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Melancholia (2011 film)
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factoids
name Melancholia| image = Melancholia (2011 film poster).png| alt = | caption = Theatrical release poster| director = Lars von Trier



    | writer = Lars von Trier
    {edih}| cinematography = Manuel Alberto Claro| editing = Molly Malene Stensgaard {edih}
    • Nordisk Film {{small|(Denmark){edih}
    • Les films du losange {{small|(France)}}
    • Concorde Filmverleih {{small|(Germany)}}
    }}
    df=y052011 Cannes Film Festival>201126}}MELANCHOLIA (15) >WORK = BRITISH BOARD OF FILM CLASSIFICATION ACCESSDATE = 2013-06-03, }}| language = English
    • 52.5 million kr
    • {{small|(c. USD$9.4 million (Aug 2010))}}
    }}
    PUBLISHER = BOX OFFICE MOJO, 6 November 2012, }}Melancholia is a 2011 psychological drama science fiction art film written and directed by Lars von Trier and starring Kirsten Dunst, Charlotte Gainsbourg, and Kiefer Sutherland, with Alexander Skarsgård, Brady Corbet, Cameron Spurr, Charlotte Rampling, Jesper Christensen, John Hurt, Stellan Skarsgård, and Udo Kier in supporting roles. The film's story revolves around two sisters, one of whom is preparing to marry just before a rogue planet is about to collide with Earth.Von Trier's initial inspiration for the film came from a depressive episode he suffered. The film is a Danish production by Zentropa, with international co-producers in Sweden, France, and Germany. Filming took place in Sweden. Melancholia prominently features music from the prelude to Richard Wagner's opera Tristan und Isolde (1857–1859). It is the second entry in von Trier's unofficially titled "Depression Trilogy", preceded by Antichrist and followed by Nymphomaniac.WEB,weblink Nymphomaniac, Volumes I and II, reviewed: Lars von Trier’s sexually graphic pairing will titillate, but fails to satisfy, Knight, Chris, 20 March 2014, National Post, 15 August 2014, Melancholia premiered 18 May 2011 at the 64th Cannes Film Festival—where it was critically lauded. Dunst received the festival's Best Actress Award for her performance, which was a common area of praise among critics. Although not without its detractors, many critics and film scholars have considered the film to be a personal masterpiece, and one of the best films of 2011.WEB,weblink Melancholia (2011), British Film Institute, July 7, 2015,

    Plot

    The film begins with an introductory sequence involving the main characters and images from space.NEWS, Dargis, Manohla, This Is How the End Begins,weblink New York Times, 30 December 2011, 2 January 2012, These virtually still images reveal the key elements of the film: Justine the bride in deep melancholy with birds falling behind her; of a lawn with trees and sundial with two different shadows; Pieter Brueghel's The Hunters in the Snow burning; and the black horse collapsing in slow motion; Justine as a bride being swept along by a river; her wedding dress tangled in plant matter; and finally Justine and her nephew building their magic cave before Melancholia crashes into Earth.

    Part One: "Justine"

    Delayed by their stretch limousine’s difficulty traversing the narrow winding rural road, newlyweds Justine and Michael arrive two hours late for their own wedding reception at the estate of Justine's sister, Claire, and her husband, John. Justine has a dysfunctional family: brother-in-law John appears to resent having to pay for the wedding; father Dexter is hedonistic and selfish to the point of narcissism, while mother Gaby is brutally outspoken leading John to throw her out of the house. No one asks what Justine wants, or why she is unhappy, but throughout her wedding she is praised for being beautiful. Claire urges Justine to hide her debilitating melancholy from her new husband Michael. Justine flees the wedding reception in a golf cart, uncaringly tearing her wedding dress when it catches on the cart. At the nineteenth hole of the golf course that surrounds the house, she watches the night sky, squatting to urinate.Justine's boss, Jack, is ruthless, greedy, and gluttonous. During the most personal part of his wedding speech, he hassles her to meet a deadline for her work as an advertising copywriter on the night of her wedding. He pushes her throughout the evening to create a tagline to promote a campaign based on a modern facsimile of Bruegel’s The Land of Cockaigne (the mythical land of excess). She later opens an art book at this painting. During the ceremonial cutting of the wedding cake, Justine and Gaby independently escape to take baths.Justine's boss's nephew, Tim, is given the chance to exploit the opportunity to get the tagline at all costs in order to promote his career: a task similar to what Justine was previously so successful at. He reluctantly, but doggedly, pursues Justine throughout the wedding reception. She cannot consummate her marriage with her husband and eventually goes out onto a sand trap and has sex with Tim. Unable to get the tagline from Justine, Tim is later fired for his professional failure, but Justine also resigns, telling Jack that he is a "despicable, power-hungry little man." After several hours of being alienated from each other, Justine and Michael quietly agree to call off the marriage. Michael departs. Early the following morning, while horseback riding with Claire, Justine notices Antares is no longer visible in the sky.

