Martha Graham

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Martha Graham
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Allegheny, Pennsylvania>Allegheny (later Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania, U.S.199115|11}}| death_place = New York City, New York, U.S.| nationality = American| movement = Modern danceErick Hawkins (m. 1948–1954; Divorce>div.)Kennedy Center Honors (1979)Presidential Medal of Freedom (1976)National Medal of Arts (1985)}}| field = Dance and choreography| influences =| influenced =}}Martha Graham (May 11, 1894 â€“ April 1, 1991) was an American modern dancer and choreographer. Her style, the Graham technique, reshaped American dance and is still taught worldwide.She danced and taught for over seventy years. Graham was the first dancer to perform at the White House, travel abroad as a cultural ambassador, and receive the highest civilian award of the US: the Presidential Medal of Freedom with Distinction. In her lifetime she received honors ranging from the Key to the City of Paris to Japan's Imperial Order of the Precious Crown. She said, in the 1994 documentary The Dancer Revealed, "I have spent all my life with dance and being a dancer. It's permitting life to use you in a very intense way. Sometimes it is not pleasant. Sometimes it is fearful. But nevertheless it is inevitable." The Dancer Revealed, American Masters: Season 8, Episode 2, PBS, 13 May 1994

Early life

Graham was born in Allegheny City – later to become part of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania – in 1894. Her father, George Graham, practiced as what in the Victorian era was known as an "alienist", a practitioner of an early form of psychiatry. The Grahams were strict Presbyterians. Dr. Graham was a third-generation American of Irish descent. Her mother, Jane Beers, was a second-generation American of Irish, Scots-Irish, and English ancestry, and claimed descent from Myles Standish.WEB,weblink Martha Graham (1894–1991), Jowitt, Deborah, Deborah Jowitt, 2012, Dance Heritage Coalition, 15 February 2018, While her parents provided a comfortable environment in her youth, it was not one that encouraged dancing.Martha Graham: A Dancer's Life by Russell Freedman, p. 12The Graham family moved to Santa Barbara, California when Martha was fourteen years old.Martha Graham: A Dancer's Life by Russell Freedman, p. 20 In 1911, she attended the first dance performance of her life, watching Ruth St. Denis perform at the Mason Opera House in Los Angeles.Martha Graham: A Dancer's Life by Russell Freedman, p. 21 In the mid-1910s, Martha Graham began her studies at the newly created Denishawn School of Dancing and Related Arts, founded by Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn, at which she would stay until 1923. In 1922, Graham performed one of Shawn's Egyptian dances with Lillian Powell in a short silent film by Hugo Riesenfeld that attempted to synchronize a dance routine on film with a live orchestra and an onscreen conductor."Music Films", Standard-Examiner (Ogden, Utah), May 21, 1922, p. 5


When she left the Denishawn establishment in 1923, Graham did so with an urge to make dance an art form that was more grounded in the rawness of the human experience as opposed to just a mere form of entertainment. This motivated Graham to strip away the more decorative movements of ballet and of her training at the Denishawn school and focus more on the foundational aspects of movement.In 1925, Graham was employed at the Eastman School of Music where Rouben Mamoulian was head of the School of Drama. Among other performances, together Mamoulian and Graham produced a short two-color film called The Flute of Krishna, featuring Eastman students. Mamoulian left Eastman shortly thereafter and Graham chose to leave also, even though she was asked to stay on.In 1926, the Martha Graham Center of Contemporary Dance was established. On April 18 of the same yearBryant Pratt (1994) {{Full citation needed|date=August 2014}} Graham debuted her first independent concert, consisting of 18 short solos and trios that she had choreographed. This performance took place at the 48th Street Theatre in Manhattan. She would later say of the concert: "Everything I did was influenced by Denishawn."Mansfield Soares (1992) p. 56 On November 28, 1926 Martha Graham and others in her company gave a dance recital at the Klaw Theatre in New York City. Around the same time she entered an extended collaboration with Japanese-American pictorialist photographer Soichi Sunami, and over the next five years they together created some of the most iconic images of early modern dance.WEB,weblink from Kathy Muir, Seattle Camera Club, 2015-10-04, One of Graham's students was heiress Bethsabée de Rothschild with whom she became close friends. When Rothschild moved to Israel and established the Batsheva Dance Company in 1965, Graham became the company's first director.{{Citation needed|date=June 2016}}Graham's technique pioneered a principle known as "Contraction and Release" in modern dance, which was derived from a stylized conception of breathing.BOOK, Debra Craine, Judith Mackrell, The Oxford Dictionary of Dance,weblink 19 August 2010, Oxford University Press, 0-19-956344-6, 196, Contraction and Release:The desire to highlight a more base aspect of human movement led Graham to create the "contraction and release", for which she would become known. Each movement could separately be used to express either positive or negative, freeing or constricting emotions depending on the placement of the head. The contraction and release were both the basis for Graham's weighted and grounded style, which is in direct opposition to classical ballet techniques that typically aim to create an illusion of weightlessness. To counter the more percussive and staccato movements, Graham eventually added the spiral shape to the vocabulary of her technique to incorporate a sense of fluidity.

