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Mikhail Kalinin

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Mikhail Kalinin
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Kashinsky District>Verkhnyaya Troitsa, Tver Governorate, Russian Empire1946311df=y}}| death_place = Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet UnionEkaterina Kalinina>Ekaterina Ivanovna Lorberg-KalininaRussian Social Democratic Labor Party>RSDLP (1898-1912) Russian Communist Party (1912-1946)| occupation = Civil servant}}Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin (; {{OldStyleDate|19 November|1875|7 November}}{{spaced ndash}}3 June 1946),BOOK, Agentstvo pechati "Novosti", Socialism: Theory and Practice, Novosti Press Agency, 1975,weblink November 19, 2018, 73, BOOK, Calendar: Thirty Years of the Soviet State, 1917-1947, Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1947,weblink November 19, 2018, known familiarly by Soviet citizens as "Kalinych",Abdurakhman Avtorkhanov, Stalin and the Soviet Communist Party: A Study in the Technology of Power. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1959; pg. 1. was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician. He served as head of state of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and later of the Soviet Union from 1919 to 1946. From 1926, he was a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.Born to a peasant family, Kalinin worked as a metal worker in Saint Petersburg and took part in the 1905 Russian Revolution as an early member of the Bolsheviks. During and after the October Revolution, he served as mayor of Petrograd (St. Petersburg). After the revolution, Kalinin became the head of the new Soviet state, as well as a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and the Politburo. Kalinin remained head of the Soviet Union after the rise of Joseph Stalin, but held little real power or influence. He retired in 1946 and died in the same year. The former East-Prussian city of Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad after him. The city of Tver was also known as Kalinin until the end of the Soviet Union in 1990.

Early life

Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin was born to a peasant family of ethnic Russian origin in the village of Verkhnyaya Troitsa (), Tver Governorate, Russia.{{citation needed|date=October 2011}} He was the elder brother of Fedor Kalinin.Kalinin finished his education at a local school in 1889 and worked for a time on a farm.Branko Lazitch and Milorad M. Drachkovitch, Biographical Dictionary of the Comintern: New, Revised, and Expanded Edition. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1986; pp. 204-205. He moved to Saint Petersburg, where he found employment as a metal worker in 1895. He also worked as a butler and then as a railway worker at Tbilisi depot, where he met Sergei Alliluyev, the father of Stalin's second wife.In 1906, he married the ethnic Jew Ekaterina Lorberg who originated from Estonia ( (, 1882–1960).BOOK,weblink Anti-Judaism: a psychohistory, 279,

Early political career

Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) in 1898, the year of its foundation.Jackson, George; Devlin, Robert (eds.), Dictionary of the Russian Revolution. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1989; pp. 295-296. He came to know Stalin through the Alliluyev family.During the Russian Revolution of 1905, Kalinin worked for the Bolshevik party and on the staff of the Central Union of Metal Workers. He later became active on behalf of the RSDLP in Tiflis, Georgia (now Tbilisi), Reval, Estonia (now Tallinn), and Moscow. In April 1906 he served as a delegate at the 4th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party.Kalinin was an early and devoted adherent of the Bolshevik faction of the RSDLP, headed by Vladimir Lenin. He was a delegate to the 1912 Bolshevik Party Conference held in Prague, where he was elected an alternate member of the governing Central Committee and sent to work inside Russia. He did not become a full member because he was suspected of being an Okhrana agent (the real agent was Roman Malinovsky, a full member).Kalinin was arrested for his political activities in 1916 and freed during the February Revolution of 1917, which overthrew the tsarist state.

Russian Revolutions

Kalinin joined the Petrograd Bolshevik committee and assisted in the organization of the party daily Pravda, now legalized by the new regime.In April 1917 Kalinin, like many other Bolsheviks, advocated conditional support for the Provisional Government in cooperation with the Menshevik faction of the RSDLP, a position at odds with that of Lenin. He continued to oppose an armed uprising to overthrow the government of Alexander Kerensky throughout that summer.In the elections held for the Petrograd City Duma in autumn 1917, Kalinin was chosen as mayor of the city, which he administered during and after the Bolshevik Revolution of 7 November.{{Multiple image| align = left| direction = vertical| width = 220| image1 = Stalin-Lenin-Kalinin-1919.jpgJosef Stalin, Vladimir Lenin and Mikhail Kalinin (detail of a photo from the 8th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)>8th Congress of the Russian Communist Party, March 1919). Part of a much larger photo showing other Congress members as shown below.| image2 = Delegates_VIII_Congress_of_the_RKP(b).jpg}}In 1919, Kalinin was elected a member of the governing Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party as well as a candidate member of the Politburo. He was promoted to full membership on the Politburo in January 1926, a position which he retained until his death in 1946.When Yakov Mikhailovich Sverdlov died in March 1919 (from influenza, a beating or poisoning; sources differ),*BOOK, Kotkin, Stephen, Stephen Kotkin, Stalin: Volume I: Paradoxes of Power, 1878-1928,weblink 2014, Penguin, 978-1594203794, BOOK, Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeevich, Nikita Khrushchev, Memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev,weblink 2006, Penn State PressTITLE=FROM HELL TO HEAVEN AND FORTHACCESSDATE=5 OCTOBER 2011DATE=21 JANUARY 2011ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120425045743/HTTP://WWW.AEJ.ORG.UA/HISTORY/596.HTMLDF=DMY-ALL, Kalinin replaced him as President of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, the titular head of state of Soviet Russia. The name of this position was changed to Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR in 1922 and to Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet in 1938. Kalinin continued to hold the post without interruption until his retirement at the end of World War II.In 1920, Kalinin attended the Second World Congress of the Communist International in Moscow as part of the Russian delegation. He was seated on the presidium rostrum and took an active part in the debates.

