league baseball is represented by major league-sponsored teams and independent teams such as the St. Paul Saints, who play at CHS Field in St. Paul.Professional women's sports include the Minnesota Lynx of the Women's National Basketball Association, winners of the 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2017 WNBA Championships, the Minnesota Lightning of the United Soccer Leagues W-League, the Minnesota Vixen of the Independent Women's Football League, the Minnesota Valkyrie of the Legends Football League, and the Minnesota Whitecaps of the National Women's Hockey League.The Twin Cities campus of the University of Minnesota is a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I school competing in the Big Ten Conference. Four additional schools in the state compete in NCAA Division I ice hockey: the University of Minnesota Duluth; Minnesota State University, Mankato; St. Cloud State University and Bemidji State University. There are nine NCAA Division II colleges in the Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference, and twenty NCAA Division III colleges in the Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletic Conference and Upper Midwest Athletic Conference.WEB, NCAA Directory: Minnesota, NCAA,weblink September 20, 2018, WEB, Upper Midwest Athletic Conference – History, Upper Midwest Athletic Conference,weblink April 13, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090503044213weblink">weblink May 3, 2009, dead, mdy-all, Minneapolis has hosted the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship in 1951, 1992, 2001, and 2019.The Hazeltine National Golf Club has hosted the U.S. Open, U.S. Women's Open, U.S. Senior Open and PGA Championship. The course also hosted the Ryder Cup in the fall of 2016, when it became one of two courses in the U.S. to host all major golf competitions. The Ryder Cup is scheduled to return in 2028.WEB,weblink Hazeltine National Golf Club – Premier Golf Destination, Hazeltine National Golf, Club, hazeltinenational.com, Interlachen Country Club has hosted the U.S. Open, U.S. Women's Open, and Solheim Cup.Winter Olympic Games medalists from the state include twelve of the twenty members of the gold medal 1980 ice hockey team (coached by Minnesota native Herb Brooks) and the bronze medalist U.S. men's curling team in the 2006 Winter Olympics. Swimmer Tom Malchow won an Olympic gold medal in the 2000 Summer games and a silver medal in 1996.Grandma's Marathon is run every summer along the scenic North Shore of Lake Superior, and the Twin Cities Marathon winds around lakes and the Mississippi River during the peak of the fall color season. Farther north, Eveleth is the location of the United States Hockey Hall of Fame.

Tourism

As the state's tourism promotion office, Explore Minnesota pursues an entrepreneurial approach, leveraging the state's tourism investment with increased involvement by the private sector. A council of representatives from the state's tourism industry strongly connects Explore Minnesota with tourism businesses and organizations. Explore Minnesota's mission is to inspire and facilitate travel to and within the state of Minnesota.Tourism is a $15.3 billion industry in Minnesota, and a key sector of the state's economy. The leisure and hospitality industry – a major provider of tourism services – employs more than 270,000 workers, representing 11 percent of Minnesota's private sector employment. Leisure and hospitality also generates 18 percent of the state's sales tax revenues. Minnesota welcomes more than 73 million domestic and international travelers annually.In 2014, Explore Minnesota launched an all-new travel marketing campaign, themed "Only in Minnesota", to increase awareness about Minnesota as a one-of-a-kind Midwest travel destination. The strategic effort, which includes a new and improved website and market reach to audiences in 14 states and provinces, is the largest travel marketing campaign in the state's history. A new series of advertisements and a strong, user-driven #OnlyinMN social media movement has been well-received and has engaged travelers, residents, businesses and visitors bureaus across the state. In the latest evolution of the popular #OnlyinMN campaign, Explore Minnesota generated 3.5 million trips to Minnesota, and more than $388 million in traveler spending. Explore Minnesota engaged with hundreds of thousands of people through social media, surpassing half a million uses of the campaign hashtag as of May 2017. The newly branded slogan represents the diversity of Minnesota, from its bustling downtowns to untouched wilderness, pine forests to bluff country and historic landmarks to modern-day attractions. #OnlyinMN celebrates the inspiring and sometimes unexpected experiences that await travelers on a Minnesota vacation.In 2019, Explore Minnesota launched the "Find Your True North" marketing campaign that supports and strengthens the award-winning #OnlyinMN positioning. The "True North" campaign was designed to tell specific stories that make Minnesota stand apart as a unique travel destination, and invite people to have real and meaningful experiences around the state. Campaign elements will be integrated on the agency's website, Explore Minnesota social channels, statewide publications and more.

Outdoor recreation

File:Lake Calhoun MN.jpg|thumb|right|Fishing on Bde Maka SkaBde Maka SkaMinnesotans participate in high levels of physical activity,WEB, Statemaster Health Statistics Physical Exercise by State, Statemaster, 2002,weblink April 7, 2008, and many of these activities are outdoors. The strong interest of Minnesotans in environmentalism has been attributed to the popularity of these pursuits.WEB, Green Hunters: Minnesota DNR, Fish & Wildlife Today,weblink April 7, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080201043003weblink">weblink February 1, 2008, In the warmer months, these activities often involve water. Weekend and longer trips to family cabins on Minnesota's numerous lakes are a way of life for many residents. Activities include water sports such as water skiing, which originated in the state,WEB, Water Skiing History, ABC of Skiing, MaxLifestyle.net "Go Skiing like Max!", 2006,weblink April 7, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080421022737weblink">weblink April 21, 2008, boating, canoeing, and fishing. More than 36 percent of Minnesotans fish, second only to Alaska.WEB, Managing for Results, Minnesota DNR,weblink PDF, April 7, 2008, Fishing does not cease when the lakes freeze; ice fishing has been around since the arrival of early Scandinavian immigrants.WEB, Benjamin, Robert W., Ice Fishing can be a very exciting experience, Buzzle.com, July 15, 2006,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20120730165044weblink">weblink dead, July 30, 2012, ice skating>skating, Ice hockey, curling, and broomball, and snow sports such as cross-country skiing, alpine skiing, snowshoe>luge, snowshoeing, and snowmobiling.WEB, Turning Snow into Sport, Explore Minnesota Experiences, Minnesota Department of Tourism,weblink archiveurl =weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080401034153weblink">weblinkbandy is played.HTTP://WWW.USABANDY.COM/WEBSITE=USA BANDY, State and national forests and the seventy-two state parks are used year-round for hunting, camping, and hiking. There are almost {{convert|20000|mi|km}} of snowmobile trails statewide.WEB, Snowmobiling Minnesota, Minnesota Department of Tourism,weblink April 7, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080604210514weblink">weblink June 4, 2008, dead, Minnesota has more miles of bike trails than any other state,WEB, Take to the Trails! Explore Minnesota Biking, Minnesota Department of Tourism,weblink April 7, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080127122558weblink">weblink January 27, 2008, dead, and a growing network of hiking trails, including the {{convert|235|mi|km|adj=on}} Superior Hiking Trail in the northeast.WEB, Superior Hiking Trail, Minnesota Department of Tourism,weblink December 2, 2006, Many hiking and bike trails are used for cross-country skiing during the winter.

See also

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References

{{reflist|30em}}

External links

{{sisterlinks|Minnesota|voy=Minnesota}}

Culture and history

General

  • {{curlie|Regional/North_America/United_States/Minnesota}}

Government

Maps and demographics

Tourism and recreation

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