Massachusetts Institute of Technology

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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{{Redirect|MIT}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|University in Massachusetts}}{{Use American English|date=February 2019}}{{Use mdy dates|date=September 2019|cs1-dates=y}}{{anchor|DMSE|CAES}}

| image = MIT Seal.svg| image_size = 150px| motto = Mens et Manus (Latin)PUBLISHER=MITACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 8, 2010, Private university>PrivateLand-grant universityNational Space Grant College and Fellowship Program>Space grantAssociation of American Universities>AAUAssociation of Independent Colleges and Universities in MassachusettsAssociation of Independent Technological Universities>AITUAssociation of Public and Land-Grant UniversitiesThe Consortium on Financing Higher Education>COFHENational Association of Independent Colleges and UniversitiesNAICU – Member Directory {{webarchive>url= Research Association>URA568 GroupPUBLISHER=MIT, September 14, 2019, | president = L. Rafael Reif| chancellor = Cynthia Barnhart| provost = Martin A. SchmidtURL=HTTP://WEB.MIT.EDU/REGISTRAR/STATS/YRPTS/INDEX.HTML, September 13, 2014, | undergrad = 4,602| postgrad = 6,972| city = Cambridge, Massachusetts| country = United StatesUrban area>Urban, {{convertacre1}}| free_label = NewspaperThe Tech (newspaper)>The TechTim the BeaverSYMBOLS: MASCOTPUBLISHER=MITACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 8, 2010, NCAA Division III – New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference>NEWMAC, New England Football Conference,Pilgrim Lacrosse League>Pilgrim LeagueNCAA Division I – Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges>EARC and Eastern Association of Women's Rowing Colleges {{small>(rowing)}}weblink}}42.360region:US-MA_type:edu|display=inline,title}}| logo = MIT logo.svg| logo_size = 150px| faculty = 1,074PUBLISHER=MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYPUBLISHER=MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY#A31F34}} {{color box|#8A8B8C}}MIT Engineers>EngineersHTTP://MITATHLETICS.COM/>TITLE=THE OFFICIAL SITE OF MIT INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS - MIT,, }}Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant university, with an urban campus that extends more than a mile (1.6 km) alongside the Charles River. The Institute also encompasses a number of major off-campus facilities such as the MIT Lincoln Laboratory, the Bates Center, and the Haystack Observatory, as well as affiliated laboratories such as the Broad and Whitehead Institutes. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. It has since played a key role in the development of many aspects of modern science, engineering, mathematics, and technology, and is widely known for its innovation and academic strength, making it one of the most prestigious institutions of higher learning in the world.WEB, World's 10 most prestigious universities 2016,weblink THE World University Rankings, Times Higher Education, WEB, Smith, Matthew, The 24 most prestigious universities in the world, according to Times Higher Education,weblink Business Insider, May 2016, WEB, Denham, Jess, So why is MIT number one in the world university rankings?,weblink Independent, WEB,weblink Harvard, MIT Ranked Most Prestigious Universities, Study Reports, David Altaner, Bloomberg, March 9, 2011, March 1, 2012, {{As of|2019|October|df=}}, 95 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, and 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows,WEB,weblink MIT Facts 2018: Faculty and Staff,, March 7, 2019, 73 Marshall Scholars,WEB,weblink Statistics,, March 8, 2019, 48 Rhodes Scholars,WEB,weblink Rhodes Scholarships: Number of Winners by Institution, U.S. Rhodes Scholars (1904 ‐ 2019), The Rhodes Trust, live, 41 astronauts,WEB,weblink NASA Chooses Three MIT Alumni to be Astronauts,, en, March 7, 2019, and 16 Chief Scientists of the US Air Force have been affiliated with MIT. The school also has a strong entrepreneurial culture, and the aggregated annual revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni ($1.9 trillion) would rank roughly as the tenth-largest economy in the world (2014).WEB,weblink MIT Facts 2018: Entrepreneurship and Innovation,, April 15, 2018, WEB,weblink Entrepreneurship and Innovation at MIT (December 2015), MIT, MIT is a member of the Association of American Universities (AAU).WEB,weblink Massachusetts Institute of Technology {{!, Association of American Universities||language=en|access-date=August 17, 2018}}


Foundation and vision

}}File:MIT Boston 19th c byEdward L Allen BPL 2351553844 (cropped).jpg|thumb|left|Stereographic card showing an MIT mechanical drafting studio, 19th century (photo by E.L. Allen, left/right inverted)]]File:Mass. Inst. Technology, by E. L. Allen (cropped).png|thumb|left|Original Rogers Building, Back Bay, BostonBack Bay, BostonIn 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed.WEB, Kneeland, Samuel,weblink Committee Report: Conservatory of Art and Science, Massachusetts House of Representatives, House No. 260, March 1859, WEB, MIT Timeline,weblink MIT History, MIT Institute Archives, April 1, 2015, A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by John Albion Andrew, the governor of Massachusetts, on April 10, 1861.WEB, Acts and Resolves of the General Court Relating to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,weblink MIT History, MIT Institute Archives, May 29, 2012, Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances.WEB, MIT Facts 2012: Origins and Leadership,weblink MIT Facts, MIT, May 29, 2012, WEB, Rogers, William, The Committee of Associated Institutions of Science and Arts,weblink Objects and Plan of an Institute of Technology: including a Society of Arts, a Museum of Arts, and a School of Industrial Science; proposed to be established in Boston, 1861, He did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education,Lewis 1949, p. 8. proposing that:The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, and along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.WEB,weblink Letter from William Barton Rogers to His Brother Henry, March 13, 1846, October 2, 2010, Institute Archives, MIT, The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories.BOOK, Angulo, A.J., William Barton Rogers and the Idea of MIT, 155–156, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 0-8018-9033-0,weblink BOOK, Geiger, Roger L., Angulo, A.J., The Initial Reception of MIT, 1860s–1880s, Perspectives on the History of Higher Education, 1–28,

Early developments

(File:МИТ кампус 1905.jpg|thumb|left|A 1905 map of MIT's Boston campus)File:Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass (NYPL b12647398-74365).tiff|thumb|left|The then-new Cambridge campus, completed in 1916. The Harvard Bridge (named after John Harvard but otherwise unrelated to Harvard University) is in the foreground, connecting Boston to Cambridge.]]Two days after MIT was chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865.WEB, Andrews, Elizabeth, Nora, Murphy, Tom, Rosko, 2000,weblink MITMorrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes" and was a land-grant school.STRATTON LAST2=MANNIX TITLE=MIND AND HAND: THE BIRTH OF MIT CHAPTER=THE LAND-GRANT ACT OF 1862 PUBLISHER=MIT PRESS ACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 10, 2016LIBRARY OF CONGRESS>DATE=2016, In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the University of Massachusetts Amherst#History, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay.WHEN MIT WAS "BOSTON TECH", 1861–1916 FIRST=SAMUEL C PUBLISHER=MIT PRESS, MIT was informally called "Boston Tech". The institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.JOURNAL, Dunbar, Charles F., The Career of Francis Amasa Walker, Quarterly Journal of Economics, July 1897, 11, 4, 446–447, 1880719, harv, 10.2307/1880719, Programs in electrical, chemical, marine, and sanitary engineering were introduced,WEB,weblink Explore campus, visit Boston, and find out if MIT fits you to a tea, December 16, 2006, December 16, 2006, BOOK, James P., Munroe, Henry Holt & Company, 1923, A Life of Francis Amasa Walker, New York, 233, 382, new buildings were built, and the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand.The curriculum drifted to a vocational emphasis, with less focus on theoretical science.Lewis 1949, p. 12. The fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president (and former MIT faculty) Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School.WEB,weblink Alumni Petition Opposing MIT-Harvard Merger, 1904–05, Institute Archives, MIT, October 1, 2010, There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard.WEB, Alexander, Philip N., MIT-Harvard Rivalry Timeline,weblink MIT Music and Theater Arts News, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, July 7, 2014, In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding. Eventually, the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty, students, and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court effectively put an end to the merger scheme.File:George Eastman plaque in Eastman Laboratories building (MIT Building 6).jpg|thumb|upright|Plaque in Building 6 honoring George Eastman, founder of Eastman KodakEastman KodakIn 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion,WEB,weblink MIT150 Exhibition Nomination,, WEB,weblink MIT Museum,, to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus largely consisting of filled land on a {{convert|1|mi|km|spell=in|adj=mid|-long}} tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.WEB, Souvenir Program, Dedication of Cambridge Campus, 1916,weblink Object of the Month, MIT Institute Archives & Special Collections, May 29, 2012, MAP, J. B. Shields, Middlesex Canal (Massachusetts) map, 1852,weblink 1852, September 17, 2010, The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. BosworthWEB, Freeman's 1912 Design for the "New Technology",weblink Object of the Month, MIT Institute Archives & Special Collections, May 29, 2012, and had been funded largely by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, and founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million (${{formatnum:{{Inflation|US|20|1920|2015|r=1}}}} million in 2015 dollars) in cash and Kodak stock to MIT.WEB, Lindsay, David, 2000,weblink PBS-WGBH, Eastman Becomes a Mystery Donor to MIT,

Curricular reforms

In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President (effectively Provost) Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios.JOURNAL, Lecuyer, Christophe, The making of a science based technological university: Karl Compton, James Killian, and the reform of MIT, 1930–1957, Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences, 23, 1, 1992, 153–180, 10.2307/27757693, 27757693, The Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering".Lewis 1949, p. 13. Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, and depended more on tuition than on endowments or grants for its funding.BOOK, Roger L., Geiger, To advance knowledge: the growth of American research universities, 1900–1940, 2004, 13–15, 179–9, 0-19-503803-7, The school was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1934.WEB, Member Institutions and Years of Admission,weblink Association of American Universities, June 26, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 28, 2012, Still, as late as 1949, the Lewis Committee lamented in its report on the state of education at MIT that "the Institute is widely conceived as basically a vocational school", a "partly unjustified" perception the committee sought to change. The report comprehensively reviewed the undergraduate curriculum, recommended offering a broader education, and warned against letting engineering and government-sponsored research detract from the sciences and humanities.Lewis 1949, p. 113.Bourzac, Katherine, "Rethinking an MIT Education: The faculty reconsiders the General Institute Requirements", Technology Review, Monday, March 12, 2007 The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences and the MIT Sloan School of Management were formed in 1950 to compete with the powerful Schools of Science and Engineering. Previously marginalized faculties in the areas of economics, management, political science, and linguistics emerged into cohesive and assertive departments by attracting respected professors and launching competitive graduate programs.WEB,weblink History: School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences,weblink" title="">weblink March 11, 2010, MIT Archives, July 25, 2008, WEB,weblink History: Sloan School of Management, July 25, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink June 21, 2010, MIT Archives, The School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences continued to develop under the successive terms of the more humanistically oriented presidents Howard W. Johnson and Jerome Wiesner between 1966 and 1980.BOOK, Johnson, Howard Wesley,weblink Holding the Center: Memoirs of a Life in Higher Education, MIT Press, 2001, 0-262-60044-7,