Soviet Union

Kalinin was a factional ally of Stalin during the bitter struggle for power after the death of Lenin in 1924. He delivered a report on Lenin and the Comintern to the Fifth World Congress in 1924.Kalinin was one of the comparatively few members of Stalin's inner circle springing from peasant origins. The lowly social origins were widely publicised in the official press, which habitually referred to Kalinin as the "All-Union headman" (Всесоюзный староста), a term hearkening to the village commune, in conjunction with his role as titular head of state.Torchinov, V. A.; Leontiuk, A. M. Vokrug Stalina: Istoriko-biograficheskii spravochnik. ("Stalin's Circle: A Historico-Biographical Handbook") St. Petersburg: Philology Department of St. Petersburg State University, 2000; pp. 240-241. In practical terms, by the 1930s, Kalinin's role as a decision-maker in the Soviet government was nominal.Torchinov and Leontiuk refer to Kalinin in the 1930s as a "decorative figure." See Vokrug Stalina, pg. 241.He held little power or influence beyond receiving diplomatic letters from abroad. Recalling him, future Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev said, "I don't know what practical work Kalinin carried out under Lenin. But under Stalin he was the nominal signatory of all decrees, while in reality he rarely took part in government business. Sometimes he was made a member of a commission, but people didn't take his opinion into account very much. It was embarrassing for us to see this; one simply felt sorry for Mikhail Ivanovich."Khrushchev, Sergei (Ed.). Memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev: Statesman: 1953-1964. Pennsylvania State University Press. 2007. p. 488.On 5 March 1940, six members of the Soviet Politburo—Stalin, Vyacheslav Molotov, Lazar Kaganovich, Kliment Voroshilov, Anastas Mikoyan, and Mikhail Kalinin—signed an order to execute 25,700 Polish "nationalists and counterrevolutionaries" kept at camps and prisons in occupied western Ukraine and Belarus,BOOK, The Rise and Fall of Communism, Brown, Archie, Ecco/HarperCollins, 2009, 978-0-06-113879-9, 140, registration,weblink part of the Katyn massacre.Kalinin was unable to protect even his own wife. Ekaterina Kalinina, who was critical of Stalin's policies, and was arrested on 25 October 1938 on charges of being a "Trotskyist". Although her husband was the chair of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1938-1946), she was tortured in Lefortovo Prison and on 22 April 1939, she was sentenced to fifteen years of imprisonment in a labour camp. She was released shortly before her husband's death in 1946.BOOK, The Perversion of Knowledge: The True Story of Soviet Science, 2001, Westview Press, Boulder, CO, 68,weblink Vadim J. Bristein, 3 September 2013, {{Subscription required|via=Questia}}

Death and legacy

Kalinin retired in 1946 and died of cancerBrent, Jonathan and Naumov, Vladimir P. in Stalin's Last Crime, John Murray (Publishers), London, 2003, page 231 on 3 June of that same year in Moscow. Kalinin was honoured with a major state funeral and was buried in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis.Three large cities (Tver, Korolyov and Königsberg) were named or renamed in his honour; only the last of those, Kaliningrad, has retained the name after the fall of the Soviet Union. Kalinin coal mine was built in 1961 and named after M. I. Kalinin.Kalinin Square and Kalinin Street which were named after Kalinin are located in Minsk, Belarus. The Kalinin avenue in Dnipro, Ukraine was renamed into Prospekt Serhiy Nigoyan in January 2015.{{uk icon}} Dnipro municipality for the second time decided to rename Kalinin avenue to Sergey Nigoyan, (23 February 2018)

References

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External links

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