New Era in Dance

(File:Photograph of Martha Graham's Heretic by Soichi Sunami.jpg|thumb|Graham's "Heretic" by Soichi Sunami)Following her first concert made up of solos, Graham created Heretic (1929), the first group piece of many that showcased a clear diversion from her days with Denishawn, and served as an insight to her work that would follow in the future. Made up of constricted and sharp movement with the dancers clothed unglamorously, the piece centered around the theme of rejection—one that would reoccur in other Graham works down the line.As time went on Graham moved away from the more stark design aesthetic she initially embraced, and began incorporating more elaborate sets and scenery to her work. To do this, she collaborated often with Isamu Noguchi—a Japanese American designer—whose eye for set design was a complimentary match to Graham's choreography.Within the many themes which Graham incorporated into her work, there were two that she seemed to adhere to the most—Americana and Greek Mythology. One of Graham's most known pieces that incorporates the American life theme is Appalachian Spring (1944). She collaborated with the composer Aaron Copland—who won a Pulitzer Prize for his work on the piece—and Noguchi, who created the nonliteral set. As she did often, Graham placed herself in her own piece as the bride of a newly married couple whose optimism for starting a new life together is countered by a grounded pioneer woman and a sermon-giving revivalist. Two of Graham's pieces—Cave of Heart (1946) and Night Journey (1947)—display her intrigue not only with Greek mythology but also with the psyche of a woman, as both pieces retell Greek myths from a woman's point of view.In 1936, Graham created Chronicle which brought serious issues to the stage in a dramatic manner. Influenced by the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the Great Depression that followed, and the Spanish Civil War, the dance focused on depression and isolation, reflected in the dark nature of both the set and costumes. That same year, (1936) she declined Hitler's invitation to perform at the International Arts Festival, an event that ran alongside the Olympic Games in Berlin. 1938 became a big year for Graham; the Roosevelts invited Graham to dance at the White House, making her the first dancer to perform there.Martha Graham Timeline: 1894–1949, The Library of Congress Also in 1938 Erick Hawkins became the first man to dance with her company. He officially joined her troupe the following year, dancing male lead in a number of Graham's works. They were married in July 1948 after the New York premiere of Night Journey.BOOK, Franco, Mark, Martha Graham in Love and War: The Life in the Work, June 2012, Oxford University Press, 139, He left her troupe in 1951 and they divorced in 1954.On April 1, 1958, the Martha Graham Dance Company premiered the ballet Clytemnestra, based on the ancient Greek legend Clytemnestra and it became a huge success and great accomplishment for Graham.Martha Graham: A special issue of the journal Choreography and Dance, by Alice Helpern {{full citation needed|date=June 2016}} With a score by Egyptian-born composer Halim El-Dabh, this ballet was a large scale work and the only full-length work in Graham's career. Graham choreographed and danced the title role, spending almost the entire duration of the performance on the stage.BOOK, LaMothe, Kimerer L., Nietzsche's Dancers: Isadora Duncan, Martha Graham, and the Revaluation of, 203, The ballet was based on the Greek mythology of the same title and tells the story of Queen Clytemnestra who is married to King Agamemnon. Agamemnon sacrifices their daughter, Iphigenia, on a pyre, as an offering to the gods to assure fair winds to Troy, where the Trojan War rages. Upon Agamemnon's return after 10 years, Clytemnestra kills Agamemnon to avenge the murder of Iphigenia. Clytemnestra is then murdered by her son, Orestes, and the audience experiences Clytemnestra in the afterworld. This ballet was deemed a masterpiece of 20th-century