aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{About|the U.S. state of Michigan}}{{Redirect|The Great Lakes State|states around the Great Lakes region|Great Lakes region}}{{pp|small=yes}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{Use mdy dates|date=February 2019}}

"The Wolverine State", "The Mitten State", "Water (Winter) Wonderland"(English: "If you seek a pleasant peninsula, look about you")| anthem = "My Michigan"| Former = Michigan TerritoryLansing, Michigan>LansingURL = HTTPS://WWW.NPR.ORG/2009/09/27/113251618/WHATS-A-YOOPER WORK = WEEKEND EDITION SUNDAY NPR >DATE = SEPTEMBER 27, 2009, June 13, 2013, | LargestCity = Detroit| LargestMetro = Metro DetroitGretchen Whitmer (D)}}Garlin Gilchrist (D)}}| Legislature = Michigan LegislatureMichigan Senate>SenateMichigan House of Representatives>House of RepresentativesDebbie Stabenow (Democratic Party (United States))}} {{nowrap>Gary Peters (D)}}Democratic Party (United States)>Democrats 6 Republican Party (United States) 1 Independent politician>Independent| PostalAbbreviatio n = MI| TradAbbreviation = Mich.English language>English, de facto)Spanish language>Spanish 2.93%Arabic 1.04%Other 4.92%| area_rank = 11th| area_total_sq_mi = 96,716| area_total_km2 = 250,493| area_water_percent = 41.5| population_rank = 10th| 2010Pop = 9,995,915 (2018)| population_density_rank = 17th| 2010DensityUS = 174| 2010Density = 67.1TITLE = MEDIAN ANNUAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME, December 9, 2016, | IncomeRank = 34th| AdmittanceOrder = 26th| AdmittanceDate = January 26, 1837Eastern Time Zone>Eastern| utc_offset1 = -05:00Eastern Daylight Time>EDT| utc_offset1_DST = -04:00| timezone1_location = most of stateCentral Time Zone (North America)>Central| utc_offset2 = -06:00Central Daylight Time>CDT| utc_offset2_DST = -05:00Upper Peninsula of Michigan>U.P. counties (Gogebic County, Michigan, Iron County, Michigan>Iron, Dickinson County, Michigan, and Menominee County, Michigan>Menominee)| Latitude = 41° 41' N to 48° 18' N| Longitude = 82° 7' W to 90° 25' W| width_mi = 386| width_km = 621| length_mi = 456| length_km = 734Mount ArvonHTTP://EGSC.USGS.GOV/ISB/PUBS/BOOKLETS/ELVADIST/ELVADIST.HTML PUBLISHER = UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ACCESS-DATE = OCTOBER 24, 2011 ARCHIVE-URL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20111015012701/HTTP://EGSC.USGS.GOV/ISB/PUBS/BOOKLETS/ELVADIST/ELVADIST.HTML, October 15, 2011, Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.| elevation_max_ft = 1,979| elevation_max_m = 603| elevation_ft = 900| elevation_m = 270| elevation_min_point = Lake Erie| elevation_min_ft = 571| elevation_min_m = 174| postal_code = MI| iso_code = US-MI| website =}}

Michigan ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Michigan.ogg|ˈ|m|ɪ|ʃ|ᵻ|g|ən}}) is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, Michigan, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake".WEB,weblink Michigan in Brief: Information About the State of Michigan, November 28, 2006, Department of History, Arts and Libraries, WEB,weblink Freelang Ojibwe Dictionary,, With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, and is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River.i.e., including water that is part of state territory. Georgia is the largest state by land area alone east of the Mississippi and Michigan the second-largest. Its capital is Lansing, and its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's most populous and largest metropolitan economies.Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas. The Lower Peninsula is often noted as being shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula (often called "the U.P.") is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a {{convert|5|mi|km|0|adj=on|spell=in}} channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan. The Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair.WEB,weblink My State: Michigan, NOAA Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, July 25, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink February 15, 2013, As a result, it is one of the leading U.S. states for recreational boating.WEB,weblink Michigan Life Insurance,, March 18, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 22, 2011, Michigan also has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds.WEB,weblink Compilation of Databases on Michigan Lakes, April 18, 2009, Michigan Department of Natural Resources, A person in the state is never more than {{convert|6|mi|km|spell=in}} from a natural water source or more than {{convert|85|mi|km}} from a Great Lakes shoreline.WEB,weblink Michigan Tourism Facts, July 25, 2016, Michigan Economic Development Corporation, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 15, 2016, The area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, and French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War. The area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as the 26th state, a free one. It soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is widely known as the center of the U.S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies (whose headquarters are all within the Detroit metropolitan area). While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources,WEB,weblink The Wonderful Wilderness of Michigan's Upper Peninsula, Kandell, Jonathan, Smithsonian, en, February 28, 2019, WEB,weblink An Environmental History of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan: An Outline, NMU Center for U.P. Studies, en, February 28, 2019, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, forestry, agriculture, services, and high-tech industry.


{{See also|Timeline of Michigan history|History of Michigan}}When the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe (referred to as "Chippewa" in the United States), Odaawaa/Odawa (Ottawa), and the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi (Potawatomi). The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires. The Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest.The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, and also inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; and northern Wisconsin, and northern and north-central Minnesota. The Ottawa lived primarily south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern, western and southern Michigan, but also in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin. The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, and southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac (or Sauk), and the Fox. The Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area; they were historically known as the Huron by the French.

