Mary of Egypt

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Mary of Egypt
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Ἡ Ὁσία Μαρία ἡ Αἰγυπτία. 1 Απριλίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ. 5th Sunday of Great LentRoman Catholic: 1 AprilCoptic Orthodox: Parmouti 6weblink|venerated_in=Eastern Orthodox ChurchOriental OrthodoxyRoman Catholic ChurchAnglican Communion|image=Mary of Egypt.gif|imagesize= 250px|caption= 18th-century Russian icon of Saint Mary of EgyptEgypt (Roman province)>Province of EgyptPalaestina Prima>Palestine|titles=Venerable|beatified_date=|beatified_place=|beatified_by=|canonized_date=|canonized_place=|canonized_by=|attributes=A Dictionary of Orthodox Intercessions (Saint John of Kronstadt Press, Liberty, TN, 1994, {{ISBN>0-912927-80-1}}).|major_shrine=|suppressed_date=|issues=}}Mary of Egypt (; c. 344 – c. 421) is revered as the patron saint of penitents, most particularly in the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Churches, and Oriental Orthodox Churches.


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Icon of Saint Mary of Egypt, surrounded by scenes from her life (17th century, Beliy Gorod).
The primary source of information on Saint Mary of Egypt is the Vita written of her by St. Sophronius, the Patriarch of Jerusalem (634–638). Most of the information in this section is taken from this source.Saint Mary, also known as Maria Aegyptiaca, was born somewhere in the Province of Egypt, and at the age of twelve she ran away from her parents to the city of Alexandria. Here she lived an extremely dissolute life.JOURNAL, Brothels, Baths and Babes: Prostitution in the Byzantine Holy Land, Claudine M. Dauphin, 1996, Classics Ireland, 3, 47–72,weblink 10.2307/25528291, In her Vita it states that she often refused the money offered for her sexual favors, as she was driven "by an insatiable and an irrepressible passion," and that she mainly lived by begging, supplemented by spinning flax.After seventeen years of this lifestyle, she traveled to Jerusalem for the Great Feasts of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross. She undertook the journey as a sort of "anti-pilgrimage," stating that she hoped to find in the pilgrim crowds at Jerusalem even more partners in her lust. She paid for her passage by offering sexual favors to other pilgrims, and she continued her habitual lifestyle for a short time in Jerusalem. Her Vita relates that when she tried to enter the Church of the Holy Sepulchre for the celebration, she was barred from doing so by an unseen force. Realizing that this was because of her impurity, she was struck with remorse, and upon seeing an icon of the Theotokos (the Virgin Mary) outside the church, she prayed for forgiveness and promised to give up the world (i.e., become an ascetic). Then she attempted again to enter the church, and this time was permitted in. After venerating the relic of the true cross, she returned to the icon to give thanks, and heard a voice telling her, "If you cross the Jordan, you will find glorious rest." She immediately went to the monastery of Saint John the Baptist on the bank of the River Jordan, where she received absolution and afterwards Holy Communion. The next morning, she crossed the Jordan and retired to the desert to live the rest of her life as a hermit in penitence. She took with her only three loaves of bread, and once they were gone, lived only on what she could find in the wilderness.MacRory, Joseph. "St. Mary of Egypt." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 4 June 2018Approximately one year before her death, she recounted her life to Saint Zosimas of Palestine,It is possible, based on Sophronius' Vita, that Zosimas was from the same monastery by the Jordan where Saint Mary had taken Communion many years before. who encountered her in the desert. When he unexpectedly met her in the desert, she was completely naked and almost unrecognizable as human. She asked Zosimas to toss her his mantle to cover herself with, and then she narrated her life's story to him. She asked him to meet her at the banks of the Jordan, on Holy Thursday of the following year, and bring her Holy Communion. When he fulfilled her wish, she crossed the river to get to him by walking on the surface of the water, and received Holy Communion, telling him to meet her again in the desert the following Lent. The next year, Zosimas travelled to the same spot where he first met her, some twenty days' journey from his monastery, and found her lying there dead. According to an inscription written in the sand next to her head, she had died on the very night he had given her Communion and had been somehow miraculously transported to the place he found her, and her body was preserved incorrupt. He buried her body with the assistance of a passing lion. On returning to the monastery he related her life story to the brethren, and it was preserved among them as oral tradition until it was written down by St. Sophronius.File:Mary of Egypt british library.jpg|thumb|left|Icon of Mary of Egypt, covered in golden hair, being handed a cloak by Zosimas, French, 15th century (British LibraryBritish Library