American modernism and was so successful it had a limited engagement showing on Broadway.JOURNAL, Dance Observer, 1960, 27, {{Title missing|date=January 2015}}Graham collaborated with many composers including Aaron Copland on Appalachian Spring, Louis Horst, Samuel Barber, William Schuman, Carlos Surinach, Norman Dello Joio, and Gian Carlo {{webarchive |url= |date=January 10, 2010 }} Graham's mother died in Santa Barbara in 1958. Her oldest friend and musical collaborator Louis Horst died in 1964. She said of Horst, "His sympathy and understanding, but primarily his faith, gave me a landscape to move in. Without it, I should certainly have been lost."Freedman, p. 134Graham resisted requests for her dances to be recorded because she believed that live performances should only exist on stage as they are experienced.BOOK, Women in Leadership: Contextual Dynamics and Boundaries, Karin, Klenke, Bingley, Emerald, 2011, 9780857245618, 208, There were a few notable exceptions. For example, in addition to her collaboration with Sunami in the 1920s, she also worked on a limited basis with still photographers Imogen Cunningham in the 1930s, and Barbara Morgan in the 1940s. Graham considered Philippe Halsman's photographs of Dark Meadow the most complete photographic record of any of her dances. Halsman also photographed in the 1940s Letter to the World, Cave of the Heart, Night Journey and Every Soul is a Circus. In later years her thinking on the matter evolved and others convinced her to let them recreate some of what was lost. In 1952 Graham allowed taping of her meeting and cultural exchange with famed deafblind author, activist and lecturer Helen Keller, who, after a visit to one of Graham's company rehearsals became a close friend and supporter. Graham was inspired by Keller's joy from and interpretation of dance, utilizing her body to feel the vibration of drums and sound of feet and movement of the air around her.Hello Goodbye Hello: A Circle of 101 Remarkable Meetings {{full citation needed|date=June 2016}}(File:Martha Graham and Bertram Ross.jpg|upright|thumb|Martha Graham with Bertram Ross (1961))In her biography Martha, Agnes de Mille cites Graham's last performance as having occurred on the evening of May 25, 1968, in Time of Snow. But in A Dancer's Life, biographer Russell Freedman lists the year of Graham's final performance as 1969. In her 1991 autobiography, Blood Memory, Graham herself lists her final performance as her 1970 appearance in Cortege of Eagles when she was 76 years old. Graham's choreographies span 181 compositions.Martha Graham Dance Company – History {{webarchive|url= |date=April 13, 2012 }}

Retirement and later years

In the years that followed her departure from the stage, Graham sank into a deep depression fueled by views from the wings of young dancers performing many of the dances she had choreographed for herself and her former husband. Graham's health declined precipitously as she abused alcohol to numb her pain. In Blood Memory she wrote,It wasn't until years after I had relinquished a ballet that I could bear to watch someone else dance it. I believe in never looking back, never indulging in nostalgia, or reminiscing. Yet how can you avoid it when you look on stage and see a dancer made up to look as you did thirty years ago, dancing a ballet you created with someone you were then deeply in love with, your husband? I think that is a circle of hell Dante omitted.[When I stopped dancing] I had lost my will to live. I stayed home alone, ate very little, and drank too much and brooded. My face was ruined, and people say I looked odd, which I agreed with. Finally my system just gave in. I was in the hospital for a long time, much of it in a coma.BOOK, Graham, Martha, Blood memory, 1991, Doubleday, 978-0-385-26503-4,weblink Graham not only survived her hospital stay, but she rallied. In 1972, she quit drinking, returned to her studio, reorganized her company, and went on to choreograph ten new ballets and many revivals. Her last completed ballet was 1990's Maple Leaf Rag.


Graham choreographed until her death in New York City from pneumonia in 1991, aged 96.NEWS, Kisselgoff, Anna, Anna Kisselgoff, Martha Graham Dies at 96; A Revolutionary in Dance,weblink The New York Times, April 2, 1991, Just before she became sick with pneumonia, she finished the final draft of her autobiography, Blood Memory, which was published posthumously in the fall of 1991.BOOK, Susan Ware, Letter to the World: Seven Women who Shaped the American Century,weblink 1998, W.W. Norton, 978-0-393-04652-6, She was cremated, and her ashes were spread over the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in northern New Mexico.

Influence and legacy

Graham has been sometimes termed the "Picasso of Dance" in that her importance and influence to modern dance can be considered equivalent to what Pablo Picasso was to modern visual arts.Bondi (1995) p. 74 quote: "Picasso of Dance ... Martha Graham was to modern dance what Pablo Picasso was to modern art."Agnes de Mille (1991) p.vii quote: "Her achievement is equivalent to Picasso's," I said to Mark Ryder, a pupil and company member of Graham's, "I'm not sure I will accept him as deserving to be in her class." Her impact has been also compared to the influence of Stravinsky on music and Frank Lloyd Wright on architecture.NEWS, Martha Graham: About the Dancer,weblink American Masters, September 16, 2005, NPR,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-10-10, no, To celebrate what would have been her 117th birthday on May 11, 2011, Google's logo for one day was turned into one dedicated to Graham's life and legacy.NEWS, Google Doodle Celebrates Martha Graham and Dynamic Web,weblink May 11, 2011, PC World,weblink" title="">weblink 2013-07-02, no, Martha Graham has been said to be the one that brought dance into the 20th century. Due to the work of her assistants, Linda Hodes, Pearl Lang, Diane Gray, Yuriko, and others, much of Graham's work and technique have been preserved. They taped interviews of Graham describing her entire technique and videos of her performances.De Mille (1991), p. 409. As Glen Tetley told Agnes de Mille, "The wonderful thing about Martha in her good days was her generosity. So many people stole Martha's unique personal vocabulary, consciously or unconsciously, and performed it in concerts. I have never once heard Martha say, 'So-and-so has used my choreography.'"De Mille (1991), pp. 409–10. An entire movement was created by her that revolutionized the dance world and created what is known today as modern dance. Now, dancers all over the world study and perform modern dance. Choreographers and professional dancers look to her for inspiration.BOOK, Gerald, Newman, Martha Graham: Founder of Modern Dance, 1998, Franklin Watts, Danbury, Connecticut, According to Agnes de Mille:The greatest thing [Graham] ever said to me was in 1943 after the opening of Oklahoma!, when I suddenly had unexpected, flamboyant success for a work I thought was only fairly good, after years of neglect for work I thought was fine. I was bewildered and worried that my entire scale of values was untrustworthy. I talked to Martha. I remember the conversation well. It was in a Schrafft's restaurant over a soda. I confessed that I had a burning desire to be excellent, but no faith that I could be. Martha said to me, very quietly: "There is a vitality, a life force, an energy, a quickening that is translated through you into action, and because there is only one of you in all of time, this expression is unique. And if you block it, it will never exist through any other medium and it will be lost. The world will not have it. It is not your business to determine how good it is nor how valuable nor how it compares with other expressions. It is your business to keep it yours clearly and directly, to keep the channel open. You do not even have to believe in yourself or your work. You have to keep yourself open and aware to the urges that motivate you. Keep the channel open ... No artist is pleased. [There is] no satisfaction whatever at any time. There is only a queer divine dissatisfaction, a blessed unrest that keeps us marching and makes us more alive than the others."De Mille (1991) p. 264.