17th century

File:Pere Marquette.JPG|thumb|left|Père Marquette and the Indians (1869), Wilhelm LamprechtWilhelm LamprechtFrench voyageurs and coureurs des bois explored and settled in Michigan in the 17th century. The first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions.WEB, Chronology of Michigan History,weblink 3, September 30, 2009, WEB, Sault Ste Marie Pure Michigan,weblink Sault Ste Marie, June 9, 2016, Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.

18th century

File:Michigan 1718.jpg|thumb|Approximate area of Michigan highlighted in Guillaume de L'IsleGuillaume de L'IsleIn 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations.The hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpentWEB,weblink Cadillac's Village or Detroit under Cadillac, January 5, 2007, WEB,weblink History Detroit 1701–2001, January 5, 2007, (about {{convert|0.85|acre|m2}}, the equivalent of just under {{convert|200|ft|m}} per side) and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan. The town quickly became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne (Church of Saint Ann) was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac later departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716. French attempts to consolidate the fur trade led to the Fox Wars involving the Meskwaki (Fox) and their allies versus the French and their Native allies.At the same time, the French strengthened Fort Michilimackinac at the Straits of Mackinac to better control their lucrative fur-trading empire. By the mid-18th century, the French also occupied forts at present-day Niles and Sault Ste. Marie, though most of the rest of the region remained unsettled by Europeans. France offered free land to attract families to Detroit, which grew to 800 people in 1765, and was the largest city between Montreal and New Orleans.WEB,weblink French Ontario in the 17th and 18th centuries: Detroit, Archives of Ontario, July 14, 2008, July 23, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 24, 2004, French settlers also established small farms south of the Detroit River opposite the fort, near a Jesuit mission and Huron village.File:Province of Quebec 1774.gif|right|thumb|The Province of Quebec in 1774]]From 1660 until the end of French rule, Michigan was part of the Royal Province of New France.The Province included the modern states of Wisconsin, eastern Minnesota, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, two-thirds of Georgia, and small parts of West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, and Maine In 1760, Montreal fell to the British forces ending the French and Indian War (1754–1763). Under the 1763 Treaty of Paris, Michigan and the rest of New France east of the Mississippi River passed to Great Britain.BOOK, The Encyclopædia Britannica, 158, 11th, 1910, After the Quebec Act was passed in 1774, Michigan became part of the British Province of Quebec. By 1778, Detroit's population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in Quebec.BOOK, Jacqueline, Peterson, Jennifer S.H., Brown, yes, Many Roads to Red River, 2001, 69, {{full citation needed|date= July 2015}}During the American Revolutionary War, Detroit was an important British supply center. Most of the inhabitants were French-Canadians or Native Americans, many of whom had been allied with the French because of long trading ties. Because of imprecise cartography and unclear language defining the boundaries in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, the British retained control of Detroit and Michigan after the American Revolution. When Quebec split into Lower and Upper Canada in 1791, Michigan was part of Kent County, Upper Canada. It held its first democratic elections in August 1792 to send delegates to the new provincial parliament at Newark (now Niagara-on-the-Lake).BOOK, Farmer, Silas, The History of Detroit and Michigan; or, The Metropolis Illustrated; A Full Record of Territorial Days in Michigan, and the Annals of Wayne County, 1889,weblink June 15, 2006, 2005, University of Michigan Library, 94, Legislatures and Laws,weblink Under terms negotiated in the 1794 Jay Treaty, Britain withdrew from Detroit and Michilimackinac in 1796. It retained control of territory east and south of the Detroit River, which are now included in Ontario, Canada. Questions remained over the boundary for many years, and the United States did not have uncontested control of the Upper Peninsula and Drummond Island until 1818 and 1847, respectively.