Date of death

There is disagreement among various sources regarding the dates of Saint Mary's life. The dates given above correspond to those in the Catholic Encyclopedia. The Bollandists place her death in 421, others give the date of her death as 522 (see Orthodox Wiki article, below) or 530 (see Prolog from Ohrid, April 1). The only clue given in her Vita is the fact that the day of her repose was April 1, which is stated to be Holy Thursday, meaning that Easter fell on April 4 that year.If one consults a perpetual calendar that is keyed to the Julian Calendar (the one in use at the time), one finds that there are 24 yearsIn the fifth century: 415, 420*, 426, 443, 448*, 454, 471, 476*, 482, 499. In the sixth century: 504*, 510, 521, 527, 532*, 538, 549, 555, 560*, 566, 577, 583, 588*, 594 (those marked with * are leap years). in the relevant centuries on which April 1 occurs on a Thursday.The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2003 (World Almanac Books, 2003, {{ISBN|0-88687-882-9}}), pp. 646–649. Of these, the years on which Easter would fall on April 4 according to the Julian Calendar are: 443, 454, 527, 538, and 549.Calculation of the Ecclesiastical Calendar {{webarchive|url= |date=2008-11-03 }} (selecting either of the two Orthodox options) (Alternatively, one could interpret her death occurring during the "night of our Lord's Passion" as indicating that her death occurred on Good Friday. That is consistent with the Orthodox date for her death in 522, when Easter was on April 3.)It is notable that the Synaxarion states that Zosimas lived during the reign of the Emperor Theodosius the Younger,Bishop Nikolai Velimirović, The Prologue from Ochrid (Lazarica Press 1985, {{ISBN|0-948298-03-0}}), Vol. 2., entry for April 4. who reigned from 408 to 450. According to tradition, Zosimas lived almost a hundred years, dying in the sixth century, and the Vita states that he was fifty-three years old when he met Saint Mary.

Religious commemoration

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The Temple of Portunus, Rome, was preserved by being rededicated to Santa Maria Egiziaca in 872.
In iconography, Saint Mary of Egypt is depicted as a deeply tanned, emaciated old woman with unkempt gray hair, either naked or covered by the mantle she borrowed from Zosimas. She is often shown with the three loaves of bread she bought before undertaking her journey into the desert.Her feast day is kept by the Orthodox according to the Fixed Cycle on April 1. On the Moveable Cycle, the Orthodox Church also commemorates her on the fifth Sunday of Great Lent,WEB,weblink Orthodox Research Institute, Orthodox Research Institute, on which day it is customary for the priest to bless dried fruit after the Divine Liturgy. The Life of St Mary, by Saint Sophronius, is appointed to be read during the Matins of the Great Canon of Saint Andrew of Crete on the preceding Thursday.In the Catholic Church, she is listed in the 2004 edition of the Roman Martyrology on April 1. Although she is venerated by Anglicans, Saint Mary of Egypt does not appear on Anglican Church Calendars.In Italy, this Mary became associated with the patronage of fallen women much like Mary Magdalene, to whom similar traits were associated. There are a number of churches or chapels dedicated to Saint Mary of Egypt, among them:

Cultural references

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Mary of Egypt, by José de Ribera
In Goethe's Faust Mary of Egypt is one of the three penitent saints who pray to the Virgin Mary for forgiveness for Faust. Her words are set by Mahler in his 8th Symphony, as the final saint's appeal to the Mater Gloriosa.In Ben Jonson's play Volpone (1606) one of the characters uses the expression "Marry Gip." Commentators have taken this to mean "Mary of Egypt."Mary of Egypt is the subject of operas by Ottorino Respighi (Maria egiziaca) and Sir John Tavener (Mary of Egypt), the latter written in 1992 for the Aldeburgh Festival.The Unknown Masterpiece (1831), a novella by Balzac, contains a long description of a portrait of Mary of Egypt "undressing in order to pay her passage to Jerusalem."Nalo Hopkinson's science fiction novel, The Salt Roads, also features Mary of Egypt and takes a historical fiction approach to telling her story.In John Berryman's Pulitzer Prize winning book of poetry, The Dream Songs, poem 47, subtitled "April Fool's Day, or, St. Mary of Egypt," recounts Mary of Egypt's walk across the River Jordan."Thrust back by hands of air from the sanctuary door" is the first line of Maria Aegyptiaca, a poem by John Heath-Stubbs about the saint (Collected Poems, p. 289).

See also



External links

{{Commons category|Mary of Egypt}} {{Coptic saints}}{{Authority control}}

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