    Part Two: "Claire"

    John explains that the reason for Antares' disappearance was because the newly discovered planet "Melancholia" was blocking the star from view. Melancholia, a rogue planet that entered the Solar System from behind the Sun, has now become visible in the sky as it approaches ever closer to Earth. John is excited about the planet and looks forward to the "fly-by" predicted by scientists.(File:EarthAndMelancholiaDanceOfDeath.svg|thumb|Melancholia's first approach and final collision with Earth, as described (and shown briefly in a similar diagram) in the film)A few months after the failed wedding, Justine's depression has grown even worse. She is placed in the care of Claire and John. Justine is essentially catatonic and Claire is unable to help her. Claire is unable, even, to help her sister into the bath. Justine eventually admits that she is so numb that even her favourite meal tastes of ash. As Justine seems to lose her sanity, her connection to her beloved black horse Abraham becomes more remote and frustrating. On two occasions, the horse refuses to cross a bridge over a river. Justine acts more brutally toward the horse and eventually whips him mercilessly to the ground.Meanwhile Claire is fearful that the end of the world is imminent, despite her husband's assurances. She searches the Internet and finds an article predicting that Melancholia and the Earth will, in fact, collide. Her husband assures her that these anecdotes are written by "prophets of doom" looking for their 15 minutes of fame. Claire tries to relax. The next day, a somewhat-healthier Justine confesses to Claire that she simply "knows" certain things--like the number of beans in the bottle at her wedding reception, and that Earth and Melancholia will actually destroy each other. What's more, Justine says: this is a good thing, because the Earth is evil.That night, Melancholia passes safely by Earth, as predicted by the scientists (to great relief). However, the next day Claire realizes (when using a simple homemade device made by her son) that Melancholia is actually getting bigger and circling back--as predicted by the obscure Internet article. She begins to panic. She frantically looks for her husband but eventually finds John dead in the black horse’s stable: having feared facing his family's disappointment, he poisoned himself. Claire, now realizing without a doubt that Melancholia's impending arrival is actually real, releases Abraham in order to support the story she told Justine that John has simply ridden into the village. Claire calls the rest of her family together for a completely typical breakfast. Justine, appearing to have recovered somewhat, questions Claire's intentions. Suddenly, as a result of Melancholia's proximity to Earth, a hailstorm starts. A panicked Claire tries to escape the estate with her son, but the cars will not start and the golf cart to which she resort shuts down as she attempts to cross the same bridge as Justine attempted earlier. Returning to the mansion, Claire tries to accept the inevitable. In a private conversation with Justine, Claire suggests that their last act be coming together on the terrace with wine and music. Justine brutally dismisses her idea.Having noticed that Abraham is wandering around the estate without any sign of his father, Claire's son, Leo, is frightened. "Dad said there's nothing to do, nowhere to hide," Leo says, aware of Melancholia's closeness. He is reassured by Justine who says that they can be safe in a "magic cave", something she had promised to build several times throughout the film. Leo, Justine, and Claire sit on the manicured golf course in an unfinished tepee as the final storm begins. Leo believes in the magic cave and naively closes his eyes. Claire is terrified and cries profusely. Justine watches them both, and accepts her fate calmly and stoically. Melancholia fills the sky and the world comes to an end.

    Cast

    {{multiple image| align = right| direction = vertical| footer =Lead actresses Kirsten Dunst and Charlotte Gainsbourg during the film's presentation at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival.| width = | image1 =Kirsten Dunst Cannes 2011.jpg| width1 = {{#expr: (200 * 750 / 1158) round 0}}| alt1 = | caption1 =| image2 = Charlotte Gainsbourg Cannes 2011.jpg| width2 = {{#expr: (200 * 635 / 1050) round 0}}| alt2 = | caption2 =}}{hide}castlist| {edih}

    Production

    Development

    The idea for the film originated during a therapy session Lars von Trier attended during treatments for his depression. A therapist had told von Trier that depressive people tend to act more calmly than others under heavy pressure, because they already expect bad things to happen. Von Trier then developed the story not primarily as a disaster film, and without any ambition to portray astrophysics realistically, but as a way to examine the human psyche during a disaster.JOURNAL, Juul Carlsen, Per, May 2011,weblink The Only Redeeming Factor is the World Ending, Film, 72, 5–8, Neimann, Susanna, Danish Film Institute, 1399-2813, 18 May 2011, WEB,weblink Second Look: Melancholia, birchbarkletter.com, 2012-05-14, 2012-05-16, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20120722111310weblink">weblink 22 July 2012, dmy-all, The idea of a planetary collision was inspired by websites with theories about such events. Von Trier decided from the outset that it would be clear from the beginning that the world would actually end in the film, so audiences would not be distracted by the suspense of not knowing. The concept of the two sisters as main characters developed via an exchange of letters between von Trier and the Spanish actress Penélope Cruz. Cruz wrote that she would like to work with von Trier, and spoke enthusiastically about the play The Maids by Jean Genet. As von Trier subsequently tried to write a role for the actress, the two maids from the play evolved into the sisters Justine and Claire in Melancholia. Much of the personality of the character Justine was based on von Trier himself.WEB, Thorsen, Nils, 2011,weblink Longing for the End of All, English press kit Melancholia, TrustNordisk, 18 May 2011, The name was inspired by the 1791 novel Justine by the Marquis de Sade.WEB, Feinstein, Howard, 20 May 2011,weblink Lars von Trier: 'I will never do a press conference again.', indieWire, SnagFilms, 21 May 2011, Melancholia was produced by Denmark's Zentropa, with co-production support from its subsidiary in Germany, Sweden's Memfis Film, France's Slot Machine and Liberator Productions.WEB,weblink Melancholia, Danish Films, Danish Film Institute, 5 August 2010, The production received 7.9 million Danish kroner from the Danish Film Institute, 600,000 euro from Eurimages and 3 million Swedish kronor from the Swedish Film Institute.WEB, Fil-Jensen, Lars, 22 June 2010,weblink Støtte til Caroline Mathildes år og Melancholia, Danish, dfi.dk, Danish Film Institute, 19 July 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100902050051weblink">weblink 2 September 2010, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Dramerna dominerar produktionsstöden i juni, Roger, Susanne, 22 June 2010, Swedish Film Institute, Swedish, Filmnyheterna, 21 December 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111008225753weblink">weblink 8 October 2011, dmy-all, Additional funding was provided by Film i Väst, DR, Arte France, CNC, Canal+, BIM Italy, Filmstiftung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Sveriges Television and Nordisk Film & TV-Fond. The total budget was 52.5 million Danish kroner.WEB, Monggaard, Christian, 27 July 2010,weblink Absurd teater med en film i hovedrollen, Danish, Dagbladet Information, 31 July 2010, Han vil opleve situationerne første gang. Han finder en energi i scenerne, nærvær, og gør op med fotoæstetikken., Cruz was initially expected to play the lead role, but dropped out when the filming schedule of another project was changed. Von Trier then offered the role to Kirsten Dunst, who accepted it. Dunst had been suggested for the role by the American filmmaker Paul Thomas Anderson in a discussion about the film between him and von Trier.

    Filming

    File:Tjolöholms Slott.png|thumb|Tjolöholm Castle in Halland, SwedenHalland, SwedenPrincipal photography began 22 July and ended 8 September 2010. Interior scenes were shot at Film i Väst's studios in Trollhättan, Sweden. It was the fourth time Trier made a film in Trollhättan.WEB, Pham, Annika,weblink Cineuropa, Von Trier's Melancholia Kicks In, 28 July 2010, 23 April 2011, Exteriors included the area surrounding the Tjolöholm Castle.WEB, Lumholdt, Jan, 19 May 2011,weblink 'I hope I'll say something provocative', Svenska Dagbladet, 21 May 2011, The film was recorded digitally with Arri Alexa and Phantom cameras.WEB,weblink Technical info, melancholiathemovie.com, Zentropa, 4 May 2011, Trier employed his usual directing style with no rehearsals; instead the actors improvised and received instructions between the takes. The camera was initially operated by Trier, and then left to cinematographer Manuel Alberto Claro who repeated Trier's movements. Claro said about the method: "[von Trier] wants to experience the situations the first time. He finds an energy in the scenes, presence, and makes up with the photographic aesthetics." Trier explained that the visual style he aimed at in Melancholia was "a clash between what is romantic and grand and stylized and then some form of reality", which he hoped to achieve through the hand-held camerawork. He feared however that it would tilt too much toward the romantic, because of the setting at the upscale wedding, and the castle, which he called "super kitschy".

    Post-production

    The prelude to Richard Wagner's Tristan und Isolde supplies the main musical theme of the film, and Trier's use of an overture-like opening sequence before the first act is a technique closely associated with Wagner. This choice was inspired by a 30-page section of Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time, where Proust concludes that Wagner's prelude is the greatest work of art of all time. Melancholia uses music more than any film by Trier since The Element of Crime from 1984. In some scenes, the film was edited in the same pace as the music. Trier said: "It's kind of like a music video that way. It's supposed to be vulgar." Trier also pointed out parallels between both the film's usage of Wagner and the film's editing to the music and the aesthetics of Nazi Germany.Visual effects were provided by companies in Poland, Germany and Sweden under visual effects supervisor Peter Hjorth. Poland's Platige Image, which previously had worked with Trier on Antichrist, created most of the effects seen in the film's opening sequence; the earliest instructions were provided by Trier in the summer 2010, after which a team of 19 visual effects artists worked on the project for three months.WEB, Staff writer, 10 May 2011,weblink Special effects for 'Melancholia', Platige Image Community, 8 June 2011, yes,weblink 8 June 2011, dmy-all, During Nymphomaniac, a monologue by the title character about loneliness is edited to shots of the universe from Melancholia.

    Release

    In his director's statement, Trier wrote that he had started to regret having made such a polished film, but that he hoped it would contain some flaws which would make it interesting. The director wrote: "I desired to dive headlong into the abyss of German romanticism ... But is that not just another way of expressing defeat? Defeat to the lowest of cinematic common denominators? Romance is abused in all sorts of endlessly dull ways in mainstream products."WEB, Trier, Lars von, 13 April 2011,weblink Director's statement- Melancholia, English press kit, TrustNordisk, 8 June 2011, The premiere took place at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival, where Melancholia was screened in competition on 18 May.WEB,weblink Horaires 2011, French, festival-cannes.com, Cannes Film Festival, 12 May 2011, The press conference after the screening gained considerable publicity. The Hollywood Reporter's Scott Roxborough wrote that "Von Trier has never been very P.C. and his Cannes press conferences always play like a dark stand-up routine, but at the Melancholia press conference he took it to another level, tossing a grenade into any sense of public decorum."WEB, Roxborough, Scott, 18 May 2011,weblink Lars von Trier Admits to Being a Nazi, Understanding Hitler (Cannes 2011), The Hollywood Reporter, 18 May 2011, Trier first joked about working on a hardcore pornographic film that would star Dunst and Gainsbourg.Trier subsequently announced production of the film Nymphomaniac, which would contain hardcore sequences and would, indeed, co-star Gainsbourg. When asked about the relation between the influences of German Romanticism in Melancholia and Trier's own German heritage, the director brought up that he had been raised believing his biological father was a Jew, only to learn as an adult that his actual father was a German. He then made jokes about Jews and Nazis, said he understood Adolf Hitler and admired the work of architect Albert Speer, and jokingly announced that he was a Nazi.WEB, Higgins, Charlotte, 18 May 2011,weblink Lars von Trier provokes Cannes with 'I'm a Nazi' comments, The Guardian, 18 May 2011, The Cannes Film Festival issued an official apology for the remarks the same day and clarified that Trier is not a Nazi or an anti-Semite, then declared the director "persona non grata" the following day.WEB, Staff writer, 18 May 2011,weblink Cannes Film Festival Condemns Lars von Trier's Nazi Comments, The Hollywood Reporter, 18 May 2011, WEB, Catherine, Shoard, 19 May 2011,weblink Cannes film festival bans Lars von Trier, The Guardian, 19 May 2011, This meant he was not allowed to go within 100 meters of the Festival Palace, but he did remain in Cannes and continued to give promotional interviews.WEB, Roxborough, Scott, 21 May 2011,weblink Lars von Trier Accepts Ban; Says if Hitler 'Made a Great Film,' Cannes Should Select It (Cannes 2011), The Hollywood Reporter, 4 August 2011, The film was released in Denmark on 26 May 2011 through Nordisk Film. Launched on 57 screens, the film entered the box-office chart as number three.WEB,weblink Denmark Box Office: May 27–29, 2011, Box Office Mojo, Amazon.com, 8 June 2011, A total of 50,000 tickets were eventually sold in Denmark.WEB, Ritzau, 22 July 2011,weblink Boykot af Lars von Trier-film er udeblevet, Danish, Berlingske Tidende, 5 August 2011, It was released in the United Kingdom and Ireland on 30 September, in Germany on 6 October and in Italy on 21 October. Magnolia Pictures acquired the distribution rights for North America and it was released on 11 November, with a pre-theatrical release on 13 October as a rental through such Direct TV vendors as Vudu and Amazon.com.WEB,weblink At The Cinema: Melancholia, Ian, Jack, Ian Jack, More Intelligent Life, 26 September 2011, Economist Group, 27 September 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111010194642weblink">weblink 10 October 2011, dmy-all, WEB, Lodderhose, Diana, 13 February 2011,weblink Magnolia takes 'Melancholia', Variety, 13 February 2011, Madman Entertainment bought the rights for Australia and New Zealand.WEB, Foreman, Liza, 17 May 2011,weblink Melancholia close to selling out, Cineuropa, 18 May 2011,

    Reception

    Critical response

    Melancholia received positive reviews from critics. The film holds a 79% approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 191 reviews, with an average rating of 7.4/10. The website's critical consensus states, "Melancholia{{'}}s dramatic tricks are more obvious than they should be, but this is otherwise a showcase for Kirsten Dunst's acting and for Lars von Trier's profound, visceral vision of depression and destruction."WEB,weblink Melancholia (2011), Rotten Tomatoes, Fandango Media, April 10, 2018, The film also holds a score of 80 out of 100 on Metacritic, based on 40 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews."WEB,weblink Melancholia Reviews, Metacritic, CBS Interactive, March 12, 2016, Kim Skotte of Politiken wrote that "there are images—many images—in Melancholia which underline that Lars von Trier is a unique film storyteller", and "the choice of material and treatment of it underlines Lars von Trier's originality." Skotte also compared it to the director's previous film: "Through its material and look, Melancholia creates rifts, but unlike Antichrist I don't feel that there is a fence pole in the rift which is smashed directly down into the meat. You sit on your seat in the cinema and mildly marveled go along in the end of the world."WEB, Skotte, Kim, 19 May 2011,weblink Dom: Trier har skabt et æstetisk originalt overflødighedshorn, Danish, Politiken, 26 May 2011, Der er billeder – mange billeder – i 'Melancholia', som understreger, at Lars von Trier er en unik filmfortæller." "Valget af stof og behandlingen af det understreger Lars von Triers originalitet." "I kraft af sit stof og sit look sætter ’Melancholia’ skel, men i modsætning til 'Antichrist' føler jeg ikke, der i skellet er en hegnspæl, der bliver banket direkte ned i kødet. Man sidder på sin række i biografen og følger mildt forundret med i verdens undergang., Berlingske's Ebbe Iversen wrote about the film: "It is big, it is enigmatic, and now and then rather irritating. But it is also a visionary work, which makes a gigantic impression." The critic continued: "From time to time the film moves on the edge of kitsch, but with Justine played by Kirsten Dunst and Claire played by Charlotte Gainsbourg as the leading characters, Melancholia is a bold, uneven, unruly and completely unforgettable film."WEB, Iversen, Ebbe, 18 May 2011,weblink Ebbe Iversen: Triers nye film er mægtig og mærkelig, Danish, Berlingske, 26 May 2011, Den er stor, den er gådefuld, og nu og da er den temmelig irriterende. Men den er også et visionært værk, som gør et gigantisk indtryk." "Undertiden bevæger filmen sig på kanten af kitsch, men med Kirsten Dunst som Justine og Charlotte Gainsbourg som Claire i spidsen er "Melancholia" en dristig, ujævn, uregerlig og helt uforglemmelig film., Steven Loeb of Southampton Patch wrote, "This film has brought the best out of von Trier, as well as his star. Dunst is so good in this film, playing a character unlike any other she has ever attempted, that she won the award for Best Actress at the Cannes Film Festival this past May. Even if the film itself were not the incredible work of art that it is, Dunst’s performance alone would be incentive enough to recommend it."WEB, Loeb, Steven, 15 October 2011,weblink Review: 'Melancholia' One of 2011's Best Films, Southampton Patch, 16 October 2011, Sukhdev Sandhu wrote from Cannes in The Daily Telegraph that the film "at times comes close to being a tragi-comic opera about the end of the world," and that, "the apocalypse, when it comes, is so beautifully rendered that the film cements the quality of fairy tale that its palatial setting suggests." About the actors' performances, Sandhu wrote: "all of them are excellent here, but Dunst is exceptional, so utterly convincing in the lead role—trouble, serene, a fierce savant—that it feels like a career breakthrough. Meanwhile, Gainsbourg, for whom the end of the world must seem positively pastoral after the horrors she went through in Antichrist, locates in Claire a fragility that ensures she's more than a whipping girl for social satire." Sandhu brought up one reservation in the review, in which he gave the film the highest possible rating of five stars: "there is, as always with Von Trier's work, a degree of intellectual determinism that can be off-putting; he illustrates rather than truly explore ideas."WEB, Sandhu, Sukhdev, 18 May 2011,weblink Cannes 2011: Melancholia, review, The Daily Telegraph, 18 May 2011, Peter Bradshaw, writing for The Guardian, called the film "clunky" and "tiresome", judging it to be "conceived with[out] real passion or imagination", and not "well written or convincingly acted in any way at all", and gave it two stars out of a possible five.WEB, Bradshaw, Peter, Peter Bradshaw, 18 May 2011,weblink Cannes 2011 review: Melancholia, The Guardian, 19 May 2011,

    Accolades

    Dunst received the Best Actress Award at the closing ceremony of the Cannes Film Festival.WEB, Chang, Justin, 22 May 2011,weblink 'Tree of Life' wins Palme d'Or, Variety, 22 May 2011, The film won three awards at the European Film Awards for Best Film, Best Cinematographer (Manuel Alberto Claro), and Best Designer (Jette Lehmann).WEB, Vary, Adam B, 'Melancholia' wins top prize at European Film Awards,weblink Entertainment Weekly, 4 December 2011, 3 December 2011, The US National Society of Film Critics selected Melancholia as the best picture of 2011 and named Kirsten Dunst best actress.NEWS,weblink US critics reward Lars Von Trier film Melancholia, 8 January 2012, BBC, The film was also nominated for four Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts Awards: Best Film â€“ International; Best Direction â€“ International for von Trier, Best Screenplay â€“ International also for von Trier, and Best Actress â€“ International for Dunst.WEB, AACTA Awards winners and nominees,weblink Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts (AACTA), 4 February 2012, 31 January 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160123084200weblink">weblink 23 January 2016, dmy-all, Film Comment magazine listed Melancholia third on its Best Films of 2011 list.WEB,weblink Film Comment's End Of Year Critics' Poll 2011, Film Comment, January–February 2012, The film also received 12 votes—seven from critics and five from directors—in the British Film Institute's 2012 Sight & Sound poll of the greatest movies ever made, making it one of the few films of the 21st century to appear within the top 250. In 2016, the film was named as the 43rd best film of the 21st century, from a poll of 177 film critics from around the world.WEB,weblink The 21st Century’s 100 greatest films, 2016, 23 August, 2016-09-16,

    See also

    References

    {{Reflist|2}}

    Further reading

    • BOOK, Heikkilä, Martta, The End of the World: Contemporary Philosophy and Art, The Ends of the World in Lars von Trier’s Melancholia, Schuback, Marcia Sá Cavalcante, Lindberg, Susanna, 2017, Rowman & Littlefield, London, 978-1-7866-0261-9, 187–199,

    External links

    {{Commons category}}
    • {{Official websiteweblink}}
    • {{IMDb title|1527186|Melancholia}}
    • {{mojo title|melancholia|Melancholia}}
    • {{rotten-tomatoes|melancholia-2011|Melancholia}}
    • {{metacritic film|melancholia|Melancholia}}
    {{Lars von Trier}}{{European Film Award for Best Film}}{{Bodil Award for Best Danish Film}}


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