19th century

During the War of 1812, the United States forces at Fort Detroit surrendered Michigan Territory (effectively consisting of Detroit and the surrounding area) after a nearly bloodless siege in 1812. A US attempt to retake Detroit resulted in a severe American defeat in the River Raisin Massacre. This battle, still ranked as the bloodiest ever fought in the state, had the highest number of American casualties of any battle in the war.Michigan was recaptured by the Americans in 1813 after the Battle of Lake Erie. They used Michigan as a base to launch an invasion of Canada, which culminated in the Battle of the Thames. But the more northern areas of Michigan were held by the British until the peace treaty restored the old boundaries. A number of forts, including Fort Wayne, were built by the United States in Michigan during the 19th century out of fears of renewed fighting with Britain.(File:United States 1837-01-1837-03.png|thumb|On January 26 1837, Michigan Territory was admitted as the state of Michigan.)The population grew slowly until the opening in 1825 of the Erie Canal through the Mohawk Valley in New York, connecting the Great Lakes to the Hudson River and New York City. The new route attracted a large influx of settlers to the Michigan territory. They worked as farmers, lumbermen, shipbuilders, and merchants and shipped out grain, lumber, and iron ore. By the 1830s, Michigan had 80,000 residents, more than enough to apply and qualify for statehood.A Constitutional Convention of Assent, led by Gershom Mott Williams, was held to lead the territory to statehood.BOOK, Men of Progress: Embracing Biographical Sketches of Representative Michigan Men with an Outline History of the State,weblink 1900, Evening News Assoc., 313, In October 1835 the people approved the Constitution of 1835, thereby forming a state government, although Congressional recognition was delayed pending resolution of a boundary dispute with Ohio known as the Toledo War. Congress awarded the "Toledo Strip" to Ohio. Michigan received the western part of the Upper Peninsula as a concession and formally entered the Union as a free state on January 26, 1837. The Upper Peninsula proved to be a rich source of lumber, iron, and copper. Michigan led the nation in lumber production from the 1850s to the 1880s. Railroads became a major engine of growth from the 1850s onward, with Detroit the chief hub.File:Hauling at Thomas Foster's, by Jenney, J A (detail).jpg|thumb|upright|Lumbering pinepineA second wave of French-Canadian immigrants settled in Michigan during the late 19th to early 20th century, working in lumbering areas in counties on the Lake Huron side of the Lower Peninsula, such as the Saginaw Valley, Alpena, and Cheboygan counties, as well as throughout the Upper Peninsula, with large concentrations in Escanaba and the Keweenaw Peninsula.BOOK, Dulong, John, French Canadians in Michigan, 2001, Michigan State University Press, Lansing, Michigan, 9780870135828, 3–5, This was also a period of development of the gypsum industry in Alabaster, Michigan, which became nationally prominent.The first statewide meeting of the Republican Party took place July 6, 1854, in Jackson, Michigan, where the party adopted its platform. The state was heavily Republican until the 1930s. Michigan made a significant contribution to the Union in the American Civil War and sent more than forty regiments of volunteers to the federal armies.Modernizers and boosters set up systems for public education, including founding the University of Michigan (1817, moved to Ann Arbor in 1837) for a classical academic education; and Michigan State Normal School (1849), now Eastern Michigan University, for the training of teachers. It adopted this model from the German educational system. In 1899, Michigan State became the first normal college in the nation to offer a four-year curriculum. Michigan Agricultural College (1855), now Michigan State University in East Lansing, was founded as the pioneer land-grant college, a model for those authorized under the Morrill Act (1862). Many private colleges were founded as well, and the smaller cities established high schools late in the century.BOOK, Dunbar, May, Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State, Chapter 14, y,

20th and 21st centuries

{{See also|History of Ford Motor Company}}File:B-24 bomber at Willow Run.jpg|thumb|B-24s under construction at Ford's Willow RunWillow RunMichigan's economy underwent a transformation at the turn of the 20th century. Many individuals, including Ransom E. Olds, John and Horace Dodge, Henry Leland, David Dunbar Buick, Henry Joy, Charles King, and Henry Ford, provided the concentration of engineering know-how and technological enthusiasm to develop the automotive industry.BOOK, John B., Rae, John B. Rae, Why Michigan, The Automobile and American Culture, David L., Lewis, Laurence, Goldstein, Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1983, 2–9, Ford's development of the moving assembly line in Highland Park marked a new era in transportation. Like the steamship and railroad, mass production of automobiles was a far-reaching development. More than the forms of public transportation, the affordable automobile transformed private life. Automobile production became the major industry of Detroit and Michigan, and permanently altered the socio-economic life of the United States and much of the world.With the growth, the auto industry created jobs in Detroit that attracted immigrants from Europe and migrants from across the United States, including both blacks and whites from the rural South. By 1920, Detroit was the fourth-largest city in the US. Residential housing was in short supply, and it took years for the market to catch up with the population boom. By the 1930s, so many immigrants had arrived that more than 30 languages were spoken in the public schools, and ethnic communities celebrated in annual heritage festivals. Over the years immigrants and migrants contributed greatly to Detroit's diverse urban culture, including popular music trends. The influential Motown Sound of the 1960s was led by a variety of individual singers and groups.File:Headquarters of GM in Detroit.jpg|thumb|left|Skyscrapers in downtown Detroit ]]Grand Rapids, the second-largest city in Michigan, is also an important center of manufacturing. Since 1838, the city has been noted for its furniture industry. In the 21st century, it is home to five of the world's leading office furniture companies. Grand Rapids is home to a number of major companies including Steelcase, Amway, and Meijer. Grand Rapids is also an important center for GE Aviation Systems.Michigan held its first United States presidential primary election in 1910. With its rapid growth in industry, it was an important center of industry-wide union organizing, such as the rise of the United Auto Workers.In 1920 WWJ (AM) in Detroit became the first radio station in the United States to regularly broadcast commercial programs. Throughout that decade, some of the country's largest and most ornate skyscrapers were built in the city. Particularly noteworthy are the Fisher Building, Cadillac Place, and the Guardian Building, each of which has been designated as a National Historic Landmark (NHL).In 1927 a school bombing took place in Clinton County. The Bath School disaster, perpetrated by an adult man, resulted in the deaths of 38 schoolchildren and constitutes the deadliest mass murder in a school in U.S. history.Michigan converted much of its manufacturing to satisfy defense needs during World War II; it manufactured 10.9 percent of the United States military armaments produced during the war, ranking second (behind New York) among the 48 states.BOOK, Whiz Kids (Department of Defense), Peck, Merton J., Frederic M. Scherer, Scherer, Frederic M., The Weapons Acquisition Process: An Economic Analysis, 1962, Harvard Business School, 111, Detroit continued to expand through the 1950s, at one point doubling its population in a decade. After World War II, housing was developed in suburban areas outside city cores to meet demand for residences. The federal government subsidized the construction of interstate highways, which were intended to strengthen military access, but also allowed commuters and business traffic to travel the region more easily. Since 1960, modern advances in the auto industry have led to increased automation, high-tech industry, and increased suburban growth.Michigan is the leading auto-producing state in the US, with the industry primarily located throughout the Midwestern United States, Ontario, Canada, and the Southern United States.WEB, Staff, National Association of Manufacturers, February 2008,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, October 23, 2008, Facts about Michigan Manufacturing, January 11, 2009, With almost ten million residents, Michigan is a large and influential state, ranking tenth in population among the fifty states. Detroit is the centrally located metropolitan area of the Great Lakes Megalopolis and the second-largest metropolitan area in the U.S. (after Chicago) linking the Great Lakes system.File:Biomedical Science Research 2010.jpg|thumb|right|Biomedical Science Research Building at the UM Medical School supports the Michigan Life Sciences CorridorMichigan Life Sciences CorridorThe Metro Detroit area in Southeast Michigan is the state's largest metropolitan area (roughly 50% of the population resides there) and the eleventh largest in the USA. The Grand Rapids metropolitan area in Western Michigan is the state's fastest-growing metro area, with over 1.3 million residents {{as of|2006|lc=y}}. Metro Detroit receives more than 15 million visitors each year. Michigan has many popular tourist destinations, including areas such as Frankenmuth in The Thumb, and Traverse City on the Grand Traverse Bay in Northern Michigan. Tourists spend about $17 billion annually in Michigan supporting 193,000 jobs.NEWS, Yousef, Jennifer, December 23, 2009,weblink Michigan's winter tourism jumps obstacles, The Detroit News, December 27, 2009, {{dead link|date=December 2012}}Michigan typically ranks third or fourth in overall Research & development (R&D) expenditures in the US. The state's leading research institutions include the University of Michigan, Michigan State University, and Wayne State University, which are important partners in the state's economy and the state's University Research Corridor.WEB,weblink University Research Corridor,, July 25, 2010, Michigan's public universities attract more than $1.5 B in research and development grants each year.JOURNAL, Bruns, Adam, January 2009,weblink How Are You Helping Companies Grow?, Site Selection Magazine, December 27, 2009, Agriculture also serves a significant role, making the state a leading grower of fruit in the US, including blueberries, cherries, apples, grapes, and peaches.On November 6, 2018, the state electorate voted to pass Proposal 2 that amended the state constitution to create a independent redistrict commission.NEWS, Gibbons, Lauren, Voters Not Politicians declares victory for Proposal 2,weblink January 8, 2019, MLive Lansing, Mlive Media Group, November 6, 2018,