Defense research

MIT's involvement in military science surged during World War II. In 1941, Vannevar Bush was appointed head of the federal Office of Scientific Research and Development and directed funding to only a select group of universities, including MIT.BOOK, Zachary, Gregg, Endless Frontier: Vannevar Bush, Engineer of the American Century, Free Press, 1997, 248–249, 0-684-82821-9,weblink Engineers and scientists from across the country gathered at MIT's Radiation Laboratory, established in 1940 to assist the British military in developing microwave radar. The work done there significantly affected both the war and subsequent research in the area.WEB,weblink MIT's Rad Lab, IEEE Global History Network, July 25, 2008, Other defense projects included gyroscope-based and other complex control systems for gunsight, bombsight, and inertial navigation under Charles Stark Draper's Instrumentation Laboratory;WEB, Doc Draper & His Lab,weblink History, The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc., May 30, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 27, 2012, WEB, Charles Draper: Gyroscopic Apparatus,weblink Inventor of the Week, MIT School of Engineering, May 30, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 18, 2012, the development of a digital computer for flight simulations under Project Whirlwind;WEB, Project Whirlwind,weblink Object of the Month, MIT Institute Archives & Special Collections, May 30, 2012, and high-speed and high-altitude photography under Harold Edgerton.WEB,weblink November 28, 2009, Wartime Strobe: 1939–1945 – Harold "Doc" Edgerton (Doc's Life), NEWS, Bedi, Joyce, MIT and World War II: Ingredients for a Hot Spot of Invention,weblink May 30, 2012, Prototype, May 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 24, 2012, By the end of the war, MIT became the nation's largest wartime R&D contractor (attracting some criticism of Bush), employing nearly 4000 in the Radiation Laboratory alone and receiving in excess of $100 million (${{formatnum:{{Inflation|US|0.1|1946|2015|r=1}}}} billion in 2015 dollars) before 1946. Work on defense projects continued even after then. Post-war government-sponsored research at MIT included SAGE and guidance systems for ballistic missiles and Project Apollo.BOOK, Leslie, Stuart, The Cold War and American Science: The Military-Industrial-Academic Complex at MIT and Stanford, Columbia University Press, 1993, 0-231-07959-1, }}These activities affected MIT profoundly. A 1949 report noted the lack of "any great slackening in the pace of life at the Institute" to match the return to peacetime, remembering the "academic tranquility of the prewar years", though acknowledging the significant contributions of military research to the increased emphasis on graduate education and rapid growth of personnel and facilities.Lewis 1949, p. 49. The faculty doubled and the graduate student body quintupled during the terms of Karl Taylor Compton, president of MIT between 1930 and 1948; James Rhyne Killian, president from 1948 to 1957; and Julius Adams Stratton, chancellor from 1952 to 1957, whose institution-building strategies shaped the expanding university. By the 1950s, MIT no longer simply benefited the industries with which it had worked for three decades, and it had developed closer working relationships with new patrons, philanthropic foundations and the federal government.Lecuyer, 1992In late 1960s and early 1970s, student and faculty activists protested against the Vietnam War and MIT's defense research.NEWS, The 'Ins' and 'Outs' at MIT, The New York Times, May 18, 1969, Todd, Richard, JOURNAL,weblink A Policy of Protest, February 28, 1969, August 13, 2008, Time (magazine), Time, In this period MIT's various departments were researching helicopters, smart bombs and counterinsurgency techniques for the war in Vietnam as well as guidance systems for nuclear missiles.MIT Review Panel on Special Laboratories Final Report; S.Leslie, The Cold War and American Science. The military-industrial complex at MITand Stanford; M.Albert, Remembering Tomorrow, pp. 97–99; 'MIT may be dangerous to the world', The Tech, 28/4/72, p. 5; 'Why Smash MIT?' in I.Wallerstein, University Crisis Reader, vol. 2, pp. 240–3; The Technology Review, December 1969. The Union of Concerned Scientists was founded on March 4, 1969 during a meeting of faculty members and students seeking to shift the emphasis on military research toward environmental and social problems.WEB,weblink Founding Document: 1968 MIT Faculty Statement, August 12, 2008, Union of Concerned Scientists, USA,weblink" title="">weblink January 15, 2008, MIT ultimately divested itself from the Instrumentation Laboratory and moved all classified research off-campus to the MIT Lincoln Laboratory facility in 1973 in response to the protests.NEWS, Tension Over Issue of Defense Research, Fred, Hechinger, Fred Hechinger, November 9, 1969, The New York Times, NEWS, MIT Curb on Secret Projects Reflects Growing Antimilitary Feeling Among Universities' Researchers, William, Stevens, May 5, 1969, The New York Times, The student body, faculty, and administration remained comparatively unpolarized during what was a tumultuous time for many other universities. Johnson was seen to be highly successful in leading his institution to "greater strength and unity" after these times of turmoil.WEB,weblink A tribute to MIT's Howard Johnson, David, Warsh, The Boston Globe, June 1, 1999, April 4, 2007, At a critical time in the late 1960s, Howard Wesley Johnson, Johnson stood up to the forces of campus rebellion at MIT. Many university presidents were destroyed by the troubles. Only Edward Levi, University of Chicago president, had comparable success guiding his institution to a position of greater strength and unity after the turmoil., However six MIT students were sentenced to prison terms at this time and some former student leaders, such as Michael Albert and George Katsiaficas, are still indignant about MIT's role in military research and its suppression of these protests.'Battering Ram: The occupation of the president's office', The Tech, 14/12/71 p. 4 and The Tech, 4/8/72; M.Albert, Remembering Tomorrow pp. 9, 97–99; 'Michael Albert interview', 17/4/07; G.Katsiaficas, 'Review of Howard Johnson's Holding the Center; S.Shalom, 'A flawed political biography', New Politics, Issue 23. (Richard Leacock's film, November Actions, records some of these tumultuous events.November Actions youtube extract'. See also: MIT Museum photos of student activism, 1960s/1970s.)In the 1980s, there was more controversy at MIT over its involvement in SDI (space weaponry) and CBW (chemical and biological warfare) research.The Tech, weblink" title="">May 27, 1988, pp. 2, 11 and weblink" title="">February 24, 1989, p. 5 and weblink" title="">March 7, 1989, 2, 16; The Thistle, Vol. 9 No. 7; Science for the People, Vol. 20 January/February 1988, pp. 17–25, 41–2 and March/April 1988, p. 6. More recently, MIT's research for the military has included work on robots, drones and 'battle suits'.MIT News, ‘MIT cheetah robot lands the running jump’ (2015) and ‘Driving drones can be a drag’ (2012); ‘Department of Defense Announces Successful Micro-Drone Demonstration’ (2017); MIT Technology Review, March 20, 2002.

Recent history

File:MIT Media Lab.jpg|thumb|right|The MIT Media Lab houses researchers developing novel uses of computer technology and shown here is the 1982 building, designed by I.M. Pei, with an extension (right of photo) designed by Fumihiko MakiFumihiko MakiMIT has kept pace with and helped to advance the digital age. In addition to developing the predecessors to modern computing and networking technologies,JOURNAL, Lee, J.A.N., J., McCarthy, J.C.R., Licklider, The beginnings at MIT, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, 1992, 14, 1, 18–54, 10.1109/85.145317, WEB,weblink Internet History, Computer History Museum, August 13, 2008, students, staff, and faculty members at Project MAC, the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, and the Tech Model Railroad Club wrote some of the earliest interactive computer video games like Spacewar! and created much of modern hacker slang and culture.WEB,weblink A Brief History of Hackerdom, Eric S., Raymond, August 11, 2008, Several major computer-related organizations have originated at MIT since the 1980s: Richard Stallman's GNU Project and the subsequent Free Software Foundation were founded in the mid-1980s at the AI Lab; the MIT Media Lab was founded in 1985 by Nicholas Negroponte and Jerome Wiesner to promote research into novel uses of computer technology;WEB,weblink The Media Lab – Retrospective,weblink" title="">weblink April 17, 2009, MIT Media Lab, August 12, 2008, the World Wide Web Consortium standards organization was founded at the Laboratory for Computer Science in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee;WEB,weblink About W3C: History, August 11, 2008, World Wide Web Consortium, the OpenCourseWare project has made course materials for over 2,000 MIT classes available online free of charge since 2002;WEB,weblink MIT OpenCourseWare, June 12, 2008, MIT, and the One Laptop per Child initiative to expand computer education and connectivity to children worldwide was launched in 2005.WEB,weblink Mission – One Laptop Per Child, One Laptop Per Child, August 11, 2008, MIT was named a sea-grant college in 1976 to support its programs in oceanography and marine sciences and was named a space-grant college in 1989 to support its aeronautics and astronautics programs.WEB,weblink Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium, August 26, 2008, Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium, WEB,weblink MIT Sea Grant College Program,weblink" title="">weblink April 4, 2009, August 26, 2008, MIT Sea Grant College Program, Despite diminishing government financial support over the past quarter century, MIT launched several successful development campaigns to significantly expand the campus: new dormitories and athletics buildings on west campus; the Tang Center for Management Education; several buildings in the northeast corner of campus supporting research into biology, brain and cognitive sciences, genomics, biotechnology, and cancer research; and a number of new "backlot" buildings on Vassar Street including the Stata Center.BOOK, Simha., O. R., MIT campus planning 1960–2000: An annotated chronology, 2003, 120–149,weblink 978-0-262-69294-6, MIT Press, Construction on campus in the 2000s included expansions of the Media Lab, the Sloan School's eastern campus, and graduate residences in the northwest.WEB,weblink MIT Facilities: In Development & Construction,weblink" title="">weblink March 12, 2009, MIT, July 22, 2008, NEWS,weblink MIT will accelerate its building boom: $750m expansion to add 4 facilities, Bombardieri, Marcella, September 14, 2006, The Boston Globe, August 13, 2008, In 2006, President Hockfield launched the MIT Energy Research Council to investigate the interdisciplinary challenges posed by increasing global energy consumption.WEB, About MITEI,weblink MIT Energy Initiative, May 31, 2012, In 2001, inspired by the open source and open access movements,NEWS, Get it out in the open, Attwood, Rebecca, September 24, 2009,weblink Times Higher Education, MIT launched OpenCourseWare to make the lecture notes, problem sets, syllabi, exams, and lectures from the great majority of its courses available online for no charge, though without any formal accreditation for coursework completed.NEWS, Goldberg, Carey, April 4, 2001, The New York Times, Auditing Classes at M.I.T., on the Web and Free,weblink While the cost of supporting and hosting the project is high,NEWS,weblink An Open Mind, The New York Times, April 16, 2010, Hafner, Katie, OCW expanded in 2005 to include other universities as a part of the OpenCourseWare Consortium, which currently includes more than 250 academic institutions with content available in at least six languages.NEWS, For Exposure, Universities Put Courses on the Web, Guttenplan, D.D., November 1, 2010, The New York Times,weblink In 2011, MIT announced it would offer formal certification (but not credits or degrees) to online participants completing coursework in its "MITx" program, for a modest fee.NEWS,weblink Lewin, Tamar, December 19, 2011, The New York Times, M.I.T. Expands Its Free Online Courses, The "edX" online platform supporting MITx was initially developed in partnership with Harvard and its analogous "Harvardx" initiative. The courseware platform is open source, and other universities have already joined and added their own course content.NEWS,weblink What is edX?, MIT News Office, May 2, 2012, In March 2009 the MIT faculty adopted an open-access policy to make its scholarship publicly accessible online.JOURNAL,weblink Massachusetts Institute of Technology, ROARMAP: Registry of Open Access Repository Mandates and Policies, University of Southampton, UK, July 24, 2018, December 15, 2014, MIT has its own police force. Three days after the Boston Marathon bombing of April 2013, MIT Police patrol officer Sean Collier was fatally shot by the suspects Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev, setting off a violent manhunt that shut down the campus and much of the Boston metropolitan area for a day.NEWS,weblink Officer's Killing Spurred Pursuit in Boston Attack, April 24, 2013, The New York Times, Ruderman, Wendy, Kovaleski, Serge, Cooper, Michael, One week later, Collier's memorial service was attended by more than 10,000 people, in a ceremony hosted by the MIT community with thousands of police officers from the New England region and Canada.NEWS, Bidgood, Jess, On a Field at M.I.T., 10,000 Remember an Officer Who Was Killed,weblink January 30, 2014, New York Times, April 24, 2013, NEWS, Faviero, Bruno B. F., Thousands attend Sean Collier memorial service,weblink January 30, 2014, The Tech (newspaper), The Tech, 133, 21, April 26, 2013, NEWS,weblink Thousands attend slain MIT officer's memorial service, April 24, 2013, CBS News, On November 25, 2013, MIT announced the creation of the Collier Medal, to be awarded annually to "an individual or group that embodies the character and qualities that Officer Collier exhibited as a member of the MIT community and in all aspects of his life". The announcement further stated that "Future recipients of the award will include those whose contributions exceed the boundaries of their profession, those who have contributed to building bridges across the community, and those who consistently and selflessly perform acts of kindness".NEWS, Letter regarding the establishment of the Collier Medal,weblink November 26, 2013, MIT News, November 25, 2013, WEB, Collier Medal,weblink MIT Police, MIT, November 26, 2013, NEWS, Rocheleau, Matt, MIT to establish a Sean Collier award,weblink November 26, 2013, The Boston Globe, November 26, 2013, In September 2017, the school announced the creation of an artificial intelligence research lab called the MIT-IBM Watson AI Lab. IBM will spend $240 million over the next decade, and the lab will be staffed by MIT and IBM scientists.NEWS,weblink IBM and MIT partner on artificial intelligence research, ABC News, Associated Press, September 7, 2017, September 7, 2017, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 7, 2017, mdy-all, In October 2018 MIT announced that in September 2019, it would open a new College of Computing dedicated to the study of artificial intelligence, to be named after lead donor and The Blackstone Group CEO Stephen Schwarzman. The focus of the new college is to study not just AI, but interdisciplinary AI education, and how AI can be used in fields as diverse as history and biology. The cost of buildings and new faculty for the new college is expected to be $1 billion upon completion.NEWS, Gershgorn, Dave,weblink MIT is building a billion-dollar college dedicated to AI, Quartz, October 15, 2018, October 16, 2018, Over the course of 20 years, MIT received approximately $800,000 via foundations controlled by Jeffrey Epstein,WEB,weblink Jeffrey Epstein's foundations gave nearly $800K to MIT, August 23, 2019, convicted sex offender charged with the sex trafficking and sexual abuse of minors. All of those gifts went either to the MIT Media Lab or to Professor Seth Lloyd. Both Seth and Media Lab Director Joi Ito have made public statements apologizing to Jeffrey Epstein's victims and others for judgments made over a series of years.WEB,weblink My apology regarding Jeffrey Epstein, WEB,weblink I am writing to apologize to Jeffrey Epstein's victims, August 24, 2019,


