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{{About|the Mediterranean city}}{{short description|Second-largest city of France and prefecture of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur}}{{redirect-multi|2|Massilia|Marsiglia}}{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2015}}

Prefectures in France>Prefecture and communeposition=center
| photo2a = Marseille 20131005 17.jpg
| photo3a = Marseille - Vieux port 4.jpg
| photo4b = Cathédrale Sainte-Marie-Majeure. 4.JPG
| photo2b = Calanque en.JPG
| photo4a = France - Marseille (29881013814).jpg
| photo1a = Marseille panorama.jpg
| size = 270
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| foot_montage = From top to bottom, left to right: Bompard, Le Panier, Calanques National Park, Old Port and Notre-Dame de la Garde, Palais Longchamp and Marseille Cathedral}}|population demonym = Marseillais (French)Marselhés (Occitan)Massiliot (ancient)|image flag = Flag of Marseille.svg |image coat of arms = Armoiries de Marseille.svg
"The city of Marseille shines from its great achievements"}}43.2964format=dms|display=inline,title}}|region = Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur|department = Bouches-du-Rhône|arrondissement = MarseilleCantons of Marseille>12 cantons|mayor = Jean-Claude GaudinThe Republicans (France)>LR|term = since 1995|area km2 = 240.62|population = 870018List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants>2nd in France PUBLISHER=COMERSIS, 24 July 2018, |urban area km2 = 1731.91|urban area date = 2010language=fr |}}|urban pop date = 2014|metro area km2 = 3173.51|metro area date = 2010AUTHOR=WORK=INSEE.FR, |metro area pop date = Jan. 2011Aix-Marseille-Provence Metropolis>Aix-Marseille-Provence|postal code = 13001-13016|INSEE = 13055|dialling code = 0491 or 0496|website =}}Marseille ({{IPAc-en|m|ɑːr|ˈ|s|eɪ}} {{respell|mar|SAY}}, {{IPA-fr|maʁsɛj|lang|Fr-Normandie-Marseille.ogg}}, {{IPA-frdia|mɑχˈsɛjə|lang|Fr-Marseille.ogg}}; also spelled in English as Marseilles; {{IPA-oc|maʀˈsejɔ, -ˈsijɔ|}}) is the prefecture of the department of Bouches-du-Rhône and region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. It is located on the Mediterranean coast near the mouth of the Rhône. The city covers an area of {{convert|241|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}} and had a population of 870,018 in 2016. Its metropolitan area, which extends over {{convert|3173|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}} is the third-largest in France after those of Paris and Lyon, with a population of 1,831,500 as of 2010.Known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as MassaliaAlso occasionally spelled Masalia. (),{{sfn|Duchêne|Contrucci|1998|loc=page needed A}}JOURNAL, Transalpine Gaul: the emergence of a Roman province, Charles, Ebel, Brill Archive, 1976, 90-04-04384-5, 5–16, harv, , Chapter 2, Massilia and Rome before 390 B.C. Marseille was an important European trading centre and remains the main commercial port of the French Republic. Marseille is now France's largest city on the Mediterranean coast and the largest port for commerce, freight and cruise ships. The city was European Capital of Culture in 2013 and European Capital of Sport in 2017; it hosted matches at the 1998 World Cup and Euro 2016. It is home to Aix-Marseille University.


File:Marseille-corniche.jpg|thumb|left|View of the "Petit Nice" on Marseille's corniche (7th arrondissement) with the Frioul archipelago and the Château d'IfChâteau d'IfMarseille is the second-largest city in France after Paris and the centre of the third-largest metropolitan area in France after Paris and Lyon. To the east, starting in the small fishing village of Callelongue on the outskirts of Marseille and stretching as far as Cassis, are the Calanques, a rugged coastal area interspersed with small fjord-like inlets. Farther east still are the Sainte-Baume (a {{convert|1147|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} mountain ridge rising from a forest of deciduous trees), the city of Toulon and the French Riviera. To the north of Marseille, beyond the low Garlaban and Etoile mountain ranges, is the {{convert|1011|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} Mont Sainte Victoire. To the west of Marseille is the former artists' colony of l'Estaque; farther west are the Côte Bleue, the Gulf of Lion and the Camargue region in the Rhône delta. The airport lies to the north west of the city at Marignane on the Étang de Berre.Michelin Guide to Provence, {{ISBN|2-06-137503-0}}The city's main thoroughfare (the wide boulevard called the Canebière) stretches eastward from the Old Port to the Réformés quarter. Two large forts flank the entrance to the Old Port—Fort Saint-Nicolas on the south side and Fort Saint-Jean on the north. Farther out in the Bay of Marseille is the Frioul archipelago which comprises four islands, one of which, If, is the location of Château d'If, made famous by the Dumas novel The Count of Monte Cristo. The main commercial centre of the city intersects with the Canebière at Rue St Ferréol and the Centre Bourse (one of the city's main shopping malls). The centre of Marseille has several pedestrianised zones, most notably Rue St Ferréol, Cours Julien near the Music Conservatory, the Cours Honoré-d'Estienne-d'Orves off the Old Port and the area around the Hôtel de Ville. To the south east of central Marseille in the 6th arrondissement are the Prefecture and the monumental fountain of Place Castellane, an important bus and metro interchange. To the south west are the hills of the 7th and 8th arrondissements, dominated by the basilica of Notre-Dame de la Garde. Marseille's main railway station—Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles—is north of the Centre Bourse in the 1st arrondissement; it is linked by the Boulevard d'Athènes to the Canebière.

Satellite view

File:Marseille from ISS 2017.jpg|thumb|center|upright=2|Marseille and Calanques National Park from the ISSISS