{{See also|List of Governors of Michigan|United States congressional delegations from Michigan}}File:71msc 1.jpg|upright|thumb|Michigan State CapitolMichigan State Capitol(File:Michigan State Capitol Muses.jpg|thumb|Michigan State Capitol Muses)File:712 michigan hofj edit.jpg|thumb|upright|Michigan Supreme CourtMichigan Supreme Court

State government

Michigan is governed as a republic, with three branches of government: the executive branch consisting of the Governor of Michigan and the other independently elected constitutional officers; the legislative branch consisting of the House of Representatives and Senate; and the judicial branch. The Michigan Constitution allows for the direct participation of the electorate by statutory initiative and referendum, recall, and constitutional initiative and referral (Article II, § 9,WEB,weblink Article II, § 9 of State Constitution, Michigan Legislature, June 27, 2012, defined as "the power to propose laws and to enact and reject laws, called the initiative, and the power to approve or reject laws enacted by the legislature, called the referendum. The power of initiative extends only to laws which the legislature may enact under this constitution"). Lansing is the state capital and is home to all three branches of state government.The governor and the other state constitutional officers serve four-year terms and may be re-elected only once. The governor is Gretchen Whitmer. Michigan has two official Governor's Residences; one is in Lansing, and the other is at Mackinac Island. The other constitutionally elected executive officers are the lieutenant governor, who is elected on a joint ticket with the governor, the secretary of state, and the attorney general. The lieutenant governor presides over the Senate but only voting when ties occur, and is also a member of the cabinet. The secretary of state is the chief elections officer and is charged with running many licensure programs including motor vehicles, all of which are done through the branch offices of the secretary of state.The Michigan Legislature consists of a 38-member Senate and 110-member House of Representatives. Members of both houses of the legislature are elected through first past the post elections by single-member electoral districts of near-equal population that often have boundaries which coincide with county and municipal lines. Senators serve four-year terms concurrent to those of the governor, while representatives serve two-year terms. The Michigan State Capitol was dedicated in 1879 and has hosted the executive and legislative branches of the state ever since.The Michigan judiciary consists of two courts with primary jurisdiction (the Circuit Courts and the District Courts), one intermediate level appellate court (the Michigan Court of Appeals), and the Michigan Supreme Court. There are several administrative courts and specialized courts. District courts are trial courts of limited jurisdiction, handling most traffic violations, small claims, misdemeanors, and civil suits where the amount contended is below $25,000. District courts are often responsible for handling the preliminary examination and for setting bail in felony cases. District court judges are elected to terms of six years. In a few locations, municipal courts have been retained to the exclusion of the establishment of district courts. There are 57 circuit courts in the State of Michigan, which have original jurisdiction over all civil suits where the amount contended in the case exceeds $25,000 and all criminal cases involving felonies. Circuit courts are also the only trial courts in the State of Michigan which possess the power to issue equitable remedies. Circuit courts have appellate jurisdiction from district and municipal courts, as well as from decisions and decrees of state agencies. Most counties have their own circuit court, but sparsely populated counties often share them. Circuit court judges are elected to terms of six years. State appellate court judges are elected to terms of six years, but vacancies are filled by an appointment by the governor. There are four divisions of the Court of Appeals in Detroit, Grand Rapids, Lansing, and Marquette. Cases are heard by the Court of Appeals by panels of three judges, who examine the application of the law and not the facts of the case unless there has been grievous error pertaining to questions of fact. The Michigan Supreme Court consists of seven members who are elected on non-partisan ballots for staggered eight-year terms. The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction only in narrow circumstances but holds appellate jurisdiction over the entire state judicial system.