Martha Graham Dance Company

{{see also|Martha Graham Center of Contemporary Dance}}The Martha Graham Dance Company is the oldest dance company in America,"Martha's back! Famed dance company in residence during June." {{webarchive|url= |date=October 10, 2012 }} Scope Online. Skidmore College founded in 1926. It has helped develop many famous dancers and choreographers of the 20th and 21st centuries including Erick Hawkins, Anna Sokolow, Merce Cunningham, Lila York, and Paul Taylor. It continues to perform, including at the Saratoga Performing Arts Center in June 2008. The company also performed in 2007 at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, with a program consisting of: Appalachian Spring, Embattled Garden, Errand into the Maze, and American Original.WEB,weblink Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, 2011-08-08, Martha Graham Dance Company,weblink" title="">weblink 2011-09-19, no, WEB,weblink Martha Graham Dance Company returns to Chicago for long-awaited performance at MCA, 2007-04-17, Darnell, Tracie, Medill, 2011-08-08,weblink" title="">weblink October 12, 2013, yes, mdy-all,

Early dancers

Graham's original female dancers consisted of Bessie Schonberg, Evelyn Sabin, Martha Hill, Gertrude Shurr, Anna Sokolow, Nelle Fisher, Dorothy Bird, Bonnie Bird, Sophie Maslow, May O'Donnell, Jane Dudley, Anita Alvarez, Pearl Lang, and Marjorie G. Mazia. A second group included Yuriko, Ethel Butler, Ethel Winter, Jean Erdman, Patricia Birch, Nina Fonaroff, Matt Turney, Mary Hinkson. The group of men dancers was made up of Erick Hawkins, Merce Cunningham, David Campbell, John Butler, Robert Cohan, Stuart Hodes, Glen Tetley, Bertram Ross, Paul Taylor, Donald McKayle, Mark Ryder, and William Carter.De Mille (1991) p. 417


In 1957, Graham was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.WEB, Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter G,weblink American Academy of Arts and Sciences, July 29, 2014, She was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1976 by President Gerald Ford (the First Lady Betty Ford had danced with Graham in her youth). Ford declared her "a national treasure".Martha Graham: A Dancer's Life by Russell Freedman, p. 142Graham was inducted into the National Museum of Dance's Mr. & Mrs. Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney Hall of Fame in 1987.BOOK, Cross, Mary, One Hundred People who Changed 20th-century America, 156, In 1998 Graham was posthumously named "Dancer of the Century" by Time magazine,NEWS,weblink Time, TIME 100: Martha Graham, August 6, 1998,weblink" title="">weblink 2011-07-06, yes, and one of the female "Icons of the Century" by People.Women in Leadership: Contextual Dynamics and Boundaries, By Karin KlenkeIn 2015 she was posthumously inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame.WEB, October 3, 2015,weblink 10 women honored at Hall of Fame induction,, 2015-10-04,


This excerpt from John Martin's reviews in The New York Times provides insight on Graham's choreographic style. "Frequently the vividness and intensity of her purpose are so potent that on the rise of the curtain they strike like a blow, and in that moment one must decide whether he is for or against her. She boils down her moods and movements until they are devoid of all extraneous substances and are concentrated to the highest degree."Armitage, p. 9.{{Category see also|Ballets by Martha Graham}}{| class="wikitable sortable"! Year! Performance! style="width: 12em;"| Music!class="unsortable"| Notes| 1926Chorale (ballet)>Chorale| César Franck|| 1926Novelette (ballet)>Novelette| Robert Schumann|| 1927Lugubre (ballet)>Lugubre| Alexander Scriabin|| 1927Revolt (ballet)>Revolt| Arthur Honegger|| 1927Fragilité (ballet)>Fragilité| Alexander Scriabin|| 1927Scherza (ballet)>Scherza| Robert Schumann|| 1929Figure of a Saint (ballet)>Figure of a Saint| George Frideric Handel|| 1929Resurrection (ballet)>Resurrection| Tibor Harsányi|| 1929Adolescence (ballet)>Adolescence| Paul Hindemith|| 1929Danza (ballet)>Danza| Darius Milhaud|| 1929| Vision of the Apocalypse| Hermann Reutter||1929Insincerities (ballet)>Insincerities|Serge Prokofiev|| 1929Moment Rustica (ballet)>Moment Rustica| Francis Poulenc|| 1929Heretic (ballet)>Heretic| from folkloreBrittany>Breton song, Tetus Breton, as arranged by Charles de Sivry; added to the United States National Film Registry in 2013 along with three other Martha Graham dance films"2013 additions to National Film Registry" (8/29), CBS News.| 1930Lamentation (ballet)>Lamentation| Zoltán Kodály| Sets by Isamu Noguchi; added to the United States National Film Registry in 2013 along with three other Martha Graham dance films| 1930Harlequinade (1930 Graham ballet)>Harlequinade''| Ernst Toch| Costumes by Graham| 1931| Primitive Mysteries| Louis Horst|| 1931Bacchanale (ballet)>Bacchanale| Wallingford Riegger|| 1931Dolorosa (ballet)>Dolorosa| Heitor Villa-Lobos|| 1933Romeo and Juliet (Prokofiev)>Romeo and Juliet| Paul Nordoff| Dance sequences for a Katharine Cornell production||1934 | Dance in Four Parts| George Antheil||1935Praeludium (ballet)>Praeludium| Paul Nordoff| Costumes by Graham (1935), by Edythe Gilfond (1938)| 1935Frontier (ballet)>Frontier| Louis Horst| Sets by Isamu Noguchi; added to the United States National Film Registry in 2013 along with three other Martha Graham dance films| 1935Course (ballet)>Course| George Antheil|| 1936Chronicle (ballet)>Steps in the Street| Wallingford Riegger| Part of Chronicle| 1936Chronicle (ballet)>Chronicle| Wallingford Riegger| Lighting by Jean Rosenthal| 1936Horizons (ballet)>Horizons| Louis Horst| Sets by Alexander Calder| 1936Salutation (ballet)>Salutation| Lehman Engel|| 1937Deep Song (ballet)>Deep Song| Henry Cowell|| 1937| Opening DanceNorman Lloyd (composer)>Norman Lloyd|| 1937| Immediate Tragedy| Henry Cowell|| 1937| American Lyric| Alex North| Costumes by Edythe Gilfond| 1938| American Document| Ray Green| Sets by Arch Lauterer, costumes by Edythe Gilfond| 1939Columbiad (ballet)>Columbiad| Louis Horst| Sets by Philip Stapp, costumes by Edythe Gilfond| 1939| Every Soul is a Circus| Paul Nordoff| Sets by Philip Stapp, costumes by Edythe Gilfond| 1940| El Penitente| Louis Horst| Original sets by Arch Lauterer, costumes by Edythe Gilfond, sets later redesigned by Isamu Noguchi| 1940| Letter to the WorldHunter Johnson (composer)>Hunter Johnson| Sets by Arch Lauterer, costumes by Edythe Gilfond| 1941| Punch and the JudyRobert McBride (composer)>Robert McBride| Sets by Arch Lauterer, costumes by Charlotte Trowbridge, text by Edward Gordon Craig| 1942| Land Be Bright| Arthur Kreutz| Sets and costumes by Charlotte Trowbridge| 1943Deaths and Entrances (ballet)>Deaths and EntrancesHunter Johnson (composer)>Hunter Johnson| Sets by Arch Lauterer, costumes by Edythe Gilfond (1943) and by Oscar de la Renta (2005)| 1943| Salem Shore| Paul Nordoff| Sets by Arch Lauterer, costumes by Edythe Gilfond| 1944| Appalachian Spring| Aaron Copland|Sets by Isamu Noguchi; added to the United States National Film Registry in 2013 along with three other Martha Graham dance films| 1944| Imagined Wing| Darius Milhaud| Sets by Isamu Noguchi, costumes by Edythe Gilfond| 1944Hérodiade (ballet)>Hérodiade| Paul Hindemith| Sets by Isamu Noguchi| 1946| Dark Meadow| Carlos Chávez| Sets by Isamu Noguchi, costumes by Edythe Gilfond, and lighting by Jean Rosenthal.| 1946| Cave of the Heart| Samuel Barber| Sets by Isamu Noguchi, costumes by Edythe Gilfond, and lighting by Jean Rosenthal.| 1947| Errand into the Maze| Gian Carlo Menotti| Sets by Isamu Noguchi, lighting by Jean Rosenthal| 1947Night Journey (ballet)>Night Journey| William Schuman| Sets by Isamu Noguchi| 1948| Diversion of Angels| Norman Dello Joio| Sets by Isamu Noguchi (eliminated after the first performance)| 1950Judith (ballet)>Judith| William Schuman| Sets by Isamu Noguchi, lighting by Jean Rosenthal| 1951| The Triumph of St. Joan| Norman Dello Joio|| 1954| Ardent Song| Alan Hovhaness|| 1955| Seraphic Dialogue| Norman Dello Joio| Sets by Isamu Noguchi| 1958Clytemnestra (ballet)>Clytemnestra| Halim El-Dabh| Sets by Isamu Noguchi, costumes by Graham and Helen McGehee| 1958| Embattled Garden| Carlos Surinach| Sets by Isamu Noguchi| 1959Episodes (ballet)>Episodes| Anton Webern| Commissioned by New York City Ballet| 1960| Acrobats of God| Carlos Surinach|| 1960Alcestis (ballet)>Alcestis| Vivian Fine|| 1961| Visionary Recital| Robert Starer| Revised as Samson Agonistes in 1962| 1961| One More Gaudy Night| Halim El-Dabh|| 1962Phaedra (ballet)>Phaedra| Robert Starer| Sets by Isamu Noguchi| 1962| A Look at Lightning| Halim El-Dabh|| 1962Secular Games (ballet)>Secular Games| Robert Starer|| 1962Legend of JudithMoving force, Haaretz {{webarchive >url= |date=February 25, 2012 }}| Mordecai Seter|| 1963Circe (ballet)>Circe| Alan Hovhaness| Sets by Isamu Noguchi| 1965The Witch of Endor (ballet)>The Witch of Endor| William Schuman|| 1967| Cortege of Eagles| Eugene Lester| Sets by Isamu Noguchi| 1968| A Time of Snow| Norman Dello Joio|| 1968| Plain of Prayer| Eugene Lester|| 1968| The Lady of the House of Sleep| Robert Starer|| 1969| The Archaic Hours| Eugene Lester|| 1973| Mendicants of Evening| David G. Walker| Revised as Chronique in 1974| 1973| Myth of a Voyage| Alan Hovhaness|| 1974| Holy Jungle| Robert Starer|| 1974Jacob's Dream (ballet)>Jacob's Dream| Mordecai Seter|| 1975Lucifer (ballet)>Lucifer| Halim El-Dabh|| 1975Adorations (ballet)>Adorations| Mateo AlbénizDomenico CimarosaJohn DowlandGirolamo Frescobaldi|| 1975| Point of Crossing| Mordecai Seter|| 1975The Scarlet Letter (ballet)>The Scarlet LetterHunter Johnson (composer)>Hunter Johnson|| 1977| O Thou Desire Who Art About to Sing| Meyer Kupferman|| 1977Shadows (ballet)>Shadows| Gian Carlo Menotti|| 1978The Owl and the Pussycat (ballet)>The Owl and the Pussycat| Carlos Surinach|| 1978Ecuatorial (ballet)>Ecuatorial| Edgard Varèse|| 1978| Flute of Pan| Traditional music.|| 1978 or 1979Frescoes (ballet)>Frescoes| Samuel Barber|| 1979Episodes (ballet)>Episodes| Anton Webern| reconstructed and reworked| 1980Judith (ballet)>Judith| Edgard Varèse|| 1981| Acts of Light| Carl Nielsen| Costumes by Halston| 1982| Dances of the Golden Hall| Andrzej Panufnik|| 1982| Andromanche's Lament| Samuel Barber|| 1983| Phaedra's Dream| George Crumb|| 1984| The Rite of Spring| Igor Stravinsky|| 1985Song (ballet)>Song| Romanian folk music| played on the pan flute by Gheorghe Zamfir with Marcel Cellier on the organ| 1986| Temptations of the Moon| Béla Bartók|| 1986| Tangled Night| Klaus Egge|| 1987Perséphone (Stravinsky)>Perséphone| Igor Stravinsky|| 1988| Night Chant| R. Carlos Nakai|Set by Isamu Noguchi| 1989| American Document (new version)| John Corigliano|Guest Artist M.Baryshinikov| 1990Maple Leaf Rag (ballet)>Maple Leaf Rag| Scott Joplin| costumes by Calvin Klein, lighting by David Finley| 1991| The Eyes of the Goddess (unfinished)| Carlos SurinachMarisol Escobar>Marisol

See also




  • BOOK, Bryant, Paula Pratt, Martha Graham (The Importance Of ... Series), 1994, Gale, Detroit,
  • Martha: The Life and Work Of Martha Graham A Biography, by Agnes De Mille, 1991
  • Martha, by Alice Helpern, 1998
  • Martha Graham in Love and War: The Life in the Work, by Mark Franko, 2012
  • Martha Graham: The Evolution of Her Dance Theory and Training, by Marian Horosko, 2002
  • BOOK, Freedman, Russell, Russell Freedman, Martha Graham – A Dancer's Life, 1998, Clarion Books, New York City, 978-0-395-74655-4,weblink
  • Ballet and Modern Dance Second Edition, by Susan Au 2002

Further reading

  • Hodes, Stuart, Part Real-Part Dream, Dancing With Martha Graham, (2011) Concord ePress, Concord, MA.
  • BOOK, Bird, Dorothy, Greenberg, Joyce, Bird's Eye View: Dancing With Martha Graham and on Broadway, 2002, reprint, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 978-0-8229-5791-1,
  • BOOK, Graham, Martha, Blood Memory An autobiography, 1991, Doubleday, New York, 978-0-385-26503-4,weblink
  • BOOK, Hawkins, Erick, The Body Is a Clear Place and Other Statements on Dance, 1992, Princeton Book Co, Hightstown, New Jersey, 978-0-87127-166-2,
  • BOOK, Horosko, Marian, Martha Graham The Evolution of Her Dance Theory and Training, 2002, Univ. Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 978-0-8130-2473-8,
  • BOOK, Morgan, Barbara, Martha Graham Sixteen Dances in Photographs, 1980, Morgan & Morgan, 978-0-87100-176-4,
  • BOOK, Newman, Gerald, Martha Graham: Founder of Modern Dance, 1998, Franklin Watts, Danbury, Connecticut,
  • BOOK, Soares, Janet Mansfield, Louis Horst Musician in a Dancer's World, 1992, Duke University Press, Durham, North Carolina, 978-0-8223-1226-0,weblink
  • BOOK, Taylor, Paul, Private Domain An Autobiography, 1987, Knopf, New York, 978-0-394-51683-7,
  • BOOK, Tracy, Robert, Goddess â€“ Martha Graham's Dancers Remember, 1997, Limelight Editions, Pompton Plains, New Jersey, 978-0-87910-086-5,
  • BOOK, Layman, Richard, Bondi, Victor, American Decades 1940–1949,weblink 1995, Gale Research International, Limited, 978-0-8103-5726-6,
  • BOOK, de Mille, Agnes, Martha: The Life and Work of Martha Graham, 1991, Random House, New York, 978-0-394-55643-7,weblink

External links

{{Commons category|Martha Graham}} {{Navboxes| title = Awards for Martha Graham| list ={{Kennedy Center Honorees 1970s}}{{Laurel Leaf Award}}{{National Medal of Arts recipients 1980s|state=autocollapse}}{{National Women's Hall of Fame}}}}{{Dance}}{{Dance Companies in the United States}}{{Authority control}}

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Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott