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Melbourne
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{{about|the Australian city|the city centre or central business district (CBD)|Melbourne City Centre|the local government area within which the Melbourne City Centre is situated|City of Melbourne|other uses|Melbourne (disambiguation)}}{{pp-move-indef|small=yes}}{{Use dmy dates|date=December 2017}}{{Use Australian English|date=January 2012}}







factoids
| force_national_map = yes| image2 = Free printable and editable vector map of Melbourne Australia.svg| image2_alt = Map of Melbourne, Australia, printable and editable| caption2 = Map of Melbourne, Australia, printable and editable| pop = 5,000,000| pop_year = 2018AUSTRALIAN BROADCASTING CORPORATION>TITLE=3218.0 – MELBOURNE, SYDNEY AND BRISBANE POPULATIONS SOAR BUT GROWTH DRIVERS DIFFER, 20118DATE=24 APRIL 2018, 31 October 2017, ERP at 24 April 2018.| poprank = 2nd| density = | density_footnotes = | established = 30 August 1835| elevation = 31| area = 9992.5WEBSITE=AUSTRALIAN BUREAU OF STATISTICSAUSTRALIAN BUREAU OF STATISTICS>DATE=28 JULY 2017, 26 October 2017, Estimated resident population, 30 June 2016.Australian Eastern Standard Time>AEST| utc = +10Australian Eastern Daylight Time>AEDT| utc-dst = +11| dist1 = 465CanberraHTTP://WWW.GA.GOV.AU/COCKY/CGI/RUN/DISTANCEDRAW2?REC1=131&PLACENAME=CANBERRA&PLACETYPE=0&STATE=ACT&PLACE1=MELBOURNE&PLACE1LONG=144.975555&PLACE1LAT=-37.817661PUBLISHER=GEOSCIENCE AUSTRALIA, March 2004, | dist2 = 654AdelaideHTTP://WWW.GA.GOV.AU/COCKY/CGI/RUN/DISTANCEDRAW2?REC1=163285&PLACENAME=ADELAIDE&PLACETYPE=0&STATE=SA+&PLACE1=MELBOURNE&PLACE1LONG=144.975555&PLACE1LAT=-37.817661PUBLISHER=GEOSCIENCE AUSTRALIA, March 2004, | dist3 = 713SydneyHTTP://WWW.GA.GOV.AU/COCKY/CGI/RUN/DISTANCEDRAW2?REC1=87421&PLACENAME=SYDNEY&PLACETYPE=0&STATE=NSW&PLACE1=MELBOURNE&PLACE1LONG=144.975555&PLACE1LAT=-37.817661PUBLISHER=GEOSCIENCE AUSTRALIA, March 2004, | dist4 = 1374BrisbaneHTTP://WWW.GA.GOV.AU/COCKY/CGI/RUN/DISTANCEDRAW2?REC1=126867&PLACENAME=BRISBANE&PLACETYPE=0&STATE=QLD&PLACE1=MELBOURNE&PLACE1LONG=144.975555&PLACE1LAT=-37.817661PUBLISHER=GEOSCIENCE AUSTRALIA, March 2004, | dist5 = 2721PerthHTTP://WWW.GA.GOV.AU/COCKY/CGI/RUN/DISTANCEDRAW2?REC1=304529&PLACENAME=PERTH&PLACETYPE=0&STATE=WA+&PLACE1=MELBOURNE&PLACE1LONG=144.975555&PLACE1LAT=-37.817661PUBLISHER=GEOSCIENCE AUSTRALIA, March 2004, Local Government Areas of Victoria#Municipalities of Greater Melbourne>31 Municipalities across Greater MelbourneCounty of Grant, Victoria>Grant, County of Bourke, Victoria, County of Mornington>Mornington54 electoral districts and regions)23 Divisions)| maxtemp = 20.4| mintemp = 11.4| rainfall = 602.6}}Melbourne ({{IPAc-en|audio=En-au-Melbourne.oga|ˈ|m|ɛ|l|b|ər|n}} {{respell|MEL|bərn}})In the UK and US, another pronunciation variant is {{IPAc-en|ˈ|m|ɛ|l|b|ɔːr|n}} {{respell|MEL|born}}: {{citation|last=Wells|first=John C.|year=2008|title=Longman Pronunciation Dictionary|edition=3rd|publisher=Longman|isbn=9781405881180}}BOOK, Butler, S., Macquarie Dictionary, 6th, Melbourne,weblink 2013, Macmillan Publishers Group Australia 2015, Sydney, 978-18-7642-966-9, 1952 pages, y, is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania.WEB, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, ABC, 3218.0 – Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane populations soar but growth drivers differ, 20118,weblink 24 April 2018, 31 October 2017, ERP at 24 April 2018. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of {{convert|9992.5|km2|abbr=on}}, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities,WEB,weblink$file/Victorian+Local+Government+Directory+-+Sept+09.pdf, Victorian Local Government Directory, Department of Planning and Community Development, Government of Victoria (Australia), Government of Victoria, 11, 11 September 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090915144252weblink">weblink$file/Victorian+Local+Government+Directory+-+Sept+09.pdf, 15 September 2009, dmy-all, and is also the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley. It has a population of approximately 5 million (19% of the population of Australia), and its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians".The use of the term Melburnian can be traced back to 1876 where the case for Melburnian over Melbournian was made in the Melbourne Grammar School publication, the Melburnian. "The diphthong, {{'}}ou{{'}} is not a Latin diphthong: hence, we argued this way,Melburnia would be [the] Latin form of name, and from it comes Melburnian." See Oxford English Dictionary Additions Series, iii, s.v. "Melburnian".Macquarie Dictionary, Fourth Edition (2005) Or less commonly Melbournites. Melbourne, The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. {{ISBN|1-876429-14-3}}The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in what was the British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land.WEB, History of the City of Melbourne, City of Melbourne, 8–10,weblink November 1997, 28 January 2018, It was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. It was declared a city by Queen Victoria in 1847, after which it became the capital of the new colony of Victoria in 1851. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered the "Marvellous Melbourne" boom period, transforming into one of the most important cities in the British Empire and one of the largest and wealthiest in the world.Davidson, Jim (2 August 2014). "Rise and fall of British empire viewed through its cities". The Australian. Australia. Retrieved 7 September 2018. After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927.WEB,weblink$FILE/ConstitutionAct.pdf,weblink$FILE/ConstitutionAct.pdf, 11 March 2010, Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act, Department of the Attorney-General, Government of Australia, 45 (Section 125), 11 September 2009, yes, dmy-all, Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 20th in the Global Financial Centres Index.WEB,weblink The Global Financial Centres Index 22, September 2017, Long Finance, The city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is also the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More recently, it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre. It is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, and has also hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating highly in entertainment, tourism and sport,Langmaid, Aaron (28 April 2010). We're sport's champion city again. Herald Sun. News Limited. Retrieved 29 December 2013. as well as education, health care, research and development, the EIU currently ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.NEWS,weblink World's most liveable city: Melbourne takes top spot for seventh year running, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 16 August 2017, Stephanie Chalkley-Rhoden, 17 August 2017, The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport (also referred to as Tullamarine Airport), which is the second busiest in Australia, and Australia’s busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne.MEDIA RELEASE, 2006,weblink Government outlines vision for Port of Melbourne Freight Hub, 26 July 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120708144910weblink">weblink 8 July 2012, Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station. It also has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world.WEB,weblink Investing in Transport Chapter 3 – East/West, Section 3.1.2 – Tram Network, Department of Transport, Government of Victoria (Australia), Government of Victoria, PDF, 21 November 2009,

History

{{details|History of Melbourne}}{{See also|Timeline of Melbourne history|History of Victoria}}

Early history and foundation

{{further|Foundation of Melbourne}}Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years.Gary Presland, The First Residents of Melbourne's Western Region, (revised edition), Harriland Press, 1997. {{ISBN|0-646-33150-7}} When European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri, Boonwurrung and Wathaurong—inhabited the area.weblink {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080908132608weblink|date=8 September 2008}}Gary Presland, Aboriginal Melbourne: The Lost Land of the Kulin People, Harriland Press (1985), Second edition 1994, {{ISBN|0-9577004-2-3}} It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water.Isabel Ellender and Peter Christiansen, People of the Merri Merri. The Wurundjeri in Colonial Days, Merri Creek Management Committee, 2001 {{ISBN|0-9577728-0-7}}The first British settlement in Victoria, then part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land (present-day Tasmania) and founded the city of Hobart.It would be 30 years before another settlement was attempted.WEB, Button, James, Secrets of a forgotten settlement, The Age, Fairfax, Melbourne, 4 October 2003,weblink 19 October 2008, File:Batman signs treaty artist impression.jpg|thumb|left|A late 19th-century artist's depiction of John Batman's treaty with a group of WurundjeriWurundjeriIn May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, and later claimed to have negotiated a purchase of {{convert|600000|acre|km2}} with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land.BOOK, Annear, Robyn, 2005, Bearbrass: Imagining Early Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Black Inc, 6, 1863953973, In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups ultimately agreed to share the settlement, initially known by the native name of Dootigala.EB1911, Melbourne, 18, 91, NEWS,weblink Melbourne's Godfather., The West Australian, 50,, 14,996, Western Australia, 14 July 1934, 20 September 2017, 6, National Library of Australia, Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales (who at the time governed all of eastern mainland Australia), with compensation paid to members of the association.WEB, Foundation of the Settlement, History of the City of Melbourne, City of Melbourne, 1997,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110220130102weblink">weblink yes, 20 February 2011, 13 July 2010, In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, and commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.WEB,weblink Roads, City of Melbourne, 29 September 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110220130459weblink">weblink 20 February 2011, Known briefly as Batmaniaweblink the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office officially opened with that name.WEB, Premier Postal History, Post Office List,weblink 11 April 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080510053152weblink">weblink 10 May 2008, yes, dmy-all, Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were largely dispossessed of their land by European settlers.James Boyce, 1835: The Founding of Melbourne and the Conquest of Australia, Black Inc, 2011, page 151 citing Richard Broome, "Victoria" in McGrath (ed.), Contested Ground: 129 By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne.James Boyce, 1835: The Founding of Melbourne and the Conquest of Australia, Black Inc, 2011, p.186 The British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands.James Boyce, 1835: The Founding of Melbourne and the Conquest of Australia, Black Inc, 2011, p.199 By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences then issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come.James Boyce, 1835: The Founding of Melbourne and the Conquest of Australia, Black Inc, 2011, page 163Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city.BOOK, Lewis, Miles, Melbourne: the city's history and development, 2nd, City of Melbourne, Melbourne, 1995, 25, 0-949624-71-3, On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.Separation, EMelbourne-Encyclopedia of Melbourne, accessed 7 July 2015