{{See also|Law of Michigan}}Michigan has had four constitutions, the first of which was ratified on October 5 and 6, 1835.WEB, Mark, Harvey, May 18, 2006, Constitution of the State of Michigan of 1835,weblink State of Michigan, June 27, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 17, 2012, There were also constitutions from 1850 and 1908, in addition to the current constitution from 1963. The current document has a preamble, 11 articles, and one section consisting of a schedule and temporary provisions. Michigan, like every U.S. state except Louisiana, has a common law legal system.


{{See also|Elections in Michigan|Political party strength in Michigan}}File:Gerald Ford at University of Michigan 1976.png|thumb|President Gerald Ford was raised in alt=A black and white image of an older man wearing a sweatshirt with the word "Michigan" on it standing on a stage.Voters in the state elect candidates from both major parties. Economic issues are important in Michigan elections.The three-term Republican Governor John Engler (1991–2003) preceded the former two-term Democratic Governor Jennifer Granholm (2003–2011). The state elected successive Republican attorneys general from 2003 until 2019, when Democratic incumbent Dana Nessel took office. The Republican Party holds a majority in both the House and Senate of the Michigan Legislature. Michigan supported the election of Republican Presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and Donald Trump. The Governor Gretchen Whitmer (2019–present) is a Democrat.In contrast, the state supported Democratic candidates in each presidential election from 1992 to 2012. In 2012, Barack Obama carried the state over Mitt Romney, winning Michigan's 16 electoral votes with 54% of the vote. Michigan's two US Senators are both Democrats, while Republicans held a majority of the state's US House seats from 2011 to 2019. As a result of the 2018 elections, the House delegation became evenly divided between Democrats and Republicans at seven members each. The current standing of the delegation changed again on July 4, 2019, when Rep. Justin Amash changed parties to become an independent, and as a result, Democrats now hold a majority of the U.S. House seats for the state, something which has not occurred in over a decade. Michigan's senior U.S. Senator Debbie Stabenow, a Democrat, has served since 2001 after narrowly beating former Republican U.S. Senator Spencer Abraham in the 2000 elections. Democratic U.S. Senator Gary Peters was elected in 2014, beating former Republican Michigan Secretary of State Terri Lynn Land. Congressman Fred Upton, a Republican, serves as Chairman of the US House Committee on Energy and Commerce. Congresswoman Debbie Dingell, a Democrat, became the first person to succeed a living spouse when she replaced former Dean of the House of Representatives John Dingell in 2015.Republican strongholds of the state include rural areas of Western and Northern Michigan, the Grand Rapids metropolitan area, and Livingston County. Areas of Democratic strength include Wayne County, home to Detroit, Washtenaw County (Ann Arbor), Ingham County (Lansing), and Genesee County (Flint). Much of suburban Detroit—which includes parts of Oakland, Macomb, and Wayne counties—is politically competitive between the two parties.Historically, the first county-level meeting of the Republican Party took place in Jackson on July 6, 1854,SIGN, Michigan Historical Marker Program,weblink Under the Oaks, Jackson, Michigan Department of Natural Resources, February 18, 1956, July 25, 2010, Michigan Historical Marker, and the party thereafter dominated Michigan until the Great Depression. In the 1912 election, Michigan was one of the six states to support progressive Republican and third-party candidate Theodore Roosevelt for president after he lost the Republican nomination to William Howard Taft.Michigan remained fairly reliably Republican at the presidential level for much of the 20th century. It was part of Greater New England, the northern tier of states settled chiefly by migrants from New England who carried their culture with them. The state was one of only a handful to back Wendell Willkie over Franklin Roosevelt in 1940, and supported Thomas E. Dewey in his losing bid against Harry S. Truman in 1948. Michigan went to the Democrats in presidential elections during the 1960s and voted for the Republican candidate in every election from 1972 to 1988. Between 1992 and 2012 it supported the Democrats; early on in 2016, it was pegged as a swing state, and was narrowly won by the G.O.P. candidate, Donald Trump.Michigan was the home of Gerald Ford, the 38th President of the United States. Born in Nebraska, he moved as an infant to Grand Rapids.WEB, Staff,weblink Biography of Gerald R. Ford, The White House, August 9, 1974, July 25, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 11, 2007, mdy-all, NEWS, Funk, Josh, 2006,weblink Nebraska-Born, Ford Left State As Infant, Associated Press, Boston Globe, October 6, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink January 5, 2009, live, The Gerald R. Ford Museum is in Grand Rapids, and the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library is on the campus of his alma mater, the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.In 1846 Michigan became the first state in the Union, as well as the first English-speaking government in the world,WEB,weblink Information on States Without the Death Penalty, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 12, 2008, WEB,weblink History of the Death Penalty: Faith in Action, Working to Abolish the Death Penalty, Amnesty USA, July 25, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 6, 2010, to abolish the death penalty. Historian David Chardavoyne has suggested the movement to abolish capital punishment in Michigan grew as a result of enmity toward the state's neighbor, Canada. Under British rule, it made public executions a regular practice.Michigan has recognized and performed same-sex marriages since June 26, 2015, following the Supreme Court ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges.NEWS,weblink Supreme Court Declares Same-Sex Marriage Legal In All 50 States, June 26, 2015, Bill, Chappell, NPR, July 16, 2015, Previously, such unions were prohibited under a 2004 state constitutional amendment.NEWS, Associated Press,weblink Federal Judge Strikes Down Michigan Gay Marriage Ban, Fox News, March 21, 2014, June 18, 2014, Michigan has approved plans to expand Medicaid coverage in 2014 to adults with incomes up to 133% of the federal poverty level (approximately $15,500 for a single adult in 2014).JOURNAL, Ayanian, J. Z., Michigan's Approach to Medicaid Expansion and Reform, 10.1056/NEJMp1310910, New England Journal of Medicine, 369, 19, 1773–1775, 2013, 24066713, On November 6, 2018, Michigan approved a proposal to legalize the recreational use of marijuana,WEB,weblink Ballot Proposal 1 of 2018,,, 7 November 2018, WEB,weblink STATE OF MICHIGAN STATEWIDE BALLOT PROPOSALS NOVEMBER 6, 2018 GENERAL ELECTION,, 7 November 2018, which took effect on December 6, 2018.NEWS,weblink Michigan's new marijuana law brings confusion, Noble, Breana, 2018-12-06, The Detroit News, Rahal, Sarah,