The city has a hot-summer mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa) with mild, humid winters and warm to hot, mostly dry summers.WEB,weblink Marseille, France Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase), Weatherbase, 2019-02-08, December, January, and February are the coldest months, averaging temperatures of around {{convert|12|°C|0|abbr=on}} during the day and {{convert|4|°C|0|abbr=on}} at night. July and August are the hottest months, averaging temperatures of around {{convert|28-30|°C|0|abbr=on}} during the day and {{convert|19|°C|0|abbr=on}} at night in the Marignane airport ({{convert|35|km|0|abbr=on}} from Marseille) but in the city near the sea the average high temperature is {{convert|27|°C|0|abbr=on}} in July.Météo France, 1981–2010 averagesMarseille is officially the sunniest major city in France with over 2,900 hours of sunshine while the average sunshine in the country is around 1,950 hours. It is also the driest major city with only {{convert|512|mm|0|abbr=on}} of precipitation annually, especially thanks to the Mistral, a cold, dry wind originating in the Rhône Valley that occurs mostly in winter and spring and which generally brings clear skies and sunny weather to the region. Less frequent is the Sirocco, a hot, sand-bearing wind, coming from the Sahara Desert. Snowfalls are infrequent; over 50% of years do not experience a single snowfall.{{Citation needed|date=February 2019}}The hottest temperature was {{convert|40.6|°C|1}} on 26 July 1983 during a great heat wave, the lowest temperature was {{convert|-14.3|°C|1}} on 13 February 1929 during a strong cold wave.{{Weather boxMarignane (Marseille Provence Airport), elevation: 36 m, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1921–present{{efn>The altitude provided from the site varies about 31 m, a much larger value than the margin of error, which may mean that the station was relocated ms in one of the data had maintained the elevation from when measured, which should be used.}}|metric first = yes|single line = yes|Jan record high C = 19.9|Feb record high C = 22.1|Mar record high C = 25.4|Apr record high C = 29.6|May record high C = 34.9|Jun record high C = 39.6|Jul record high C = 39.7|Aug record high C = 39.2|Sep record high C = 34.3|Oct record high C = 30.4|Nov record high C = 25.2|Dec record high C = 20.3|year record high C = 39.7|Jan high C = 11.4|Feb high C = 12.5|Mar high C = 15.8|Apr high C = 18.6|May high C = 22.9|Jun high C = 27.1|Jul high C = 30.2|Aug high C = 29.7|Sep high C = 25.5|Oct high C = 20.9|Nov high C = 15.1|Dec high C = 11.9|year high C = 20.2|Jan mean C = 7.1|Feb mean C = 8.1|Mar mean C = 11.0|Apr mean C = 13.8|May mean C = 18.0|Jun mean C = 21.8|Jul mean C = 24.8|Aug mean C = 24.4|Sep mean C = 20.6|Oct mean C = 16.6|Nov mean C = 11.1|Dec mean C = 7.9|year mean C = 15.5|Jan low C = 2.9|Feb low C = 3.6|Mar low C = 6.2|Apr low C = 9.1|May low C = 13.1|Jun low C = 16.6|Jul low C = 19.4|Aug low C = 19.0|Sep low C = 15.7|Oct low C = 12.4|Nov low C = 7.2|Dec low C = 4.0|year low C = 10.8|Jan record low C = -12.4|Feb record low C = -16.8|Mar record low C = -10.0|Apr record low C = -2.4|May record low C = 0.0|Jun record low C = 5.4|Jul record low C = 7.8|Aug record low C = 8.1|Sep record low C = 1.0|Oct record low C = -2.2|Nov record low C = -5.8|Dec record low C = -12.8|year record low C = -16.8|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 48.0|Feb precipitation mm = 31.4|Mar precipitation mm = 30.4|Apr precipitation mm = 54.0|May precipitation mm = 41.1|Jun precipitation mm = 24.5|Jul precipitation mm = 9.2|Aug precipitation mm = 31.0|Sep precipitation mm = 77.1|Oct precipitation mm = 67.2|Nov precipitation mm = 55.7|Dec precipitation mm = 45.8|year precipitation mm = 515.4|unit precipitation days = 1.0 mm|Jan precipitation days = 5.3|Feb precipitation days = 4.5|Mar precipitation days = 3.9|Apr precipitation days = 6.1|May precipitation days = 4.5|Jun precipitation days = 3.0|Jul precipitation days = 1.3|Aug precipitation days = 2.7|Sep precipitation days = 4.5|Oct precipitation days = 6.1|Nov precipitation days = 5.9|Dec precipitation days = 5.5|year precipitation days = 53.2|Jan sun = 145.1|Feb sun = 173.7|Mar sun = 238.7|Apr sun = 244.5|May sun = 292.9|Jun sun = 333.4|Jul sun = 369.1|Aug sun = 327.4|Sep sun = 258.6|Oct sun = 187.1|Nov sun = 152.5|Dec sun = 134.9|year sun = 2857.8| Jan uv =1| Feb uv =2| Mar uv =4| Apr uv =5| May uv =7| Jun uv =8| Jul uv =8| Aug uv =7| Sep uv =5| Oct uv =3| Nov uv =2| Dec uv =1|source = Météo FranceWEB,weblink 10 March 2018,weblink Marignane (13), Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques 1981–2010 et records, Meteo France, FrenchLAST=D.O.OWEBSITE=WEATHER ATLASACCESS-DATE=2019-07-02, }}{{Weather boxAlthough the values have a record of more than two decades, it can not be used as an overview of the local climate, as it does not reach the minimum period of 30 years required by WMO.The Definition of the Standard WMO Climate Normal: The Key to Deriving Alternative Climate Normals, American Meteorological Society (June 2011). Retrieved February 8, 2019.}}|metric first = yes|single line = yes|collapsed = yes|Jan record high C = 21.2|Feb record high C = 22.7|Mar record high C = 26.1|Apr record high C = 28.6|May record high C = 33.2|Jun record high C = 36.9|Jul record high C = 40.6|Aug record high C = 38.6|Sep record high C = 33.8|Oct record high C = 30.9|Nov record high C = 24.3|Dec record high C = 23.1|year record high C = 40.6|Jan high C = 11.8|Feb high C = 12.7|Mar high C = 15.9|Apr high C = 18.3|May high C = 22.6|Jun high C = 26.2|Jul high C = 29.6|Aug high C = 29.1|Sep high C = 25.2|Oct high C = 20.9|Nov high C = 15.2|Dec high C = 12.5|year high C = 20.0|Jan mean C = 8.4|Feb mean C = 8.9|Mar mean C = 11.6|Apr mean C = 13.8|May mean C = 17.9|Jun mean C = 21.3|Jul mean C = 24.5|Aug mean C = 24.1|Sep mean C = 20.7|Oct mean C = 16.9|Nov mean C = 11.8|Dec mean C = 9.3|year mean C = 15.8|Jan low C = 4.9|Feb low C = 5.1|Mar low C = 7.3|Apr low C = 9.3|May low C = 13.1|Jun low C = 16.4|Jul low C = 19.4|Aug low C = 19.1|Sep low C = 16.1|Oct low C = 13.0|Nov low C = 8.3|Dec low C = 6.0|year low C = 11.5|Jan record low C = -10.5|Feb record low C = -14.3|Mar record low C = -7.0|Apr record low C = -3.0|May record low C = 0.0|Jun record low C = 4.7|Jul record low C = 8.5|Aug record low C = 8.1|Sep record low C = 0.0|Oct record low C = -3.0|Nov record low C = -6.9|Dec record low C = -11.4|year record low C = -14.3|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 51.1|Feb precipitation mm = 32.1|Mar precipitation mm = 30.7|Apr precipitation mm = 51.1|May precipitation mm = 38.7|Jun precipitation mm = 23.5|Jul precipitation mm = 7.6|Aug precipitation mm = 27.9|Sep precipitation mm = 71.6|Oct precipitation mm = 78.6|Nov precipitation mm = 58.0|Dec precipitation mm = 52.3|year precipitation mm = 523.2|unit precipitation days = 1.0 mm|Jan precipitation days = 5.5|Feb precipitation days = 4.5|Mar precipitation days = 4.0|Apr precipitation days = 6.1|May precipitation days = 4.3|Jun precipitation days = 2.5|Jul precipitation days = 1.3|Aug precipitation days = 2.4|Sep precipitation days = 4.1|Oct precipitation days = 6.1|Nov precipitation days = 6.1|Dec precipitation days = 5.8|year precipitation days = 52.6|source 1 = Météo FranceWEB,weblink 10 March 2018,weblink Marseille–Obs (13), Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques 1981–2010 et records, Meteo France, French, 10 March 2018, |source 2 = Infoclimat.frWEB,weblink" title="">weblink 10 March 2018,weblink Normales et records pour la période 1981-2010 à Marseille Observatoire Longchamp, French, Infoclimat, 10 March 2018, }}{{Weather box | width = 100% | collapsed = y | open = | metric first = y | single line = y| location = Marseille-Marignane (Marseille Provence Airport), elevation: 36 m, 1961-1990 normals and extremes| Jan mean C =6.6| Feb mean C =8.4 | Mar mean C =10.2 | Apr mean C =13.3 | May mean C =17.1 | Jun mean C =20.7 | Jul mean C =23.6 | Aug mean C =23.3 | Sep mean C =20.2 | Oct mean C =16.2 | Nov mean C =10.6 | Dec mean C =7.6 | Jan high C =10.5 | Feb high C =12.3 | Mar high C =14.7 | Apr high C =17.9 | May high C =21.8 | Jun high C =25.6 | Jul high C =28.9 | Aug high C =28.5 | Sep high C =25.2 | Oct high C =20.7 | Nov high C =14.6 | Dec high C =11.5 | Jan record high C =19.1 | Feb record high C =22.1 | Mar record high C =25.4 | Apr record high C =26.6 | May record high C =30.1 | Jun record high C =34.4| Jul record high C =39.7 | Aug record high C =38.6 | Sep record high C =32.7 | Oct record high C =30.1 | Nov record high C =24.4 | Dec record high C =20.3 | Jan avg record high C =13.3 | Feb avg record high C =16.7 | Mar avg record high C =18.0 | Apr avg record high C =20.5 | May avg record high C =24.9 | Jun avg record high C =28.4 | Jul avg record high C =32.4 | Aug avg record high C =30.9 | Sep avg record high C =27.4 | Oct avg record high C =22.5 | Nov avg record high C =17.0 | Dec avg record high C =14.7 | Jan low C =2.7 | Feb low C =4.0 | Mar low C =5.7| Apr low C =8.7 | May low C =12.4 | Jun low C =15.7 | Jul low C =18.4 | Aug low C =18.0 | Sep low C =15.4 | Oct low C =11.5 | Nov low C =6.9 | Dec low C =4.0 | Jan record low C =-12.4| Feb record low C =-15.0| Mar record low C =-7.4| Apr record low C =0.3| May record low C =2.2 | Jun record low C =6.8| Jul record low C =11.7 | Aug record low C =9.4| Sep record low C =6.6 | Oct record low C =0.4| Nov record low C =-5.0| Dec record low C =-12.3| Jan avg record low C =-1.6 | Feb avg record low C =-0.6 | Mar avg record low C =2.4 | Apr avg record low C =6.2 | May avg record low C =10.1 | Jun avg record low C =14.2 | Jul avg record low C =16.5 | Aug avg record low C =16.4 | Sep avg record low C =13.3 | Oct avg record low C =6.8 | Nov avg record low C =3.8 | Dec avg record low C =-0.3 | precipitation colour = green| Jan precipitation mm =42.4 | Feb precipitation mm =47.7 | Mar precipitation mm =42.7 | Apr precipitation mm =37.0 | May precipitation mm =38.2 | Jun precipitation mm =23.3 | Jul precipitation mm =6.0 | Aug precipitation mm =25.7 | Sep precipitation mm =37.8 | Oct precipitation mm =45.0 | Nov precipitation mm =48.2 | Dec precipitation mm =56.3 |Jan humidity = 75|Feb humidity = 72|Mar humidity = 67|Apr humidity = 65|May humidity = 64|Jun humidity = 63|Jul humidity = 59|Aug humidity = 62|Sep humidity = 69|Oct humidity = 74|Nov humidity = 75|Dec humidity = 77| Jan percentsun =53 | Feb percentsun =53 | Mar percentsun =59 | Apr percentsun =62 | May percentsun =65 | Jun percentsun =72 | Jul percentsun =79 | Aug percentsun =77 | Sep percentsun =68 | Oct percentsun =61 | Nov percentsun =54 | Dec percentsun =52 | Jan sun =150.0| Feb sun =155.5| Mar sun =215.1| Apr sun =244.8| May sun =292.5| Jun sun =326.2| Jul sun =366.4| Aug sun =327.4| Sep sun =254.3| Oct sun =204.5| Nov sun =155.5| Dec sun =143.3|Jan snow days = 0.8|Feb snow days = 0.4|Mar snow days = 0.1|Apr snow days = 0.0|May snow days = 0.0|Jun snow days = 0.0|Jul snow days = 0.0|Aug snow days = 0.0|Sep snow days = 0.0|Oct snow days = 0.0|Nov snow days = 0.2|Dec snow days = 0.7| unit precipitation days = 1.0 mm| Jan precipitation days =6.5| Feb precipitation days =6.0 | Mar precipitation days =5.5 | Apr precipitation days =5.3 | May precipitation days =4.9 | Jun precipitation days =3.5 | Jul precipitation days =1.6 | Aug precipitation days =3.0 | Sep precipitation days =3.6 | Oct precipitation days =5.8 | Nov precipitation days =5.1 | Dec precipitation days =6.0 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration>NOAAWEB,weblink Marseille-Marignane (07650) - WMO Weather Station, February 4, 2019National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration>NOAA, Archived February 8, 2019, at the Wayback Machine|source 2 = (humidity)WEB,weblink" title="">weblink 10 March 2018,weblink Normales et records pour la période 1981-2010 à Marseille Observatoire Longchamp, French, Infoclimat, 10 March 2018, }}