Victorian gold rush

{{further|Victorian gold rush}}(File:Canvas town south melbourne victoria 1850s.jpg|thumb|South Melbourne's "Canvas Town" provided temporary accommodation for the thousands of migrants who arrived each week during the 1850s gold rush.)The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a gold rush, and Melbourne, the colony's major port, experienced rapid growth. Within months, the city's population had nearly doubled from 25,000 to 40,000 inhabitants.WEB,weblinkauthor= Victorian Cultural Collaborationaccessdate= 18 July 2008weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080724135849weblink">weblink > archivedate = 24 July 2008, Exponential growth ensued, and by 1865 Melbourne had overtaken Sydney as Australia's most populous city.HTTP://WWW.ATSE.ORG.AU/INDEX.PHP?SECTIONID=289 >TITLE= THE SNOWY MOUNTAINS SCHEME AND MULTICULTURAL AUSTRALIA ACCESSDATE= 21 JUNE 2010 ARCHIVEURL= HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20100106222322/HTTP://WWW.ATSE.ORG.AU/INDEX.PHP?SECTIONID=289, 6 January 2010, An influx of intercolonial and international migrants, particularly from Europe and China, saw the establishment of slums, including Chinatown and a temporary "tent city" on the southern banks of the Yarra. In the aftermath of the 1854 Eureka Rebellion, mass public-support for the plight of the miners resulted in major political changes to the colony, including improvements in working conditions across mining, agriculture, manufacturing and other local industries. At least twenty nationalities took part in the rebellion, giving some indication of immigration flows at the time.Hagan, Kate (3 December 2006). "Eureka: where multiculturalism was born", The Age. Retrieved 15 November 2018.File:Eureka Rebellion Prisoners Released.jpg|thumb|left|A large crowd outside the Victorian Supreme Court, celebrating the release of the Eureka rebels in 1855]]With the wealth brought in from the gold rush and the subsequent need for public buildings, a program of grand civic construction soon began. The 1850s and 1860s saw the commencement of Parliament House, the Treasury Building, the Old Melbourne Gaol, Victoria Barracks, the State Library, University of Melbourne, General Post Office, Customs House, the Melbourne Town Hall, St Patrick's cathedral, though many remained uncompleted for decades, with some still not finished {{as of | 2018 | lc = on}}.The layout of the inner suburbs on a largely one-mile grid pattern, cut through by wide radial boulevards and parklands surrounding the central city, was largely established{{by whom?|date=May 2018}} in the 1850s and 1860s. These areas rapidly filled with the ubiquitous terrace houses, as well as with detached houses and grand mansions, while some of the major roads developed as shopping streets. Melbourne quickly became a major finance centre, home to several banks, the Royal Mint, and (in 1861) Australia's first stock exchange.WEB
,weblink
, Media Business Communication time line since 1861
, Caslon, 29 September 2008
, yes
,weblink" title="archive.is/20121206004159weblink">weblink
, 6 December 2012
, In 1855, the Melbourne Cricket Club secured possession of its now famous ground, the MCG. Members of the Melbourne Football Club codified Australian football in 1859,Pennings, Mark (2012). Origins of Australian Football: Victoria's Early History: Volume 1: Amateur Heroes and the Rise of Clubs, 1858 to 1876. Connor Court Publishing Pty Ltd. {{ISBN|9781921421471}}, p. 11 and in 1861, the first Melbourne Cup race was held. Melbourne acquired its first public monument, the Burke and Wills statue, in 1864.With the gold rush largely over by 1860, Melbourne continued to grow on the back of continuing gold-mining, as the major port for exporting the agricultural products of Victoria (especially wool) and with a developing manufacturing sector protected by high tariffs. An extensive radial railway network spread into the countryside from the late 1850s. Construction started on further major public buildings in the 1860s and 1870s, such as the Supreme Court, Government House, and the Queen Victoria Market. The central city filled up with shops and offices, workshops, and warehouses. Large banks and hotels faced the main streets, with fine townhouses in the east end of Collins Street, contrasting with tiny cottages down laneways within the blocks. The Aboriginal population continued to decline, with an estimated 80% total decrease by 1863, due primarily to introduced diseases (particularly smallpox), frontier violence and dispossession of their lands.

Land boom and bust

File:Melbourne international exhibition 1880.jpg|thumb|Lithograph of the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building, built to host the Melbourne International Exhibition of 1880]]The 1880s was a decade of extraordinary growth, when consumer confidence, easy access to credit, and steep increases in land prices led to an enormous amount of construction. During this 'land boom', Melbourne reputedly became the richest city in the world,BOOK, Cervero, Robert B., The Transit Metropolis: A Global Inquiry, Island Press, 1998, Chicago, 320, 1-55963-591-6, and the largest after London in the British Empire.{{citation needed|date=September 2015}}The decade began with the Melbourne International Exhibition in 1880, held in the large purpose-built Exhibition Building. In 1880 a telephone exchange was established and in the same year the foundations of St Paul's, were laid; in 1881 electric light was installed in the Eastern Market, and in the following year a generating station capable of supplying 2,000 incandescent lamps was in operation.WEB,weblink The Story of Melbourne, Argus, Melbourne, Australia, 9 September 1926, 24 January 2012, 8 Supplement: An Historic Souvenir, National Library of Australia, In 1885 the first line of the Melbourne cable tramway system was built, becoming one of the world's most extensive systems by 1890.File:Federal Coffee Palace Melbourne.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Federal Coffee PalaceFederal Coffee PalaceIn 1885, visiting English journalist George Augustus Henry Sala coined the phrase "Marvellous Melbourne", which stuck long into the twentieth century and is still used today by Melburnians.WEB,weblink He came, he saw, he marvelled, James, Button, The Age, Fairfax, 10 January 2004, 7 July 2012, Melbourne's land boom reached a peak in 1888, fuelled by consumer confidence and escalating land value.BOOK, The Land Boomers, Michael, Cannon, Melbourne University Press; Cambridge University Press, 1966, As a result of the boom, large commercial buildings, coffee palaces, terrace housing and palatial mansions proliferated in the city. The establishment of a hydraulic facility in 1887 allowed for the local manufacture of elevators, resulting in the first construction of high-rise buildings;WEB,weblink Marvellous Melbourne – Introduction of the Hydraulic Lift, Museum Victoria, 21 June 2010, most notably the APA Building, amongst the world's tallest commercial buildings upon completion in 1889. This period also saw the expansion of a major radial rail-based transport network.BOOK, 1995
, Lewis, Miles, Melbourne the city's history and development, City of Melbourne, 47,
In 1888, the Exhibition Building hosted a second event even larger than the first, the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition, spurring construction of numerous hotels including the 500 room Federal Hotel, The Palace Hotel in Bourke Street (both since demolished), and the doubling in size of the Grand (Windsor).A brash boosterism that had typified Melbourne during this time ended in the early 1890s with a severe economic depression, sending the local finance and property industries into a period of chaosWEB,weblink A Brief History of Melbourne, Lambert, Tim, Local Histories, 29 September 2008, during which 16 small "land banks" and building societies collapsed, and 133 limited companies went into liquidation. The Melbourne financial crisis was a contributing factor in the Australian economic depression of the 1890s and the Australian banking crisis of 1893. The effects of the depression on the city were profound, with virtually no new construction until the late 1890s.WEB,weblink Melbourne (Victoria) – growth of the city, Encyclopædia Britannica, 29 September 2008, WEB,weblink Fast Facts on Melbourne History, We Love Melbourne, 29 September 2008,

De facto Capital of Australia

{{further|Federation of Australia}}File:Opening of the first parliament.jpg|thumb|right|The Big Picture, the opening of the first Parliament of Australia on 9 May 1901, painted by Tom RobertsTom RobertsAt the time of Australia's federation on 1 January 1901, Melbourne became the seat of government of the federation. The first federal parliament was convened on 9 May 1901 in the Royal Exhibition Building, subsequently moving to the Victorian Parliament House where it was located until 1927, when it was moved to Canberra. The Governor-General of Australia resided at Government House in Melbourne until 1930 and many major national institutions remained in Melbourne well into the twentieth century.Lewis, Miles (Melbourne the city's history and development) p. 113–114

Post-war period

In the immediate years after World War II, Melbourne expanded rapidly, its growth boosted by post-war immigration to Australia, primarily from Southern Europe and the Mediterranean.WEB,weblink 1961 – the Impact of Post-War Immigration, Museum Victoria, 21 June 2010, While the "Paris End" of Collins Street began Melbourne's boutique shopping and open air cafe cultures,WEB,weblink Boutique battle at Paris end of town, Misha, Ketchel, Age, Fairfax, 11 December 2012, the city centre was seen by many as stale—the dreary domain of office workers—something expressed by John Brack in his famous painting Collins St., 5 pm (1955).The art of the forgotten people {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160313203932weblink |date=13 March 2016 }} by Tom WilsonFile:Orica House.jpg|thumb|left|upright|ICI HouseICI HouseHeight limits in the CBD were lifted in 1958, after the construction of ICI House, transforming the city's skyline with the introduction of skyscrapers. Suburban expansion then intensified, served by new indoor malls beginning with Chadstone Shopping Centre.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20120805185805weblink">weblink yes, Sorry, we can’t find the content you’re looking for - State Library o…, 5 August 2012, 5 August 2012, The post-war period also saw a major renewal of the CBD and St Kilda Road which significantly modernised the city.Judith Raphael Buckrich (1996) Melbourne's Grand Boulevard: the Story of St Kilda Road. Published State Library of Victoria New fire regulations and redevelopment saw most of the taller pre-war CBD buildings either demolished or partially retained through a policy of facadism. Many of the larger suburban mansions from the boom era were also either demolished or subdivided.To counter the trend towards low-density suburban residential growth, the government began a series of controversial public housing projects in the inner city by the Housing Commission of Victoria, which resulted in demolition of many neighbourhoods and a proliferation of high-rise towers.BOOK, William, Logan, The Gentrification of inner Melbourne: a political geography of inner city housing, University of Queensland Press, 1985, Brisbane, Australia, 148–160, 0-7022-1729-8, In later years, with the rapid rise of motor vehicle ownership, the investment in freeway and highway developments greatly accelerated the outward suburban sprawl and declining inner city population. The Bolte government sought to rapidly accelerate the modernisation of Melbourne. Major road projects including the remodelling of St Kilda Junction, the widening of Hoddle Street and then the extensive 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan changed the face of the city into a car-dominated environment.WEB, Millar, Royce, Road to ... where?, Age, Fairfax, 7 November 2005,weblink 11 December 2012, Australia's financial and mining booms during 1969 and 1970 resulted in establishment of the headquarters of many major companies (BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto, among others) in the city. Nauru's then booming economy resulted in several ambitious investments in Melbourne, such as Nauru House.WEB, Shepherd, Dick, Hotel men expected to press for Govt. aid,weblink 25 April 2011, Age, Fairfax, 4 February 1972, Melbourne remained Australia's main business and financial centre until the late 1970s, when it began to lose this primacy to Sydney.WEB,weblink
, Tell Melbourne it's over, we won
, Sydney Morning Herald, Fairfax
, 31 December 2003, 18 July 2008,
Melbourne experienced an economic downturn between 1989 and 1992, following the collapse of several local financial institutions. In 1992, the newly elected Kennett government began a campaign to revive the economy with an aggressive development campaign of public works coupled with the promotion of the city as a tourist destination with a focus on major events and sports tourism.WEB, Saward, Joe, Interview – Judith Griggs, Grandprix, Inside F1, 1 February 1996,weblink 14 May 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100117122653weblink">weblink 17 January 2010, yes, dmy-all, During this period the Australian Grand Prix moved to Melbourne from Adelaide. Major projects included the construction of a new facility for the Melbourne Museum, Federation Square, the Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Centre, Crown Casino and the CityLink tollway. Other strategies included the privatisation of some of Melbourne's services, including power and public transport, and a reduction in funding to public services such as health, education and public transport infrastructure.Lewis, Miles Melbourne the city's history and development p203,205–206

Contemporary Melbourne

Since the mid-1990s, Melbourne has maintained significant population and employment growth. There has been substantial international investment in the city's industries and property market. Major inner-city urban renewal has occurred in areas such as Southbank, Port Melbourne, Melbourne Docklands and more recently, South Wharf. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, Melbourne sustained the highest population increase and economic growth rate of any Australian capital city in the three years ended June 2004.WEB, 24 March 2005
,weblink
, Melbourne's population booms, The Age, Australia, 18 July 2008, Melissa, Marino, Tim, Colebatch, These factors have led to population growth and further suburban expansion through the 2000s.
From 2006, the growth of the city extended into "green wedges" and beyond the city's urban growth boundary. Predictions of the city's population reaching 5 million people pushed the state government to review the growth boundary in 2008 as part of its Melbourne @ Five Million strategy.WEB,weblink Delivering Melbourne's newest sustainable communities, Victoria Online, State of Victoria, 21 September 2006, 21 June 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100604005014weblink">weblink 4 June 2010, In 2009, Melbourne was less affected by the late-2000s financial crisis in comparison to other Australian cities. At this time, more new jobs were created in Melbourne than any other Australian city—almost as many as the next two fastest growing cities, Brisbane and Perth, combined,The Age, 12 February 2010 and Melbourne's property market remained highly priced,NEWS, Tom, Ormonde, 14 November 2009
,weblink
, Housing the bubble that no one dares burst, 21 June 2010
, Age, Melbourne, resulting in historically high property prices and widespread rent increases.WEB, 16 February 2008
,weblink
, Rent crisis forces urgent action, Age, Melbourne, 21 June 2010, Jason, Dowling,
{{Wide image|Melbourne from Waterfront City, Docklands Pano, 20.07.06.jpg|700px|A panoramic view of the Melbourne Docklands and the city skyline from Waterfront City, looking across Victoria Harbour.}}

Geography

{{refimprove section|date=August 2018}}File:Greater Melbourne Map 4 - May 2008.png|thumb|Map of Melbourne and GeelongGeelongMelbourne is in the southeastern part of mainland Australia, within the state of Victoria. Geologically, it is built on the confluence of Quaternary lava flows to the west, Silurian mudstones to the east, and Holocene sand accumulation to the southeast along Port Phillip. The southeastern suburbs are situated on the Selwyn fault which transects Mount Martha and Cranbourne.Melbourne extends along the Yarra River towards the Yarra Valley and the Dandenong Ranges to the east. It extends northward through the undulating bushland valleys of the Yarra's tributaries—Moonee Ponds Creek (toward Tullamarine Airport), Merri Creek, Darebin Creek and Plenty River—to the outer suburban growth corridors of Craigieburn and Whittlesea.The city reaches southeast through Dandenong to the growth corridor of Pakenham towards West Gippsland, and southward through the Dandenong Creek valley, the Mornington Peninsula and the city of Frankston taking in the peaks of Olivers Hill, Mount Martha and Arthurs Seat, extending along the shores of Port Phillip as a single conurbation to reach the exclusive suburb of Portsea and Point Nepean. In the west, it extends along the Maribyrnong River and its tributaries north towards Sunbury and the foothills of the Macedon Ranges, and along the flat volcanic plain country towards Melton in the west, Werribee at the foothills of the You Yangs granite ridge south west of the CBD. The Little River, and the township of the same name, marks the border between Melbourne and neighbouring Geelong city.Melbourne's major bayside beaches are in the various suburbs along the shores of Port Phillip Bay, in areas like Port Melbourne, Albert Park, St Kilda, Elwood, Brighton, Sandringham, Mentone, Frankston, Altona, Williamstown and Werribee South. The nearest surf beaches are {{convert|85|km|mi|}} southeast of the Melbourne CBD in the back-beaches of Rye, Sorrento and Portsea.WEB, Russell, Mark
,weblink
, Life's a beach in Melbourne
, 2 January 2006, Sydney Morning Herald
, 29 September 2008, WEB,weblink$FILE/1240.pdf, PDF, Beach Report 2007–08, EPA, 29 September 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081001224523weblink">weblink 1 October 2008,

Climate

{{Further|Extreme weather events in Melbourne}}File:Brighton Beach, Melbourne 2003 (91593941).jpg|thumb|left|Brighton Beach after an autumn rainstorm. Melbourne is said to experience "four seasons in one day" due to its changeable weather.]]Melbourne has a temperate oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) with warm to hot summers and cool winters.BOOK, Tapper, Andrew, Tapper, Nigel, The weather and climate of Australia and New Zealand, 1996, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, Australia, 0-19-553393-3, First, Gray, Kathleen, 300, BOOK, Linacre, Edward, Geerts, Bart, Climates and Weather Explained, Routledge, London, 1997, 379,weblink 0-415-12519-7, Melbourne is well known for its changeable weather conditions, mainly due to its location situated on the boundary of the very hot inland areas and the cool southern ocean. This temperature differential is most pronounced in the spring and summer months and can cause very strong cold fronts to form. These cold fronts can be responsible for varied forms of severe weather from gales to severe thunderstorms and hail, large temperature drops and heavy rain. Winters, however, are usually very stable, but rather damp and often cloudy.Port Phillip is often warmer than the surrounding oceans and/or the land mass, particularly in spring and autumn; this can set up a "bay effect" similar to the "lake effect" seen in colder climates where showers are intensified leeward of the bay. Relatively narrow streams of heavy showers can often affect the same places (usually the eastern suburbs) for an extended period, while the rest of Melbourne and surrounds stays dry. Overall, Melbourne is, owing to the rain shadow of the Otway Ranges, nonetheless drier than average for southern Victoria. Within the city and surrounds, rainfall varies widely, from around {{convert|425|mm|in|0}} at Little River to {{convert|1250|mm|in|0}} on the eastern fringe at Gembrook. Melbourne receives 48.6 clear days annually. Dewpoint temperatures in the summer range from {{convert|9.5|C|F}} to {{convert|11.7|C|F}}.{{BoM Aust stats|site_ref=cw_086071|site_name=Melbourne Regional Office|accessdate=30 October 2016}}Melbourne is also prone to isolated convective showers forming when a cold pool crosses the state, especially if there is considerable daytime heating. These showers are often heavy and can include hail, squalls, and significant drops in temperature, but they often pass through very quickly with a rapid clearing trend to sunny and relatively calm weather and the temperature rising back to what it was before the shower. This can occur in the space of minutes and can be repeated many times a day, giving Melbourne a reputation for having "four seasons in one day",{{BoM Aust stats|site_ref=cw_086071|site_name=Melbourne Regional Office|accessdate=9 November 2010}} a phrase that is part of local popular culture.WEB,weblink Welcome to Melbourne, City of Melbourne, 18 July 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080719171215weblink">weblink 19 July 2008, The lowest temperature on record is {{convert|-2.8|C|F}}, on 21 July 1869.WEB,weblink Bureau of Meteorology – Climate Data Online, 6 January 2015, The highest temperature recorded in Melbourne city was {{convert|46.4|C|F}}, on 7 February 2009.WEB,weblink Monthly climate statistics, Bureau of Meteorology, 30 March 2012, While snow is occasionally seen at higher elevations in the outskirts of the city, it has not been recorded in the Central Business District since 1986.WEB,weblinkweblink yes, 17 March 2009, BOM - Australian Climate Extremes, pandora.nla.gov.au, The average temperature of the sea ranges from {{convert|14.6|C|F}} in September to {{convert|18.8|C|F}} in February;WEB,weblink Melbourne Sea Temperature, World Sea Temperatures, at Port Melbourne, the average sea temperature range is the same.WEB,weblink Port Melbourne Sea Temperature, World Sea Temperatures, {{Weather box| location = Melbourne Regional Office| metric first = Yes| single line = Yes| Jan record high C = 45.6| Feb record high C = 46.4| Mar record high C = 41.7| Apr record high C = 34.9| May record high C = 28.7| Jun record high C = 22.4| Jul record high C = 23.3| Aug record high C = 26.5| Sep record high C = 31.4| Oct record high C = 36.9| Nov record high C = 40.9| Dec record high C = 43.7| Jan avg record high C = 39.2| Feb avg record high C = 37.9| Mar avg record high C = 34.7| Apr avg record high C = 29.0| May avg record high C = 22.8| Jun avg record high C = 18.2| Jul avg record high C = 17.6| Aug avg record high C = 20.5| Sep avg record high C = 24.8| Oct avg record high C = 29.5| Nov avg record high C = 34.0| Dec avg record high C = 36.9| year avg record high C = 40.5| Jan high C = 26.3| Feb high C = 26.6| Mar high C = 24.4| Apr high C = 21.0| May high C = 17.5| Jun high C = 14.8| Jul high C = 14.2| Aug high C = 15.7| Sep high C = 17.7| Oct high C = 20.1| Nov high C = 22.6| Dec high C = 24.4| year high C = 20.4| Jan mean C = 21.0| Feb mean C = 21.3| Mar mean C = 19.5| Apr mean C = 16.4| May mean C = 13.7| Jun mean C = 11.4| Jul mean C = 10.7| Aug mean C = 11.8| Sep mean C = 13.5| Oct mean C = 15.4| Nov mean C = 17.6| Dec mean C = 19.3| year mean C = 16.0| Jan low C = 15.6| Feb low C = 16.0| Mar low C = 14.5| Apr low C = 11.8| May low C = 9.8| Jun low C = 7.9| Jul low C = 7.1| Aug low C = 7.8| Sep low C = 9.2| Oct low C = 10.6| Nov low C = 12.6| Dec low C = 14.1| year low C = 11.4| Jan avg record low C = 9.5| Feb avg record low C = 9.6| Mar avg record low C = 7.7| Apr avg record low C = 5.3| May avg record low C = 3.2| Jun avg record low C = 1.5| Jul avg record low C = 0.9| Aug avg record low C = 1.5| Sep avg record low C = 2.8| Oct avg record low C = 4.2| Nov avg record low C = 6.3| Dec avg record low C = 8.3| year avg record low C = 0.2| Jan record low C = 5.5| Feb record low C = 4.5| Mar record low C = 2.8| Apr record low C = 1.5| May record low C = −1.1| Jun record low C = −2.2| Jul record low C = −2.8| Aug record low C = −2.1| Sep record low C = −0.5| Oct record low C = 0.1| Nov record low C = 2.5| Dec record low C = 4.4| rain colour = green| Jan rain mm = 45.1| Feb rain mm = 39.9| Mar rain mm = 40.7| Apr rain mm = 50.2| May rain mm = 46.5| Jun rain mm = 46.5| Jul rain mm = 44.7| Aug rain mm = 50.5| Sep rain mm = 52.9| Oct rain mm = 58.5| Nov rain mm = 63.1| Dec rain mm = 64.1| year rain mm = 602.6| Jan rain days = 8.7| Feb rain days = 6.6| Mar rain days = 9.3| Apr rain days = 10.5| May rain days = 12.2| Jun rain days = 13.5| Jul rain days = 14.4| Aug rain days = 15.3| Sep rain days = 14.0| Oct rain days = 13.3| Nov rain days = 11.3| Dec rain days = 10.0| year rain days = 139.1| unit rain days = 0.2mm| Jan afthumidity = 47| Feb afthumidity = 47| Mar afthumidity = 49| Apr afthumidity = 51| May afthumidity = 58| Jun afthumidity = 62| Jul afthumidity = 60 | Aug afthumidity = 54| Sep afthumidity = 51| Oct afthumidity = 48| Nov afthumidity = 48| Dec afthumidity = 47| year humidity = 52| Jan sun = 266.6| Feb sun = 228.8| Mar sun = 223.2| Apr sun = 186.0| May sun = 142.6| Jun sun = 120.0| Jul sun = 136.4| Aug sun = 164.3| Sep sun = 183.0| Oct sun = 223.2| Nov sun = 225.0| Dec sun = 263.5| year sun = Bureau of Meteorology.HTTP://WWW.BOM.GOV.AU/JSP/NCC/CDIO/CVG/AV?P_STN_NUM=086071&P_PRIM_ELEMENT_INDEX=0&P_COMP_ELEMENT_INDEX=0&REDRAW=NULL&P_DISPLAY_TYPE=FULL_STATISTICS_TABLE&NORMALS_YEARS=1981-2010&TABLESIZEBUTT=NORMAL WORK=CLIMATE STATISTICS FOR AUSTRALIAN LOCATIONS ACCESS-DATE=OCTOBER 26, 2018, HTTP://WWW.BOM.GOV.AU/JSP/NCC/CDIO/WDATA/WDATA?P_NCCOBSCODE=40&P_DISPLAY_TYPE=DATAFILE&P_STN_NUM=086071>TITLE=HIGHEST TEMPERATURE - 086071ACCESS-DATE=OCTOBER 26, 2018, HTTP://WWW.BOM.GOV.AU/JSP/NCC/CDIO/WDATA/WDATA?P_NCCOBSCODE=43&P_DISPLAY_TYPE=DATAFILE&P_STN_NUM=086071>TITLE=LOWEST TEMPERATURE - 086071ACCESS-DATE=OCTOBER 26, 2018, |date=October 2018}}

Environmental issues

{{See also|Environmental issues in Australia}}File:Arthur Streeton - Golden summer, Eaglemont - Google Art Project.jpg|thumb|Golden Summer, Eaglemont, painted in 1889 by Heidelberg School artist Arthur Streeton, shows the then-rural suburb of Heidelberg during an El Niño drought. The area has since undergone urbanisation as part of the city's continued sprawl outwards.]]Like many urban areas, Melbourne faces environmental issues, many related to the city's large urban footprint and urban sprawl and the demand for infrastructure and services. One such issue is the impact of drought on water supply. Periodic droughts and consistently high summer temperatures deplete Melbourne's water supplies, and climate change may exacerbate the long-term impact of these factors.WEB,weblink Water Storages: Water Report, Melbourne Water, 26 June 2009, 21 June 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091027040839weblink">weblink 27 October 2009, dmy-all, During the Millennium drought, the Bracks Government implemented water restrictions and a range of other options including water recycling, incentives for household water tanks, greywater systems, water consumption awareness initiatives, and other water-saving and reuse initiatives. But as water storages continued to fall further measures were required; in June 2007 the Bracks Government announced the construction of the $3.1 billion Wonthaggi desalination plant,WEB,weblink Desal plant to be public-private deal publisher = Fairfax, Melbourne accessdate=18 July 2008last=Rood, and the so-called North–South Pipeline from the Goulburn Valley in Victoria's north to Melbourne. Neither project was used extensively before the drought broke during 2010, and therefore both have been criticised as 'white elephants'.HTTP://WWW.ABC.NET.AU/NEWS/2015-07-17/VICTORIAS-DESALINATION-PLANT-TO-TAKE-33-EXTRA-YEARS-TO-PAY/6626706LAST=DATE=17 JULY 2015PUBLISHER=ABC, 12 January 2017, In response to attribution of recent climate change, in 2002 the City of Melbourne set a target to reduce carbon emissions to net zero by 2020WEB,weblink Re-directing to Home Page, Melbourne Water, 21 June 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101011234637weblink">weblink 11 October 2010, dmy-all, and Moreland City Council established the Zero Moreland program. Not all metropolitan municipalities have followed suit, with the City of Glen Eira notably deciding in 2009 not to become carbon-neutral.WEB, Riordan, Paul,weblink Glen Eira against green tide, News, 21 June 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091009140903weblink">weblink 9 October 2009, Melbourne has one of the largest urban footprints in the world due to its low-density housing, resulting in a vast suburban sprawl, with a high level of car dependence and minimal public transport outside of inner areas.BOOK, R, Cardew, P, Fanning, J, George, Urban Footprints and Stormwater Management: A Council Survey, 16–25, 1998, Australian Institute of Urban Studies, Much of the vegetation within the city is non-native species, most of European origin, including many invasive species and noxious weeds.WEB,weblink Target Species for Biological Control, Australian Weeds Committee, 29 September 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081015082441weblink">weblink 15 October 2008, dmy-all, Significant introduced urban pests include the common myna,WEB
, Jeremy, Thompson
,weblink
, Scientists declare war on Indian mynah
, 7.30 Report, 1 July 2002, Australian Broadcasting Corporation
, 18 July 2008, feral pigeon,WEB,weblink PDF, Update on Pigeon Management Issue, Bradbury, Garth, 7 September 2004, City of Melbourne, 22 October 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081001224521weblink">weblink 1 October 2008, brown rat,WEB
,weblink
, Victoria a Rat's Nest
, Herald Sun, News, 1 August 2009, 7 July 2012, WEB, Benson, Eugene,weblink Rodent Rampage, Fairfax, 21 July 2009, 21 June 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091016080054weblink">weblink 16 October 2009, dmy-all, European wasp,WEB
,weblink
, The picnickers nightmare: European wasp
, CSIRO, 18 July 2008, common starling and red fox.Marks, C.A. & Bloomfield, T.E. (1999) Distribution and density estimates for urban foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Melbourne: implications for rabies control Many outlying suburbs, particularly towards the Yarra Valley and the hills to the northeast and east, have gone for extended periods without regenerative fires leading to a lack of saplings and undergrowth in urbanised native bushland. The Department of Sustainability and Environment partially addresses this problem by regularly burning off.WEB,weblink Fire and Biodiversity: The Effects and Effectiveness of Fire Management, Australian Government — Department of environment, 29 September 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080802050752weblink">weblink 2 August 2008, BOOK, Murray, Robert, Kate, White, P, Kock, State of Fire: A History of Volunteer Firefighting and the Country Fire Authority in Victoria, Hargreen, 1995, 339 pages, 0-949905-63-1, Responsibility for regulating pollution falls under the jurisdiction of the EPA Victoria and several local councils. Air quality, by world standards, is classified as good.WEB,weblink Melbourne's air quality measure, epa.vic.gov.au, 21 November 2014, 3 February 2015, Summer and autumn are the worst times of year for atmospheric haze in the urban area.WEB,weblink Urban and regional air pollution, CSIRO: Marine and atmospheric research
accessdate=18 July 2008weblink >archivedate = 23 February 2008, Another recent environmental issue in Melbourne was the Victorian government project of channel deepening Melbourne Ports by dredging Port Phillip Bay—the Port Phillip Channel Deepening Project. It was subject to controversy and strict regulations among fears that beaches and marine wildlife could be affected by the disturbance of heavy metals and other industrial sediments.WEB,weblink Garrett approves Port Phillip Bay dredging, ABC News, 5 February 2008, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 18 July 2008, Other major pollution problems in Melbourne include levels of bacteria including E. coli in the Yarra River and its tributaries caused by septic systems,NEWS,weblink E coli running riot in Yarra River, 31 May 2008location=Australiaaccessdate=18 July 2008, Ashleylitter. Up to 350,000 cigarette butts enter the storm water runoff every day.HTTP://WWW.AIUS.ORG.AU/INDICATORS/SECTIONTYPE.CFM?THEMEID=11&SECTIONTYPEID=2 WORK=ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS FOR METROPOLITAN MELBOURNE PUBLISHER=AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF URBAN STUDIES DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=13 NOVEMBER 2007, Several programs are being implemented to minimise beach and river pollution.HTTP://WWW.LITTER.VIC.GOV.AU/RESOURCES/DOCUMENTS/VICTORIA%27S_LITTER_STRATEGY_SEP95.PDF >FORMAT=PDF PUBLISHER=STATE GOVERNMENT OF VICTORIA DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=22 JULY 2008 The Transition Decade, an initiative to transition human society, economics and environment toward sustainability, was launched in Melbourne.HTTP://BEYONDZEROEMISSIONS.ORG/TRANSITION-DECADE-LAUNCH-TEN-YEAR-TRANSITION-SAFE-CLIMATE-AND-SUSTAINABLE-FUTURE PUBLISHER=BEYOND ZERO EMISSIONS ACCESSDATE=21 JUNE 2010 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20100212131005/HTTP://BEYONDZEROEMISSIONS.ORG/TRANSITION-DECADE-LAUNCH-TEN-YEAR-TRANSITION-SAFE-CLIMATE-AND-SUSTAINABLE-FUTURE DF=,

Urban structure

{{See also|Melbourne city centre|List of heritage listed buildings in Melbourne|Lanes and arcades of Melbourne|Parks and gardens of Melbourne|List of tallest buildings in Melbourne}}(File:Flying over Melbourne 2.jpg|thumb|right|Aerial view of the CBD and surrounding inner suburbs)File:RBGV MG Ornamental Lake2017.jpg|thumb|right|Aerial view of the Royal Botanic Gardens ]]The Hoddle Grid (dimensions of {{convert|1|by|1/2|mi|km}}) forms the centre of Melbourne's central business district (CBD). The grid's southern edge fronts onto the Yarra River. Office, commercial and public developments in the adjoining districts of Southbank and Docklands have made these redeveloped areas into extensions of the CBD in all but name. The city centre has a reputation for its historic and prominent lanes and arcades (most notably Block Place and Royal Arcade) which contain a variety of shops and cafésNEWS
,weblink
, Melbourne's love affair with lanes
, The Age, Australia
, 10 August 2005
, Suzy, Freeman-Greene
, 18 July 2008
, and are a byproduct of the city's layout. Essential but unplanned : the story of Melbourne's lanes. Weston Bate. City of Melbourne : State Library of Victoria, 1994Melbourne's CBD, compared with other Australian cities, has comparatively unrestricted height limits and as a result of waves of post-war development contains five of the seven tallest buildings in Australia, the tallest of which is the Eureka Tower, situated in Southbank. It has an observation deck on the 88th floor.WEB
,weblink Eureka Tower, Eureka Tower Official
, 29 September 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080718162147weblink">weblink 18 July 2008, The Rialto tower, the city's second tallest, remains the tallest building in the old CBD; its observation deck closed on 31 December 2009.NEWS, Marika, Dobbin,weblink End in view for Rialto's top deck, The Age, Melbourne, 8 October 2009, 8 February 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100116042720weblink">weblink 16 January 2010,
The CBD and surrounds also contain many significant historic buildings such as the Royal Exhibition Building, the Melbourne Town Hall and Parliament House.WEB,weblink Walking Melbourne, Heritage, Architecture, Skyscraper and Buildings Database, Walking Melbourne, 28 September 2008, WEB,weblink Melbourne Architecture, Melbourne Travel Guide, 28 September 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080915024055weblink">weblink 15 September 2008, Although the area is described as the centre, it is not actually the demographic centre of Melbourne at all, due to an urban sprawl to the south east, the demographic centre being located at Glen Iris.NEWS
,weblink
, Glen Iris still the heart of city's sprawl
, The Age, Melbourne
, 5 August 2002
, 18 July 2008
, Melbourne is typical of Australian capital cities in that after the turn of the 20th century, it expanded with the underlying notion of a 'quarter acre home and garden' for every family, often referred to locally as the Australian Dream. This, coupled with the popularity of the private automobile after 1945, led to the auto-centric urban structure now present today in the middle and outer suburbs. Much of metropolitan Melbourne is accordingly characterised by low density sprawl, whilst its inner city areas feature predominantly medium-density, transit-oriented urban forms. The city centre, Docklands, St. Kilda Road and Southbank areas feature high-density forms.Melbourne is often referred to as Australia's garden city, and the state of Victoria was once known as the garden state.NEWS
,weblink
, Victoria: the garden state or greenhouse capital?
, The Age
, Melbourne
, 29 September 2008
, 11 March 2008
, Clay, Lucas
, Royce, Millar, WEB,weblink Victoria, wilmap.com.au, 29 September 2008, WEB,weblink Victoria Australia, aka "The Garden State", goway.com, 29 September 2008, There is an abundance of parks and gardens in Melbourne,WEB,weblink City of Melbourne — Parks and Gardens, City of Melbourne, 28 September 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20040830151740weblink">weblink 30 August 2004, dmy-all, many close to the CBD with a variety of common and rare plant species amid landscaped vistas, pedestrian pathways and tree-lined avenues. Melbourne's parks are often considered the best public parks in all of Australia's major cities.WEB,weblink Melbourne's Best Gardens, weekendnotes.com, 20 February 2015, There are also many parks in the surrounding suburbs of Melbourne, such as in the municipalities of Stonnington, Boroondara and Port Phillip, south east of the central business district. Several national parks have been designated around the urban area of Melbourne, including the Mornington Peninsula National Park, Port Phillip Heads Marine National Park and Point Nepean National Park in the southeast, Organ Pipes National Park to the north and Dandenong Ranges National Park to the east. There are also a number of significant state parks just outside Melbourne.WEB,weblink About Parks Victoria, parkweb.vic.gov.au, 29 September 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080725040209weblink">weblink 25 July 2008, Wild Places of Greater Melbourne. R Taylor, 9780957747104, CSIRO Publishing, January 1999, 224pp, PB The extensive area covered by urban Melbourne is formally divided into hundreds of suburbs (for addressing and postal purposes), and administered as local government areasWEB,weblink Vicnet Directory — Local Government, Vicnet, 29 September 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080928014734weblink">weblink 28 September 2008, 31 of which are located within the metropolitan area.WEB,weblink Metropolitan Melbourne – Live in Victoria, Liveinvictoria.vic.gov.au, 12 August 2009, 21 June 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100124155435weblink">weblink 24 January 2010, dmy-all,

Housing

(File:Victorian terrace on canterbury road, Middle Park.jpg|thumb|right|"Melbourne Style" terrace houses are common in the inner suburbs and have been the subject of gentrification.)Melbourne has minimal public housing and high demand for rental housing, which is becoming unaffordable for some.WEB,weblink City shortage pushes up rents, 17 April 2011, Andrew, Wilson, Domain, Fairfax, 7 July 2012, WEB,weblink Australia, The Age, rental pressure cooker, 3 April 2010, Fairfax, WEB,weblink Australia, The Age date = 24 January 2011, Fairfax,
Public housing is usually provided by the Housing Commission of Victoria, and operates within the framework of the Commonwealth-State Housing Agreement, by which federal and state governments provide housing funding.
Melbourne is experiencing high population growth, generating high demand for housing. This housing boom has increased house prices and rents, as well as the availability of all types of housing. Subdivision regularly occurs in the outer areas of Melbourne, with numerous developers offering house and land packages. However, after 10 years{{when|date=October 2014}} of planning policies to encourage medium-density and high-density development in existing areas with greater access to public transport and other services, Melbourne's middle and outer-ring suburbs have seen significant brownfields redevelopment.WEB,weblink Project Database,

Architecture

{{Further|Architecture of Melbourne|List of tallest buildings in Melbourne}}File:Melbourne Collins Street Architecture.jpg|thumb|left|Modern skyscrapers set back from the street in order to preserve Victorian era buildings on Collins Street.]]The city is recognised for its mix of modern architecture which intersects with an extensive range of nineteenth and early twentieth century buildings.Peter Fischer and Susan Marsden, Vintage Melbourne: beautiful buildings from Melbourne city centre, East Street Publications, Bowden South Australia 2007 Some of the most architecturally noteworthy historic buildings include the World Heritage Site-listed Royal Exhibition Building, constructed over a two-year period for the Melbourne International Exhibition in 1880, A.C. Goode House, a Neo Gothic building located on Collins Street designed by Wright, Reed & Beaver (1891), William Pitt's Venetian Gothic style Old Stock Exchange (1888), William Wardell's Gothic Bank (1883) which features some of Melbourne's finest interiors, the incomplete Parliament House, St Paul's Cathedral (1891) and Ivan Lazarus (architect)'s Flinders Street Station (1909), which was the busiest commuter railway station in the world in the mid-1920s.Melbourne and scenes in Victoria 1925–1926 from Victorian Government Railways From the National Library of AustraliaFile:Eureka Tower covered in low clouds at night.jpg|thumb|upright|Eureka TowerEureka TowerThe city also features the Shrine of Remembrance, which was built as a memorial to the men and women of Victoria who served in World War I and is now a memorial to all Australians who have served in war. The now demolished Queen Anne style APA Australian Building (1889), the world's 3rd tallest building at the time of completion,WEB, Walking Melbourne,weblink 9 January 2012, is said to have anticipated the skyscraper race in New York City and Chicago. It was demolished in 1980 and replaced by a smaller, four-storey structure.BOOK, Lost Melbourne, Heather, Chapman, Jill, Stillman, 2016, Pavilion Books, 9-78-191049674-9, A similar fate met other grand pre-war boom-era buildings in the city, notably the elaborate Victorian Federal Coffee Palace (also known as The Federal Hotel), located on Collins Street until its demolition in 1971.BOOK, A City Lost and Found: Whelan the Wrecker's Melbourne, Robyn, Annear, 2014, Black Inc, 9-78-192223141-3, In 2018, the city contained a total of 667 high-rise buildings, 187 skyscrapers and a further 28 under construction and 60 planned.WEB,weblink Emporis Skyline Ranking, Emporis Corporation. All rights reserved, 2 December 2012, making the city's skyline the tallest in Australia. The CBD is dominated by modern office buildings including the Rialto Towers (1986), built on the site of several grand classical Victorian buildings, two of which — the Rialto Building (1889) designed by William Pitt and the Winfield Building (1890) designed by Charles D'Ebro and Richard Speight — still remain today and more recently high-rise apartment buildings including Eureka Tower (2006), which is listed as the 13th tallest residential building in the world in January 2014.WEB,weblink 100 Tallest Residential Buildings in the World, Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, 3 May 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121210210241weblink">weblink 10 December 2012, Residential architecture is not defined by a single architectural style, but rather an eclectic mix of houses, townhouses, condominiums, and apartment buildings in the metropolitan area (particularly in areas of urban sprawl). Freestanding dwellings with relatively large gardens are perhaps the most common type of housing outside inner city Melbourne. Victorian terrace housing, townhouses and historic Italianate, Tudor revival and Neo-Georgian mansions are all common in neighbourhoods such as Toorak.

Culture

File:Princess Theatre, Melbourne, Australia.jpg|thumb|left|Established in 1854, Princess Theatre belongs to Melbourne's East End Theatre DistrictEast End Theatre DistrictMelbourne is an international cultural centre and the city serves as Australia's cultural capital, with prominent offerings in the form of major events and festivals, drama, musicals, comedy, music, art, architecture, literature, film and television.NEWS,weblink What makes Melbourne the cultural capital of Australia?, 2016-07-12, Meld Magazine - Australia's international student news website, 2018-03-26, en-AU, The climate, waterfront location and nightlife make it one of the most vibrant destinations in Australia. For seven years in a row ({{As of|2017|lc=y}}) it has held the top position in a survey by The Economist Intelligence Unit of the world's most liveable cities, partly due to its broad cultural offerings. The city celebrates a wide variety of annual cultural events and festivals of all types, including Australia's largest free community festival—Moomba, the Melbourne International Arts Festival, Melbourne International Film Festival, Melbourne International Comedy Festival and the Melbourne Fringe Festival. The culture of the city is an important drawcard for tourists, of which 2.7 million international and 8.9 million domestic travellers arrived in 2017.WEB,weblink International research, sector=Government, ; corporateName=Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources; address=121 Exhibition St, MELBOURNE 3000;, www.business.vic.gov.au, en, 2018-03-27, WEB,weblink Domestic and regional research, sector=Government, ; corporateName=Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources; address=121 Exhibition St, MELBOURNE 3000;, www.business.vic.gov.au, en, 2018-03-27, File:CentrePlace-rain.jpg|thumb|upright|The State Library of Victoria|Known for its bars, street art and coffee culture, the inner city's network of laneways and arcades is a popular cultural attraction.]]Melbourne's rich and diverse literary history was recognised in 2008 when Melbourne City of Literature became the second UNESCO City of Literature. The State Library of Victoria is one of Australia's oldest cultural institutions and one of many public and university libraries across the city. Melbourne also has Australia's widest range of bookstores, as well the nation's largest publishing sector.WEB,weblink Cities of Literature, cityofliterature.com, 20 February 2015, The city is home to significant writers' festivals, most notably the Melbourne Writers Festival. Several major literary prizes are open to local writers including the Melbourne Prize for Literature and the Victorian Premier's Literary Awards. Significant novels set in Melbourne include Fergus Hume's The Mystery of a Hansom Cab, Helen Garner's Monkey Grip and Christos Tsiolkas' The Slap. Notable writers and poets from Melbourne include Thomas Browne, C. J. Dennis, Germaine Greer and Peter Carey.Melbourne's first theatre, the Pavilion, opened several years after the city's founding, in 1841. The East End Theatre District is home to a number of heritage-listed theatres dating from the Victorian era, including the Athenaeum Theatre, Her Majesty's Theatre, Princess Theatre and the Regent Theatre. The Melbourne Arts Precinct in Southbank is home to Arts Centre Melbourne, which includes the State Theatre, Hamer Hall, the Playhouse and the Fairfax Studio. The Melbourne Recital Centre and Southbank Theatre (principal home of the MTC, which includes the Sumner and Lawler performance spaces)WEB, Southbank Theatre,weblink Melbourne Theatre Company, Melbourne Theatre Company, 9 November 2014, 2014, are also located in Southbank. The art deco Palais Theatre, a landmark of the St Kilda foreshore, is Australia's largest seated theatre with a capacity of up to 3,000 people.Sadler, Denham (14 August 2015). "Live music in Melbourne: four of the best places to see a gig", The Guardian. Retrieved 13 November 2018. Built in 1955 in Kings Domain, the Sidney Myer Music Bowl hosted the largest crowd ever for a music concert in Australia when an estimated 200,000 attendees saw Melbourne band The Seekers in 1967.National Heritage Places - Sidney Myer Music Bowl, Department of Environment and Energy. Retrieved 13 November 2018.File:National gallery victoria international.jpg|thumb|left|The National Gallery of Victoria is the Southern Hemisphere's most visited art museum.]]Established in 1861, the National Gallery of Victoria is Australia's oldest and largest public art museum, and the most visited museum in the Southern Hemisphere (19th globally)."National Gallery of Victoria cracks the Global Top 20", Arts Review. Retrieved 9 November 2018. The Heidelberg School art movement, also known as Australian Impressionism, grew out of Melbourne's rural suburbs in the 1880s. The Heide Museum of Modern Art is devoted largely to the Angry Penguins, a Melbourne art collective that pioneered Australian modernism in the 1940s. The city is also home to the Australian Centre for Contemporary Art. Melbourne is regarded as one of the world's major street art centres and Allen, Jessica. weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110722185455weblink">The World's Best Cities for Viewing Street Art, International Business Times (2010). Retrieved 16 October 2010.{{Dead link|date=January 2014}} readers of Lonely Planet voted the city's street art and laneways as Australia's most popular cultural attraction.Topsfield, Jewel. Brumby slams Tourism Victoria over graffiti promotion, The Age (2008). Retrieved 16 October 2010.The national ballet company, the Australian Ballet is based in Melbourne, as are the state based companies, the Melbourne Symphony Orchestra, the Melbourne Theatre Company (MTC), and the Victorian Opera. Melbourne is also the second home of the national Opera Australia after it merged with the defunct Victoria State Opera in 1996.The Story of the Kelly Gang, the world's first feature film, was shot in Melbourne in 1906.More Australian than Aristotelian: The Australian Bushranger Film, 1904–1914. By William Routt {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101224214514weblink |date=24 December 2010 }} Melbourne filmmakers continued to produce bushranger films until they were banned by Victorian politicians in 1912 for the perceived promotion of crime, thus contributing to the decline of one of the silent film era's most productive industries. A notable film shot and set in Melbourne during Australia's cinematic lull is On the Beach (1959). The 1970s saw the rise of the Australian New Wave and its Ozploitation offshoot, instigated by Melbourne-based productions Stork and Alvin Purple. Picnic at Hanging Rock and Mad Max, both shot in and around Melbourne, achieved worldwide acclaim. 2004 saw the construction of Melbourne's largest film and television studio complex, Docklands Studios Melbourne, which has hosted many domestic productions, as well as international features.WEB,weblink Docklands Studios - Bringing Screen Ideas to Life, Docklands Studios, Melbourne is also home to the headquarters of Village Roadshow Pictures, Australia's largest film production company. Famous modern day actors from Melbourne include Cate Blanchett, Rachel Griffiths, Chris Hemsworth,WEB,weblink Chris Hemsworth: Not a Thor Loser, Frank, Lovece, Frank Lovece, FilmFestivalTraveler.com, 29 September 2011, 7 October 2011,weblink 8 October 2011, yes, Guy Pearce, Geoffrey Rush and Eric Bana.Melbourne has been referred to as "the live music capital of the world", having more music venues per capita than any other city.Donoughue, Paul (12 April 2018). "Melbourne is the live music capital of the world, study says", ABC News. Retrieved 13 November 2018.

Sports

{{further|Sport in Victoria}}File:Tom Wills Statue.jpg|thumb|Statue at the MCG of Australian rules football founder Tom Wills umpiring an 1858 match between Scotch College and Melbourne Grammar SchoolMelbourne Grammar SchoolFile:Rafael Nadal Vs Philipp Kohlschreiber (4309085696).jpg|thumb|Melbourne hosts the Australian Open, the first of four annual Grand Slam tennis tournaments.]]Melbourne has long been regarded as Australia's sporting capital due to the role it has played in the development of Australian sport, the range and quality of its sporting events and venues, and its high rates of spectatorship and participation.Hess, Rob; Symons, Caroline; Hemphill, Dennis. Sporting Culture, eMelbourne. Retrieved 17 November 2018. Melbourne's sporting reputation was recognised in 2016 when, after being ranked as the world's top sports city three times biennially, the Ultimate Sports City Awards in Switzerland named it 'Sports City of the Decade'."Australian city of Melbourne crowned 'sports city of the decade'" (21 April 2016), China Daily. Retrieved 13 November 2018.The city has hosted a number of significant international sporting events, most notably the 1956 Summer Olympic Games, the first Olympic Games held outside Europe and the United States.WEB,weblink 1956 Melbourne, athletesedge.info, 2 May 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131102071309weblink">weblink 2 November 2013, yes, dmy-all, Melbourne also hosted the 2006 Commonwealth Games, and is home to several major annual international events, including the Australian Open, the first of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments. First held in 1861 and declared a public holiday for all Melburnians in 1873, the Melbourne Cup is the world's richest handicap horse race and is known as "the race that stops a nation". The Formula One Australian Grand Prix has been held at Albert Park's Melbourne Grand Prix Circuit since 1996.Cricket is one of the longest established sports in Melbourne with the Melbourne Cricket Club forming within three years of settlement. The club is responsible for the management of the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG). The largest cricket stadium in the world, the MCG is notable for hosting the first Test match and the first One Day International, played between Australia and England in 1877 and 1971 respectively. It is also the home of the National Sports Museum.WEB,weblink Australian sports museum opens at MCG, 5 March 2008, Geoff, Strong, Age, Fairfax, Melbourne, 18 July 2008, Australian rules football, the nation's most popular spectator sport, traces its origins to matches played in parklands next to the MCG in 1858. The Melbourne Football Club codified the first laws of the game the following year, making it the world's oldest major football code. The sport's pre-eminent professional competition, the Australian Football League (AFL), is headquartered at Docklands Stadium. Nine of the league's teams are based in the Melbourne metropolitan area: Carlton, Collingwood, Essendon, Hawthorn, Melbourne, North Melbourne, Richmond, St Kilda, and Western Bulldogs. Melbourne hosts up to five AFL matches per round during the home and away season, attracting an average of 40,000 spectators per game.WEB,weblink AFL blueprint for third stadium, Smith, Patrick, 1 August 2008, Australian, News, 22 October 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080809210411weblink">weblink 9 August 2008, yes, dmy-all, The AFL Grand Final, traditionally held at the 100,000 capacity MCG, is the highest attended club championship event in the world.The city is home to many professional franchises/teams in national competitions including: Twenty20 cricket clubs Melbourne Stars and Melbourne Renegades, who play in the Big Bash League; Victoria Bushrangers cricket team, which compete in the domestic competitions Sheffield Shield and Matador BBQs One-Day Cup; soccer clubs Melbourne Victory and Melbourne City FC, which play in the A-League competition. Rugby league club Melbourne StormWEB,weblink Melbourne Storm: The Beginning, Melbourne Storm, 18 July 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080714043434weblink">weblink 14 July 2008, which plays in the NRL competition; rugby union clubs Melbourne Rebels and Melbourne Rising, which play in the Super Rugby and National Rugby Championship competitions respectively; netball clubs Melbourne Vixens and Collingwood Magpies Netball, of whom both play in the newly formed (as of 2017) Suncorp Super Netball; basketball club Melbourne United, which plays in the NBL competition; Bulleen Boomers and Dandenong Rangers, which play in the WNBL; Ice hockey teams Melbourne Ice and Melbourne Mustangs, who play in the Australian Ice Hockey League; and baseball club Melbourne Aces, which plays in the Australian Baseball League. Rowing is also a large part of Melbourne's sporting identity, with a number of clubs located on the Yarra River, out of which many Australian Olympians trained. The city previously held the nation's premier long distance swimming event the annual Race to Prince's Bridge, in the Yarra River. Notable amateur sports clubs include the country's top ranked women's (VRDL) and men's (VMRD) roller derby teams.Melbourne has twice hosted the Presidents Cup golf tournament, in 1998 becoming the first country to hold the tournament outside of the USA. The event was first held in Melbourne in 1998 and then again in 2011, both times at the Royal Melbourne Golf Club. The biannual event is again scheduled for 2019 at the same venue.

Economy

{{See also|Category:Companies based in Melbourne|Tourism in Melbourne}}File:Melbourne Central Coops Shot Tower.jpg|thumb|upright|left|The 19th-century Coop's Shot Tower enclosed in Melbourne Central, one of the city's major retail hubs]]Melbourne has a highly diversified economy with particular strengths in finance, manufacturing, research, IT, education, logistics, transportation and tourism. Melbourne houses the headquarters of many of Australia's largest corporations, including five of the ten largest in the country (based on revenue), and five of the largest seven in the country (based on market capitalisation)BRW 1000 {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070829143027weblink |date=29 August 2007 }} (ANZ, BHP Billiton (the world's largest mining company), the National Australia Bank, CSL and Telstra, as well as such representative bodies and think tanks as the Business Council of Australia and the Australian Council of Trade Unions. Melbourne's suburbs also have the Head Offices of Wesfarmers companies Coles (including Liquorland), Bunnings, Target, K-Mart and Officeworks. The city is home to Australia's largest and busiest seaport which handles more than AU$75 billion in trade every year and 39% of the nation's container trade.WEB, Port of Melbourne Sets Shipping Record,weblink 13 June 2007, Bernama, 18 July 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070929111153weblink">weblink 29 September 2007, NEWS,weblink Growth of Australia's largest port essential, The Age, Melbourne, 18 December 2004, 18 July 2008, Melbourne Airport provides an entry point for national and international visitors, and is Australia's second busiest airport.planmelbourne.vic.gov.au {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161009145547weblink |date=9 October 2016 }}Melbourne is also an important financial centre. In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index, Melbourne was ranked as having the 21st most competitive financial center in the world.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170611000617weblink">weblink yes, 2017-06-11, The Global Financial Centres Index 21, March 2017, Long Finance, Two of the big four banks, NAB and ANZ, are headquartered in Melbourne. The city has carved out a niche as Australia's leading centre for superannuation (pension) funds, with 40% of the total, and 65% of industry super-funds including the AU$109 billion-dollar Federal Government Future Fund. The city was rated 41st within the top 50 financial cities as surveyed by the MasterCard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index (2008),WEB,weblink Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index, 2008, PDF, 10 October 2008, second only to Sydney (12th) in Australia. Melbourne is Australia's second-largest industrial centre.WEB, Matt Wade,weblink Sydney takes manufacturing capital crown from Melbourne, The Sydney Morning Herald, 8 February 2014, 30 March 2014, It is the Australian base for a number of significant manufacturers including Boeing, truck-makers Kenworth and Iveco, Cadbury as well as Bombardier Transportation and Jayco, among many others. It is also home to a wide variety of other manufacturers, ranging from petrochemicals and pharmaceuticals to fashion garments, paper manufacturing and food processing.WEB,weblink Business Victoria – Manufacturing, 26 May 2008, State of Victoria, Australia, 22 October 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131103103103weblink">weblink 3 November 2013, dmy-all, The south-eastern suburb of Scoresby is home to Nintendo's Australian headquarters. The city also boasts a research and development hub for Ford Australia, as well as a global design studio and technical centre for General Motors and Toyota respectively.File:Crown Casino Complex Melbourne 20180723-002.jpg|thumb|The Crown Casino and Entertainment Complex contributes AU$2 billion to the Victorian economy annually.WEB,weblink Crown casino records profit growth, up 130%, Business Day, 26 August 2010, 10 June 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120307143548weblink">weblink 7 March 2012, ]]CSL, one of the world's top five biotech companies, and Sigma Pharmaceuticals have their headquarters in Melbourne. The two are the largest listed Australian pharmaceutical companies.WEB,weblink Invest Victoria – Biotechnology and Life Sciences, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130705045504weblink">weblink 5 July 2013, Melbourne has an important ICT industry that employs over 60,000 people (one third of Australia's ICT workforce), with a turnover of AU$19.8 billion and export revenues of AU615 million. In addition, tourism also plays an important role in Melbourne's economy, with about 7.6 million domestic visitors and 1.88 million international visitors in 2004.WEB,weblink Media Release: Melbourne Airport passenger figures strongest on record, Minister for Tourism, 21 July 2004, Department of Premier and Cabinet, 18 July 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080502173159weblink">weblink 2 May 2008, In 2008, Melbourne overtook Sydney with the amount of money that domestic tourists spent in the city,HTTP://WWW.THEAGE.COM.AU/NEWS/NEWS/NOW-SYDNEY-LOSES-ITS-TOURISM-ASCENDANCY/2008/05/16/1211049134065.HTML?PAGE=FULLPAGE >TITLE=NOW SYDNEY LOSES ITS TOURISM ASCENDANCY LOCATION=MELBOURNE ACCESS-DATE=18 JULY 2008 LAST=STAFFORD, accounting for around AU$15.8 billion annually.timholding.com.au{{Dead link Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Centre to link development along the Yarra River with the Southbank, Victoria>Southbank precinct and multibillion-dollar Melbourne Docklands redevelopment.RACHEL URL=HTTP://WWW.THEAGE.COM.AU/NEWS/NATIONAL/COUNCILLORS-FURIOUS-ABOUT-CONVENTION-CENTRE-DEAL/2006/04/30/1146335610761.HTML NEWSPAPER=THE AGE DATE=1 MAY 2006, The Economist Intelligence Unit ranks Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world to live in according to its worldwide cost of living index in 2013.NEWS,weblink What are the most expensive cities to live in?, 16 February 2014, The cost of living in Melbourne from a domestic standpoint stacks up quite well when compared to Sydney, particularly the cost of property.NEWS,weblink Melbourne versus Sydney: How the costs of living stack up!, RateCity.com.au, 2018-09-18, en-AU, The most visited attractions are: Federation Square, Queen Victoria Market, Crown Casino, Southbank, Melbourne Zoo, Melbourne Aquarium, Docklands, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne Museum, Melbourne Observation Deck, Arts Centre Melbourne, and the Melbourne Cricket Ground.WEB,weblink Victoria's Top 20 Attractions, Only Melbourne, 27 September 2013, 30 March 2014, The Economist Intelligence Unit also has ranked Melbourne as the most liveable city in the world for seven consecutive years (2011-2017).

Demographics

{| class="infobox" style="float:right;"! colspan="2" | 2016 Australian censusWEBSITE, Birthplace: Greater Melbourne, profile.id.com.au,weblink 2016, 13 November 2018, ! Country of birth || PopulationAustralia}} Australians >| 2,684,072United Kingdom}} British Australian >| 162,954India}} British Indian >| 161,078China}} Chinese Australian >| 155,998Vietnam}} Vietnamese Australian >| 79,054 New Zealand}} New Zealander Australian >| 78,906Italy}} Italian Australian >| 63,332Sri Lanka}} Sri Lankan Australian >| 54,030Malaysia}} Malaysian Australian >| 47,642Greece}} Greek Australian >| 45,618Philippines}} Filipino Australians >| 45,157South Africa}} South African Australian >| 24,168Hong Kong}} Hong Kong Australian >| 20,840File:China Town.JPG|thumb|upright|left|Established during the gold rush, Melbourne's Chinatown is the longest continuous Chinese settlement in the Western world.]]In Greater Melbourne (Greater Capital City Statistical Areas), 63.3% of residents were born in Australia. The other most common countries of birth were the United Kingdom (3.4%), India (2.7%), China (excludes SARs and Taiwan) (2.3%), Italy (1.7%) and New Zealand (1.7%). In 2011 the most common cited ancestries in Greater Melbourne (Greater Capital City Statistical Areas) were English (21.1%), Australian (20.7%), Irish (6.9%), Scottish (5.7%) and Italian (5.5%).WEB,weblink 2011 Census QuickStats: People — demographics & education, Censusdata.abs.gov.au, 30 March 2014, Melbourne has the largest Greek-speaking population outside Europe, a population comparable to some larger Greek cities like Larissa and Volosweblink Thessaloniki is Melbourne's Greek sister city. The Vietnamese surname Nguyen is the second most common in Melbourne's phone book after Smith.Melbourne's multicultural history, City of Melbourne. Retrieved 14 November 2010. The city also features substantial Indian, Sri Lankan, and Malaysian-born communities, in addition to recent South African and Sudanese influxes. The cultural diversity is reflected in the city's restaurants that serve international cuisines. Over two-thirds of Melburnians speak only English at home (68.1%). Chinese (mainly Cantonese and Mandarin) is the second-most-common language spoken at home (3.6%), with Greek third, Italian fourth and Vietnamese fifth, each with more than 100,000 speakers.WEB, 2006 Census,weblink QuickStats: Melbourne (Statistical Division), Commonwealth of Australia, 18 July 2008, Although Victoria's net interstate migration has fluctuated, the population of the Melbourne statistical division has grown by about 70,000 people a year since 2005. Melbourne has now attracted the largest proportion of international overseas immigrants (48,000) finding it outpacing Sydney's international migrant intake on percentage, along with having strong interstate migration from Sydney and other capitals due to more affordable housing and cost of living.JOURNAL, O'Leary, John, Resurgence of Marvellous Melbourne, People and Place, Monash University, 7, 1, 38format=PDF, In recent years, Melton, Wyndham and Casey, part of the Melbourne statistical division, have recorded the highest growth rate of all local government areas in Australia. Melbourne could overtake Sydney in population by 2028.WEB
,weblink
, Growth pains on the city's fringe
, The Age, 1 August 2012, 24 August 2012, The ABS has projected in two scenarios that Sydney will remain larger than Melbourne beyond 2056, albeit by a margin of less than 3% compared to a margin of 12% today. Melbourne's population could overtake that of Sydney by 2037WEB, staff writers,weblink Business – Melbourne will be Australia's biggest city by 2037, News.com.au, 27 April 2010, 30 March 2014, or 2039, according to the first scenario projected by the ABS, primarily due to greater internal migration losses assumed for Sydney.WEB,weblink Population Projections, Australia, 2006 to 2101, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 4 September 2008, Another study claims that Melbourne will surpass Sydney in population by 2040.WEB,weblink Melbourne to overtake Sydney by 2040, abc.net.au, 23 May 2013, 30 March 2014,
After a trend of declining population density since World War II, the city has seen increased density in the inner and western suburbs, aided in part by Victorian Government planning, such as Postcode 3000 and Melbourne 2030, which have aimed to curtail urban sprawl.WEB,weblink Melbourne 2030 – in summary, Victorian Government, Department of Sustainability and Environment, 5 October 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080907065147weblink">weblink 7 September 2008, WEB,weblink City of Melbourne: Strategic Planning — Postcode 3000, City of Melbourne, 5 October 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080912084620weblink">weblink 12 September 2008, According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics as of June 2013, inner-city Melbourne had the highest population density, with 12,400 people per km2. Surrounding inner-city suburbs experienced an increase in population density between 2012 and 2013: Carlton (9,000 people per km2) and Fitzroy (7,900).WEB, Population Density, ABS, 2 February 2015,weblink Australian Bureau of Statistics,

Education

File:Parkville - University of Melbourne (Ormond College).jpg|thumb|upright|Ormond College, part of the University of MelbourneUniversity of MelbourneFile:Clayton - Monash University.jpg|thumb|Monash UniversityMonash UniversitySome of Australia's most prominent and well known schools are based in Melbourne. Of the top twenty high schools in Australia according to the Better Education ranking, six are in Melbourne.WEB,weblink School Ranking, www.bettereducation.com.au, 14 March 2015, There has also been a rapid increase in the number of International students studying in the city. Furthermore, Melbourne was ranked the world's fourth top university city in 2008 after London, Boston and Tokyo in a poll commissioned by the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology.WEB, 30 May 2008, World's top university cities revealed,weblink RMIT News, RMIT University, 18 July 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080719164651weblink">weblink 19 July 2008, Melbourne is the home of seven public universities: the University of Melbourne, Monash University, La Trobe University, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT University), Deakin University, Swinburne University of Technology and Victoria University.Melbourne universities have campuses all over Australia and some internationally. Swinburne University has campuses in Malaysia, while Monash has a research centre based in Prato, Italy. The University of Melbourne, the second oldest university in Australia,WEB, WEHI: Our research partners, University of Melbourne,weblink Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 13 July 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110927122559weblink">weblink 27 September 2011, was ranked first among Australian universities in the 2016 THES international rankings. In 2018 Times Higher Education Supplement ranked the University of Melbourne the 32rd best university in the world which is higher than the rankings in 2016 and 2017WEB,weblink University of Melbourne, Times Higher Education (THE), en-US, 2018-09-20, , Monash University was ranked 80th bestWEB,weblink Monash University, Times Higher Education (THE), en-US, 2018-09-20, . Both are members of the Group of Eight, a coalition of leading Australian tertiary institutions offering comprehensive and leading education.WEB,weblink Group of Eight Australia, go8.edu.au, 20 February 2015, As of 2017 RMIT University is ranked 17th in the world in art & design, and 28th in architecture.WEB,weblink RMIT University Rankings, The Swinburne University of Technology, based in the inner-city Melbourne suburb of Hawthorn, is ranked 76th–100th in the world for physics by the Academic Ranking of World Universities,{{citation needed|date=September 2017}} making Swinburne the only Australian university outside the Group of Eight to achieve a top 100 rating in a science discipline.{{citation needed|date=September 2017}} Deakin University maintains two major campuses in Melbourne and Geelong, and is the third largest university in Victoria. In recent years, the number of international students at Melbourne's universities has risen rapidly, a result of an increasing number of places being made available to full fee paying students.WEB
,weblink
, University of Melbourne's international student offers rise as its demand leaps
, Uni News
, University of Melbourne
, 12 January 2007
, 18 July 2008
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080730104958weblink">weblink
, 30 July 2008
,
, Education in Melbourne is overseen by the Victorian Department of Education and Early Childhood Development (DEECD), whose role is to 'provide policy and planning advice for the delivery of education'.Department of Education and Early Childhood Development: About Us Accessed: 2 May 2010Melbourne is also home to a number of theological colleges, including the Presbyterian Theological College, the Reformed Theological College, Ridley College and the Melbourne School of Theology.

Media

Melbourne is served by thirty digital free-to-air television channels:{{div col|colwidth=20em}}
  1. ABC
  2. ABC HD (ABC broadcast in HD)
  3. ABC Comedy/KIDS
  4. ABC ME
  5. ABC News
  6. SBS
  7. SBS HD (SBS broadcast in HD)
  8. SBS Viceland
  9. SBS Viceland HD (SBS Viceland broadcast in HD)
  10. Food Network
  11. NITV
  12. Seven
  13. 7HD (Seven broadcast in HD)
  14. 7Two
  15. 7mate
  16. 7flix
  17. Racing.com
  18. Nine
  19. 9HD (Nine broadcast in HD)
  20. 9Gem
  21. 9Go!
  22. 9Life
  23. Extra
  24. Ten
  25. Ten HD (Ten broadcast in HD)
  26. One
  27. Eleven
  28. TVSN
  29. Spree TV
  30. C31 Melbourne (Melbourne's community TV station)
  31. SBS
  32. ABC
  33. Southern Cross Nine, 9HD, 9Gem, 9Go!, 9Life (Affiliate of Nine Network)
  34. Prime7, Prime7 HD, 7flix, 7mate, 7TWO (Affiliate of the Seven Network)
  35. WIN, WIN HD, GOLD, TVSN (Affiliate of Network Ten)
{{div col end}}File:Pin Oak Court Filming.jpg|thumb|right|Pin Oak Court, Vermont South, the filming location used to represent the fictional Ramsay Street in NeighboursNeighboursThree daily newspapers serve Melbourne: the Herald Sun (tabloid), The Age (formerly broadsheet, now compact) and The Australian (national broadsheet). Six free-to-air television stations service Greater Melbourne and Geelong: ABC Victoria, (ABV), SBS Victoria (SBS), Seven Melbourne (HSV), Nine Melbourne (GTV), Ten Melbourne (ATV), C31 Melbourne (MGV) – community television. Each station (excluding C31) broadcasts a primary channel and several multichannels. C31 is only broadcast from the transmitters at Mount Dandenong and South Yarra. Hybrid digital/print media companies such as Broadsheet and ThreeThousand are based in and primarily serve Melbourne.Television shows are produced in Melbourne, most notably Neighbours, Kath & Kim, The Secret Life of Us, Winners and Losers, Offspring, Underbelly, House Husbands, Wentworth and Miss Fisher's Murder Mysteries, along with national news-based programs such as The Project, Insiders and ABC News Breakfast. Melbourne is also known as the game show capital of Australia; productions such as Million Dollar Minute, The Chase Australia, Millionaire Hot Seat and Family Feud are all based in Melbourne. Reality television productions such as Dancing with the Stars, MasterChef, The Block and The Real Housewives of Melbourne are all filmed in and around Melbourne.Pay television in Melbourne is largely delivered through cable and satellite services. Foxtel, Optus and Fetch are the main pay television providers. Sky News and Fox Sports both have studio facilities based in Melbourne.A long list of AM and FM radio stations broadcast to greater Melbourne. These include "public" (i.e., state-owned ABC and SBS) and community stations. Many commercial stations are networked-owned: DMG has Nova 100 and Smooth; ARN controls Gold 104.3 and KIIS 101.1; and Southern Cross Austereo runs both Fox and Triple M. Stations from towns in regional Victoria may also be heard (e.g. 93.9 Bay FM, Geelong). Youth alternatives include ABC Triple J and youth run SYN. Triple J, and similarly PBS and Triple R, strive to play under represented music. JOY 94.9 caters for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender audiences. For fans of classical music there are 3MBS and ABC Classic FM. Light FM is a contemporary Christian station. AM stations include ABC: 774, Radio National, and News Radio; also Fairfax affiliates 3AW (talk) and Magic (easy listening). For sport fans and enthusiasts there is SEN 1116. Melbourne has many community run stations that serve alternative interests, such as 3CR and 3KND (Indigenous). Many suburbs have low powered community run stations serving local audiences.WEB, Victoria Members – Community Broadcasting Association of Australia, CBAA
,weblink 28 August 2010,

Religion

File:St Paul's Cathedral, Melbourne, AU.jpg|thumb|left|St Paul's Cathedral.]]Melbourne has a wide range of religious faiths, the most widely held of which is Christianity. This is signified by the city's two large cathedrals—St Patrick's (Roman Catholic), and St Paul's (Anglican). Both were built in the Victorian era and are of considerable heritage significance as major landmarks of the city.WEB,weblink Victorian Architectural Period — Melbourne, walkingmelbourne.com, 5 October 2008, In recent years, Greater Melbourne's irreligious community has grown to be one of the largest in Australia.WEB, Census 2016: Why Australians are Losing their Religion,weblink ABC Religion and Ethics, 27 Mar 2018, According to the 2016 Census, the largest responses on religious belief in Melbourne were no religion (31.9%), Catholic (23.4%), none stated (9.1%), Anglican (7.6%), Eastern Orthodox (4.3%), Islam (4.2%), Buddhism (3.8%), Hinduism (2.9%), Uniting Church (2.3%), Presbyterian and Reformed (1.6%), Baptist (1.3%) and Judaism (0.9%).WEB, 2016 Census Community Profiles - Greater Melbourne,weblink Australian Bureau of Statistics, 27 Mar 2018, Over 180,000 Muslims live in Melbourne.WEB, 2016 Census Community Profiles - Greater Melbourne,weblink Australian Bureau of Statistics, 27 Mar 2018, Muslim religious life in Melbourne is centred on more than 25 mosques and a large number of prayer rooms at university campuses, workplaces and other venues.WEB,weblink Islam - The Encyclopedia of Melbourne Online, www.emelbourne.net.au, {{As of|2000}}, Melbourne had the largest population of Polish Jews in Australia. The city was also home to the largest number of Holocaust survivors of any Australian city,WEB,weblink Judith Berman, Holocaust Remembrance in Australian Jewish Communities, 1945–2000, Freiberg, Freda, 2001, UWA Press, 22 October 2008,weblink 1 June 2012, yes, dmy-all, indeed the highest per capita outside Israel itself.WEB,weblink The Kadimah & Yiddish Melbourne in the 20th Century, Jewish Cultural Centre and National Library: "Kadima", 9 January 2007, Reflecting this vibrant community, Melbourne has a plethora of Jewish cultural, religious and educational institutions, including over 40 synagogues and 7 full-time parochial day schools,WEB,weblink Jewish Community of Melbourne, Australia, The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot, 5 October 2008, along with a local Jewish newspaper.WEB,weblink News, The Australian Jewish News, 28 August 2010,

Governance

File:Victoria Parliament House Melbourne.jpg|thumb|right|Parliament House ]]The governance of Melbourne is split between the government of Victoria and the 27 cities and four shires that make up the metropolitan area. There is no ceremonial or political head of Melbourne, but the Lord Mayor of the City of Melbourne often fulfils such a role as a first among equals,NEWS
, Dunstan, David
,weblink
, The evolution of 'Clown Hall'
, The Age, Melbourne
, 12 November 2004
, 8 November 2010, particularly when interstate or overseas.
The local councils are responsible for providing the functions set out in the Local Government Act 1989Local Government Act 1989 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20061108212735weblink |date=8 November 2006 }} such as urban planning and waste management. Most other government services are provided or regulated by the Victorian state government, which governs from Parliament House in Spring Street. These include services associated with local government in other countries and include public transport, main roads, traffic control, policing, education above preschool level, health and planning of major infrastructure projects. The state government retains the right to override certain local government decisions, including urban planning, and Melburnian issues often feature prominently in state election.

Infrastructure

In 2012, Mercer Consulting ranked Melbourne's infrastructure 17th in the world, behind only one other Australian city, Sydney, which ranked 10th in the world.WEB, City Mayors: Best cities in the world,weblink www.citymayors.com, 27 July 2015,

Health

File:Royal melbourne hospital.jpg|thumb|Aerial view of Royal Melbourne Hospital in Parkville ]]The Government of Victoria's Department of Health and Human Services oversees about 30 public hospitals in the Melbourne metropolitan region, and 13 health services organisations.Melbourne public hospitals and Metropolitan Health Services Victorian Department of HealthThere are many major medical, neuroscience and biotechnology research institutions located in Melbourne: St. Vincent's Institute of Medical Research, Australian Stem Cell Centre, the Burnet Institute, Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, Victorian Institute of Chemical Sciences, Brain Research Institute, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, and the Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre.Other institutions include the Howard Florey Institute, the Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute and the Australian Synchrotron.WEB,weblink Victorian Government Health Information Web site, health services, Victoria, 5 October 2008, Many of these institutions are associated with and are located near universities. Melbourne also is the home of the Royal Children's Hospital and the Monash Children's Hospital.Among Australian capital cities, Melbourne ties with Canberra in first place for the highest male life expectancy (80.0 years) and ranks second behind Perth in female life expectancy (84.1 years).Sunshine Coast and WA Country and Perth Women among Longest Life Expectancy in the World, Department of Health and Ageing. Retrieved 15 October 2010. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110107122008weblink |date=7 January 2011 }}

Transport

{{Further|Buses in Melbourne|Trams in Melbourne|Cycling in Melbourne}}
File:Bolte bridge dusk.jpg|thumb|The Bolte Bridge is part of the CityLinkCityLinkLike many Australian cities, Melbourne has a high dependency on the automobile for transport,Most Liveable and Best Connected? The Economic Benefits of Investing in Public Transport in Melbourne, by Jan Scheurer, Jeff Kenworthy, and Peter Newman {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060827051335weblink |date=27 August 2006 }} particularly in the outer suburban areas where the largest number of cars are bought,NEWS, 10 October 2007
,weblink
, Still addicted to cars
, Herald Sun, Australia, 18 July 2008, with a total of 3.6 million private vehicles using {{convert|22320|km|mi|abbr=on}} of road, and one of the highest lengths of road per capita in the world. The early 20th century saw an increase in popularity of automobiles, resulting in large-scale suburban expansion and a tendency towards the development of urban sprawl.NEWS, 14 February 2004
,weblink
, The cars that ate Melbourne
, The Age, Australia
, 18 July 2008, By the mid 1950s there was just under 200 passenger vehicles per 1000 people, by 2013 there was 600 passenger vehicles per 1000 people.WEB, Australian Social Trends,weblink abs.gov.au, 29 May 2015, Today it has an extensive network of freeways and arterial roadways used by private vehicles including freight as well as public transport systems including buses and taxis. Major highways feeding into the city include the Eastern Freeway, Monash Freeway and West Gate Freeway (which spans the large West Gate Bridge), whilst other freeways circumnavigate the city or lead to other major cities, including CityLink (which spans the large Bolte Bridge), Eastlink, the Western Ring Road, Calder Freeway, Tullamarine Freeway (main airport link) and the Hume Freeway which links Melbourne and Sydney.WEB,weblink Victoria's Road Network, VicRoads, 5 October 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080907072720weblink">weblink 7 September 2008,
Melbourne has an integrated public transport system based around extensive train, tram, bus and taxi systems. Flinders Street station was the world's busiest passenger station in 1927 and Melbourne's tram network overtook Sydney's to become the world's largest in the 1940s, at which time 25% of travellers used public transport but by 2003 it had declined to just 7.6%.WEB, 5 November 2005, Dan, Silkstone,weblink Trial by public transport: why the system is failing, The Age, Australia, Fairfax/Melbourne Buses, 28 August 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110706110011weblink">weblink 6 July 2011, dmy-all, The public transport system was privatised in 1999, symbolising the peak of the decline.NEWS, William, Birnbauer, 9 April 2006
,weblink
, $1.2bn sting in the rail, The Age, Melbourne, 18 July 2008,
Despite privatisation and successive governments persisting with auto-centric urban development into the 21st century,NEWS, 8 September 2003, Darren, Gray
,weblink
, Bid to end traffic chaos
, The Age, Fairfax, Melbourne
, 18 July 2008, there have since been large increases in public transport patronage, with the mode share for commuters increasing to 14.8% and 8.4% of all trips.Parliament of Australia:Senate:Committees:Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport Committee:Investment of Commonwealth and State funds in public passenger transport infrastru... {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091006053021weblink |date=6 October 2009 }} A target of 20% public transport mode share for Melbourne by 2020 was set by the state government in 2006.NEWS, Tomazin, Farrah, 14 January 2008,weblink Public transport makes inroads, but not beyond the fringe, The Age, Fairfax, 8 October 2010, Melbourne, Since 2006 public transport patronage has grown by over 20%.
File:Southern Cross Suburban.JPG|thumb|left|Southern Cross station ]]The Melbourne rail network has its origins in privately built lines from the 1850s gold rush era, and today the suburban network consists of 209 suburban stations on 16 lines which radiate from the City Loop, a partially underground metro section of the network beneath the Central Business District (Hoddle Grid). Flinders Street station is Melbourne's busiest railway station, and was the world's busiest passenger station in 1926. It remains a prominent Melbourne landmark and meeting place. The city has rail connections with regional Victorian cities, as well as direct interstate rail services to Sydney and Adelaide and beyond which depart from Melbourne's other major rail terminus, Southern Cross station in Spencer Street. In the 2013–2014 financial year, the Melbourne rail network recorded 232.0 million passenger trips, the highest in its history.WEB,weblink
, Public Transport Victoria
, PTV Annual Report 2013-2014
, 11 September 2014
, 8 November 2015
, Many rail lines, along with dedicated lines and rail yards are also used for freight.The Overland to Adelaide departs Southern Cross twice a week, while the XPT to Sydney departs twice a day.File:Z3.215 + B2.2028 swanston.JPG|thumb|Melbourne's tram network is the largest in the world and the only one in Australia comprising multiple lines.]]Melbourne's tram network dates from the 1880s land boom and, as of 2016, consists of {{convert|250|km|mi|1|abbr=on}} of track, 487 trams, 25 routes, and 1,763 tram stops,WEB,weblink Yarra Trams, Facts & Figures, 8 November 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140529000558weblink">weblink 29 May 2014, yes, dmy-all, making it the largest in the world.WEB,weblink Melbourne's Tram History, railpage.org.au, 28 September 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081109080504weblink">weblink 9 November 2008, yes, dmy-all, In 2013–2014, 176.9 million passenger trips were made by tram. Around 80 per cent of Melbourne's tram network shares road space with other vehicles, while the rest of the network is separated or are light rail routes. Melbourne's trams are recognised as iconic cultural assets and a tourist attraction. Heritage trams operate on the free City Circle route, intended for visitors to Melbourne, and heritage restaurant trams travel through the city and surrounding areas during the evening.WEB,weblink Metlink — Your guide to public transport in Melbourne and Victoria, Metlink-Melbourne, 5 October 2008, Melbourne is currently building 50 new E Class trams with some already in service in 2014. The E Class trams are about 30 metres long and are superior to the C2 class tram of similar length. Melbourne's bus network consists of almost 300 routes which mainly service the outer suburbs and fill the gaps in the network between rail and tram services.WEB,weblink Melbourne Buses, getting-around-melbourne.com.au, 5 October 2008, 127.6 million passenger trips were recorded on Melbourne's buses in 2013–2014, an increase of 10.2 percent on the previous year.Ship transport is an important component of Melbourne's transport system. The Port of Melbourne is Australia's largest container and general cargo port and also its busiest. The port handled two million shipping containers in a 12-month period during 2007, making it one of the top five ports in the Southern Hemisphere. Station Pier on Port Phillip Bay is the main passenger ship terminal with cruise ships and the Spirit of Tasmania ferries which cross Bass Strait to Tasmania docking there.WEB,weblink Spirit of Tasmania — One of Australia's great journeys, TT-Line Company Pty Ltd, 5 October 2008, Ferries and water taxis run from berths along the Yarra River as far upstream as South Yarra and across Port Phillip Bay.Melbourne has four airports. Melbourne Airport, at Tullamarine, is the city's main international and domestic gateway and second busiest in Australia. The airport is home base for passenger airlines Jetstar Airways and Tiger Airways Australia and cargo airlines Australian air Express and Toll Priority; and is a major hub for Qantas and Virgin Australia. Avalon Airport, located between Melbourne and Geelong, is a secondary hub of Jetstar. It is also used as a freight and maintenance facility. Buses and taxis are the only forms of public transport to and from the city's main airports. Air Ambulance facilities are available for domestic and international transportation of patientsweblink Air ambulance australia Melbourne also has a significant general aviation airport, Moorabbin Airport in the city's south east that also handles a small number of passenger flights. Essendon Airport, which was once the city's main airport also handles passenger flights, general aviation and some cargo flights.WEB,weblink Essendon Airport, Essendon Airport Pty Ltd, 5 October 2008, The city also has a bicycle sharing system. It was established in 2010WEB,weblink Clay, Lucas, Share scheme out of the blocks for city cyclists, Age, Fairfax, 1 June 2010, 20 May 2012, and uses a network of marked road lanes and segregated cycle facilities.

Utilities

File:Sugarloaf Reservoir Melbourne.jpg|thumb|upright=1.0|Sugarloaf Reservoir at Christmas Hills in the metropolitan area is one of Melbourne's closest water supplies.]]Water storage and supply for Melbourne is managed by Melbourne Water, which is owned by the Victorian Government. The organisation is also responsible for management of sewerage and the major water catchments in the region as well as the Wonthaggi desalination plant and North–South Pipeline. Water is stored in a series of reservoirs located within and outside the Greater Melbourne area. The largest dam, the Thomson River Dam, located in the Victorian Alps, is capable of holding around 60% of Melbourne's water capacity,WEB,weblink Dam Water Storage Levels, Melbourne Water, 18 July 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080718035023weblink">weblink 18 July 2008, dmy-all, while smaller dams such as the Upper Yarra Dam, Yan Yean Reservoir, and the Cardinia Reservoir carry secondary supplies.Gas is provided by three distribution companies:
  • AusNet Services, which provides gas from Melbourne's inner western suburbs to southwestern Victoria.
  • Multinet Gas, which provides gas from Melbourne's inner eastern suburbs to eastern Victoria. (owned by SP AusNet after acquisition, but continuing to trade under the brand name Multinet Gas)
  • Australian Gas Networks, which provides gas from Melbourne's inner northern suburbs to northern Victoria, as well as the majority of southeastern Victoria.
Electricity is provided by five distribution companies:
  • Citipower, which provides power to Melbourne's CBD, and some inner suburbs
  • Powercor, which provides power to the outer western suburbs, as well as all of western Victoria (Citipower and Powercor are owned by the same entity)
  • Jemena, which provides power to the northern and inner western suburbs
  • United Energy, which provides power to the inner eastern and southeastern suburbs, and the Mornington Peninsula
  • AusNet Services, which provides power to the outer eastern suburbs and all of the north and east of Victoria.
Numerous telecommunications companies provide Melbourne with terrestrial and mobile telecommunications services and wireless internet services and at least since 2016 Melbourne offers a free public WiFi which allows for up to 250 MB per device in some areas of the city.

Crime

Although Melbourne's crime rate dropped 6.2% in 2017, it still experiences Victoria's highest crime rate with over 18,280 offences per 100,000 people.WEB, 'Biggest decline' in Victoria's crime rate in 12 years as car thefts, aggravated burglaries fall, data reveals,weblink ABC News, ABC News, 26 March 2018, Despite this, Melbourne was ranked the 5th safest city in the world in The Economist's Safe Cities Index 2017.WEB, The Safe Cities Index 2017,weblink Economist, 27 Mar 2018,

Sister cities

Melbourne has six international sister cities.WEB,weblink International connections, City of Melbourne, 29 July 2016, According to the City of Melbourne council, "the city as a whole has been nourished by their influence, which extends from educational, cultural and sporting exchanges to unparalleled business networking opportunities."WEB,weblink City of Melbourne — International relations — Sister cities, City of Melbourne, 4 April 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080926111720weblink">weblink 26 September 2008, WEB,weblink Melbourne and Boston: Sister Cities Association, Melbourne-Boston.org, 18 February 2015, WEB,weblink The World Today – Melbourne makes Milan sister city, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, ABC Australia, 22 July 2003, 18 February 2015, The recognised cities are:{{Col-begin|width=}}{{Col-break}}
  • {{flagicon|JPN}} Osaka, Japan (1978)
  • {{flagicon|PRC}} Tianjin, China (1980)
  • {{flagicon|GRE}} Thessaloniki, Greece (1984)
  • {{flagicon|USA}} Boston, Massachusetts, USA (1985)
  • {{flagicon|RUS}} Saint Petersburg, Russia (1989)
  • {{flagicon|ITA}} Milan, Italy (2003)
{{Col-end}}

See also

  • Melway (the native street directory and general information source in Melbourne)

Lists

References

{{reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, Bell, Agnes Paton, Melbourne: John Batman's Village, Cassell Australia, Melbourne, Vic, 1965,
  • BOOK, Boldrewood, Rolf, Old Melbourne Memories, Macmillan and Co, 1896,
  • BOOK, Borthwick, John Stephen, McGonigal, David, Insight Guide: Melbourne, Prentice Hall Travel, 1990, 978-0-13-467713-2,
  • BOOK, Briggs, John Joseph, The History of Melbourne, in the County of Derby: Including Biographical Notices of the Coke, Melbourne, and Hardinge Families, Bemrose & Son, 1852,
  • BOOK, Brown-May, Andrew, Swain, Shurlee, The Encyclopedia of Melbourne, Cambridge University Press, Melbourne, Vic, 2005,
  • BOOK, Carroll, Brian, Melbourne: An Illustrated History, Lansdowne, 1972, 978-0-7018-0195-3,
  • BOOK, Cecil, David, Melbourne, Bobbs-Merrill, 1954, Grosset's universal library, 54009486,weblink
  • BOOK, Cervero, Robert, Robert Cervero, The Transit Metropolis: A Global Inquiry, 1998, Island Press, Washington, 9781559635912,
  • BOOK, Collins, Jock, Mondello, Letizia, Breheney, John, Childs, Tim, Cosmopolitan Melbourne. Explore the world in one city, Big Box Publishing, Rhodes, New South Wales, 1990, 978-0-9579624-0-8,
  • BOOK, Coote, Maree, The Melbourne Book: A History of Now, Melbournestyle Books, 2003, 2009, 978-0-9757047-4-5,
  • BOOK, Jim Davidson, The Sydney-Melbourne Book, Allen and Unwin, North Sydney, New South Wales, 1986, 978-0-86861-819-7,
  • BOOK, Lewis, Miles Bannatyne, Goad, Philip, Mayne, Alan, Melbourne: The City's History and Development, City of Melbourne, 1994, 2nd, 978-0-949624-71-0,
  • BOOK, McClymont, David, Armstrong, Mark, Lonely Planet Melbourne, Lonely Planet, 2000, 978-1-86450-124-7,weblink
  • BOOK, Newnham, William Henry, Melbourne: The Biography of a City, F. W. Cheshire, 1956, 57032585,weblink
  • BOOK, O'Hanlon, Seamus, Luckins, Tanja (eds), Go! Melbourne. Melbourne in the Sixties, Melbourne Publishing Group, Beaconsfield, Victoria, 2005, 978-0-9757802-0-6,
  • BOOK, Priestley, Susan, South Melbourne: A History, Melbourne University Press, 1995, 978-0-522-84664-5,
  • BOOK, Deborah Tout-Smith, Melbourne: A city of stories, Museum Victoria, 2009, 978-0-9803813-7-5,

External links

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