Administrative divisions

(File:Michigan welcome.jpg|thumb|Michigan welcome sign){{See also|List of Michigan county seats|List of counties in Michigan|List of municipalities in Michigan (by population)}}State government is decentralized among three tiers—statewide, county and township. Counties are administrative divisions of the state, and townships are administrative divisions of a county. Both of them exercise state government authority, localized to meet the particular needs of their jurisdictions, as provided by state law. There are 83 counties in Michigan.Cities, state universities, and villages are vested with home rule powers of varying degrees. Home rule cities can generally do anything not prohibited by law. The fifteen state universities have broad power and can do anything within the parameters of their status as educational institutions that is not prohibited by the state constitution. Villages, by contrast, have limited home rule and are not completely autonomous from the county and township in which they are located.There are two types of township in Michigan: general law township and charter. Charter township status was created by the Legislature in 1947 and grants additional powers and stream-lined administration in order to provide greater protection against annexation by a city. {{as of|2001|April}}, there were 127 charter townships in Michigan. In general, charter townships have many of the same powers as a city but without the same level of obligations. For example, a charter township can have its own fire department, water and sewer department, police department, and so on—just like a city—but it is not required to have those things, whereas cities must provide those services. Charter townships can opt to use county-wide services instead, such as deputies from the county sheriff's office instead of a home-based force of ordinance officers.