File:Massalia large coin 5th 1st century BCE.jpg|thumb|upright=1.5|A silver drachma inscribed with MASSA[LIA] (), dated 375–200 BC, during the Hellenistic period of Marseille, bearing the head of the Greek goddess Artemis on the obverseobverseMarseille was originally founded circa 600 BC as the Greek colony of Massalia and populated by settlers from Phocaea (modern Foça, Turkey). It became the preeminent Greek polis in the Hellenized region of southern Gaul. The city-state sided with the Roman Republic against Carthage during the Second Punic War (218–201 BC), retaining its independence and commercial empire throughout the western Mediterranean even as Rome expanded into Western Europe and North Africa. However, the city lost its independence following the Roman Siege of Massilia in 49 BC, during Caesar's Civil War, in which Massalia sided with the exiled faction at war with Julius Caesar.Marseille continued to prosper as a Roman city, becoming an early center of Christianity during the Western Roman Empire. The city maintained its position as a premier maritime trading hub even after its capture by the Visigoths in the 5th century AD, although the city went into decline following the sack of 739 AD by the forces of Charles Martel. It became part of the County of Provence during the 10th century, although its renewed prosperity was curtailed by the Black Death of the 14th century and sack of the city by the Crown of Aragon in 1423. The city's fortunes rebounded with the ambitious building projects of René of Anjou, Count of Provence, who strengthened the city's fortifications during the mid-15th century. During the 16th century the city hosted a naval fleet with the combined forces of the Franco-Ottoman alliance, which threatened the ports and navies of Genoa and the Holy Roman Empire.Marseille lost a significant portion of its population during the Great Plague of Marseille in 1720, but the population had recovered by mid-century. In 1792 the city became a focal point of the French Revolution and though France's national anthem was born in Strasbourg, it was first sang in Paris by volunteers from Marseille, hence the name the crowd gave it: La Marseillaise. The Industrial Revolution and establishment of the French Empire during the 19th century allowed for further expansion of the city, although it was occupied by the German Wehrmacht in November 1942 and subsequently heavily damaged during World War II. The city has since become a major center for immigrant communities from former French colonies, such as French Algeria.


Marseille is a major French centre for trade and industry, with excellent transportation infrastructure (roads, sea port and airport). Marseille Provence Airport is the fourth largest in France. In May 2005, the French financial magazine L'Expansion named Marseille the most dynamic of France's large cities, citing figures showing that 7,200 companies had been created in the city since 2000.MAGAZINE, Neumann, Benjamin, 1 May 2005, Les villes qui font bouger la France, Cities That Are Moving France,weblink fr, L'Express, Paris, Roularta Media Group, 28 January 2008, Marseille is also France's second largest research centre with 3,000 research scientists within Aix Marseille University. {{Citation needed|date=January 2008}}{{As of|2014}}, the Marseille metropolitan area had a GDP amounting to .3 billion, or $36,127 per capita (purchasing power parity).WEB,weblink Global Metro Monitor, Parilla, Joseph, Trujillo, Jesus Leal, Berube, Alan, Ran, Tao, Brookings Institution, 4 March 2015,


{{see also|Marseille-Fos Port}}(File:1 marseille vieux port pano.jpg|thumb|upright=2|The entrance to the Old Port, flanked by Fort Saint-Jean and Fort Saint-Nicolas)Historically, the economy of Marseille was dominated by its role as a port of the French Empire, linking the North African colonies of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia with Metropolitan France. The Old Port was replaced as the main port for trade by the Port de la Joliette during the Second Empire and now contains restaurants, offices, bars and hotels and functions mostly as a private marina. The majority of the port and docks, which experienced decline in the 1970s after the oil crisis, have been recently redeveloped with funds from the European Union. Fishing remains important in Marseille and the food economy of Marseille is fed by the local catch; a daily fish market is still held on the Quai des Belges of the Old Port.The economy of Marseille and its region is still linked to its commercial port, the first French port and the fifth European port by cargo tonnage, which lies north of the Old Port and eastern in Fos-sur-Mer. Some 45,000 jobs are linked to the port activities and it represents 4 billion euros added value to the regional economy.WEB,weblink Record Container Year as Marseilles Fos Sets Vision for Future, PDF, Port of Marseille-Fos, 5 February 2013, 8 March 2013, 100 million tons of freight pass annually through the port, 60% of which is petroleum, making it number one in France and the Mediterranean and number three in Europe. However, in the early 2000s, the growth in container traffic was being stifled by the constant strikes and social upheaval.WEB,weblink Les ports français, PDF, Cour de comptes, 5 January 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 2 April 2015, dead, dmy-all, The port is among the 20th firsts in Europe for container traffic with 1,062,408 TEU and new infrastructures have already raised the capacity to 2M TEU.WEB,weblink Marseille: Strategic Call for Arkas, Port Strategy, 11 April 2012, 12 March 2013, Petroleum refining and shipbuilding are the principal industries, but chemicals, soap, glass, sugar, building materials, plastics, textiles, olive oil, and processed foods are also important products. {{Citation needed|date=November 2008}} Marseille is connected with the Rhône via a canal and thus has access to the extensive waterway network of France. Petroleum is shipped northward to the Paris basin by pipeline. The city also serves as France's leading centre of oil refining.

Companies, services and high technologies

File:Marseille dock strike-pano.jpg|thumb|upright=2|From left to right: La Joliette neighbourhood (old docks), ferry ship docks, new port, Euroméditerranée business district (CMA CGM TowerCMA CGM TowerIn recent years, the city has also experienced a large growth in service sector employment and a switch from light manufacturing to a cultural, high-tech economy. {{Citation needed|date=June 2008}} The Marseille region is home to thousands of companies, 90% of which are small and medium enterprises with less than 500 employees.WEB,weblink Marseille Metropole Provence,, fr, 1 February 2010, {{full citation needed|date=June 2015}} Among the most famous ones are CMA CGM, container-shipping giant; Compagnie maritime d'expertises (Comex), world leader in sub-sea engineering and hydraulic systems; Airbus Helicopters, an Airbus division; Azur Promotel, an active real estate development company; La Provence, the local daily newspaper; RTM, Marseille's public transport company; and Société Nationale Maritime Corse Méditerranée (SNCM), a major operator in passenger, vehicle and freight transportation in the Western Mediterranean. The urban operation Euroméditerranée has developed a large offer of offices and thus Marseille hosts one of the main business district in France.Marseille is the home of three main technopoles: Château-Gombert (technological innovations), Luminy (biotechnology) and La Belle de Mai (17,000 sq.m. of offices dedicated to multimedia activities).WEB,weblink Technopôles, Marseille Provence Metropole, 12 March 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 April 2015, WEB,weblink Marseilles Euroméditerranée: Between Europe and the Mediterranean, Euroméditerranée, Etablissement Public d'Aménagement Euroméditerranée, 5, 8 March 2003,weblink" title="">weblink 2 April 2015, dead,

Tourism and attractions

(File:Playa de la Punta Roja, Marsella, Francia, 2016-06-22, DD 04.jpg|thumb|Pointe Rouge Beach)File:Edmond Dantes 20130630 Marseille 1.jpg|thumb|Palais du PharoPalais du PharoThe port is also an important arrival base for millions of people each year, with 2.4 million including 890,100 from cruise ships.With its beaches, history, architecture and culture (24 museums and 42 theatres), Marseille is one of the most visited cities in France, with 4.1 million visitors in 2012.WEB,weblink Découvrir Marseille – Une ville de tourisme, fr,, 26 September 2004, 5 May 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 May 2013, Marseille is ranked 86th in the world for business tourism and events, advancing from the 150th spot one year before. {{Citation needed|date=August 2015}} The number of congress days hosted on its territory increased from 109,000 in 1996 to almost 300,000 in 2011. {{Citation needed|date=August 2015}}They take place in three main sites, the Palais du Pharo, Palais des Congrès et des Expositions (Parc Chanot) and World Trade Center.WEB,weblink Economie – Tourisme d'affaires et congrès, fr,, 26 September 2004, 12 March 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 February 2013, In 2012 Marseille hosted the World Water Forum.Several urban projects have been developed to make Marseille attractive. Thus new parks, museums, public spaces and real estate projects aim to improve the city's quality of life (Parc du 26e Centenaire, Old Port of Marseille,WEB, Ravenscroft, Tom,weblink Foster Unveils Reflective Events Pavilion in Marseille, Architects Journal, 5 March 2013, 12 March 2013, numerous places in Euroméditerranée) to attract firms and people. Marseille municipality acts to develop Marseille as a regional nexus for entertainment in the south of France with high concentration of museums, cinemas, theatres, clubs, bars, restaurants, fashion shops, hotels, and art galleries.


Unemployment in the economy fell from 20% in 1995 to 14% in 2004.WEB,weblink Jean-Claude Gaudin: Sénateur-Maire de Marseille, 2 March 2004, fr,,weblink" title="">weblink 30 December 2008, 1 February 2010, However, Marseille unemployment rate remains higher than the national average. In some parts of Marseille, youth unemployment is reported to be as high as 40%.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, In Marseille, Rap Helps Keep the Peace, Michael, Kimmelman, 19 December 2007, 12 May 2010,


(File:Secteurs Arrondissements Marseille.svg|thumb|left|The sectors and arrondissements of Marseille)(File:Secteurs de Marseille 2014.svg|thumb|Political majority in each sector since 2014)The city of Marseille is divided into 16 municipal arrondissements, which are themselves informally divided into 111 neighbourhoods (French: quartiers). The arrondissements are regrouped in pairs, into 8 sectors, each with a mayor and council (like the arrondissements in Paris and Lyon).WEB,weblink Mairies d'Arrondissements, fr,weblink" title="">weblink 5 January 2009, 16 November 2007, Municipal elections are held every six years and are carried out by sector. There are 303 councilmembers in total, two-thirds sitting in the sector councils and one third in the city council.The 9th arrondissement of Marseille is the largest in terms of area because it comprises parts of Calanques National Park. With a population of 89,316 (2007), the 13th arrondissement of Marseille is the most populous one.From 1950 to the mid-1990s, Marseille was a Socialist (PS) and Communist (PCF) stronghold. Gaston Defferre (PS) was consecutively reelected six times as Mayor of Marseille from 1953 until his death in 1986. He was succeeded by Robert Vigouroux of the European Democratic and Social Rally (RDSE). Jean-Claude Gaudin of the right-wing UMP was elected Mayor of Marseille in 1995. Gaudin was reelected in 2001, 2008 and 2014.In recent years, the Communist Party has lost most of its strength in the northern boroughs of the city, whereas the National Front has received significant support. At the last municipal election in 2014, Marseille was divided between the northern arrondissements dominated by the left (PS) and far-right (FN) and the southern part of town dominated by the right-wing (UMP). Marseille is also divided in twelve cantons, each of them sending two members to the Departmental Council of the Bouches-du-Rhône department.

List of Mayors of Marseille since the beginning of the 20th century

File:Gaston Defferre 1964.jpg|thumb|upright|Gaston DefferreGaston DefferreFile:Ouverture des Assises internationales du mécénat d'entreprise par Jean-Claude Gaudin, sénateur-maire de la ville de Marseille (5733216714).jpg|thumb|Jean-Claude GaudinJean-Claude Gaudin{|class="wikitable"! Mayor! Term start! Term end! class=unsortable| ! PartySiméon Flaissières|fr}}18951901|Socialist|Marius-Justin-Albin-Hector Curet19011902Independent (politician)>IndependentJean-Baptiste-Amable Chanot|fr}}19021908Progressive Republicans (France)>Progressive Republican|Emmanuel Allard19081910Progressive Republicans (France)>Progressive RepublicanClément Lévy|fr}}19101910|Independent|Bernard Cadenat19101912French Section of the Workers' International>SFIOJean-Baptiste-Amable Chanot|fr}}19121914Progressive Republicans (France)>Progressive RepublicanEugène Pierre3=Eugène Pierre (homme politique)}}19141919|Republican IndependentsSiméon Flaissières|fr}}19191931French Section of the Workers' International>SFIO|Simon Sabiani19311931|Republican IndependentsGeorges Ribot|fr}}19311935Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party (historical)>Radical|Henri Tasso19311939French Section of the Workers' International>SFIO|Nominated administrators19391944||Gaston Defferre19441946French Section of the Workers' International>SFIO|Marcel Renault19461946|Independent|Jean Cristofol19461947French Communist Party>PCF|Michel Carlini19471953Rally of the French People>RPF|Gaston Defferre19531986French Section of the Workers' International>SFIO, PSJean-Victor Cordonnier|fr}}19861986Socialist Party (France)>PS|Robert Vigouroux19861995Miscellaneous Left>DVG|Jean-Claude Gaudin1995incumbentLiberal Democracy (France)>DL, UMP


{{Organize section|date=June 2017}}{{Historical populations|percentages= pagr|align=right111100195350360100550619606000636300661407778071889029908600874436800550798430839043850636}}


{{Update|section|date=June 2017}}Because of its pre-eminence as a Mediterranean port, Marseille has always been one of the main gateways into France. This has attracted many immigrants and made Marseille a cosmopolitan melting pot. By the end of the 18th century about half the population originated from elsewhere in Provence mostly and also from southern France.{{harvnb|Liauzu|1996}}{{sfn|Duchêne|Contrucci|1998|loc=page needed E}}{{page needed|date=November 2015}}Economic conditions and political unrest in Europe and the rest of the world brought several other waves of immigrants during the 20th century: Greeks and Italians started arriving at the end of the 19th century and in the first half of the 20th century, up to 40% of the city's population was of Italian origin;WEB,weblink Local0631EN:Quality0667EN, PDF, 8 July 2009, Russians in 1917; Armenians in 1915 and 1923; Vietnamese in the 1920s, 1954 and after 1975;WEB,weblink Les Vietnamiens a Marseille, Guillemin, Alain, fr,weblink" title="">weblink 23 March 2014, Corsicans during the 1920s and 1930s; Spanish after 1936; North Africans (both Arab and Berber) in the inter-war period; Sub-Saharan Africans after 1945; the pieds-noirs from the former French Algeria in 1962; and then from Comoros. In 2006, it was reported that 70,000 city residents were considered to be of Maghrebi origin, mostly from Algeria. The second largest group in Marseille in terms of single nationalities were from the Comoros, amounting to some 45,000 people.Currently, over one third of the population of Marseille can trace their roots back to Italy.Citoyenneté et intégration : Marseille, modèle d'intégration ?, report by Patrick Parodi, Académie d'Aix-Marseille. Marseille also has the second-largest Corsican and Armenian populations of France. Other significant communities include Maghrebis, Turks, Comorians, Chinese, and Vietnamese.WEB,weblink Diverse Marseille Spared in French Riots,, 10 December 2005, 1 February 2010, In 1999, in several arrondissements, about 40% of the young people under 18 were of Maghrebi origin (at least one immigrant parent).WEB, Michèle Tribalat,weblink Les concentrations ethniques en France, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink 16 September 2011, Since 2013 immigrants from Eastern Europe travel to work in the city of Marseille, attracted by better job opportunities and the good climate of this Mediterranean city. The main nationalities of the immigrants are Romanians and Poles.WEB,weblink Insee – Population – Les immigrés récemment arrivés en France – Une immigration de plus en plus européenne,, {| class="infobox" style="float:right;"Largest groups of foreign residents! Nationality || Population (2011)WEB,weblink Aire urbaine 2010 de Marseille – Aix-en-Provence (003) – NAT1 – Population par sexe, âge et nationalité – 2011, INSEE, 2 June 2015, Algeria}} 37,673Tunisia}} 32,800Morocco}} 30,000Turkey}} 12,283Italy}} 9,094Poland}} 8,227Romania}} 7,134Portugal}} 6,988Spain}} 5,002 Bulgaria}} 4,902 {{France immigration1|collectivity_name=the city proper of Marseille|census_year=1999|metropolitan_France=78.9|outside_metropolitan_France=21.1 |overseas_France=0.9|foreign_French=8.8|EU-15=2.1|non-EU-15=9.3}}{{France immigrationaire urbaine>metropolitan area of Marseille|census_year=1999|metropolitan_France=81.2|outside_metropolitan_France=18.8|overseas_France=0.7|foreign_French=N/A|EU-15=N/A|non-EU-15=N/A}}


According to data from 2010, major religious communities in Marseille include:
  • Roman Catholic (620,000)
  • Muslim (174,000)
  • Armenian Apostolic (80,000)
  • Jewish (52,000)
  • Protestant (20,000)
  • Eastern Orthodox (15,000)
  • Hindu (4,000)
  • Buddhist (3,000).WEB,weblink Marseille Espérance. All different, all Marseilles, Part II, France Diplomatie, 10 April 2010, {{dead link|date=February 2016}}{{cbignore}}


File:Le golfe de Marseille vu de l’Estaque, par Paul Cézanne.jpg|thumb|Paul CézannePaul CézanneFile:ERC 90 Sagaie-1RCA-IMG 5580.jpg|thumb|Bastille Day military paradeBastille Day military paradeMarseille is a city that has its own unique culture and is proud of its differences from the rest of France.WEB, Chris Kimble,weblink Marseille Culture,, 5 May 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2013, dmy-all, Today it is a regional centre for culture and entertainment with an important opera house, historical and maritime museums, five art galleries and numerous cinemas, clubs, bars and restaurants.Marseille has a large number of theatres, including La Criée, Le Gymnase and the Théâtre Toursky. There is also an extensive arts centre in La Friche, a former match factory behind the Saint-Charles station. The Alcazar, until the 1960s a well known music hall and variety theatre, has recently been completely remodelled behind its original façade and now houses the central municipal library.History of library {{dead link|date=May 2013}}{{cbignore}} Other music venues in Marseille include Le Silo (also a theatre) and GRIM.Marseille has also been important in the arts. It has been the birthplace and home of many French writers and poets, including {{Interlanguage link multi|Victor Gélu|fr}}, {{Interlanguage link multi|Valère Bernard|fr}}, Pierre Bertas,WEB,weblink Pierre Bertas, Edmond Rostand and André Roussin. The small port of l'Estaque on the far end of the Bay of Marseille became a favourite haunt for artists, including Auguste Renoir, Paul Cézanne (who frequently visited from his home in Aix), Georges Braque and Raoul Dufy.

Multi-cultural influences

Rich and poor neighborhoods exist side-by-side. Although the city is not without crime, Marseille has a larger degree of multicultural tolerance. Urban geographers MAGAZINE, Ingram, Mark, 2009, Euro-Mediterranean Marseille: Redefining State Cultural Policy in an Era of Transnational Governance, City & Society, 21, 268–292, say the city's geography, being surrounded by mountains, helps explain why Marseille does not have the same problems as Paris. In Paris, ethnic areas are segregated and concentrated in the periphery of the city. Residents of Marseille are of diverse origins, yet appear to share a similar particular identity.BOOK, Migrations, identités, et territoires à Marseille.Migrations, identités, et territoires à Marseille, Moreau, Alain, Hamattan, 2001, Paris, 27–52, An example of shared identity is seen at the public beaches, where ethnic groups sit on the sand together.MAGAZINE, Dickey, Christopher, March 2012, Marseille's Melting Pot, National Geographic Magazine, 2012, 3, Another example is how Marseille responded in 2005, when ethnic populations living in other French cities' suburbs rioted, but Marseille remained relatively calm.NEWS, Williams, D, Oct 27, 2005, Long Integrated, Marseille Is Spared. Southern Port Was Largely Quiet as Riots Raged in Other French Cities, Washington Post, Marseille served as the European Capital of Culture for 2013 along with Košice.WEB,weblink Marseille Provence 2013: European Capital of Culture,weblink" title="">weblink 26 August 2010, {{verify source |date=August 2019 |reason=This ref was deleted ((Special:Diff/898811423)) by a bug in VisualEditor and later restored by a bot from the original cite at (Special:Permalink/897642695) cite #43 – please verify the cite's accuracy and remove this {verify source} template. User:GreenC_bot/Job_18}} It was chosen to give a 'human face' to the European Union to celebrate cultural diversity and to increase understanding between Europeans.JOURNAL, Bullen, Claire, 2010, European Capitals of Culture and Everyday Cultural Diversity: A Comparison of Liverpool (UK) and Marseilles (France)., European Cultural Foundation., One of the intentions of highlighting culture is to help reposition Marseille internationally, stimulate the economy, and help to build better interconnection between groups.BOOK, The Culture of Cities., Zukin, S, Blackwell, 1995, Oxford, Marseille-Provence 2013 (MP2013) featured more than 900 cultural events held throughout Marseille and the surrounding communities. These cultural events generated more than 11 million visits.WEB,weblink 11 millions de visiteurs pour la capitale européenne de la culture, 20 April 2015, {{verify source |date=August 2019 |reason=This ref was deleted ((Special:Diff/898811423)) by a bug in VisualEditor and later restored by a bot from the original cite at (Special:Permalink/897642695) cite #44 – please verify the cite's accuracy and remove this {verify source} template. User:GreenC_bot/Job_18}} The European Capital of Culture was also the occasion to unveil more than 600 million euros in new cultural infrastructure in Marseille and its environs, including the MuCEM designed by Rudy Ricciotti.Early on, immigrants came to Marseille locally from the surrounding Provence region. By the 1890s immigrants came from other regions of France as well as Italy.BOOK, European Cities and Towns, Clark, Peter, Oxford, 2009, Oxford, England, 283, 247, Marseille became one of Europe’s busiest port by 1900. Marseille has served as a major port where immigrants from around the Mediterranean arrive. Marseille continued to be multicultural. Armenians from the Ottoman empire began arriving in 1913. In the 1930s, Italians settled in Marseille. After World War II, a wave of Jewish immigrants from North Africa arrived. In 1962, a number of French colonies gained their independence, and the French citizens from Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia arrived in Marseille.NEWS, Kimmelman, Michael, Marseille, the Secret Capital of France, The New York Times, October 4, 2013, The city had an economic downturn and lost many jobs. Those who could afford to move left and the poorest remained. For a while, the mafia appeared to run the city, and for a period of time the communist party was prominent.Multi-cultural Marseille can be observed by a visitor at the market at Noailles, also called Marché des Capucins, in old town near the Old Port. There, Lebanese bakeries, an African spice market, Chinese and Vietnamese groceries, fresh vegetables and fruit, shops selling couscous, shops selling Caribbean food are side by side with stalls selling shoes and clothing from around the Mediterranean. Nearby, people sell fresh fish and men from Tunisia drink tea.

Tarot de Marseille

File:Jean Dodal Tarot trump 13.jpg|thumb|upright|Marseille tarot card ]]The most commonly used tarot deck takes its name from the city; it has been called the Tarot de Marseille since the 1930s—a name coined for commercial use by the French cardmaker and cartomancer Paul Marteau, owner of B–P Grimaud. Previously this deck was called Tarot italien (Italian Tarot) and even earlier it was simply called Tarot. Before being de Marseille, it was used to play the local variant of tarocchi before it became used in cartomancy at the end of the 18th century, following the trend set by Antoine Court de Gébelin. The name Tarot de Marseille (Marteau used the name ancien Tarot de Marseille) was used by contrast to other types of Tarots such as Tarot de Besançon; those names were simply associated with cities where there were many cardmakers in the 18th century (previously several cities in France were involved in cardmaking).see:{{citation|title=Cartes à jouer & tarots de Marseille: La donation Camoin|author=Musée du Vieux-Marseille|publisher=Alors Hors Du Temps|year=2004|isbn=2-9517932-7-8|url=}}, official catalogue of the permanent collection of playing cards from the museum of Vieux-Marseille, including a detailed history of Tarot de Marseille {{citation|title=Tarot, jeu et magie|first=Thierry|last=Depaulis|publisher=Bibliothèque nationale|year=1984|isbn=2-7177-1699-8}}Another local tradition is the making of santons, small hand-crafted figurines for the traditional Provençal Christmas creche. Since 1803, starting on the last Sunday of November, there has been a Santon Fair in Marseille; it is currently held in the Cours d'Estienne d'Orves, a large square off the Vieux-Port.


File:Laika ac Marseille (9491261832).jpg|thumb|left|The Opéra de MarseilleOpéra de MarseilleMarseille's main cultural attraction was, since its creation at the end of the 18th century and until the late 1970s, the Opéra. Located near the Old Port and the Canebière, at the very heart of the city, its architectural style was comparable to the classical trend found in other opera houses built at the same time in Lyon and Bordeaux. In 1919, a fire almost completely destroyed the house, leaving only the stone colonnade and peristyle from the original façade.WEB,weblink Opera in Genoa, Nice, Marseille, Montpellier, Barcelona,, 5 May 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 December 2008, WEB,weblink Schmap Marseille Sights & Attractions – 6th arrond,, 5 May 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 30 April 2008, dead, dmy-all, The classical façade was restored and the opera house reconstructed in a predominantly Art Deco style, as the result of a major competition. Currently the Opéra de Marseille stages six or seven operas each year.WEB,weblink Actualités, fr, Opéra de Marseille, Since 1972, the Ballet national de Marseille has performed at the opera house; its director from its foundation to 1998 was Roland Petit.

Popular events and festivals

There are several popular festivals in different neighborhoods, with concerts, animations, and outdoor bars, like the Fête du Panier in June. On 21 June, there are dozens of free concerts in the city as part of France's Fête de la Musique, featuring music from all over the world. Being free events, many Marseille residents attend.Marseille hosts a Gay Pride event in early July. In 2013, Marseille hosted Europride, an international LGBT event, 10 July{{ndash}}20.WEB,weblink Marseille 2013, EuroPride, 20 April 2015, At the beginning of July, there is the International Documentary Festival.WEB,weblink March 2013 Newsletter, FIDMarseille, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 7 October 2012, 12 March 2013, At the end of September, the electronic music festival Marsatac takes place.In October, the Fiesta des Suds offers many concerts of world music.WEB,weblink octobre, 2012 – Dock des Suds : festivals, concerts de musique et location de salles à Marseille, Dock des Suds, fr, 12 March 2013,

Hip hop music

Marseille is also well known in France for its hip hop music."In Marseille, Rap Helps Keep the Peace", Article in New York Times, December 2007{{citation|title=Popular music in France from chanson to techno: culture, identity, and society|first=Steve|last=Cannon|first2=Hugh|last2=Dauncey|pages=194–198|publisher=Ashgate Publishing|year=2003|isbn=0-7546-0849-2}} Bands like IAM originated from Marseille and initiated the rap phenomenon in France. Other known groups include Fonky Family, Psy 4 de la Rime (including rappers Soprano and Alonzo), and Keny Arkana.In a slightly different way, ragga music is represented by Massilia Sound System.


File:Bullabessa.jpg|upright|thumb|Traditional Marseille bouillabaissebouillabaisseFile:Espadon Ratatouille.JPG|thumb|upright|Swordfish in olive oil with ratatouille and saffronsaffronFile:Pieds & Paquets.JPG|thumb|upright|Pieds paquetsPieds paquets
  • Bouillabaisse is the most famous seafood dish of Marseille. It is a fish stew containing at least three varieties of very fresh local fish: typically red rascasse (Scorpaena scrofa); sea robin (fr: grondin); and European conger (fr: congre)."La bouillabaisse classique doit comporter les 'trois poissons': rascasse, grondin, congre." Michelin Guide Vert -Côte dAzur, 1990, page 31 It can include gilt-head bream (fr: dorade); turbot; monkfish (fr: lotte or baudroie); mullet; or silver hake (fr: merlan), and it usually includes shellfish and other seafood such as sea urchins (fr: oursins), mussels (fr: moules); velvet crabs (fr: étrilles); spider crab (fr: araignées de mer), plus potatoes and vegetables. In the traditional version, the fish is served on a platter separate from the broth.weblink|History and traditional recipe of bouillabaisse on the site of the Marseille Tourism Office The broth is served with rouille, a mayonnaise made with egg yolk, olive oil, red bell pepper, saffron, and garlic, spread on pieces of toasted bread, or croûtes.BOOK, David, Elizabeth, French Provincial Cooking, Penguin Classics, 1999, 0-14-118153-2, harv, JOURNAL, Clifford, Wright, Real Stew, 2002, Harvard Common Press, 1-55832-199-3, harv,weblink In Marseille, bouillabaisse is rarely made for fewer than ten people; the more people who share the meal, and the more different fish that are included, the better the bouillabaisse.Jean-Louis André, Cuisines des pays de France, Éditions du Chêne, 2001
  • Aïoli is a sauce made from raw garlic, lemon juice, eggs and olive oil, served with boiled fish, hard boiled eggs and cooked vegetables.
  • {{Interlanguage link multi|Anchoïade|fr}} is a paste made from anchovies, garlic, and olive oil, spread on bread or served with raw vegetables.
  • {{Interlanguage link multi|Bourride|fr}} is a soup made with white fish (monkfish, European sea bass, whiting, etc.) and aïoli.{{sfn|Trott|2007|pp=104}}
  • Fougasse is a flat Provençal bread, similar to the Italian focaccia. It is traditionally baked in a wood oven and sometimes filled with olives, cheese or anchovies.{{citation needed|date=April 2015}}
  • {{Interlanguage link multi|Navette de Marseille|fr}} are, in the words of food writer M. F. K. Fisher, "little boat-shaped cookies, tough dough tasting vaguely of orange peel, smelling better than they are."BOOK, Fisher, M. F. K., 1978, A Considerable Town, New York, Knopf, 0-394-42711-4, 150,weblink
  • FarinataFrench variations is chickpea flour boiled into a thick mush, allowed to firm up, then cut into blocks and fried.BOOK, Root, Waverley, Waverley Root, 1992, Originally published 1958, The Food of France, New York, Vintage Books, 333, 0-679-73897-5, panisso, made either of chick-pea or maize flour, boiled into a sort of mush, then allowed to cool and become more solid, when it is fried.,weblink
  • Pastis is an alcoholic beverage made with aniseed and spice. It is extremely popular in the region.NEWS, Redman, Chris, 5 June 2003, Pass the Pastis,weblink France Today,
  • Pieds paquets is a dish prepared from sheep's feet and offal.{{sfn|Trott|2007|pp=104}}
  • Pistou is a combination of crushed fresh basil and garlic with olive oil, similar to the Italian pesto. The "soupe au pistou" combines pistou in a broth with pasta and vegetables.
  • Tapenade is a paste made from chopped olives, capers, and olive oil (sometimes anchovies may be added).BOOK, Olney, Richard, 1994, Lulu's ProvencÌœal Table: the exuberant food and wine from Domaine Tempier Vineyard, New York, HarperCollins Publishers, 0-06-016922-2, 79,weblink

Films set in Marseille

Marseille has been the setting for many films.

Marseille in television

The French television series Plus belle la vie is set in an imaginary quarter, "Le Mistral", of Marseille; it was in fact filmed in the Panier quarter. Very few characters in the series speak with the accent of Marseille: most speak with the accent of Paris or Tours.The Netflix series Marseille is set in the city in the 2010s.{{clear}}

Main sights

Marseille is listed as a major centre of art and history. The city has many museums and galleries and there are many ancient buildings and churches of historical interest.

Central Marseille

(File:L'Hôtel de Ville (Marseille) (14181557102).jpg|thumb|Le Panier quarter with the Hotel de Ville and the church of Notre-Dame des Accoules)File:La Vieille Charité (Marseille) (14177078901).jpg|thumb|right|La Vieille CharitéLa Vieille CharitéFile:Christian Marseille.jpg|thumb|right|The Abbey of St. Victor and the basilica of Notre-Dame de la GardeNotre-Dame de la GardeMost of the attractions of Marseille (including shopping areas) are located in the 1st, 2nd, 6th and 7th arrondissements. These include:{{sfn|Trott|2007|pp=251–253}}WEB,weblink The Highlights, Office de tourisme Marseille,
  • The Old Port or Vieux-Port, the main harbour and marina of the city. It is guarded by two massive forts (Fort Saint-Nicolas and Fort Saint-Jean) and is one of the main places to eat in the city. Dozens of cafés line the waterfront. The Quai des Belges at the end of the harbour is the site of the daily fish market. Much of the northern quayside area was rebuilt by the architect Fernand Pouillon after its destruction by the Nazis in 1943.
  • The Hôtel de Ville (City Hall), a baroque building dating from the 17th century.
  • The Centre Bourse and the adjacent Rue St Ferreol district (including Rue de Rome and Rue Paradis), the main shopping area in central Marseille.
  • The Porte d'Aix, a triumphal arch commemorating French victories in the Spanish Expedition.
  • The Hôtel-Dieu, a former hospital in Le Panier, transformed into an InterContinental hotel in 2013.
  • La Vieille Charité in Le Panier, an architecturally significant building designed by the Puget brothers. The central baroque chapel is situated in a courtyard lined with arcaded galleries. Originally built as an alms house, it is now home to an archeological museum and a gallery of African and Asian art, as well as bookshops and a café. It also houses the Marseille International Poetry Centre.WEB,weblink Présentation du CiPM, Centre international de la Poèsie, Marseille (CiPM), fr,
  • The Cathedral of Sainte-Marie-Majeure or La Major, founded in the 4th century, enlarged in the 11th century and completely rebuilt in the second half of the 19th century by the architects Léon Vaudoyer and Henri-Jacques Espérandieu. The present day cathedral is a gigantic edifice in Romano-Byzantine style. A romanesque transept, choir and altar survive from the older medieval cathedral, spared from complete destruction only as a result of public protests at the time.
  • The 12th-century parish church of Saint-Laurent and adjoining 17th-century chapel of Sainte-Catherine, on the quayside near the Cathedral.
  • The Abbey of Saint-Victor, one of the oldest places of Christian worship in Europe. Its 5th-century crypt and catacombs occupy the site of a Hellenic burial ground, later used for Christian martyrs and venerated ever since. Continuing a medieval tradition,WEB,weblink Christmas Time, Office de tourisme Marseille, every year at Candlemas a Black Madonna from the crypt is carried in procession along Rue Sainte for a blessing from the archbishop, followed by a mass and the distribution of "navettes" and green votive candles.


In addition to the two in the Centre de la Vieille Charité, described above, the main museums are:{{sfn|Trott|2007|pp=264–267}}
  • The Musée des Civilisations de l'Europe et de la Méditerranée (MuCEM) and the Villa Méditerranée were inaugurated in 2013. The MuCEM is devoted to the history and culture of European and Mediterranean civilisations. The adjacent Villa Méditerranée, an international centre for cultural and artistic interchange, is partially constructed underwater. The site is linked by footbridges to the Fort Saint-Jean and to the Panier.WEB,weblink MuCEM and J4, Office de tourisme Marseille, 2 April 2015, WEB,weblink Between the sky and the sea, Villa Méditerranée, 2 April 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 April 2015, dmy-all,
  • The Musée Regards de Provence, opened in 2013, is located between the Cathedral of Notre Dame de la Majeur and the Fort Saint-Jean. It occupies a converted port building constructed in 1945 to monitor and control potential sea-borne health hazards, in particular epidemics. It now houses a permanent collection of historical artworks from Provence as well as temporary exhibitions.WEB,weblink Regards de Provence Museum, Musée Regards de Provence,
  • The Musée du Vieux Marseille, housed in the 16th-century Maison Diamantée, describing everyday life in Marseille from the 18th century onwards.
  • The Musée des Docks Romains preserves in situ the remains of Roman commercial warehouses, and has a small collection of objects, dating from the Greek period to the Middle Ages, that were uncovered on the site or retrieved from shipwrecks.
  • The Marseille History Museum (Musée d'Histoire de Marseille), devoted to the history of the town, located in the Centre Bourse. It contains remains of the Greek, and Roman history of Marseille as well as the best preserved hull of a 6th-century boat in the world. Ancient remains from the Hellenic port are displayed in the adjacent archeological gardens, the Jardin des Vestiges.
  • The Musée Cantini, a museum of modern art near the Palais de Justice. It houses artworks associated with Marseille as well as several works by Picasso.
  • The Musée Grobet-Labadié, opposite the Palais Longchamp, houses an exceptional collection of European objets d'art and old musical instruments.
  • The 19th-century Palais Longchamp, designed by Esperandieu, is located in the Parc Longchamp. Built on a grand scale, this italianate colonnaded building rises up behind a vast monumental fountain with cascading waterfalls. The jeux d'eau marks and masks the entry point of the Canal de Provence into Marseille. Its two wings house the Musée des beaux-arts de Marseille (a fine arts museum), and the Natural History Museum (Muséum d'histoire naturelle de Marseille).
  • The Château Borély is located in the Parc Borély, a park off the Bay of Marseille with the Jardin botanique E.M. Heckel, a botanical garden. The {{Interlanguage link multi|Museum of the Decorative Arts, Fashion and Ceramics|fr|3=Musée des Arts décoratifs, de la Faïence et de la Mode}} opened in the renovated château in June 2013.WEB,weblink Opening of the Château Borély, Musée des Arts Décoratifs, de la Faïence et de la Mode, June 2013, Marseille-Provence 2013 European Capital of Culture, 2 April 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 April 2015,
  • The {{Interlanguage link multi|Musée d'Art Contemporain de Marseille|fr|3=Musée d'art contemporain de Marseille}} (MAC), a museum of contemporary art, opened in 1994. It is devoted to American and European art from the 1960s to the present day.WEB,weblink Musée d'Art Contemporain de Marseille, Saatchi Gallery, 5 May 2013,
  • The {{Interlanguage link multi|Musée du Terroir Marseillais|fr}} in Château-Gombert, devoted to Provençal crafts and traditions.{{sfn|Trott|2007|p=225}}
File:Mucem-Villa-de-la-Mediterannee-Marseille.jpg|The MuCEM, Musée Regards de Provence and Villa Mediterannée, with Notre Dame de la Majeur on the rightFile:Maison Diamantée (3x2 crop).jpg|The sixteenth century Maison Diamantée which houses the Musée du Vieux MarseilleFile:Salon-de-musique-Grobet-Labadié.jpg|The music room in the Grobet-Labadié museumFile:Marseille Palais Longchamp a3x2.JPG|The Palais Longchamp with its monumental fountain

Outside central Marseille

(File:Calanques.jpg|thumb|upright|The Calanque of Sugiton in the 9th arrondissement of Marseille)(File:Marseille Château d'If 26.jpg|thumb|The Château d'If)(File:Marseille 20160827 92.jpg|thumb|Hollywood-style "Marseille" sign)The main attractions outside the city centre include:
  • The 19th-century Basilica of Notre-Dame de la Garde, an enormous Romano-Byzantine basilica built by architect Espérandieu in the hills to the south of the Old Port. The terrace offers views of Marseille and its surroundings.{{sfn|Trott|2007|pp=256–257}}
  • The Stade Vélodrome, the home stadium of the city's main football team, Olympique de Marseille.
  • The Unité d'Habitation, an influential and iconic modernist building designed by the Swiss architect Le Corbusier in 1952. On the third floor is the gastronomic restaurant, Le Ventre de l'Architecte. On the roof is the contemporary gallery MaMo opened in 2013.
  • The Docks de Marseille, a 19th-century warehouse transformed into offices.WEB,weblink The Docks, Office de tourisme Marseille, 27 May 2015,
  • The Pharo Gardens, a park with views of the Mediterranean and the Old Port.{{sfn|Trott|2007|pp=261}}
  • The Corniche, a waterfront road between the Old Port and the Bay of Marseille.{{sfn|Trott|2007|pp=261}}
  • The beaches at the Prado, Pointe Rouge, Les Goudes, Callelongue and Le Prophète.WEB,weblink The Beaches, Office de tourisme Marseille, 27 May 2015,
  • The Calanques, a mountainous coastal area, is home to Calanques National Park which became France's tenth national park in 2012.{{sfn|Trott|2007|pp=195–197}}WEB,weblink Origins of the Calanques National Park, Parc National des Calanques, 27 May 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 23 September 2015, dead, dmy-all,
  • The islands of the Frioul archipelago in the Bay of Marseille, accessible by ferry from the Old Port. The prison of Château d'If was one of the settings for The Count of Monte Cristo, the novel by Alexandre Dumas.{{sfn|Trott|2007|pp=267}} The neighbouring islands of Ratonneau and Pomègues are joined by a man-made breakwater. The site of a former garrison and quarantine hospital, these islands are also of interest for their marine wildlife.

Education and research

File:IPSA Marseille Campus.jpg|thumb|IPSA Marseille Campus]]A number of the faculties of the three universities that comprise Aix-Marseille University are located in Marseille: In addition Marseille has four grandes écoles: The main French research bodies including the CNRS, INSERM and INRA are all well represented in Marseille. Scientific research is concentrated at several sites across the city, including Luminy, where there are institutes in developmental biology (the IBDML), immunology (CIML), marine sciences and neurobiology (INMED), at the CNRS Joseph Aiguier campus (a world-renowned institute of molecular and environmental microbiology) and at the Timone hospital site (known for work in medical microbiology). Marseille is also home to the headquarters of the IRD, which promotes research into questions affecting developing countries.{{citation needed|date=June 2019}}


(File:Marseille Autoroutes.svg|thumb|right|Motorways around Marseille)

International and regional transport

File:Marseille Provence Airport 2017 09.jpg|thumb|left|Marseille Provence AirportMarseille Provence AirportThe city is served by an international airport, Marseille Provence Airport, located in Marignane. The airport is the fifth busiest French airport, and known the 4th most important European traffic growth in 2012.WEB,weblink Marseille-Provence bat tous les records avec 8,3 millions de passagers en 2012,, 12 March 2013, An extensive network of motorways connects Marseille to the north and west (A7), Aix-en-Provence in the north (A51), Toulon (A50) and the French Riviera (A8) to the east.Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles is Marseille's main railway station. It operates direct regional services to Aix-en-Provence, Briançon, Toulon, Avignon, Nice, Montpellier, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Nantes, etc. Gare Saint-Charles is also one of the main terminal stations for the TGV in the south of France making Marseille reachable in three hours from Paris (a distance of over 750 km) and just over one and a half hours from Lyon. There are also direct TGV lines to Lille, Brussels, Nantes, Geneva, Strasbourg and Frankfurt as well as Eurostar services to London. In addition, the night train (Intercités de Nuit) from Luxembourg and Strasbourg stops here on its way to Nice, whereas the night train from Paris to Nice serves the Gare de Marseille-Blancarde.There is a new long distance bus station adjacent to new modern extension to the Gare Saint-Charles with destinations mostly to other Bouches-du-Rhône towns, including buses to Aix-en-Provence, Cassis, La Ciotat and Aubagne. The city is also served with 11 other regional trains stations in the east and the north of the city.Marseille has a large ferry terminal, the Gare Maritime, with services toCorsica, Sardinia, Algeria and Tunisia.

Public transport

{{see also|Transportation in Marseille}}(File:Marseille - SPNV - Netzplan.png|thumb|Metro and tramway network)Marseille is connected by the Marseille Métro train system operated by the Régie des transports de Marseille (RTM). It consists of two lines: Line 1 (blue) between Castellane and La Rose opened in 1977 and Line 2 (red) between Sainte-Marguerite-Dromel and Bougainville opened between 1984 and 1987. An extension of the Line 1 from Castellane to La Timone was completed in 1992, another extension from La Timone to La Fourragère ({{convert|2.5|km|1|abbr=on}} and 4 new stations) was opened in May 2010. The Métro system operates on a turnstile system, with tickets purchased at the nearby adjacent automated booths. Both lines of the Métro intersect at Gare Saint-Charles and Castellane. Three bus rapid transit lines are under construction to better connect the Métro to farther places (Castellane -> Luminy; Capitaine Gèze – La Cabucelle -> Vallon des Tuves; La Rose -> Château Gombert – Saint Jérome).(File:Tramway Marseille Sadi Carnot 1.JPG|thumb|left|The new tramway)An extensive bus network serves the city and suburbs of Marseille, with 104 lines and 633 buses. The three lines of the tramway,WEB,weblink Official website of the Marseille tramway,, 1 February 2010, opened in 2007, go from the CMA CGM Tower towards Les Caillols.As in many other French cities, a bike-sharing service nicknamed "Le vélo", free for trips of less than half an hour, was introduced by the city council in 2007.WEB,weblink Website for Le vélo, Fr,, 1 February 2010, A free ferry service operates between the two opposite quays of the Old Port. From 2011 ferry shuttle services operate between the Old Port and Pointe Rouge; in spring 2013 it will also run to l'Estaque.WEB,weblink Se déplacer – Navettes maritimes, fr,, 26 September 2004, 12 March 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 February 2013, There are also ferry services and boat trips available from the Old Port to Frioul, the Calanques and Cassis.


File:Stade Vélodrome (20150405).jpg|thumbnail|left|The Stade Vélodrome, home of Olympique de MarseilleOlympique de MarseilleThe city boasts a wide variety of sports facilities and teams. The most popular team is the city's football club, Olympique de Marseille, which was the finalist of the UEFA Champions League in 1991, before winning the competition in 1993. The club also became finalists of the UEFA Europa League in 1999, 2004 and 2018. The club had a history of success under then-owner Bernard Tapie. The club's home, the Stade Vélodrome, which can seat around 67,000 people, also functions for other local sports, as well as the national rugby team. Stade Velodrome hosted a number of games during the 1998 FIFA World Cup, 2007 Rugby World Cup, and UEFA Euro 2016. The local rugby teams are Marseille XIII and Marseille Vitrolles Rugby.{{Citation needed|date=September 2012}}Marseille is famous for its important pétanque activity, it is even renowned as the pétanque capitale.WEB,weblink Boules : Marseille capitale mondiale de la pétanque en 2012, La Provence, 14 December 2008, 12 March 2013, In 2012 Marseille hosted the Pétanque World Championship and the city hosts every year the Mondial la Marseillaise de pétanque, the main pétanque competition.(File:Match Race J80.jpg|thumb|Match Race France 2008)Sailing is a major sport in Marseille. The wind conditions allow regattas in the warm waters of the Mediterranean. {{Citation needed|date=September 2011}} Throughout most seasons of the year it can be windy while the sea remains smooth enough to allow sailing. Marseille has been the host of 8 (2010) Match Race France events which are part of the World Match Racing Tour. The event draws the world's best sailing teams to Marseille. The identical supplied boats (J Boats J-80 racing yachts) are raced two at a time in an on the water dogfight which tests the sailors and skippers to the limits of their physical abilities.Points accrued count towards the World Match Racing Tour and a place in the final event, with the overall winner taking the title ISAF World Match Racing Tour Champion. Match racing is an ideal sport for spectators in Marseille, as racing in close proximity to the shore provides excellent views. The city was also considered as a possible venue for 2007 America's Cup.WEB,weblink Sailing to Success, Newsweek, 3 July 2006, 5 May 2009, Eric Pape, Marseille is also a place for other water sports such as windsurfing and powerboating. Marseille has three golf courses. The city has dozens of gyms and several public swimming pools. Running is also popular in many of Marseille's parks such as Le Pharo and Le Jardin Pierre Puget. An annual footrace is held between the city and neighbouring Cassis: the Marseille-Cassis Classique Internationale.{{Citation needed|date=September 2012}}{{clear}}

Notable people

{{See also|List of people from Marseille}}File:Pythéas.jpg|thumb|upright|PytheasPytheasFile:Daumier dimanche au musee.jpg|thumb|upright|(Honoré Daumier]]: Sunday at the Museum)File:Edmond Rostand en habit vert 01.jpg|thumb|upright|Edmond RostandEdmond RostandFile:Darius Milhaud 1923.jpg|thumb|upright|Darius MilhaudDarius MilhaudFile:Maurice Béjart (1988) by Erling Mandelmann - 2c.jpg|thumb|upright|Maurice BéjartMaurice BéjartFile:Eric Cantona Cannes 2009.jpg|thumb|upright|Eric CantonaEric CantonaFile:Zinedine Zidane by Tasnim 03.jpg|thumb|upright|Zinedine ZidaneZinedine ZidaneFile:Jessica Fox 2016.jpg|thumb|upright|Jessica Fox ]]Marseille was the birthplace of: File:1934-10-17 King Alexander Assassination.ogv|thumb|Newsreel showing the assassination of King Alexander of Yugoslavia and French Foreign Minister Louis BarthouLouis BarthouThe following personalities died in Marseille:

International relations

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in France}}

Twin towns - sister cities

Marseille is twinned with 14 cities, all of them being a port city, with the exception of Marrakech.WEB, Marseille open on the world,weblink, Marseille, fr, 2019-11-14, {{div col|colwidth=18em}}
  • {{flagicon|CIV}} Abidjan, Ivory Coast
  • {{flagicon|BEL}} Antwerp, Belgium
  • {{flagicon|DEN}} Copenhagen, Denmark
  • {{flagicon|SEN}} Dakar, Senegal
  • {{flagicon|ITA}} Genoa, Italy
  • {{flagicon|SCO}} Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • {{flagicon|ISR}} Haifa, Israel
  • {{flagicon|GER}} Hamburg, Germany
  • {{flagicon|JPN}} Kobe, Japan
  • {{flagicon|MAR}} Marrakech, Morocco
  • {{flagicon|UKR}} Odessa, Ukraine
  • {{flagicon|GRE}} Piraeus, Greece
  • {{flagicon|PRC}} Shanghai, China
  • {{flagicon|TUN}} Tunis, Tunisia
{{div col end}}

Partner cities

In addition, Marseille has signed various types of formal agreements of cooperation with 27 cities all over the world:WEB,weblink Accords de coopération, Site Officiel de la Ville de Marseille, fr, PDF, 6 October 2015, {{div col|colwidth=18em}}
  • {{flagicon|MAR}} Agadir, Morocco (2003)
  • {{flagicon|EGY}} Alexandria, Egypt (1990)
  • {{flagicon|ALG}} Algiers, Algeria (1980)
  • {{flagicon|MLI}} Bamako, Mali (1991)
  • {{flagicon|ESP}} Barcelona, Spain (1998)
  • {{flagicon|LIB}} Beirut, Lebanon (2003)
  • {{flagicon|MAR}} Casablanca, Morocco (1998)
  • {{flagicon|POL}} GdaÅ„sk, Poland (1992)WEB,weblink GdaÅ„sk Official Website: 'Miasta partnerskie', 2009, UrzÄ…d Miejski w GdaÅ„sku, Polish, English, 11 July 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 July 2013,
  • {{flagicon|TUR}} Istanbul, Turkey (2003)
  • {{flagicon|ISR}} Jerusalem, Israel (2006)
  • {{flagicon|CYP}} Limassol, CyprusWEB,weblink Limassol Twinned Cities, Limassol (Lemesos) Municipality,weblink" title="">weblink 1 April 2013, 29 July 2013,
  • {{flagicon|TOG}} Lomé, Togo (1995)
  • {{flagicon|FRA}} Lyon, France
  • {{flagicon|MAR}} Meknes, Morocco (1998)
  • {{flagicon|URU}} Montevideo, Uruguay (1999)
  • {{flagicon|FRA}} Nice, France
  • {{flagicon|FRA}} Nîmes, France
  • {{flagicon|MAR}} Rabat, Morocco (1989)
  • {{flagicon|RUS}} Saint Petersburg, Russia (2013)
  • {{flagicon|Bosnia-Herzegovina}} Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina (2003)
  • {{flagicon|GRE}} Thessaloniki, GreeceWEB,weblink Twinnings, Central Union of Municipalities & Communities of Greece, 25 August 2013,
  • {{flagicon|ALB}} Tirana, Albania (1991)WEB,weblink Twinning Cities: International Relations, 23 June 2009, Municipality of Tirana, PDF, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 October 2011,
  • {{flagicon|LBY}} Tripoli, Libya (1991)
  • {{flagicon|TUN}} Tunis, Tunisia (1998)
  • {{flagicon|CHI}} Valparaíso, Chile (2013)
  • {{flagicon|BUL}} Varna, Bulgaria (2007)
  • {{flagicon|ARM}} Yerevan, Armenia (1992)WEB,weblink Yerevan – Twin Towns & Sister Cities, Yerevan Municipality Official Website, 4 November 2013, WEB,weblink hy:ԵՐԵՎԱՆԻ ՔԱՂԱՔԱՊԵՏԱՐԱՆՊԱՇՏՈՆԱԿԱՆ Ô¿Ô±Õ…Õ”, Yerevan Municipality Official Website, Yerevan expanding its international relations, Armenian,weblink" title="">weblink 12 May 2013, 5 August 2013,
{{div col end}}

See also






  • BOOK, Palanque, J.R., Baratier, Edouard, Histoire de la Provence, History of Provence, Univers de la France, fr, Toulouse, Editions Privat, 1990, Ligures, Celtes et Grecs, Ligures, Celts and Greeks, 2-7089-1649-1, harv,
  • BOOK, Abulafia, David, 1999, The New Cambridge Medieval History, 5, Cambridge University Press, 0-521-36289-X, harv,
  • BOOK, Duchêne, Roger, Contrucci, Jean, 1998, Marseille, 2600 ans d'histoire, Marseille, 2600 Years of History, fr, Paris, Editions Fayard, 2-213-60197-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Kitson, Simon, 2014, Police and Politics in Marseille, 1936–1945, Amsterdam, Brill, 978-90-04-24835-9, harv,
  • BOOK, Liauzu, Claude, 1996, Histoire des migrations en Méditerranée occidentale, History of Migration in the Western Mediterranean, fr, Brussels, Editions Complexe, 2-87027-608-7, harv,
  • BOOK, Trott, Victoria, 2007, Cannon, Gwen, Watkins, Gaven, Provence, London, Michelin Apa Publications, 978-1-906261-29-0, harv,weblink

Further reading

  • BOOK, Cobb, Richard, Richard Cobb, French, 2001, Marseille, Paris, Allia, 978-2-84485-064-5,
  • JOURNAL, H.V., Savitch, Paul, Kantor, 2002, Cities in the International Market Place: The Political Economy of Urban Development in North America and Western Europe, Princeton University Press, 0-691-09159-5, harv,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Michel, Peraldi, Michel, Samson, 2006, Gouverner Marseille : Enquête sur les mondes politiques marseillais, Editions La Découverte, 2-7071-4964-0, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Raoul, Busquet, Histoire de la Provence des origines à la révolution française, Éditions Jeanne Lafitte, 1954, 2-86276-319-5, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Pierre, Échinard, Émile, Témime, Renée, Lopez, Marie-Françoise, Attard-Marainchi, Abdelmalek, Sayad, Jean-Jacques, Jordi, Migrance – histoires des migrations à Marseille, Éditions Jeanne Laffitte, 2007, 978-2-86276-450-4, harv, , single book comprising 4 separate volumes: La préhistoire de la migration (1482–1830); L'expansion marseillaise et «l'invasion italienne» (1830–1918); Le cosomopolitisme de l'entre-deux-guerres (1919–1945); Le choc de la décolonisation (1945–1990).

External links

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