File:MIT East Campus aerial.JPG|thumb|right|The central and eastern sections of MIT's campus as seen from above Massachusetts Avenue and the Charles River. Left of center is the Great Dome overlooking Killian Court, with Kendall SquareKendall Square(File:MIT Building 10 and the Great Dome, Cambridge MA.jpg|thumb|MIT's Building 10 and Great Dome overlooking Killian Court)MIT's {{convert|166|acre|ha|1|adj=on}} campus in the city of Cambridge spans approximately a mile along the north side of the Charles River basin.WEB, The Campus,weblink MIT Facts 2018, November 11, 2018, The campus is divided roughly in half by Massachusetts Avenue, with most dormitories and student life facilities to the west and most academic buildings to the east. The bridge closest to MIT is the Harvard Bridge, which is known for being marked off in a non-standard unit of length – the smoot.JOURNAL,weblink Smoot's Legacy: 50th anniversary of famous feat nears, August 13, 2008, Technology Review, Durant, Elizabeth, NEWS, The Measure of This Man Is in the Smoot; MIT's Human Yardstick Honored for Work, The Washington Post, December 8, 2005, Fahrenthold, David, The Kendall/MIT MBTA Red Line station is located on the northeastern edge of the campus, in Kendall Square. The Cambridge neighborhoods surrounding MIT are a mixture of high tech companies occupying both modern office and rehabilitated industrial buildings, as well as socio-economically diverse residential neighborhoods.WEB, Cambridge: Just the Facts (City Facts Brochure),weblink City of Cambridge, May 31, 2012, In early 2016, MIT presented its updated Kendall Square Initiative to the City of Cambridge, with plans for mixed-use educational, retail, residential, startup incubator, and office space in a dense high-rise transit-oriented development plan.WEB, MIT presents updated Kendall Square Initiative plan to City of Cambridge,weblink MIT News, January 23, 2016, The MIT Museum will eventually be moved immediately adjacent to a Kendall Square subway entrance, joining the List Visual Arts Center on the eastern end of the campus.WEB, Kendall Square Initiative,weblink, MIT, April 6, 2016, NEWS, Letter to the community on East Campus/Kendall Square design firm selection,weblink April 6, 2016, MIT News, MIT, September 23, 2014, Each building at MIT has a number (possibly preceded by a W, N, E, or NW) designation and most have a name as well. Typically, academic and office buildings are referred to primarily by number while residence halls are referred to by name. The organization of building numbers roughly corresponds to the order in which the buildings were built and their location relative (north, west, and east) to the original center cluster of Maclaurin buildings.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, December 22, 2010, Building History and Numbering System, Mind and Hand Book, MIT, August 13, 2008, Many of the buildings are connected above ground as well as through an extensive network of tunnels, providing protection from the Cambridge weather as well as a venue for roof and tunnel hacking.WEB,weblink MIT Campus Subterranean Map, MIT Department of Facilities,weblink" title="">weblink July 31, 2010, August 13, 2008, NEWS, 'Hackers' Skirt Security in Late-Night MIT Treks, The Boston Globe, Abel, David, March 30, 2000, MIT's on-campus nuclear reactorWEB,weblink MIT Course Catalogue,weblink" title="">weblink January 4, 2009, MIT, July 14, 2008, is one of the most powerful university-based nuclear reactors in the United States. The prominence of the reactor's containment building in a densely populated area has been controversial,WEB,weblink Loose Nukes: A Special Report, ABC News, April 14, 2007, but MIT maintains that it is well-secured.NEWS,weblink MIT Assures Community of Research Reactor Safety, MIT News Office, October 13, 2005, October 5, 2006, In 1999 Bill Gates donated US$20 million to MIT for the construction of a computer laboratory named the "William H. Gates Building", and designed by architect Frank Gehry. While Microsoft had previously given financial support to the institution, this was the first personal donation received from Gates.WEB, Chun, Matthew G.H., Bill Gates Donates $20 million to MIT,weblink The Harvard Crimson, The Harvard Crimson, Inc, April 6, 2014, April 14, 1999, MIT Nano, also known as Building 12, is an interdisciplinary facility for nanoscale research. Its 100,000 square feet cleanroom and research space, visible through expansive glass facades, is the largest research facility of its kind in the nation.WEB, MIT Nano Research Capabilities,weblink With a cost of US$400 million, it is also one of the costliest buildings on campus. The facility also provides state-of-the-art nanoimaging capabilities with vibration damped imaging and metrology suites sitting atop a 5-million-pound slab of concrete underground.NEWS, Chandler, David, A big new home for the ultrasmall,weblink MIT News, September 23, 2018, Other notable campus facilities include a pressurized wind tunnel for testing aerodynamic research, a towing tank for testing ship and ocean structure designs, and Alcator C-Mod, the largest fusion device operated by any university.NEWS, Supersonic Tunnel Open; Naval Laboratory for Aircraft Dedicated at M.I.T., The New York Times, December 2, 1949, NEWS, Ship Test Tank for M.I.T.; Dr. Killian Announces Plant to Cost $500,000, The New York Times, February 6, 1949, MIT's campus-wide wireless network was completed in the fall of 2005 and consists of nearly 3,000 access points covering {{convert|9400000|sqft|m2}} of campus.WEB,weblink MIT maps wireless users across campus, November 4, 2005, March 3, 2007, MIT,weblink" title="">weblink September 5, 2006, In 2001, the Environmental Protection Agency sued MIT for violating the Clean Water Act and the Clean Air Act with regard to its hazardous waste storage and disposal procedures.WEB,weblink Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Clean Air Act, and the Clean Water Act, Environmental Protection Agency, May 3, 2001, July 16, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 25, 2008, MIT settled the suit by paying a $155,000 fine and launching three environmental projects.NEWS, MIT to create three new environmental projects as part of agreement with EPA,weblink MIT News Office, April 21, 2001, Robert, Sales, July 16, 2008, In connection with capital campaigns to expand the campus, the Institute has also extensively renovated existing buildings to improve their energy efficiency. MIT has also taken steps to reduce its environmental impact by running alternative fuel campus shuttles, subsidizing public transportation passes, and building a low-emission cogeneration plant that serves most of the campus electricity, heating, and cooling requirements.WEB,weblink The Environment at MIT: Conservation,weblink" title="">weblink January 4, 2009, MIT, August 11, 2008, The MIT Police with state and local authorities, in the 2009-2011 period, have investigated reports of 12 forcible sex offenses, 6 robberies, 3 aggravated assaults, 164 burglaries, 1 case of arson, and 4 cases of motor vehicle theft on campus; affecting a community of around 22,000 students and employees.MIT has substantial commercial real estate holdings in Cambridge on which it pays property taxes, plus an additional voluntary payment in lieu of taxes (PILOT) on academic buildings which are legally tax-exempt. {{asof|2017}}, it is the largest taxpayer in the city, contributing approximately 14% of the city's annual revenues.WEB, MIT Facts 2017: MIT and the Community,weblink, March 24, 2017, Holdings include Technology Square, parts of Kendall Square, and many properties in Cambridgeport and Area 4 neighboring the educational buildings.WEB,weblink Institutional Ownership Map - Cambridge Massachusetts, The land is held for investment purposes and potential long-term expansion.


File:Wfm stata center.jpg|thumb|The Stata Center houses CSAIL, LIDS, and the Department of Linguistics and Philosophy ]]MIT's School of Architecture, now the School of Architecture and Planning, was the first in the United States,WEB,weblink MIT Architecture: Welcome, April 4, 2007, MIT Department of Architecture,weblink" title="">weblink March 23, 2007, and it has a history of commissioning progressive buildings.NEWS, Starchitecture on Campus,weblink February 22, 2004, October 24, 2006, The Boston Globe, David, Dillon, NEWS, At MIT, Going Boldly Where No Architect Has Gone Before, Flint, Anthony, October 13, 2002, The Boston Globe, The first buildings constructed on the Cambridge campus, completed in 1916, are sometimes called the "Maclaurin buildings" after Institute president Richard Maclaurin who oversaw their construction. Designed by William Welles Bosworth, these imposing buildings were built of reinforced concrete, a first for a non-industrial – much less university – building in the US.BOOK, Jarzombek, Mark, Mark Jarzombek, Designing MIT: Bosworth's New Tech, Boston, 2004, Northeastern University Press, 50–51,weblink 978-1-55553-619-0, Bosworth's design was influenced by the City Beautiful Movement of the early 1900s and features the Pantheon-esque Great Dome housing the Barker Engineering Library. The Great Dome overlooks Killian Court, where graduation ceremonies are held each year. The friezes of the limestone-clad buildings around Killian Court are engraved with the names of important scientists and philosophers.{{refn|The friezes of the marble-clad buildings surrounding Killian Court are carved in large Roman letters with the names of Aristotle, Newton, Pasteur, Lavoisier, Faraday, Archimedes, da Vinci, Darwin, and Copernicus; each of these names is surmounted by a cluster of appropriately related names in smaller letters. Lavoisier, for example, is placed in the company of Boyle, Cavendish, Priestley, Dalton, Gay Lussac, Berzelius, Woehler, Liebig, Bunsen, Mendelejeff {{sic}}, Perkin, and van't Hoff.WEB,weblink Names of MIT Buildings, MIT Archives, April 10, 2007, NEWS, Names on Institute Buildings Lend Inspiration to Future Scientists,weblink May 30, 2012, The Tech (newspaper), The Tech, XLII, 70, December 22, 1922, |group=lower-alpha}} The spacious Building 7 atrium at 77 Massachusetts Avenue is regarded as the entrance to the Infinite Corridor and the rest of the campus.Alvar Aalto's Baker House (1947), Eero Saarinen's MIT Chapel and Kresge Auditorium (1955), and I.M. Pei's Green, Dreyfus, Landau, and Wiesner buildings represent high forms of post-war modernist architecture.NEWS, Colleges: More Than Ivy-Covered Halls, March 2, 1986, Campbell, Robert, The Boston Globe, NEWS,weblink Challenge to the Rectangle, TIME Magazine, August 13, 2008, June 29, 1953, NEWS,weblink Flagpole in the Square, TIME Magazine, August 22, 1960, August 13, 2008, More recent buildings like Frank Gehry's Stata Center (2004), Steven Holl's Simmons Hall (2002), Charles Correa's Building 46 (2005), and Fumihiko Maki's Media Lab Extension (2009) stand out among the Boston area's classical architecture and serve as examples of contemporary campus "starchitecture".NEWS, Architecture's Brand Names Come to Town, The Boston Globe, May 20, 2001, Campbell, Robert, These buildings have not always been well received;NEWS, The Campuses of Cambridge, A City Unto Themselves, Paul, James, The Washington Post, April 9, 1989, NEWS,weblink The Hubris of a Great Artist Can Be a Gift or a Curse, The Washington Post, Lewis, Roger K., November 24, 2007, August 13, 2008, in 2010, The Princeton Review included MIT in a list of twenty schools whose campuses are "tiny, unsightly, or both".WEB, 2010 361 Best College Rankings: Quality of Life: Campus Is Tiny, Unsightly, or Both,weblink Princeton Review, 2010, July 6, 2010,


File:Simmons Hall, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts.JPG|thumb|right|The Simmons Hall undergrad dormitory was completed in 2002]]Undergraduates are guaranteed four-year housing in one of MIT's 10 undergraduate dormitories.WEB,weblink Undergraduate Residence Halls, MIT Housing Office, October 1, 2010, Those living on campus can receive support and mentoring from live-in graduate student tutors, resident advisors, and faculty housemasters.WEB, Residential Life Live-in Staff,weblink MIT, June 1, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 20, 2012, Because housing assignments are made based on the preferences of the students themselves, diverse social atmospheres can be sustained in different living groups; for example, according to the Yale Daily News staff's The Insider's Guide to the Colleges, 2010, "The split between East Campus and West Campus is a significant characteristic of MIT. East Campus has gained a reputation as a thriving counterculture."BOOK, The Insider's Guide to the Colleges, 2010, Yale Daily News Staff, 2009, St. Martin's Griffin, 978-0-312-57029-3, 377–380,weblink MIT also has 5 dormitories for single graduate students and 2 apartment buildings on campus for married student families.WEB, Graduate residences for singles & families,weblink October 1, 2010, MIT Housing Office, MIT, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 20, 2010, MIT has an active Greek and co-op housing system, including thirty-six fraternities, sororities, and independent living groups (FSILGs).WEB, MIT Facts: Housing, 2010,weblink October 1, 2010, {{As of|2015}}, 98% of all undergraduates lived in MIT-affiliated housing; 54% of the men participated in fraternities and 20% of the women were involved in sororities. Most FSILGs are located across the river in Back Bay near where MIT was founded, and there is also a cluster of fraternities on MIT's West Campus that face the Charles River Basin.WEB, Undergraduate and Graduate Residence Halls, Fraternities, Sororities, and Independent Living Groups @ MIT,weblink MIT Residential Life, June 1, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 8, 2012, After the 1997 alcohol-related death of Scott Krueger, a new pledge at the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, MIT required all freshmen to live in the dormitory system starting in 2002.NEWS, MIT rules freshmen to reside on campus, The Boston Globe, August 27, 1998, Kate, Zernike, B1, Because FSILGs had previously housed as many as 300 freshmen off-campus, the new policy could not be implemented until Simmons Hall opened in that year.NEWS, For First Time, MIT Assigns Freshmen to Campus Dorms, The Boston Globe, Russell, Jenna, August 25, 2002, In 2013-2014, MIT abruptly closed and then demolished undergrad dorm Bexley Hall, citing extensive water damage that made repairs infeasible. In 2017, MIT shut down Senior House after a century of service as an undergrad dorm. That year, MIT administrators released data showing just 60% of Senior House residents had graduated in four years. Campus-wide, the four-year graduation rate is 84% (the cumulative graduation rate is significantly higher).NEWS,weblink Why Residents of MIT's Counter-Culture Dorm Have to Move Out, Glatter, Hayley, The Atlantic, November 7, 2017, en-US,

{{anchor|MIT Corporation}}Organization and administration

(File:MIT Lobby 7.jpg|upright|thumb|Lobby 7 (at 77 Massachusetts Avenue) is regarded as the main entrance to campus)MIT is chartered as a non-profit organization and is owned and governed by a privately appointed board of trustees known as the MIT Corporation.WEB,weblink MIT Corporation, March 18, 2007, MIT Corporation, The current board consists of 43 members elected to five-year terms,WEB,weblink Members of the MIT Corporation: Term Members, The MIT Corporation, September 7, 2010, 25 life members who vote until their 75th birthday,WEB,weblink Members of the MIT Corporation: Life Members, The MIT Corporation, September 7, 2010, 3 elected officers (President, Treasurer, and Secretary),WEB,weblink Members of the MIT Corporation: Officers, The MIT Corporation, September 7, 2010, and 4 ex officio members (the president of the alumni association, the Governor of Massachusetts, the Massachusetts Secretary of Education, and the Chief Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court).WEB,weblink Members of the MIT Corporation: Ex Officio Members, The MIT Corporation, September 7, 2010, WEB,weblink Bylaws of the MIT Corporation – Section 2: Members, The MIT Corporation, September 7, 2010, The board is chaired by Robert Millard, a co-founder ofL-3 Communications Holdings.NEWS,weblink Robert Millard '73 elected chair of the MIT Corporation: Corporation member and alumnus succeeds John Reed; other elections 5, 2014PUBLISHER=MIT NEWS OFFICE ACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 7, 2010, The Corporation approves the budget, new programs, degrees and faculty appointments, and elects the President to serve as the chief executive officer of the university and preside over the Institute's faculty.HTTP://WEB.MIT.EDU/CATALOG/OVERV.CHAP1.HTML >TITLE=MIT COURSE CATALOGUE: OVERVIEW ACCESSDATE=JULY 16, 2008, A BRIEF HISTORY AND WORKINGS OF THE CORPORATION >URL=HTTP://WEB.MIT.EDU/FNL/VOLUME/185/MEAD.HTML PUBLISHER=MIT FACULTY NEWSLETTER, MIT's financial endowment and pension>other financial assets are managed through a subsidiary called MIT Investment Management Company (MITIMCo).HTTP://WWW.MITIMCO.ORG/ >TITLE=MIT INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT COMPANY PUBLISHER=MIT INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT COMPANY, Valued at $16.529 billion in 2018, MIT's endowment is the fifth-largest among American colleges and universities.{{citation needed|date=November 2018}}MIT has five schools (Science, Engineering, Architecture and Planning, Management, and Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences) and one college (Whitaker College of Health Sciences and Technology), but no schools of law or medicine.WEB,weblink MIT Facts: Academic Schools and Departments, Divisions & Sections, 2010, October 1, 2010, {{refn|The Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology (HST) offers joint MD, MD-PhD, or Medical Engineering degrees in collaboration with Harvard Medical School.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, January 5, 2003, Harvard-MIT HST Academics Overview, August 5, 2007, |group=lower-alpha}} A second college, The Stephen A. Schwarzman College of Computing, is scheduled to open in September 2019.NEWS,weblink FAQ on the newly established MIT Stephen A. Schwarzman College of Computing, MIT News, October 24, 2018, While faculty committees assert substantial control over many areas of MIT's curriculum, research, student life, and administrative affairs,WEB, Bras, Rafael L., Rafael L. Bras,weblink Reports to the President, Report of the Chair of the Faculty, 2004–2005, December 1, 2006, MIT, the chair of each of MIT's 32 academic departments reports to the dean of that department's school, who in turn reports to the Provost under the President.WEB,weblink Reporting List, MIT, September 7, 2010, The current president is L. Rafael Reif, who formerly served as provost under President Susan Hockfield, the first woman to hold the post.NEWS,weblink L. Rafael Reif selected as MIT's 17th president, MIT News, May 16, 2012, Bradt, Steve, WEB,weblink Susan Hockfield, President, Massachusetts Institute of Technology – Biography, MIT, September 19, 2008,


MIT is a large, highly residential, research university with a majority of enrollments in graduate and professional programs.WEB, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,weblink Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, June 22, 2012, The university has been accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges since 1929.WEB, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,weblink Roster of Institutions, New England Association of Schools and Colleges Commission on Institutions of Higher Education, August 3, 2018, MIT operates on a 4-1-4 academic calendar with the fall semester beginning after Labor Day and ending in mid-December, a 4-week "Independent Activities Period" in the month of January, and the spring semester commencing in early February and ceasing in late May.WEB,weblink Academic Calendar, Officer of the Registrar, MIT, September 6, 2010, MIT students refer to both their majors and classes using numbers or acronyms alone.WEB,weblink Majors & Minors, MIT Admissions Office, August 13, 2008, MIT is organized into academic departments, or Courses, which you will often hear referred to by their Course number or acronym., Departments and their corresponding majors are numbered in the approximate order of their foundation; for example, Civil and Environmental Engineering is {{nowrap|Course 1}}, while Linguistics and Philosophy is {{nowrap|Course 24}}.WEB, Butcher, Ev, Course Code Designation Key,weblink MIT Club of San Diego,weblink" title="">weblink July 25, 2011, Students majoring in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), the most popular department, collectively identify themselves as "Course 6". MIT students use a combination of the department's course number and the number assigned to the class to identify their subjects; for instance, the introductory calculus-based classical mechanics course is simply "8.01" at MIT.WEB,weblink MIT Course Catalogue: Degree Programs, MIT, July 16, 2008, {{refn|Course numbers are sometimes presented in Roman numerals, e.g. "Course XVIII" for mathematics. At least one MIT style guide now discourages this usage.WEB, Style Sheet {{!, Report Preparation Guidelines|url=|publisher=MIT|accessdate=June 6, 2012}} Also, some Course numbers have been re-assigned over time, so that the subject area of a degree may depend on the year it was awarded.|group=lower-alpha}}

Undergraduate program

The four-year, full-time undergraduate program maintains a balance between professional majors and those in the arts and sciences, and has been dubbed "most selective" by U.S. News, admitting few transfer students and 6.7% of its applicants in the 2017-2018 admissions cycle.WEB,weblink, April 12, 2019, Admissions statistics, MIT offers 44 undergraduate degrees across its five schools.WEB,weblink MIT Course Catalog: Degree Charts, Officer of the Registrar, MIT, September 6, 2010, In the 2017–2018 academic year, 1,045 bachelor of science degrees (abbreviated "SB") were granted, the only type of undergraduate degree MIT now awards.{{update after|2016|10|2}}WEB, MIT Degrees Awarded,weblink Institutional Research, Office of the Provost, June 26, 2012, WEB,weblink MIT Course Catalog: Academic Programs, Officer of the Registrar, MIT, September 6, 2010, In the 2011 fall term, among students who had designated a major, the School of Engineering was the most popular division, enrolling 63% of students in its 19 degree programs, followed by the School of Science (29%), School of Humanities, Arts, & Social Sciences (3.7%), Sloan School of Management (3.3%), and School of Architecture and Planning (2%).{{update after|2016|10|2}} The largest undergraduate degree programs were in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science ({{nowrap|Course 6–2}}), Computer Science and Engineering ({{nowrap|Course 6–3}}), Mechanical Engineering ({{nowrap|Course 2}}), Physics ({{nowrap|Course 8}}), and Mathematics ({{nowrap|Course 18}}).WEB,weblink Enrollment Statistics, MIT Office of the Registrar, June 26, 2012, File:Infinitecorridor.jpg|left|thumb|The Infinite CorridorInfinite CorridorAll undergraduates are required to complete a core curriculum called the General Institute Requirements (GIRs).WEB,weblink MIT Course Catalog: Undergraduate General Institute Requirements, Officer of the Registrar, MIT, September 6, 2010, The Science Requirement, generally completed during freshman year as prerequisites for classes in science and engineering majors, comprises two semesters of physics, two semesters of calculus, one semester of chemistry, and one semester of biology. There is a Laboratory Requirement, usually satisfied by an appropriate class in a course major. The Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (HASS) Requirement consists of eight semesters of classes in the humanities, arts, and social sciences, including at least one semester from each division as well as the courses required for a designated concentration in a HASS division. Under the Communication Requirement, two of the HASS classes, plus two of the classes taken in the designated major must be "communication-intensive",WEB, About the Requirement,weblink Undergraduate Communication Requirement, MIT, May 30, 2012, including "substantial instruction and practice in oral presentation".WEB, Faculty and Instructors,weblink Undergraduate Communication Requirement, MIT, May 30, 2012, Finally, all students are required to complete a swimming test;"MIT's Wettest Test", Nicole Morell, December 18, 2014, non-varsity athletes must also take four quarters of physical education classes.Most classes rely on a combination of lectures, recitations led by associate professors or graduate students, weekly problem sets ("p-sets"), and periodic quizzes or tests. While the pace and difficulty of MIT coursework has been compared to "drinking from a fire hose",NEWS, Boston Globe, February 1, 1959, 51, 'Getting an education at MIT is like drinking from a fire hose' is generally attributed to former President Jerome Wiesner. However, in the 1 February 1959 (p. 51) issue of the Boston Globe, there is the following, "Quoting an MIT student Dr. [Julius] Stratton cited the quickening pace of science and said: 'Getting a technical education today is like getting a drink from a firehose.'", BOOK, Leadership and Organizational Culture: New Perspectives on Administrative Theory and Practice, Thomas J. Sergiovanni, John Edward Corbally, Leadership as Reflection-in-Action, Schön, Donald A., University of Illinois Press, 1986, 0-252-01347-6,weblink 59, [In the sixties] Students spoke of their undergraduate experience as "drinking from a fire hose.", August 13, 2008, BOOK, Mattuck, Arthur, Arthur Mattuck, The Torch or the Firehose, 2009, MIT OpenCourseWare, 1,weblink the freshmen retention rate at MIT is similar to other research universities.MAGAZINE,weblink Average Freshmen Retention Rates: National Universities, U.S. News and World Report, September 6, 2010, The "pass/no-record" grading system relieves some pressure for first-year undergraduates. For each class taken in the fall term, freshmen transcripts will either report only that the class was passed, or otherwise not have any record of it. In the spring term, passing grades (A, B, C) appear on the transcript while non-passing grades are again not recorded.WEB,weblink MIT Course Catalog: Freshman Year, Officer of the Registrar, MIT, September 6, 2010, (Grading had previously been "pass/no record" all freshman year, but was amended for the Class of 2006 to prevent students from gaming the system by completing required major classes in their freshman year.NEWS, Keuss, Nancy,weblink The Evolution of MIT's Pass/No Record System, The Tech (newspaper), The Tech, 120, 50, October 17, 2000, September 6, 2010, ) Also, freshmen may choose to join alternative learning communities, such as Experimental Study Group, Concourse, or Terrascope.In 1969, Margaret MacVicar founded the Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP) to enable undergraduates to collaborate directly with faculty members and researchers. Students join or initiate research projects ("UROPs") for academic credit, pay, or on a volunteer basis through postings on the UROP website or by contacting faculty members directly.WEB, MIT UROP: Basic Information,weblink MIT, June 21, 2012, A substantial majority of undergraduates participate.WEB, MIT Research and Teaching Firsts,weblink October 6, 2006, MIT News Office,weblink" title="">weblink September 15, 2006, WEB, Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program,weblink MIT Admissions, June 21, 2012, Students often become published, file patent applications, and/or launch start-up companies based upon their experience in UROPs.NEWS, Use of Undergraduates in Research Is Hailed by M.I.T.; Inventions by Students, The New York Times, Maeroff, Gene I., January 11, 1976, NEWS,weblink An MIT Original, the Oft Replicated UROP Program Reaches 30 Years, Palmer, Matthew, October 5, 1999, The Tech (newspaper), The Tech, 119, 47, In 1970, the then-Dean of Institute Relations, Benson R. Snyder, published The Hidden Curriculum, arguing that education at MIT was often slighted in favor of following a set of unwritten expectations, and that graduating with good grades was more often the product of figuring out the system rather than a solid education. The successful student, according to Snyder, was the one who was able to discern which of the formal requirements were to be ignored in favor of which unstated norms. For example, organized student groups had compiled "course bibles"—collections of problem-set and examination questions and answers for later students to use as references. This sort of gamesmanship, Snyder argued, hindered development of a creative intellect and contributed to student discontent and unrest.BOOK, Benson, Snyder, The Hidden Curriculum, 1970, MIT Press, 0-262-69043-8,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 22, 2006, JOURNAL, Mahoney, Matt, Unwritten Rules,weblink June 21, 2012, Technology Review, May 2012,

Graduate program

MIT's graduate program has high coexistence with the undergraduate program, and many courses are taken by qualified students at both levels. MIT offers a comprehensive doctoral program with degrees in the humanities, social sciences, and STEM fields as well as professional degrees. The Institute offers graduate programs leading to academic degrees such as the Master of Science (which is abbreviated as SM at MIT), various Engineer's Degrees, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), and Doctor of Science (ScD) and interdisciplinary graduate programs such as the MD-PhD (with Harvard Medical School).WEB,weblink MIT Course Catalog: Graduate Education: General Degree Requirements, Officer of the Registrar, MIT, September 6, 2010, WEB,weblink Interdisciplinary Graduate Programs, Officer of the Registrar, MIT, September 6, 2010, WEB, Degrees Offered,weblink MIT Facts 2017, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, September 13, 2017, Admission to graduate programs is decentralized; applicants apply directly to the department or degree program. More than 90% of doctoral students are supported by fellowships, research assistantships (RAs), or teaching assistantships (TAs).WEB, Graduate Education,weblink MIT Facts 2012, MIT, June 25, 2012, MIT awarded 1,547 master's degrees and 609 doctoral degrees in the academic year 2010–11.{{update after|2016|10|2}} In the 2011 fall term, the School of Engineering was the most popular academic division, enrolling 45.0% of graduate students, followed by the Sloan School of Management (19%), School of Science (16.9%), School of Architecture and Planning (9.2%), Whitaker College of Health Sciences (5.1%),Figure includes 196 students working on Harvard degrees only. and School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences (4.7%). The largest graduate degree programs were the Sloan MBA, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, and Mechanical Engineering.


MIT also places among the top five in many overall rankings of universities (see right) and rankings based on students' revealed preferences.JOURNAL, Avery, Christopher, Glickman, Mark E., Hoxby, Caroline M, Metrick, Andrew, A Revealed Preference Ranking of U.S. Colleges and Universities, NBER Working Paper No. W10803, December 2005, National Bureau of Economic Research, 601105, WEB, 2012 Parchment Top Choice College Rankings: All Colleges,weblink Parchment Inc., June 5, 2012, WEB,weblink What makes a global top 10 university?, Coughlan, Sean, September 15, 2014, BBC News, It's the third year in a row that [MIT] ... has been top of the QS World University Rankings. The biggest single factor in the QS rankings is academic reputation ... calculated by surveying more than 60,000 academics ... Universities with an established name and a strong brand are likely to do better., For several years, U.S. News & World Report, the QS World University Rankings, and the Academic Ranking of World Universities have ranked MIT's School of Engineering first, as did the 1995 National Research Council report.WEB,weblink NRC Rankings, October 9, 2008, In the same lists, MIT's strongest showings apart from in engineering are in computer science, the natural sciences, business, architecture, economics, linguistics, mathematics, and, to a lesser extent, political science and philosophy.NEWS, MIT undergraduate engineering again ranked No. 1,weblink August 17, 2010, MIT News Office, Times Higher Education has recognized MIT as one of the world's "six super brands" on its World Reputation Rankings, along with Berkeley, Cambridge, Harvard, Oxford and Stanford.WEB, Morgan, John, Top Six Universities Dominate THE World Reputation Rankings,weblink "The rankings suggest that the top six- ... Stanford University and the University of Oxford – form a group of globally recognized "super brands"., In 2019, it ranked 3rd among the universities around the world by SCImago Institutions Rankings.WEB,weblink SCImago Institutions Rankings - Higher Education - All Regions and Countries - 2019 - Overall Rank,, In 2017, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings rated MIT the #2 university for arts and humanities.WEB, Stanford and MIT lead THE arts and humanities ranking,weblink Times Higher Education (THE) World University Rankings, Times Higher Education (THE), January 26, 2018, en, September 13, 2017, WEB, MIT SHASS: MIT named No. 2 university worldwide for the Arts and Humanities,weblink, January 26, 2018, en, MIT was ranked #7 in 2015 and #6 in 2017 of the Nature Index Annual Tables, which measure the largest contributors to papers published in 82 leading journals.WEB,weblink Ten institutions that dominated science in 2015, May 28, 2019, WEB,weblink 10 institutions that dominated science in 2017, May 28, 2019, WEB,weblink Introduction to the Nature Index, May 28, 2019,


File:MIT Kresge Auditorium.jpg|thumb|right|Eero Saarinen's Kresge Auditorium (1955) is a classic example of post-war architecture ]]The university historically pioneered research and training collaborations between academia, industry and government.JOURNAL, A Survey of New England: A Concentration of Talent, The Economist, August 8, 1987, MIT for a long time ... stood virtually alone as a university that embraced rather than shunned industry., BOOK, MIT: Shaping the Future, Edward B., Roberts, An Environment for Entrepreneurs, MIT Press, 1991, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 0262631415, The war made necessary the formation of new working coalitions ... between these technologists and government officials. These changes were especially noteworthy at MIT.,  In 1946, President Compton, Harvard Business School professor Georges Doriot, and Massachusetts Investor Trust chairman Merrill Grisswold founded American Research and Development Corporation, the first American venture-capital firm.NEWS, Shlaes, Amity, From the Ponderosa to the Googleplex: How Americans match money to ideas, State Department Press Release, U.S. Department of State, May 14, 2008, Griswold, [MIT president] Compton, and various politicians handpicked Doriot to head American Research & Development, a new firm that would invest in [the] small, innovative companies that had been underserved by traditional capital markets., NEWS, Simon, Jane,weblink Route 128: How it developed, and why it's not likely to be duplicated, 15, New England Business, Boston, July 1, 1985, Compton co-founded in 1946 what is believed to be the nation's first venture capital company. ...   [He] and a group led by a Harvard professor [Doriot] founded one of the first venture capital companies, American Research & Development Corp.,  In 1948, Compton established the MIT Industrial Liaison Program.WEB, Industrial Liaison Program: About Us, MIT, 2011,weblink Established in 1948, the ILP continues ... making industrial connections for MIT., Throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, American politicians and business leaders accused MIT and other universities of contributing to a declining economy by transferring taxpayer-funded research and technology to international – especially Japanese – firms that were competing with struggling American businesses.NEWS,weblink MIT Deal with Japan Stirs Fear on Competition, Kolata, Gina, December 19, 1990, June 9, 2008, The New York Times, NEWS, MIT Criticized for Selling Research to Japanese Firms, The Washington Post, June 14, 1989, William, Booth, On the other hand, MIT's extensive collaboration with the federal government on research projects has led to several MIT leaders serving as presidential scientific advisers since 1940.{{refn|Vannevar Bush was the director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development and general advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry Truman, James Rhyne Killian was Special Assistant for Science and Technology for Dwight D. Eisenhower, and Jerome Wiesner advised John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson.NEWS,weblink Nearly half of all US Presidential science advisers have had ties to the Institute, MIT News Office, May 2, 2001, March 18, 2007, |group=lower-alpha}} MIT established a Washington Office in 1991 to continue effective lobbying for research funding and national science policy.WEB,weblink MIT Washington Office, March 18, 2007, MIT Washington Office, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 7, 2007, NEWS, February 11, 2001, Hunt Intense for Federal Research Funds: Universities Station Lobbyists in Washington, The US Justice Department began an investigation in 1989, and in 1991 filed an antitrust suit against MIT, the eight Ivy League colleges, and eleven other institutions for allegedly engaging in price-fixing during their annual "Overlap Meetings", which were held to prevent bidding wars over promising prospective students from consuming funds for need-based scholarships.NEWS,weblink Price-Fixing Inquiry at 20 Elite Colleges, The New York Times, August 10, 1989, December 16, 2008, David, Johnston, NEWS,weblink 23 College Won't Pool Discal Data, Chira, Susan, March 13, 1991, December 16, 2008, The New York Times, While the Ivy League institutions settled,NEWS,weblink Ivy Universities Deny Price-Fixing But Agree to Avoid It in the Future, The New York Times, DePalma, Anthony, May 23, 1991, December 16, 2008, MIT contested the charges, arguing that the practice was not anti-competitive because it ensured the availability of aid for the greatest number of students.NEWS, MIT Ruled Guilty in Anti-Trust Case, The New York Times, September 2, 1992,weblink DePalma, Anthony, July 16, 2008, NEWS,weblink Price-Fixing or Charity? Trial of M.I.T. Begins, DePalma, Anthony, June 26, 1992, August 13, 2008, The New York Times, MIT ultimately prevailed when the Justice Department dropped the case in 1994.WEB,weblink Settlement allows cooperation on awarding financial-aid, MIT Tech Talk, 1994, March 3, 2007, NEWS,weblink MIT Suit Over Aid May Be Settled, William, Honan, William Honan, December 21, 1993, July 16, 2008, The New York Times, File:MIT Walker Memorial.jpg|thumb|right|Walker Memorial is a monument to MIT's fourth president, Francis Amasa WalkerFrancis Amasa Walker(File:MIT 2012-07-18.jpg|thumb|right|MIT main campus seen from Vassar Street, as The Great Dome is visible in the distance and the Stata Center is at right)MIT's proximityMIT's Building 7 and Harvard's Johnston Gate, the traditional entrances to each school, are {{convert|1.72|mi|km|2}} apart along Massachusetts Avenue. to Harvard University ("the other school up the river") has led to a substantial number of research collaborations such as the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology and the Broad Institute. In addition, students at the two schools can cross-register for credits toward their own school's degrees without any additional fees. A cross-registration program between MIT and Wellesley College has also existed since 1969, and in 2002 the Cambridge–MIT Institute launched an undergraduate exchange program between MIT and the University of Cambridge.WEB, MIT Facts: Educational Partnerships,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink January 4, 2009, September 7, 2010, 2010, MIT also has a long term partnership with Imperial College London, for both student exchanges and research collaboration.NEWS,weblink MIT and Imperial launch 'unparalleled' student exchange {{!, Imperial News {{!}} Imperial College London|work=Imperial News|access-date=March 21, 2018|language=en-GB}}NEWS,weblink MIT expands partnership with Imperial College London, MIT News, March 21, 2018, More modest cross-registration programs have been established with Boston University, Brandeis University, Tufts University, Massachusetts College of Art and the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.MIT maintains substantial research and faculty ties with independent research organizations in the Boston area, such as the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Ongoing international research and educational collaborations include the weblink" title="">Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Metropolitan Solutions (AMS Institute), Singapore-MIT Alliance, MIT-Politecnico di Milano,WEB,weblink Roberto Rocca Project, November 19, 2009, MIT, MIT-Zaragoza International Logistics Program, and projects in other countries through the MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives (MISTI) program.WEB,weblink MIT International Science and Technology Initiatives, March 17, 2007, MIT, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 10, 2007, The mass-market magazine Technology Review is published by MIT through a subsidiary company, as is a special edition that also serves as an alumni magazine.WEB, About Us,weblink Technology Review, MIT, June 5, 2012, WEB, Alumni Benefits,weblink MIT Alumni Association, June 5, 2012, The MIT Press is a major university press, publishing over 200 books and 30 journals annually, emphasizing science and technology as well as arts, architecture, new media, current events and social issues.WEB,weblink History – The MIT Press, March 18, 2007, MIT,weblink" title="">weblink April 15, 2007, dead, mdy-all,

Libraries, collections and museums

{{See also|Massachusetts Institute of Technology Libraries|Campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology#Artwork}}The MIT library system consists of five subject libraries: Barker (Engineering), Dewey (Economics), Hayden (Humanities and Science), Lewis (Music), and Rotch (Arts and Architecture). There are also various specialized libraries and archives. The libraries contain more than 2.9 million printed volumes, 2.4 million microforms, 49,000 print or electronic journal subscriptions, and 670 reference databases. The past decade has seen a trend of increased focus on digital over print resources in the libraries.WEB, Geraci, Diane, Information Resources,weblink MIT Reports to the President 2009–2010, MIT Reference Publications Office, June 26, 2012, Notable collections include the Lewis Music Library with an emphasis on 20th and 21st-century music and electronic music,WEB,weblink Lewis Music Library, MIT, October 10, 2010, dead,weblink July 7, 2010, the List Visual Arts Center's rotating exhibitions of contemporary art,WEB,weblink MIT List Visual Arts Center, MIT, October 1, 2010, and the Compton Gallery's cross-disciplinary exhibitions.WEB,weblink Compton Gallery, MIT Museum, October 1, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 6, 2010, MIT allocates a percentage of the budget for all new construction and renovation to commission and support its extensive public art and outdoor sculpture collection.WEB,weblink MIT Percent-for-Art Program, MIT, October 1, 2010, WEB,weblink$15*1943, MIT Public Art Collection, MIT, October 1, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 18, 2009, The MIT Museum was founded in 1971 and collects, preserves, and exhibits artifacts significant to the culture and history of MIT. The museum now engages in significant educational outreach programs for the general public, including the annual Cambridge Science Festival, the first celebration of this kind in the United States. Since 2005, its official mission has been, "to engage the wider community with MIT's science, technology and other areas of scholarship in ways that will best serve the nation and the world in the 21st century".WEB,weblink MIT Museum: Mission and History, MIT, May 15, 2013,


MIT was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1934 and remains a research university with a very high level of research activity; research expenditures totaled $718.2 million in 2009.{{update after|2016|10|2}}WEB, Research at MIT,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink August 2, 2010, MIT Facts, MIT, July 1, 2012, The federal government was the largest source of sponsored research, with the Department of Health and Human Services granting $255.9 million, Department of Defense $97.5 million, Department of Energy $65.8 million, National Science Foundation $61.4 million, and NASA $27.4 million. MIT employs approximately 1300 researchers in addition to faculty.WEB, Office of the Provost, MIT Faculty and Staff,weblink MIT, April 17, 2011, In 2011, MIT faculty and researchers disclosed 632 inventions, were issued 153 patents, earned $85.4 million in cash income, and received $69.6 million in royalties.WEB, TLO Statistics for Fiscal Year 2011,weblink MIT, July 1, 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 21, 2012, Through programs like the Deshpande Center, MIT faculty leverage their research and discoveries into multi-million-dollar commercial ventures.NEWS, Bishop, Matthew, Innovation for the Real World,weblink June 5, 2012, Philanthropy, Spring 2012, Michael Green, Matthew Bishop (journalist), In electronics, magnetic core memory, radar, single electron transistors, and inertial guidance controls were invented or substantially developed by MIT researchers.WEB,weblink IEEE History Center: MIT Radiation Laboratory, IEEE, June 9, 2008, Harold Eugene Edgerton was a pioneer in high speed photography and sonar.WEB, Edgerton, Harold "Doc",weblink November 28, 2009, High Speed Camera, November 28, 2009, The Edgerton Digital Collections Project "When a strobe would not do the trick in murky waters, Edgerton began working on sonar techniques to "see" with sound." Claude E. Shannon developed much of modern information theory and discovered the application of Boolean logic to digital circuit design theory.NEWS,weblink MIT Professor Claude Shannon dies; was founder of digital communications, February 27, 2001, MIT News Office, October 4, 2010, In the domain of computer science, MIT faculty and researchers made fundamental contributions to cybernetics, artificial intelligence, computer languages, machine learning, robotics, and cryptography.WEB,weblink Research Laboratory of Electronics at MIT: History, MIT, June 9, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 15, 2008, BOOK, Guttag, John, The Electron and the Bit, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, 1902–2002, 2003, At least nine Turing Award laureates and seven recipients of the Draper Prize in engineering have been or are currently associated with MIT.WEB, Office of the Provost, A. M. Turing Award,weblink MIT, April 17, 2011, Robert N. Noyce, Robert Langer, Bradford W. Parkinson, Ivan A. Getting, Butler W. Lampson, Timothy J. Berners-Lee, Rudolph Kalman,Current and previous physics faculty have won eight Nobel Prizes,WEB,weblink Nobel Prize, Office of Institutional Research, MIT, December 31, 2008, four Dirac Medals,WEB,weblink Dirac Medal, Office of Institutional Research, MIT, December 31, 2008, and three Wolf Prizes predominantly for their contributions to subatomic and quantum theory.WEB,weblink Prize in Physics, Wolf Foundation, October 4, 2010, Members of the chemistry department have been awarded three Nobel Prizes and one Wolf Prize for the discovery of novel syntheses and methods. MIT biologists have been awarded six Nobel Prizes for their contributions to genetics, immunology, oncology, and molecular biology. Professor Eric Lander was one of the principal leaders of the Human Genome Project.JOURNAL, Lander, Eric, Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome, 2001, 10.1038/35057062, Nature, 409, 11237011, Linton, LM, Birren, B, Nusbaum, C, Zody, MC, Baldwin, J, Devon, K, Dewar, K, Doyle, M, 8, 6822, 860–921,weblink 2001Natur.409..860L, WEB, Eric S. Lander,weblink Broad Institute, June 9, 2008, Positronium atoms,NEWS,weblink Martin Deutsch, MIT physicist who discovered positronium, dies at 85, August 20, 2002, June 12, 2008, synthetic penicillin,NEWS, Professor John C. Sheehan Dies at 76, April 1, 1992,weblink MIT News Office, June 12, 2008, synthetic self-replicating molecules,WEB,weblink Self-Reproducing Molecules Reported by MIT Researchers, MIT News Office, May 9, 1990, June 12, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink May 16, 2008, and the genetic bases for Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (also known as ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease) and Huntington's disease were first discovered at MIT.WEB, MIT Research and Teaching Firsts,weblink MIT, June 12, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink May 31, 2008, Jerome Lettvin transformed the study of cognitive science with his paper "What the frog's eye tells the frog's brain".NEWS,weblink Last Rites for a 'Plywood Palace' That Was a Rock of Science, Hilts, Philip J., March 31, 1998, The New York Times, October 4, 2010, Researchers developed a system to convert MRI scans into 3D printed physical models.WEB, Hardesty, Larry,weblink Personalized Heart model, September 17, 2015, September 21, 2015, In the domain of humanities, arts, and social sciences, MIT economists have been awarded five Nobel Prizes and nine John Bates Clark Medals.WEB,weblink John Bates Clark Medal, Office of Institutional Research, MIT, December 31, 2008, Linguists Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle authored seminal texts on generative grammar and phonology.NEWS, A Changed Noam Chomsky Simplifies, Fox, Margalit, Margalit Fox, December 5, 1998,weblink The New York Times, NEWS,weblink Conscience of a nation, The Guardian, January 20, 2001, August 12, 2008, Jaggi, Maya, Maya Jaggi, London, The MIT Media Lab, founded in 1985 within the School of Architecture and Planning and known for its unconventional research,NEWS,weblink MIT Media Lab Tightens Its Belt, Herper, Matthew, January 8, 2002, August 12, 2008, Forbes, NEWS, M.I.T. Media Lab at 15: Big Ideas, Big Money, April 7, 2009, The New York Times,weblink Lisa, Guernsey, has been home to influential researchers such as constructivist educator and Logo creator Seymour Papert.NEWS,weblink In Search of A Beautiful Mind, Matchan, Linda, July 12, 2008, August 12, 2008, The Boston Globe, Spanning many of the above fields, MacArthur Fellowships (the so-called "Genius Grants") have been awarded to 50 people associated with MIT.WEB, Office of the Provost, MacArthur Fellows,weblink MIT, April 17, 2011, Five Pulitzer Prize–winning writers currently work at or have retired from MIT.WEB, Office of the Provost, Pulitzer Prize,weblink MIT, April 17, 2011, Four current or former faculty are members of the American Academy of Arts and Letters.WEB, Office of the Provost, American Academy of Arts and Letters,weblink MIT, April 17, 2011, Allegations of research misconduct or improprieties have received substantial press coverage. Professor David Baltimore, a Nobel Laureate, became embroiled in a misconduct investigation starting in 1986 that led to Congressional hearings in 1991.NEWS, Journal Cites New Evidence ex-MIT Scientist Faked Data, Saltus, Richard, The Boston Globe, September 28, 1990, NEWS, Nobel Winner Is Caught Up in a Dispute Over Study,weblink The New York Times, April 12, 1988, Boffey, Philip, Professor Ted Postol has accused the MIT administration since 2000 of attempting to whitewash potential research misconduct at the Lincoln Lab facility involving a ballistic missile defense test, though a final investigation into the matter has not been completed.NEWS, MIT Faces Charges of Fraud, Cover-up on Missile Test Study, The Boston Globe, November 29, 2002, Abel, David, NEWS, Pierce, Charles P., Going Postol, The Boston Globe, October 23, 2005,weblink January 27, 2008, Associate Professor Luk Van Parijs was dismissed in 2005 following allegations of scientific misconduct and found guilty of the same by the United States Office of Research Integrity in 2009.WEB,weblink Case Summary – Luk Van Parijs, Office of Research Integrity, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, January 23, 2009, December 2, 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 11, 2009, NEWS,weblink Former MIT biologist penalized for falsifying data, Nature News, February 3, 2009, Eugenie, Reich,

Discoveries and innovation

File:Heckert GNU white.svg|upright|thumb|right|The GNU project and free software movementfree software movement

Natural sciences

Computer and applied sciences

Companies and entrepreneurship

MIT alumni and faculty have founded numerous companies, some of which are shown below:WEB,weblink MIT Facts 2017: Entrepreneurship and Innovation,, November 18, 2017, NEWS,weblink 17 Companies You Didn't Know Were Founded By MIT Grads, Business Insider, November 18, 2017, en,

Traditions and student activities

{{see also|MIT in popular culture}}The faculty and student body place a high value on meritocracy and on technical proficiency.WEB,weblink MIT freshman application & financial aid information, Marilee, Jones, Marilee Jones, January 2, 2007, MIT Admissions Office, We are a meritocracy. We judge each other by our ideas, our creativity and our accomplishments, not by who our families are.,weblink" title="">weblink November 7, 2006, WEB,weblink 2006 Commencement Speech at MIT, Ben S., Bernanke, June 9, 2006, January 2, 2007, Mathematical approaches to economics have at times been criticized as lacking in practical value. Yet the MIT Economics Department has trained many economists who have played leading roles in government and in the private sector, including the current heads of four central banks: those of Central Bank of Chile, Chile, Bank of Israelsrael, Banca d'Italiataly, and, I might add, the Federal Reserve System, United States., dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 7, 2006, MIT has never awarded an honorary degree, nor does it award athletic scholarships, ad eundem degrees, or Latin honors upon graduation.WEB,weblink No honorary degrees is an MIT tradition going back to ... Thomas Jefferson, MIT News Office, June 8, 2001, May 7, 2006, MIT's founder, William Barton Rogers, regarded the practice of giving honorary degrees as 'literary almsgiving ... of spurious merit and noisy popularity ... ', However, MIT has twice awarded honorary professorships: to Winston Churchill in 1949 and Salman Rushdie in 1993.NEWS, Daniel C., Stevenson,weblink Rushdie Stuns Audience 26–100, 113, 61, The Tech (newspaper), The Tech, Many (wikt:upperclassman|upperclass) students and alumni wear a large, heavy, distinctive class ring known as the "Brass Rat".BOOK, Massachusetts Curiosities: Quirky Characters, Roadside Oddities, & Other Offbeat Stuff, Globe Pequot, 2004, 0-7627-3070-6, Gellerman, Bruce, Erik Sherman, 65–66,weblink NEWS, Pourian, Jessica J., 2013's Brass Rat unveiled,weblink June 12, 2011, The Tech (newspaper), The Tech, 131, 5, February 15, 2011, Originally created in 1929, the ring's official name is the "Standard Technology Ring".WEB,weblink Ring History ('93 class webpage), December 26, 2006, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 14, 2006, The undergraduate ring design (a separate graduate student version exists as well) varies slightly from year to year to reflect the unique character of the MIT experience for that class, but always features a three-piece design, with the MIT seal and the class year each appearing on a separate face, flanking a large rectangular bezel bearing an image of a beaver. The initialism IHTFP, representing the informal school motto "I Hate This Fucking Place" and jocularly euphemized as "I Have Truly Found Paradise", "Institute Has The Finest Professors", "Institute of Hacks, Tomfoolery and Pranks", "It's Hard to Fondle Penguins", and other variations, has occasionally been featured on the ring given its historical prominence in student culture.WEB, Bauer, M.J., IHTFP,weblink November 23, 2005,


{{See also|Hacks at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology}}File:Huntbeginsinlobby7.jpg|thumb|The start of the MIT Mystery HuntMIT Mystery HuntMIT has over 500 recognized student activity groups,WEB,weblink Student Group List, MIT, November 25, 2015, including a campus radio station, The Tech student newspaper, an annual entrepreneurship competition, and weekly screenings of popular films by the Lecture Series Committee. Less traditional activities include the "world's largest open-shelf collection of science fiction" in English, a model railroad club, and a vibrant folk dance scene. Students, faculty, and staff are involved in over 50 educational outreach and public service programs through the MIT Museum, Edgerton Center, and MIT Public Service Center.WEB, MIT Outreach Database,weblink September 7, 2010, MIT, The Independent Activities Period is a four-week-long "term" offering hundreds of optional classes, lectures, demonstrations, and other activities throughout the month of January between the Fall and Spring semesters. Some of the most popular recurring IAP activities are Autonomous Robot Design (course 6.270), Robocraft Programming (6.370), and MasLab competitions,NEWS,weblink Claudia Glenn, Dowling, MIT Nerds, June 5, 2005, August 17, 2007, Discover Magazine, the annual "mystery hunt",NEWS,weblink Bridgeswork=The Boston Globe date=January 23, 2005 Student life and culture at MIT#Charm School>Charm School.CHARM SCHOOL>URL=HTTP://STUDENTLIFE.MIT.EDU/SAO/CHARMURL-STATUS=DEADWORK=MIT STUDENT ACTIVITIES OFFICEACCESSDATE=JULY 3, 2011, HTTPS://QUERY.NYTIMES.COM/GST/FULLPAGE.HTML?RES=9F04E7D8113EF935A35751C0A9679C8B63 >TITLE=WHAT, GEEKS AT M.I.T.? NOT WITH THIS CLASS FIRST=KENNETH ACCESSDATE=AUGUST 12, 2008 YEAR=2011 NEWSPAPER=THE TECH (NEWSPAPER) >VOLUME=131 URL=HTTP://TECH.MIT.EDU/V131/N59/EXTERNSHIP.HTML, KIRKPATRICK >FIRST=J. TITLE=RECORD 294 PARTICIPATE IN MIT EXTERNSHIP PROGRAM THE TECH (NEWSPAPER)>THE TECH ISSUE=57,weblink Many MIT students also engage in "hacking", which encompasses both the physical exploration of areas that are generally off-limits (such as rooftops and steam tunnels), as well as elaborate practical jokes.BOOK, Peterson, T.F., Nightwork: A History of Hacks and Pranks at MIT, MIT Press, 978-0-262-66137-9, 2003, NEWS, These Are Not Your Ordinary College Pranks, The Boston Globe, April 1, 2003, Biskup, Agnieska, Recent high-profile hacks have included the abduction of Caltech's cannon,WEB,weblink Howe & Ser Moving Co, April 4, 2007, reconstructing a Wright Flyer atop the Great Dome,NEWS, MIT Pranksters Wing It For Wright Celebration, The Boston Globe, December 18, 2003, Marcella, Bombadieri,weblink and adorning the John Harvard statue with the Master Chief's Mjölnir Helmet.WEB, MIT Hackers & Halo 3, The Tech (newspaper), The Tech, 127, 41,weblink September 25, 2007,


File:MIT Z Center.jpg|thumb|right|The Zesiger sports and fitness centerZesiger sports and fitness centerMIT sponsors 31 varsity sports and has one of the three broadest NCAA Division III athletic programs.WEB, Kathryn Krtnick, Asst. Dir. of Communications, Re: NCAA Media Inquiry, Natl. Collegiate Athletic Assn, November 28, 2012,weblink List of institutions that sponsor the most sports: Bowdoin College and Williams College – 32; MIT – 31., WEB, Dept. of Athletics, 2012–13 Quick Facts, MIT, August 2012,weblink Intercollegiate Athletics: 33 varsity sports., MIT participates in the NCAA's Division III, the New England Women's and Men's Athletic Conference, the New England Football Conference, NCAA's Division I Eastern Association of Women's Rowing Colleges (EAWRC) for women's crew, and the Collegiate Water Polo Association (CWPA) for Men's Water Polo. Men's crew competes outside the NCAA in the Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges (EARC). The intercollegiate sports teams, called the MIT Engineers won 22 Team National Championships, 42 Individual National Championships. MIT is the all-time Division III leader in producing Academic All-Americas (302) and rank second across all NCAA Divisions only behind the University of Nebraska.WEB,weblink CoSIDA Academic All-America All-Time Recipients, MIT, en, March 7, 2019, MIT Athletes won 13 Elite 90 awards and ranks first among NCAA Division III programs, and third among all divisions.WEB,weblink NCAA Elite 90 Award All-Time Recipients, MIT, en, March 7, 2019, In April 2009, budget cuts led to MIT eliminating eight of its 41 sports, including the mixed men's and women's teams in alpine skiing and pistol; separate teams for men and women in ice hockey and gymnastics; and men's programs in golf and wrestling.NEWS,weblink MIT the No. 1 jock school? You're kidding, right?, Rachel, Cohen, Associated Press, May 18, 2010, June 25, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 12, 2011, NEWS,weblink MIT forced to cut 8 varsity sports, April 24, 2009, John, Powers, The Boston Globe,


Students {| style"text-align:center; float:right; font-size:85%; margin-left:2em;" class"wikitable"

Demographics of MIT student bodyJANUARY 2009, MIT facts 2009: International students and scholars, MIT Bulletin, 144, 4,weblink NEWS,weblink Class of 2015 admission rate sinks to 9.6 percent, 2011, The Tech (newspaper), The Tech, 131, 14, July 4, 2012, ! !! Undergraduate !! Graduate! White American| 40.8%! Asian American| 9.4%! Hispanic American| 3.3%! African American| 2.1%! Native American| 0.4%! Other/International| 44.0%MIT enrolled 4,602 undergraduates and 6,972 graduate students in 2018–2019.WEB,weblink Enrollment statistics {{!, MIT Registrar||language=en|access-date=November 2, 2018}} Women constituted 45 percent of undergraduate students.{{update after|2016|10|2}}BOOK, MIT, Office of the Registrar., Enrollment statistics: Women students, Fall term 2009–2010, October 9, 2009,weblink Undergraduate and graduate students came from all 50 US states as well as from 115 foreign countries.WEB,weblink Geographic Distribution of Students, 2009–2010, Office of the Registrar, MIT, October 1, 2010, MIT received 20,247 applications for admission to the undergraduate Class of 2021: it admitted 1,452 (7.1 percent) and enrolled 1,102 (76 percent).{{update after|2016|10|2}}WEB,weblink Common Data Set, 2012, Institutional Research, Office of the Provost, MIT, 19,446 applications were received for graduate and advanced degree programs across all departments; 2,991 were admitted (15.4 percent) and 1,880 enrolled (62.8 percent).{{update after|2016|10|2}}JOURNAL, January 2009, MIT facts: Admission to MIT, MIT Bulletin, 144, 4,weblink The interquartile range on the SAT was 2090–2340 and 97 percent of students ranked in the top tenth of their high school graduating class.{{update after|2016|10|2}} 97 percent of the Class of 2012 returned as sophomores; 82 percent of the Class of 2007 graduated within 4 years, and 93 percent (91 percent of the men and 95 percent of the women) graduated within 6 years.BOOK, U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics., College Navigator: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Retention and graduation rates, September 2009,weblink Undergraduate tuition and fees total $40,732 per student and annual expenses are estimated{{by whom|date=August 2017}} at $52,507 {{as of|2012|lc=on}}.{{update after|2016|10|2}} 62 percent of students received need-based financial aid in the form of scholarships and grants from federal, state, institutional, and external sources averaging $38,964 per student.{{update after|2016|10|2}}WEB, MIT Facts: Tuition and Financial Aid, 2010,weblink Students were awarded a total of $102 million in scholarships and grants, primarily from institutional support ($84 million). The annual increase in expenses has led to a student tradition (dating back to the 1960s) of tongue-in-cheek "tuition riots".NEWS, The Tech (newspaper), The Tech, Tuition hike provokes student riot, January 14, 1966, Bolotin, Mark, 85, 32,weblink MIT has been nominally co-educational since admitting Ellen Swallow Richards in 1870. Richards also became the first female member of MIT's faculty, specializing in sanitary chemistry.BOOK, Bowden, Mary Ellen, Chemical achievers : the human face of the chemical sciences, 1997, Chemical Heritage Foundation, Philadelphia, PA, 9780941901123, 156–158,weblink WEB, Ellen H. Swallow Richards,weblink Science History Institute, November 18, 2016, June 2016, Female students remained a minority prior to the completion of the first wing of a women's dormitory, McCormick Hall, in 1963.WEB,weblink McCormickFact Sheet, BOOK, Simha, O. R., MIT campus planning 1960–2000: An annotated chronology, 2003, 32–33,weblink 978-0-262-69294-6, In 1959, 158 women were enrolled at MIT., MIT Press, BOOK, Stratton, J. A., The president's report 1960, 1960, 49,weblink Registration: In 1959–60 ... [o]ne hundred and fifty-five women were enrolled, [2.5 percent of student body]. ..., Between 1993 and 2009 the proportion of women rose from 34 percent to 45 percent of undergraduates and from 20 percent to 31 percent of graduate students.WEB,weblink Chapter 1: Male/Female enrollment patterns in EECS at MIT and other schools, January 3, 1995, December 8, 2006, EECS Women Undergraduate Enrollment Committee, Women Undergraduate Enrollment in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, Women currently{{when|date=August 2017}} outnumber men in Biology, Brain & Cognitive Sciences, Architecture, Urban Planning and Biological Engineering.A number of student deaths in the late 1990s and early 2000s resulted in considerable media attention focussing on MIT's culture and student life.NEWS, Healy, Patrick, 11 years, 11 suicides – Critics Say Spate of MIT Jumping Deaths Show a 'Contagion', The Boston Globe, February 5, 2001, A1, NEWS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Looks for Ways to Deal with the Incidence of Student Suicides in Recent Years, National Public Radio, August 29, 2001, Smith, Tovia, After the alcohol-related death of Scott Krueger in September 1997 as a new member at the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity,NEWS,weblink MIT's Inaction Blamed for Contributing to Death of a Freshman, The Chronicle of Higher Education, October 6, 1998, October 7, 2006, MIT began requiring all freshmen to live in the dormitory system.NEWS, Institute Will Pay Kruegers $6M for Role in Death,weblink October 4, 2006, September 15, 2000, Levine, Dana, The Tech (newspaper), The Tech, 120, 42, The 2000 suicide of MIT undergraduate Elizabeth Shin drew attention to suicides at MIT and created a controversy over whether MIT had an unusually high suicide rate.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Who Was Responsible for Elizabeth Shin?, April 28, 2002, October 7, 2006, Deborah, Sontag, MAGAZINE, Elizabeth Fried (LICSW), Ellen,weblink Suicide Prevention on Campus, Psychiatric Times, 2002, June 26, 2006, In late 2001 a task force's recommended improvements in student mental health services were implemented,NEWS,weblink MIT New Office, MIT Mental Health Task Force Fact Sheet, November 14, 2001, June 25, 2006, NEWS,weblink Worried Colleges Step Up Efforts Over Suicide, The New York Times, December 3, 2004, January 6, 2009, Arenson, Karen, including expanding staff and operating hours at the mental health center.NEWS,weblink MIT News Office, Clay endorses Mental Health Task Force Recommendations, November 28, 2001, June 25, 2006, These and later cases were significant as well because they sought to prove the negligence and liability of university administrators in loco parentis.

Faculty and staff

File:Ford-MIT Nobel Laureate Lecture Series 2000-09-18.jpg|thumb|right|Institute Professors Emeriti and Nobel Laureates (from left to right) Franco Modigliani (deceased), Paul Samuelson (also deceased), and Robert SolowRobert Solow{{As of|2013}}, MIT had 1,030 faculty members.WEB, Faculty and Staff,weblink MIT Facts, MIT, March 11, 2014, Faculty are responsible for lecturing classes, for advising both graduate and undergraduate students, and for sitting on academic committees, as well as for conducting original research. Between 1964 and 2009 a total of seventeen faculty and staff members affiliated with MIT won Nobel Prizes (thirteen of them in the latter 25 years).BOOK, Nobel Foundation, Nobel laureates and universities, 2009,weblink April 1, 2015, MIT faculty members past or present have won a total of twenty-seven Nobel Prizes, the majority in Economics or Physics.WEB,weblink Awards and Honors, Institutional Research, Office of the Provost, October 18, 2011, {{As of|2013| October}}, current faculty and teaching staff included 67 Guggenheim Fellows, 6 Fulbright Scholars, and 22 MacArthur Fellows. Faculty members who have made extraordinary contributions to their research field as well as the MIT community are granted appointments as Institute Professors for the remainder of their tenures.A 1998 MIT study concluded that a systemic bias against female faculty existed in its School of Science,WEB,weblink A Study on the Status of Women Faculty in Science at MIT, MIT Faculty News Letter, 1999, although the study's methods were controversial.WEB,weblink Judith, Kleinfeld, Judith Kleinfeld, MIT Tarnishes Its Reputation with Gender Junk Science, April 10, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink February 8, 2007, MAGAZINE,weblink Feminist Mythology, Kathryn Jean, Lopez, April 10, 2001, National Review, April 10, 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 21, 2010, Since the study, though, women have headed departments within the Schools of Science and of Engineering, and MIT has appointed several female vice-presidents, although allegations of sexism continue.NEWS,weblink Tenure at MIT Still Largely a Male Domain, Wertheimer, Linda, Linda Wertheimer, The Boston Globe, December 6, 2007, July 25, 2008, Susan Hockfield, a molecular neurobiologist, served as MIT's president from 2004 to 2012 - the first woman to hold the post.Tenure issues have vaulted MIT into the national spotlight on several occasions. The 1984 dismissal of David F. Noble (a historian of technology) became a (wikt:cause célèbre|cause célèbre) about the extent to which academics are granted{{by whom|date=February 2019}} freedom of speech after he published several books and papers critical of MIT's and other research universities' reliance upon financial support from corporations and the military.NEWS,weblinkwork= The New York Times accessdate= October 3, 2006, Former materials-science professor Gretchen Kalonji sued MIT in 1994, alleging that she was denied tenure because of sexual discrimination. Several years later, the lawsuit was settled with undisclosed payments and the establishment of a project to encourage women and minorities to seek faculty positions.MIT as 'Intractable Enemy' Andrew Lawler; Science Careers; November 12, 1999HTTPS://WWW.NEWSPAPERS.COM/CLIP/33887269/THE_BOSTON_GLOBE/>TITLE=EX-MIT PROFESSOR WHO WAS DENIED TENURE FILES SEX BIAS SUITFIRST=JAMESWORK=THE BOSTON GLOBEVIA=NEWSPAPERS.COM, In 1997 the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination issued a probable-cause finding supporting UMass Boston Professor James Jennings' allegations of racial discrimination after a senior faculty search committee in the Department of Urban Studies and Planning did not offer him reciprocal tenure.MCAD SUPPORTS SCHOLAR'S CLAIM OF BIAS BY MIT; UNIVERSITY OFFERED JOB, BUT NO TENURE >DATE= OCTOBER 22, 1997 LAST= DOWDY, Zachary, In 2006–2007, MIT's denial of tenure to African-American stem-cell scientist professor James Sherley reignited accusations of racism in the tenure process, eventually leading to a protracted public dispute with the administration, a brief hunger-strike, and the resignation of Professor Frank L. Douglas in protest.NEWS,weblink Professor accuses MIT of racism, The Boston Globe, December 18, 2007, February 6, 2007, April, Simpson, NEWS,weblink MIT center director resigns in protest of tenure decision, The Boston Globe, December 19, 2007, June 4, 2007, Peter, Schworm, The Boston Globe reported on February 6, 2007: "Less than half of MIT's junior faculty members are granted tenure. After Sherley was initially denied tenure, his case was examined three times before the university established that neither racial discrimination nor conflict of interest affected the decision. Twenty-one of Sherley's colleagues later issued a statement saying that the professor was treated fairly in tenure review." Professor accuses MIT of racism April Simpson, Globe Staff; February 6, 2007MIT faculty members have often been recruited to lead other colleges and universities. Founding faculty-member Charles W. Eliot became president of Harvard University in 1869, a post he would hold for 40 years, during which he wielded considerable influence both on American higher education and on secondary education. MIT alumnus and faculty member George Ellery Hale played a central role in the development of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and other faculty members have been key founders of Franklin W. Olin College of Engineering in nearby Needham, Massachusetts.{{As of| 2014}} former provost Robert A. Brown served as president of Boston University; former provost Mark Wrighton is chancellor of Washington University in St. Louis; former associate provost Alice Gast is president of Lehigh University; and former professor Suh Nam-pyo is president of KAIST. Former dean of the School of Science Robert J. Birgeneau was the chancellor of the University of California, Berkeley (2004–2013); former professor John Maeda was president of Rhode Island School of Design (RISD, 2008–2013); former professor David Baltimore was president of Caltech (1997–2006); and MIT alumnus and former assistant professor Hans Mark served as chancellor of the University of Texas system (1984–1992).In addition, faculty members have been recruited to lead governmental agencies; for example, former professor Marcia McNutt is president of the National Academy of Sciences,PRESS RELEASE,weblink Marcia McNutt Elected 22nd NAS President; New Treasurer, Council Members Chosen, February 16, 2016, National Academy of Sciences, February 23, 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 21, 2016, mdy-all, urban studies professor Xavier de Souza Briggs served as the associate director of the White House Office of Management and Budget,NEWS,weblink DUSP's Briggs joins Obama administration, MIT News Office, January 20, 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 6, 2013, and biology professor Eric Lander was a co-chair of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology.NEWS,weblink Lander named to Obama's science team, December 22, 2008, MIT News Office, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 6, 2013, In 2013, faculty member Ernest Moniz was nominated by President Obama and later confirmed as United States Secretary of Energy.NEWS, Calmes, Jackie, Broder, John, Obama Announces 3 Cabinet Nominations,weblink March 4, 2013, The New York Times, March 4, 2013, WEB, Rampton, Roberta,weblink Exclusive: Obama considering MIT physicist Moniz for energy secretary - sources,, February 6, 2013, February 24, 2013, Former professor Hans Mark served as Secretary of the Air Force from 1979 to 1981. Alumna and Institute Professor Sheila Widnall served as Secretary of the Air Force between 1993 and 1997, making her the first female Secretary of the Air Force and first woman to lead an entire branch of the US military in the Department of Defense.{{As of|2017}}, MIT was the second-largest employer in the city of Cambridge. Based on feedback from employees, MIT was ranked #7 as a place to work, among US colleges and universities {{as of|2013|3|lc=y}}.WEB, Glassdoor's Top 25 Universities To Work For,weblink Glassdoor, Glassdoor, Inc., March 11, 2014, Surveys cited a "smart", "creative", "friendly" environment, noting that the work-life balance tilts towards a "strong work ethic" but complaining about "low pay" compared to an industry position.WEB
, MIT Reviews
, Glassdoor, Glassdoor, Inc., March 11, 2014

Notable alumni

Many of MIT's over 120,000 alumni have had considerable success in scientific research, public service, education, and business. {{As of|2014}}, 27 MIT alumni have won the Nobel Prize, 47 have been selected as Rhodes Scholars, and 61 have been selected as Marshall Scholars.WEB,weblink Awards and Honors, MIT Office of Institutional Research, March 11, 2014, Alumni in American politics and public service include former Chairman of the Federal Reserve Ben Bernanke, former MA-1 Representative John Olver, former CA-13 Representative Pete Stark, Representative Thomas Massie, former National Economic Council chairman Lawrence H. Summers, and former Council of Economic Advisors chairman Christina Romer. MIT alumni in international politics include Foreign Affairs Minister of Iran Ali Akbar Salehi, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, President of Colombia Virgilio Barco Vargas, President of the European Central Bank Mario Draghi, former Governor of the Reserve Bank of India Raghuram Rajan, former British Foreign Minister David Miliband, former Greek Prime Minister Lucas Papademos, former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, former Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Ahmed Chalabi, former Minister of Education and Culture of The Republic of Indonesia Yahya Muhaimin, former Jordanian Minister of Education, Higher Education and Scientific Research & former Jordanian Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources Khaled Toukan. Alumni in sports have included Olympic fencing champion Johan Harmenberg.MIT alumni founded or co-founded many notable companies, such as Intel, McDonnell Douglas, Texas Instruments, 3Com, Qualcomm, Bose, Raytheon, Apotex, Koch Industries, Rockwell International, Genentech, Dropbox, and Campbell Soup. According to the British newspaper, The Guardian, "a survey of living MIT alumni found that they have formed 25,800 companies, employing more than three million people including about a quarter of the workforce of Silicon Valley. Those firms collectively generate global revenues of about $1.9 trillion (£1.2 trillion) a year. If MIT were a country, it would have the 11th highest GDP of any nation in the world."JOURNAL,weblink Gurus and Grads, Entrepreneur, September 20, 2010, Ericka Chickowski, NEWS, Kauffman Foundation study finds MIT alumni companies generate billions for regional economies, MIT News Office,weblink February 17, 2009, February 25, 2009, NEWS, Pilkington, Ed, The MIT factor: celebrating 150 years of maverick genius,weblink The Guardian, May 18, 2011, May 25, 2011, Prominent institutions of higher education have been led by MIT alumni, including the University of California system, Harvard University, New York Institute of Technology, Johns Hopkins University, Carnegie Mellon University, Tufts University, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rhode Island School of Design (RISD), New Jersey Institute of Technology, Northeastern University, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Purdue University, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, KAIST, and Quaid-e-Azam University. Berklee College of Music, the largest independent college of contemporary music in the world, was founded and led by MIT alumnus Lawrence Berk for more than three decades.More than one third of the United States' manned spaceflights have included MIT-educated astronauts, more than any university excluding the United States service academies.WEB,weblink Notable Alumni, November 4, 2006, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 27, 2006, Of 12 people who have been on the moon, four have MIT as alma mater (among them Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Buzz Aldrin). Alumnus and former faculty member Qian Xuesen led the Chinese nuclear weapons program and was instrumental in the PRC rocket program.{{zh icon}} 钱学森:历尽险阻报效祖国 火箭之王淡泊名誉,人民网,2009å¹´10月31æ—¥.Accessed October 31, 2009; {{zh icon}} 美国航空周刊2008年度人物:钱学森.网易探索(广州)(2009å¹´10月31日). Accessed November 11, 2009.Noted alumni in non-scientific fields include author Hugh Lofting,BOOK, Children's Books and Their Creators, Anita, Silvey, 0-395-65380-0, 1995, Houghton Mifflin, 415,weblink sculptor Daniel Chester French, guitarist Tom Scholz of the band Boston, the British BBC and ITN correspondent and political advisor David Walter, The New York Times columnist and Nobel Prize Winning economist Paul Krugman, The Bell Curve author Charles Murray, United States Supreme Court building architect Cass Gilbert,WEB,weblink Study for Woolworth Building, New York, World Digital Library, December 10, 1910, July 25, 2013, Pritzker Prize-winning architects I.M. Pei and Gordon Bunshaft.File:Buzz Aldrin.jpg|Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin, ScD 1963 (Aero & Astro)File:Kofi Annan.jpg|Former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, SM 1972 (Management)File:President Virgilio Barco.png|President of Colombia 1986–1990 Virgilio Barco Vargas, SB 1943 (Civil Engineering)File:Ben Bernanke official portrait.jpg|Former Federal Reserve Bank chairman Ben Bernanke, PhD 1979 (Economics)File:Feynman at Los Alamos.jpg|Physicist Nobel laureate Richard Feynman, SB 1939 (Physics)File:Paul Krugman-press conference Dec 07th, 2008-8.jpg|Economics Nobel laureate Paul Krugman, PhD 1977 (Economics)File:Hossein_nasr.jpg|Muslim philosopher/author Seyyed Hossein Nasr, SB 1954 (Physics)File:National Women's Suffrage Association.jpg|Biologist, suffragist, philanthropist Katherine Dexter McCormick (left), SB 1904 (Biology)File:Ronald mcnair.jpg|Challenger astronaut and physicist Ronald McNair, PhD 1976 (Physics)File:Benjamin Netanyahu.jpg|Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, SB 1975 (Architecture), SM 1976 (Management)File:I.M. Pei.JPG|Architect I. M. Pei, BArch 1940 (Architecture)File:Alfred P. Sloan on the cover of TIME Magazine, December 27, 1926.jpg|CEO of General Motors Alfred P. Sloan, SB 1895 (Electrical Engineering)File:TomScholz.JPG|"Boston" guitarist Tom Scholz, SB 1969, SM 1970 (Mechanical Engineering)

See also

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  • BOOK, Abelmann, Walter H., The Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology: The First 25 Years, 1970–1995, 2004, Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 9780674014589,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Angulo, A. J., 2007, The Initial Reception of MIT, 1860s–1880s, History of Higher Education Annual, 26, 1–28,
  • BOOK, Bridger, Sarah, 2015, Scientists at War, The Ethics of Cold War Weapons Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 9780674736825,
  • BOOK, Etzkowitz, Henry, MIT and the Rise of Entrepreneurial Science, 2006, Routledge, London, 9780415435055,
  • BOOK, Hapgood, Fred, Up the Infinite Corridor: MIT and the Technical Imagination, 1992, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 9780201082937,weblink
  • BOOK, Jarzombek, Mark, Designing MIT: Bosworth's New Tech, 2004, Northeastern University Press, Boston, Mass., 9781555536190,
  • BOOK, Keyser, Samuel Jay, Mens et Mania: The MIT Nobody Knows, 2011, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 9780262015943,
  • JOURNAL, Lecuyer, Christophe, 1992, The Making of a Science Based Technological University: Karl Compton, James Killian, and the Reform of MIT, 1930–1957, Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences, 23, 1, 153–180, 10.2307/27757693, 27757693,
  • BOOK, Leslie, Stuart W., The Cold War and American Science: The Military-Industrial-Academic Complex at MIT and Stanford, 1993, Columbia University Press, New York, 9780231079587,
  • BOOK, Report of the Committee on Educational Survey (Lewis Report), 1949,weblink Lewis, Warren K., MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, May 28, 2012, Ronald H., Robnett, C. Richard, Soderberg, Julius A., Stratton, John R., Loofbourow,
  • BOOK, Mitchell, William J., Imagining MIT: Designing a Campus for the Twenty-first Century, 2007, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 9780262134798,
  • Nelkin, Dorothy. (1972). The University and Military Research: Moral politics at MIT (science, technology and society). New York: Cornell University Press. {{ISBN|0-8014-0711-7}}.
  • BOOK, Peterson, T. F., Nightwork: A History of Hacks and Pranks at MIT, 2003, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 9780262661379,
  • BOOK, Prescott, Samuel C., When MIT was "Boston Tech", 1861–1916, 1954, MIT Press, 9780262661393, Reprint.,
  • Postle, Denis. (1965). How to be First. BBC documentary on MIT available at
  • Renehan, Colm. (2007). Peace Activism at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1975 to 2001: A case study, PhD thesis, Boston: Boston College.
  • JOURNAL, Servos, John W., John Servos, December 1980, The Industrial Relations of Science: Chemical Engineering at MIT, 1900–1939, Isis, 71, 4, 531–549, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of The History of Science Society, 230499, 10.1086/352591,
  • BOOK, Shrock, Robert Rakes, Geology at MIT 1865–1965: A History of the First Hundred Years of Geology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1982, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 9780262192118,
  • BOOK, Simha, O. Robert, MIT Campus Planning, 1960–2000: An Annotated Chronology, 2003, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 9780262692946,
  • BOOK, Snyder, Benson R., The Hidden Curriculum, 1971, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 9780262690430,
  • BOOK, Stratton, Julius A., Mind and Hand: The Birth of MIT, 2005, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 9780262195249,
  • BOOK, Vest, Charles M., Pursuing the Endless Frontier: Essays on MIT and the Role of Research Universities, 2004, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 9780262220729,weblink
  • BOOK, Wildes, Karl L., A Century of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, 1882–1982, 1985, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 9780262231190, Lindgren, Nilo A.,

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    • PSM, Swain, George Fillmore, George Fillmore Swain, Technical Education at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 57, July 1900, x, x,
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