{{Further|Geography of Michigan|Protected areas of Michigan|List of Michigan state parks}}{{wide image|MarquetteParkMI.png|900px|align-cap=center|Marquette Park on Mackinac Island}}Michigan consists of two peninsulas that lie between 82°30' to about 90°30' west longitude, and are separated by the Straits of Mackinac. The 45th parallel north runs through the state—marked by highway signs and the Polar-Equator TrailWEB, Bessert, Christopher J., December 1, 2012,weblink Polar-Equator Trail, Michigan Highways, Self-published, February 20, 2013, {{sps|certain=yes|date= February 2013}}—along a line including Mission Point Light near Traverse City, the towns of Gaylord and Alpena in the Lower Peninsula and Menominee in the Upper Peninsula. With the exception of two small areas that are drained by the Mississippi River by way of the Wisconsin River in the Upper Peninsula and by way of the Kankakee-Illinois River in the Lower Peninsula, Michigan is drained by the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence watershed and is the only state with the majority of its land thus drained.File:Sleeping Bear Dunes.jpg|thumb|upright|View of Sleeping Bear DunesSleeping Bear DunesThe Great Lakes that border Michigan from east to west are Lake Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Michigan and Lake Superior. It has more public golf courses, registered boats, and lighthouses than any other state. The state is bounded on the south by the states of Ohio and Indiana, sharing land and water boundaries with both. Michigan's western boundaries are almost entirely water boundaries, from south to north, with Illinois and Wisconsin in Lake Michigan; then a land boundary with Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula, that is principally demarcated by the Menominee and Montreal Rivers; then water boundaries again, in Lake Superior, with Wisconsin and Minnesota to the west, capped around by the Canadian province of Ontario to the north and east.File:Tahquamenon falls upper.jpg|thumb|left|Tahquamenon Falls in the Upper Peninsula ]]The heavily forested Upper Peninsula is relatively mountainous in the west. The Porcupine Mountains, which are part of one of the oldest mountain chains in the world,WEB,weblink Michigan Dept. of Natural Resources, rise to an altitude of almost {{convert|2,000|ft|m}} above sea level and form the watershed between the streams flowing into Lake Superior and Lake Michigan. The surface on either side of this range is rugged. The state's highest point, in the Huron Mountains northwest of Marquette, is Mount Arvon at {{convert|1979|ft|m}}. The peninsula is as large as Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island combined but has fewer than 330,000 inhabitants. They are sometimes called "Yoopers" (from "U.P.'ers"), and their speech (the "Yooper dialect") has been heavily influenced by the numerous Scandinavian and Canadian immigrants who settled the area during the lumbering and mining boom of the late 19th century.(File:Pointe Mouillee.jpg|thumb|The Pointe Mouillee State Game Area)The Lower Peninsula is shaped like a mitten and many residents hold up a hand to depict where they are from.NEWS,weblink Hand-to-hand combat, Chicago Tribune, December 9, 2011, February 29, 2012, Keilman, John, It is {{convert|277|mi|km}} long from north to south and {{convert|195|mi|km}} from east to west and occupies nearly two-thirds of the state's land area. The surface of the peninsula is generally level, broken by conical hills and glacial moraines usually not more than a few hundred feet tall. It is divided by a low water divide running north and south. The larger portion of the state is on the west of this and gradually slopes toward Lake Michigan. The highest point in the Lower Peninsula is either Briar Hill at {{convert|1705|ft|m}}, or one of several points nearby in the vicinity of Cadillac. The lowest point is the surface of Lake Erie at {{convert|571|ft|m}}.The geographic orientation of Michigan's peninsulas makes for a long distance between the ends of the state. Ironwood, in the far western Upper Peninsula, lies {{convert|630|mi|abbr=off|sp=us}} by highway from Lambertville in the Lower Peninsula's southeastern corner. The geographic isolation of the Upper Peninsula from Michigan's political and population centers makes the U.P. culturally and economically distinct. Occasionally U.P. residents have called for secession from Michigan and establishment as a new state to be called "Superior".A feature of Michigan that gives it the distinct shape of a mitten is the Thumb. This peninsula projects out into Lake Huron and the Saginaw Bay. The geography of the Thumb is mainly flat with a few rolling hills. Other peninsulas of Michigan include the Keweenaw Peninsula, making up the Copper Country region of the state. The Leelanau Peninsula lies in the Northern Lower Michigan region. See Also Michigan RegionsFile:Little Sable Light Point Light Station - Michigan.jpg|thumb|left|Little Sable Point Light south of Pentwater ]]Numerous lakes and marshes mark both peninsulas, and the coast is much indented. Keweenaw Bay, Whitefish Bay, and the Big and Little Bays De Noc are the principal indentations on the Upper Peninsula. The Grand and Little Traverse, Thunder, and Saginaw bays indent the Lower Peninsula. Michigan has the second longest shoreline of any state—{{convert|3288|mi|km}},WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink August 14, 2006, Does Michigan have the longest coast line in the United States?, State of Michigan, July 28, 2011, November 5, 2011, dead, including {{convert|1056|mi|km}} of island shoreline.WEB,weblink Shorelines of the Great Lakes, Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment, July 8, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 20, 2010, (File:Michigan.svg|thumb|Michigan map, including territorial waters)The state has numerous large islands, the principal ones being the North Manitou and South Manitou, Beaver, and Fox groups in Lake Michigan; Isle Royale and Grande Isle in Lake Superior; Marquette, Bois Blanc, and Mackinac islands in Lake Huron; and Neebish, Sugar, and Drummond islands in St. Mary's River. Michigan has about 150 lighthouses, the most of any U.S. state. The first lighthouses in Michigan were built between 1818 and 1822. They were built to project light at night and to serve as a landmark during the day to safely guide the passenger ships and freighters traveling the Great Lakes. See Lighthouses in the United States.The state's rivers are generally small, short and shallow, and few are navigable. The principal ones include the Detroit River, St. Marys River, and St. Clair River which connect the Great Lakes; the Au Sable, Cheboygan, and Saginaw, which flow into Lake Huron; the Ontonagon, and Tahquamenon, which flow into Lake Superior; and the St. Joseph, Kalamazoo, Grand, Muskegon, Manistee, and Escanaba, which flow into Lake Michigan. The state has 11,037 inland lakes—totaling {{convert|1305|sqmi|km2|0}} of inland water—in addition to {{convert|38575|sqmi|km2}} of Great Lakes waters. No point in Michigan is more than {{convert|6|mi|km|spell=in}} from an inland lake or more than {{convert|85|mi|km}} from one of the Great Lakes.WEB,weblink Why is Michigan sometimes called 'The Wolverine State?', January 11, 2009, Michigan FAQ, Department of History, Arts and Libraries, Another nickname for Michigan is the "Great Lake State." Michigan's shores touch four of the five Great Lakes, and Michigan has more than 11,000 inland lakes. In Michigan, you are never more than six miles from an inland lake or more than 85 miles from a Great Lake., dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 2, 2009, The state is home to several areas maintained by the National Park Service including: Isle Royale National Park, in Lake Superior, about {{convert|30|mi|km|0}} southeast of Thunder Bay, Ontario. Other national protected areas in the state include: Keweenaw National Historical Park, Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Huron National Forest, Manistee National Forest, Hiawatha National Forest, Ottawa National Forest and Father Marquette National Memorial. The largest section of the North Country National Scenic Trail passes through Michigan.With 78 state parks, 19 state recreation areas, and 6 state forests, Michigan has the largest state park and state forest system of any state. These parks and forests include Holland State Park, Mackinac Island State Park, Au Sable State Forest, and Mackinaw State Forest.


