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Mehmed VI

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Mehmed VI
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{{Redirect|Mohamed VI|the Moroccan monarch|Mohammed VI of Morocco}}{{short description|36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire}}{{Use dmy dates|date=November 2012}}







factoids
| coronation1 = 4 July 1918Sword girding}}| predecessor1 = Mehmed VGrand Viziers}}title=See list|1=Mehmed Talaat PashaAhmed Izzet PashaAhmet Tevfik PashaDamat Ferid PashaAli Rıza PashaSalih Hulusi Pasha}}Abolition of the Ottoman sultanate>Monarchy abolishedOttoman Caliphate>Ottoman Caliph19 November 1922}}| predecessor2 = Mehmed V| successor2 = Abdulmejid IIOttoman dynasty>Head of the House of Osman (in exile)| reign-type3 = Pretence16 May 1926}}| predecessor3 = Mehmed V| successor3 = Abdulmejid IINazikeda Kadın (wife of Mehmed VI)>Nazikeda KadınInşirah HanımMüveddet KadınNevvare HanımNevzad HanımImperial Harem>Consorts| issue = Fenire SultanUlviye SultanSabiha SultanŞehzade Ertuğrul| issue-link = | issue-pipe = | full name = Mehmed bin Abdul MecidHouse of Osman>Ottoman| house-type = Dynasty| father = Abdulmejid I| mother = Gülüstü Hanım186114|df=y}}1926161df=y}} | birth_place = Istanbul, Ottoman Empire| death_place = Sanremo, Kingdom of Italy| burial_place = Tekkiye Mosque, Damascus| religion = Sunni Islam| signature = Tughra of Mehmed VI.svg| signature_type = Tughra Fayth }}Mehmed VI Vahideddin ( Meḥmed-i sâdis, Vahideddin, or ), who is also known as Şahbaba (meaning "Emperor-father") among his relatives, (14 January 1861 – 16 May 1926) was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from July 4, 1918 until November 1, 1922 when the Ottoman Empire dissolved after World War I and became the nation of the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923. The brother of Mehmed V, he became heir to the throne after the 1916 suicide of Abdülaziz's son Şehzade Yusuf Izzeddin as the eldest male member of the House of Osman. He acceded to the throne after the death of Mehmed V.Freely, John, Inside the Seraglio, 1999, Chapter 16: The Year of Three Sultans. He was girded with the Sword of Osman on 4 July 1918, as the thirty-sixth padishah. His father was Sultan Abdulmejid I and mother was Gülüstü Hanım (1830 – 1865), an ethnic Abkhazian, daughter of Prince Tahir Bey Çaçba and his wife Afişe Lakerba, originally named Fatma Çaçba.BOOK, Harun Açba, Kadın efendiler: 1839-1924,weblink 2007, Profil, 978-9-759-96109-1, Mehmed was removed from the throne when the Ottoman sultanate was abolished in 1922.

Biography

Early LifeMehmed VI was born at the Dolmabahçe Palace, in Constantinople on January 14, 1861.{{citation|title=The Encyclopædia Britannica|volume=7|editor-first=Hugh|editor-last=Chisholm|year=1911|number=3|quote=Constantinople, the capital of the Turkish Empire}}.Britannica, Istanbul:When the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923, the capital was moved to Ankara, and Constantinople was officially renamed Istanbul in 1930.

Reign

The First World War was a disaster for the Ottoman Empire. British and allied forces had conquered Baghdad, Damascus, and Jerusalem during the war and most of the Ottoman Empire was divided amongst the European allies. At the San Remo conference of April 1920, the French were granted a mandate over Syria and the British were granted one over Palestine and Mesopotamia. On 10 August 1920, Mehmed's representatives signed the Treaty of Sèvres, which recognised the mandates and recognised Hejaz as an independent state.Turkish nationalists rejected the settlement by the Sultan's four signatories. A new government, the Turkish Grand National Assembly, under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) was formed on 23 April 1920, in Ankara (then known as Angora). The new government denounced the rule of Mehmed VI and the command of Süleyman Şefik Pasha, who was in charge of the army commissioned to fight for the empire against the Turkish National Movement (the Kuvâ-i İnzibâtiyye); as a result, a temporary constitution was drafted.

Exile and death

The Grand National Assembly of Turkey abolished the Sultanate on 1 November 1922, and Mehmed VI was expelled from Constantinople. Leaving aboard the British warship Malaya on 17 November, he went into exile in Malta; Mehmed later lived on the Italian Riviera.On 19 November 1922, Mehmed's first cousin and heir Abdulmejid Efendi was elected caliph, becoming the new head of the Imperial House of Osman as Abdulmejid II before the Caliphate was abolished by the Turkish Grand National Assembly in 1924.Mehmed died on 16 May 1926 in Sanremo, Italy, and was buried at the Tekkiye Mosque of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent in Damascus.Freely, John, Inside the Seraglio, published 1999, Chapter 19: The Gathering Place of the JinnsImage:Sultanvahideddin.jpg|Departure of the former emperor Mehmed VI from Dolmabahçe Palace after the abolition of monarchy, 1922.Sultan Mehmed VI of the Ottoman Empire.jpg|In 1918.File:Mehmet Vahdeddin.jpg|A portrait of Mehmed VI.

Family

Sultan Mehmed VI married five times:
  • Abkhazian Nazikeda Kadın (née Fatma Emine MarÅŸania, Sukhum, Abkhazia, 9 October 1866 – Maadi, Cairo, 4 April 1944 and buried there), married at Istanbul, Ortaköy, Ortakoy Palace on 8 June 1885, daughter of Prince Hasan Ali Bey MarÅŸan by his wife Princess Fatma Horecan Hanım Aredba, and had three children:
    • Fenire Sultan (1888, Ortaköy Palace, Ortaköy, Istanbul, – 1888, Ortaköy Palace, Ortaköy, Istanbul);
    • Fatma Ulviye Sultan (11 September 1892, Ortaköy Palace, Ortaköy, Istanbul, – 25 January 1967, Ä°zmir and buried at Çengelköy, Ãœsküdar, Istanbul, first married to Damat Ismail Hakki Okday Beyefendi (Athens, 28 October 1881 – Istanbul, 11 October 1977) at the Kurucheshme Palace, Istanbul, on 10 August 1916, with issue; second marriage to Damat Ali Haidar Beyefendi (Göztepe, Istanbul, 20 September 1889 – Istanbul, 5 February 1962) at the NiÅŸantaşı Palace, NiÅŸantaşı, Pera (today BeyoÄŸlu), on 1 November 1923, also with issue.
    • Rukiye Sabiha Sultan (Ortaköy Palace, Ortaköy, Istanbul, 1 April 1894 – Istanbul, 26 August 1971), married to her cousin Åžehzade Ömer Faruk (the Ortaköy Palace, Istanbul, 27/29 February 1898 – 28 March 1969/1971), son of Abdulmejid II, at the Yıldız Palace, Istanbul, on 29 April 1920 as his first wife, and had issue, three daughters including, Fatma NesliÅŸah Sultan.
  • Circassian (of the Ubykh tribe) InÅŸirah Hanım (née Seniye Voçibe, Batumi, 10 July 1887 – Cairo, 30 June 1930), married at Istanbul, Ãœsküdar, Çengelköy, Çengelköy Palace on 8 July 1905 and divorced on 7 November 1909, daughter of Zekeriya Aziz Bey Voçibe, without issue.
  • Abkhazian Müveddet Kadın (née Åžadiye Çıhçı, Adapazarı, 12 October 1893 – Çengelköy Palace, Çengelköy, Ãœsküdar, Istanbul, 1951 and buried there), married at Istanbul, Ãœsküdar, Çengelköy, Çengelköy Palace on 25 April 1911, daughter of Kato Davut Bey Çıhcı by his wife AyÅŸe Hanım, and had:
    • Åžehzade Mehmed ErtuÄŸrul (Çengelköy Palace, Çengelköy, Ãœsküdar, Istanbul, 5 September 1912 – Cairo, 2 July 1944). No Issue.
  • Abkhazian Nevvare Hanım (née AyÅŸe Çıhçı, Adapazarı, 4 May 1901 – 13 June 1992), married at Istanbul, Dolmabahçe Palace on 20 June 1918, daughter of Mustafa Bey Çıhcı by his wife Hafize Hanım Kap, without issue.
  • Albanian Nevzad Hanım (Istanbul, 2 March 1900 – 23 June 1992), married at Istanbul, Yıldız Palace on 1 September 1921, daughter of Åžaban Efendi Bargu by his wife Hatice Hanım, without issue.

Notes

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

  • Fromkin, David, 1989. (A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East) {{ISBN|0-8050-0857-8}}

See also

External links

  • {{YouTube|KKQ-vIMk47o|Sultane Neslishah - La dernière Sultane - Turquie}}
{{Sultans of the Ottoman Empire}}{{Ottoman claimants}}{{Sons of the Ottoman Sultans}}{{Authority control}}

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