(File:Michigan Köppen.svg|thumb|upright=1.35|Köppen climate types in Michigan){{climate chart|Detroit, MI (L.P.)32|1.2135|1.4345|1.7958|2.2170|3.6979|2.5584|2.5482|2.4074|2.5561|2.4549|2.4937|2.03| float= left| units= imperialFIRST = NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE CORPORATE IMAGE WEB WEBSITE = WWW.NWS.NOAA.GOV, }}{{climate chart|Marquette, MI (U.P.)26|1.8029|1.3137|2.0148|2.3360|2.5669|2.6775|2.6175|2.6367|3.2555|3.1441|2.6330|1.95| float= right| units= imperialFIRST = NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE CORPORATE IMAGE WEB WEBSITE = WWW.NWS.NOAA.GOV, }}Michigan has a continental climate, although there are two distinct regions. The southern and central parts of the Lower Peninsula (south of Saginaw Bay and from the Grand Rapids area southward) have a warmer climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa) with hot summers and cold winters. The northern part of Lower Peninsula and the entire Upper Peninsula has a more severe climate (Köppen Dfb), with warm, but shorter summers and longer, cold to very cold winters. Some parts of the state average high temperatures below freezing from December through February, and into early March in the far northern parts. During the winter through the middle of February, the state is frequently subjected to heavy lake-effect snow. The state averages from {{convert|30|to|40|in|cm}} of precipitation annually; however, some areas in the northern lower peninsula and the upper peninsula average almost {{convert|160|in}} of snowfall per year.WEB,weblink Mean Annual Snowfall, NWS Gaylord Region, August 31, 2010, National Weather Service, Michigan's highest recorded temperature is {{convert|112|F|C}} at Mio on July 13, 1936, and the coldest recorded temperature is {{convert|-51|F|C}} at Vanderbilt on February 9, 1934.WEB,weblink The Geography of Michigan,, March 20, 2011, The state averages 30 days of thunderstorm activity per year. These can be severe, especially in the southern part of the state. The state averages 17 tornadoes per year, which are more common in the state's extreme southern section. Portions of the southern border have been almost as vulnerable historically as states further west and in Tornado Alley. For this reason, many communities in the very southern portions of the state have tornado sirens to warn residents of approaching tornadoes. Farther north, in Central Michigan, Northern Michigan, and the Upper Peninsula, tornadoes are rare.WEB,weblink Tornadoes,, WEB,weblink Thunderstorm hazards,, November 1, 2006, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 15, 2006, {{Clear}}


The geological formation of the state is greatly varied, with the Michigan Basin being the most major formation. Primary boulders are found over the entire surface of the Upper Peninsula (being principally of primitive origin), while Secondary deposits cover the entire Lower Peninsula. The Upper Peninsula exhibits Lower Silurian sandstones, limestones, copper and iron bearing rocks, corresponding to the Huronian system of Canada. The central portion of the Lower Peninsula contains coal measures and rocks of the Pennsylvanian period. Devonian and sub-Carboniferous deposits are scattered over the entire state.Michigan rarely experiences earthquakes, thus far mostly smaller ones that do not cause significant damage. A 4.6-magnitude earthquake struck in August 1947. More recently, a 4.2-magnitude earthquake occurred on Saturday, May 2, 2015, shortly after noon, about 5 miles south of Galesburg, Michigan (9 miles southeast of Kalamazoo) in central Michigan, about 140 miles west of Detroit, according to the Colorado-based U.S. Geological Survey's National Earthquake Information Center. No major damage or injuries were reported, according to Governor Rick Snyder's office.WEB,weblink No injuries reported after earthquake rattles Michigan,


{{See also|Michigan statistical areas}}(File:Michigan population map.png|thumb|Michigan population distribution){{US Census population|1800= 3757|1810= 4762|1820= 7452|1830= 28004|1840= 212267|1850= 397654|1860= 749113|1870= 1184059|1880= 1636937|1890= 2093890|1900= 2420982|1910= 2810173|1920= 3668412|1930= 4842325|1940= 5256106|1950= 6371766|1960= 7823194|1970= 8875083|1980= 9262078|1990= 9295297|2000= 9938444|2010= 9883640|estimate= 9995915|estyear= 2018|align-fn=centerTITLE = RESIDENT POPULATION DATA: 2010 CENSUS DATE = NOVEMBER 5, 2011 URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVE-DATE = OCTOBER 28, 2011, HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/?ID=U0Z9XEX4LDOC&PG=PA5 >TITLE = HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN LAST = HINSDALE PUBLISHER = UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN PAGE = 5, 2018 estimateHTTPS://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/QUICKFACTS/FACT/TABLE/MI,US/PST045218>TITLE=QUICKFACTS MICHIGAN; UNITED STATESWEBSITE=2018 POPULATION ESTIMATESUNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, POPULATION DIVISION>DATE=JANUARY 16, 2019, January 16, 2019, }}


The United States Census Bureau estimates the population of Michigan was 9,995,915 on July 1, 2018, an increase of 1.14% from 9,883,635 recorded at the 2010 United States Census.The center of population of Michigan is in Shiawassee County, in the southeastern corner of the civil township of Bennington, which is northwest of the village of Morrice.WEB, Population and Population Centers by State: 2010, United States Census Bureau, April 5, 2011,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 29, 2011, As of the 2010 American Community Survey for the U.S. Census, the state had a foreign-born population of 592,212, or 6.0% of the total. Michigan has the largest Dutch, Finnish, and Macedonian populations in the United States.The 2010 Census reported:

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Michigan" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 2:08am EDT - Fri, Oct 18 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott