Mark Sanford

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Mark Sanford
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{{redirect|The Love Gov|the former Alabama Governor also nicknamed "The Love Gov"|Robert J. Bentley}}{{about||the basketball player|Mark Sanford (basketball)|the North Dakota politician|Mark Sanford (North Dakota politician)}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{use mdy dates|date=May 2013}}

|term_start = May 15, 2013|term_end = January 3, 2019|predecessor = Tim ScottJoe Cunningham (American politician)>Joe Cunningham|term_start1 = January 3, 1995|term_end1 = January 3, 2001Arthur Ravenel Jr.>Arthur RavenelHenry E. Brown Jr.>Henry Brown|order2 = 115th Governor of South Carolina|lieutenant2 = André Bauer|term_start2 = January 15, 2003|term_end2 = January 12, 2011|predecessor2 = Jim Hodges|successor2 = Nikki Haley|birth_name = Marshall Clement Sanford Jr.196028}}Fort Lauderdale, Florida, U.S.}}|death_date = |death_place = Republican Party (United States)>RepublicanJenny Sanford>1989end=div}}|children = 4Furman University (Bachelor of Arts>BA)University of Virginia (MBA)PUBLISHER=INSIDEGOV.COM ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170705060212/HTTP://MEMBERS-OF-CONGRESS.INSIDEGOV.COM/L/326/MARK-SANFORD DEAD-URL=YES, mdy-all, |signature = Mark Sanford|House website}}United States}}United States}}|serviceyears = 2003–201315px) Captain|unit = 315th Airlift Wing315th Aeromedical Evacuation SquadronCharleston Air Force BaseAir Force Reserve Command}}Marshall Clement "Mark" Sanford Jr. (born May 28, 1960) is an American politician of the Republican Party who served as a U.S. Representative for South Carolina's 1st congressional district from 1995 to 2001. Sanford was then elected Governor of South Carolina from 2003 until 2011. He ran again for the U.S. House and served from 2013 to 2019. He was defeated by Katie Arrington in the 2018 Republican primary, who lost the general election to Democrat Joe Cunningham. First elected to Congress in 1994, Sanford left Congress when he was elected Governor of South Carolina in 2002, defeating Democratic incumbent Jim Hodges. He was re-elected governor in 2006. As governor, Sanford had a contentious relationship with the South Carolina legislators. Sanford unsuccessfully and unpopularly attempted to reject $700 million in stimulus funds for South Carolina from the 2009 Recovery Act.NEWS, Cohen, Tom and Hamby, Peter, South Carolina governor trumped, must take stimulus money,weblink February 19, 2017, CNN, June 4, 2009, The South Carolina Supreme Court ruled that only the legislature, not the governor, had the authority to accept or decline the stimulus funds. Sanford was identified as an ally of Ron Paul during their time in the House together.NEWS, Ron Paul endorses Mark Sanford, Aaron, Blake, April 25, 2013,weblink February 19, 2017, The Washington Post, In June 2009, after an unexplained disappearance that made national headlines, Sanford publicly revealed that he had engaged in an affair with María Belén Chapur. While the scandal led to censure by the South Carolina General Assembly and to his resignation as chairman of the Republican Governors Association, Sanford did complete his second term as governor.

Early life

Marshall Clement Sanford Jr. was born in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. His parents were Marshall Clement Sanford Sr., a cardiologist, and his wife, the former Peggy Pitts. Despite his family being fairly well-to-do, his entire family slept in the same room to conserve electricity.WEB, Alt-Weekly Contributors,weblink From Charleston to Los Angeles, New York to Miami, here are the bottom feeders of public office | Features, Charleston City Paper, 2014-07-02, 2014-08-08, Before his senior year of high school, Sanford moved with his family from Fort Lauderdale to the {{convert|3000|acre|adj=on}} Coosaw Plantation near Beaufort, South Carolina. Sanford attained the rank of Eagle Scout in the Boy Scouts of America.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, July 8, 2012, S.C. governor hears annual Scouting report from an Eagle, The Augusta Chronicle, March 3, 2005, Sanford received a Bachelor of Arts degree in business from Furman University in 1983 and a Master of Business Administration degree from Darden Graduate School of Business Administration at the University of Virginia in 1988.10 Things You Didn't Know About Mark Sanford {{webarchive|url= |date=April 19, 2013 }} U.S. News & World Report Shortly afterward, he moved to Sullivan's Island, South Carolina, an affluent suburban community off Charleston.He founded Norton and Sanford Real Estate Investment, a leasing and brokerage company, in 1992, and still owns the company.WEB,weblink Anti-Politics Sanford Stresses Family, Land, Claudia Smith, Brinson, The State (newspaper), The State, October 13, 2002, A1,weblink" title="">weblink November 4, 2002,

U.S. House of Representatives


(File:Mark Sanford, Congressional photo.jpg|thumb|150px|left|Sanford in 1999)
In 1994, Sanford entered the Republican primary for the Charleston-based 1st Congressional District in the United States House of Representatives. The seat had come open after four-term Republican incumbent Arthur Ravenel declined to seek re-election in his ultimately unsuccessful run for Governor. Despite having never run for office before, Sanford finished second in a crowded primary behind Van Hipp Jr., a former George H. W. Bush administration official and former Chairman of the South Carolina Republican Party. Sanford defeated Van Hipp in the runoff and easily defeated State Representative Robert A. Barber Jr. in the November general election, winning by 66.3% to 32.4%.
Sanford was unopposed by Democratic candidates in 1996 and 1998. In 1996, he beat Joseph Innella of the Natural Law Party by 96.36% to 3.55%. He beat Innella again in 1998, this time by 91% to 8.9%.


While in Congress, Sanford was recognized as its most fiscally conservative member by the Cato Institute. He was also recognized by Citizens Against Government Waste, as well as the National Tax Payers Union, for his efforts to rein in government spending and reduce the national deficit.WEB,weblink Mark Sanford: I'm Running for Congress – Jim Geraghty – National Review Online,, January 15, 2013, May 1, 2013, He garnered a lifetime rating of 92 from the American Conservative Union.NEWS,weblink 1996 House Ratings, American Conservative Union, January 1, 1996, June 24, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink June 12, 2008, He was known for voting against bills that otherwise got unanimous support.weblink" title="">Profile of Sanford at NewsHour{{'}}s coverage of '02 governor's race For example, he voted against a bill that preserved sites linked to the Underground Railroad.NEWS,weblink A Carolina kid: Republican governor Mark Sanford makes an impression, National Review, April 25, 2005, John J. Miller (journalist), John J. Miller, yes,weblink" title="">weblink June 28, 2009, He voted against pork barrel projects even when they benefited his own district; in 1997, he voted against a defense appropriations bill that included funds for Charleston's harbor. Seeing himself as a "citizen-legislator", he did not run for reelection in 2000, in keeping with a promise to serve only three terms in the House.Committee assignments

Governor of South Carolina

2002 election

In 2002, just before announcing he would run for governor, Sanford joined the Air Force Reserve. He entered the gubernatorial election of 2002; he first defeated Lt. Gov. Bob Peeler in the Republican primary and then defeated the Democratic incumbent, Jim Hodges, in the general election, by a margin of 53% to 47% to become the 115th Governor of South Carolina. In accordance with South Carolina law, Sanford was elected separately from the state's Republican lieutenant governor, Andre Bauer. Sanford and Bauer's wins gave the Republicans full control of state government for the first time since Reconstruction.

First term

In 2003, after becoming governor, Sanford attended two weeks of training with the Air Force Reserve in Alabama with his unit, the 315th Aeromedical Evacuation Squadron. While in training in 2003, Sanford did not transfer power to Bauer, saying he would be in regular contact with his office, and would transfer authority in writing only if he were called to active duty.NEWS, The State,weblink June 22, 2009, Sanford, missing since Thursday, reportedly located, John O'Connor, Clif LeBlanc, yes, Sanford sometimes had a contentious relationship with the South Carolina General Assembly, even though it was dominated by his party for his entire tenure. The Republican-led state House of Representatives overrode 105 of Sanford's 106 budget vetoes on May 26, 2004.WEB, Bauerlein, Valerie, S.C. House overrides 105 of 106 vetoes,weblink The State, Columbia, South Carolina,weblink" title="">weblink June 17, 2004, The following day, Sanford brought live pigs, who subsequently defecated on the House floor, into the House chamber as a visual protest against "pork projects."WEB,weblink Gov. Sanford protests pork with pork at Statehouse Thurs., WIS-TV, May 27, 2004, May 8, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink June 7, 2013, yes, mdy-all, Sanford rejected the Assembly's entire budget on June 13, 2006. Had this veto stood, the state government would have shut down on July 1. He explained his veto as being the only way to get the cuts he desired, and that using the line item veto would have been inadequate as well as impossible. However, in a special session the following day, both houses dismissed Sanford's call for reform by overriding his veto–effectively restoring their original budget.NEWS, South Carolina Showdown Is Set Up by a Budget Veto,weblink June 15, 2006, June 24, 2009, Brenda, Goodman, The New York Times, Sanford professed to be a firm supporter of limited government. Later in his tenure, he embarked on a plan to reform methods of funding the state's public education system, including measures such as school vouchers– aimed at introducing more competition into the school system as a means of fostering improvement. The plan, known as "Put Parents In Charge", proposed to provide around $2,500 per child to parents who chose to withdraw their children from the state's public school system and instead send them to independent schools. Sanford framed this plan as a necessary market-based reform.{{citation needed|date=August 2014}}In 2003, Sanford sought to reform the state's public college system. Sanford has criticized these schools as focusing too much on separately creating research institutions and not on educating the young adults of South Carolina. Sanford also suggested that they combine some programs as a means of curbing tuition increases. The schools did not respond positively to this suggestion, however, causing Sanford to remark that "if any institution ultimately feels uncomfortable with our push toward coordination, they can exit the system and go private."WEB, Sanford urges privatization,weblink The Augusta Chronicle, May 8, 2013, December 6, 2003, Sanford also indicated a desire to increase the powers of the executive branch. Under the South Carolina Constitution, the governor is somewhat weaker than many of his counterparts. For instance, many of his appointment powers are shared with the South Carolina General Assembly.Sanford's first term included other controversies. A Time magazine article in November 2005, critical of Sanford, said that some "fear his thrift has brought the state's economy to a standstill."NEWS,weblink Mark Sanford / South Carolina, TIME magazine, November 13, 2005, Tim Padgett, According to Survey USA, Sanford's approval ratings ranged from 47% to 55% during 2006.WEB,weblink Survey USA poll,, July 25, 2012, According to Survey USA, Sanford's approval ratings in South Carolina after his admission of infidelity (6-24-09) showed that "60% think the Governor should resign. 34% feel he should remain in office."WEB,weblink Survey S.C. poll,, June 25, 2009, July 25, 2012,

2006 election

His campaign for re-election in 2006 began by Sanford winning the June 13 Republican Primary over Oscar Lovelace, a family physician from Prosperity, with 65% of the vote to Lovelace's 35%. His Democratic competitor in the November elections was state senator Tommy Moore, whom Sanford beat by 55%–45%.NEWS,weblink – Elections 2006,, July 25, 2012, Ultimately, Sanford left his first House stint with a 55% approval rating.NEWS,weblink – Elections 2006,, January 26, 2013, On election day, Sanford was not allowed to vote in his home precinct because he did not have his voter registration card. He was obliged to go to a voter registration office to get a new registration card. "I hope everybody else out there is as determined to vote as I was today", he said. Sanford's driver's license had a Columbia address, but Sanford was trying to vote at his home precinct in Sullivan's Island.WEB, Associated Press, Sanford wins re-election,weblink The Herald,weblink" title="">weblink November 8, 2006, November 8, 2006, Rock Hill, South Carolina, According to WAGT in Augusta, Georgia (whose service area includes part of South Carolina) Sanford declared that it would be his last campaign.WEB, Associated Press,weblink South Carolina Governor Mark Sanford Not Allowed To Vote At His Home Precinct,, November 7, 2006,weblink" title="">weblink November 22, 2006,

Second term

In dissent with the Republican Party of South Carolina, Sanford, an Episcopalian,{{citation needed|date=September 2014}} opposed the faith-based license plates his state offers, marketed largely to the state's conservative evangelical citizens. After allowing the law to pass without his signature, he wrote "It is my personal view that the largest proclamation of one's faith ought to be in how one lives his life."WEB,weblink Gov. Sanford on the Podcast,, June 5, 2008, July 25, 2012, After the passage of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (known as the stimulus), which Sanford strongly opposed and publicly criticized before and after its passage by Congress and presidential signing, Sanford initially indicated he might not accept all of the funds allotted by the spending law to South Carolina.NEWS,weblink South Carolina's governor may turn down stimulus money, Los Angeles Times, February 21, 2009, July 25, 2012, Fausset, Richard, He was criticized by many Democrats and some moderate Republicans both in his state and outside who noted South Carolina's 9.5% unemployment rate (one of the highest in the country) and complained that Sanford wasn't doing enough to improve economic conditions in his state which he was intentionally trying to worsen, which could be alleviated by the stimulus money.WEB, Goodman, Josh,weblink Should Mark Sanford Reject the Stimulus Money?,, February 16, 2009, July 25, 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink July 22, 2012, mdy-all, NEWS,weblink Commentary: If you oppose stimulus, don't take the money, CNN, February 16, 2009, July 25, 2012, Paul Begala, Begala, Paul, NEWS, Davenport, Jim, Jobless benefits part of SC gov's stimulus blur,weblink, Associated Press,weblink" title="">weblink February 22, 2009, February 19, 2009, Arnold Schwarzenegger, the Republican Governor of California, suggested that if Sanford or other governors rejected their portion of stimulus funds, he would be happy to take them instead.WEB,weblink Arnold: I'll take govs' money,, July 25, 2012, On March 11, 2009, Sanford became the first United States governor to formally reject a portion of the federal stimulus money earmarked by Congress for the state of South Carolina.WEB, James Rosen, McClatchy Newspapers,weblink South Carolina's Sanford to become first governor to reject funds,, July 25, 2012, Sanford compromised to accept the federal money on condition that the state legislature provide matching funds to pay down the South Carolina state debt.WEB, Andrew Romano,weblink Mark Sanford: The Last Conservative Standing? – Newsweek and The Daily Beast,, April 24, 2009, July 25, 2012, Sanford persuaded state legislator Nikki Haley to run as his successor, and campaigned on her behalf.NEWS, Rutenberg, Jim, Mark Sanford's Path of Most Resistance,weblink 30 June 2014, New York Times, 26 June 2014,


The libertarian Cato Institute ranked Sanford as the best governor in America in their 2010 fiscal policy report card, describing him as "a staunch supporter of spending restraint and pro-growth tax reforms".Fiscal Policy Report Card on America's Governors: 2010 Policy Analysis, No 668. Chris Edwards. September 30, 2010.In its April 2010 report, the watchdog group Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington named Sanford one of eleven worst governors in the United States because of various ethics issues throughout Sanford's term as governor and his time in Congress.NEWS, Vogel, Ed, Gibbons named on list of worst governors, Las Vegas Review-Journal, April 21, 2010,weblink May 5, 2010,

Disappearance and extramarital affair

From June 18 until June 24, 2009, the whereabouts of Sanford were unknown to the public, his wife and the State Law Enforcement Division, which provides security for all South Carolina governors, garnering nationwide news coverage. The absence of Governor Sanford was first reported by Jim Davenport of the Associated Press.NEWS, Dylan, Byers, AP's Jim Davenport dead at 54,weblink, December 31, 2012, January 15, 2013, NEWS, Jeffrey, Collins, South Carolina AP reporter Jim Davenport dies,weblink Associated Press, December 31, 2012, January 15, 2013, Lieutenant Governor André Bauer announced that he could not "take lightly that his staff has not had communication with him for more than four days, and that no one, including his own family, knows his whereabouts."NEWS,weblink Governor gone for days; staff says he's hiking, June 23, 2009, Davenport, Jim,, Associated Press, May 8, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink January 19, 2012, yes, mdy-all, Before his disappearance, Sanford told his staff that he would be hiking on the Appalachian Trail and while he was gone he did not answer 15 cell phone calls from his chief of staff, Scott English; he also failed to call his family on Father's Day.WEB, Smith, Gina, O'Connor, John, yes, July 14, 2009,weblink Sanford's office couldn't locate missing governor, The State, Columbia, South Carolina,weblink" title="">weblink September 3, 2009, yes, Reporter Gina Smith, of The State, the daily newspaper of the capital city, intercepted Sanford arriving at Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport on a flight from Argentina. Several hours later, after learning that incriminating evidence was being swiftly mobilized against him by the media, Sanford held a news conference, during which he admitted to adultery.NEWS, Alex Roth, Valerie Bauerlein, Sanford Says He Had Extramarital Affair,weblink Wall Street Journal, Columbia, South Carolina, June 24, 2009, June 24, 2009, WEB, The State (newspaper), The State,weblink Sanford admits affair, wife Jenny responds, June 24, 2009, June 24, 2009, LeBlanc, Clif, O'Connor, John, In emotional interviews with the Associated Press over two days, Sanford said he would die "knowing that I had met my soul mate."NEWS, Lush, Tamara, Berland, Evan, yes, July 1, 2009,weblink S.C. governor 'crossed lines' with more women,, Associated Press, Sanford also said that he "crossed the lines" with a handful of other women during 20 years of marriage, but not as far as he did with his mistress. "There were a handful of instances wherein I crossed the lines I shouldn't have crossed as a married man, but never crossed the ultimate line", he said. In 1998 during the Clinton–Lewinsky scandal Sanford had called Clinton's extra-marital affair "reprehensible" and had urged him to resign.weblink | May 25, 2011 | Sanford Was Harsh Critic Of Clinton Affair, Called President A Rascal | By Sam Stein | weblinkOn June 25, La Nación, a Buenos Aires newspaper, identified the Argentine woman as María Belén Chapur, a 43-year-old divorced mother of two with a university degree in international relations who lives in the city of Buenos Aires.Sanford's Mistress revealed as Professional, Passionate, Beautiful Brunette {{Webarchive|url= |date=October 19, 2015 }}, Fox News, June 25, 2009. The State earlier had published details of e-mails between Sanford and a woman only identified as "Maria."Exclusive, Read e-mails between Sanford, woman, The State, June 25, 2009. Sanford met Chapur at a dance in Uruguay in 2001 and admitted there was a more intimate relationship with her starting in 2008.NEWS, Sanford admits additional encounters with Chapur, 'crossed lines' with other women,weblink The Post and Courier, Lush, Tamara, Berland, Evan, yes, Associated Press, Charleston, South Carolina, June 30, 2009, Sanford's wife had become aware of her husband's infidelities around five months before the scandal broke, and the two had sought marriage counseling. She said that she had requested a trial separation about two weeks before his disappearance.NEWS, Davenport, Jim,weblink Associated Press, SC gov with family as questions grow over absencearchiveurl= June 25, 2009, Also published in The Boston Globe as: "SC governor admits affair, secret Argentina trip"Sanford told reporters that months before his affair became public he had sought counsel at a controversial religious organization called The Family, of which he became a member when he was a Representative in Washington, D.C. from 1995 to 2001.Collins, Michael (July 10, 2009). "Wamp, housemates hurt by links to scandals." Knoxnews. Retrieved July 27, 2009.

Fallout from scandal

Sanford's wife, Jenny Sanford, after telling Vogue magazine that her husband was having a "midlife crisis", moved out of the South Carolina Governor's Mansion, with the couple's four sons, returning to the family home on Sullivan's Island.NEWS, Sponsored by,weblink The drive to replace South Carolina's governor is accelerating,, September 3, 2009, July 25, 2012, WEB, Jenny Sanford, sons move out,weblink The State, Burris, Roddie, O'Connor, John, yes,weblink" title="">weblink August 11, 2009, August 8, 2009, On December 11, 2009, she announced that she was filing for divorce, calling it a "sad and painful process."NEWS,weblink S.C. governor's wife files for divorce, December 11, 2009, Hamby, Peter, December 11, 2009, CNN, The divorce was finalized in March 2010.NEWS, Augusta businessman dating Jenny Sanford, April 14, 2010, Augusta Chronicle, Pavey, Rob, 2W6665906479, A stipulation within his divorce papers demanded that while on the Sanford family's Coosaw plantation, "no airplanes will be flown at children". The papers also noted that Sanford liked to "unwind" by digging holes on the property with his hydraulic excavator.WEB,weblink Mark Sanford Not Allowed To Fly Airplanes At His Children Anymore, Wonkette, 2013-04-30, 2014-08-08, Sanford posted lengthy remarks on his Facebook page on September 12, 2014, regarding his ex-wife's "legal machinations surrounding the custody of their children". His remarks on Facebook are longer than the total of all his 2014 speeches on the floor of the House of Representatives.NEWS,weblink Mark Sanford's Facebook novelette, by the numbers, Philip Bump, Washington Post, September 12, 2014, Also in September 2014, Sanford and his ex-wife agreed on mediation over an argument arising from their divorce in 2010. Sanford's former wife asked the judge to require that Sanford undergo a psychiatric exam and take parenting and anger management classes. Judge Daniel Martin Jr. said he instead ordered them to take the issues to mediation within 30 days, as requested by a motion filed by the U.S. representative.NEWS, McLeod, Harriet, South Carolina congressman Sanford, ex-wife head to mediation,weblink Reuters, 14 September 2014, September 15, 2014,

Resignation as Chairman of the RGA

Sanford resigned as Chairman of the Republican Governors Association,NEWS, Brian, Montopoli, Sanford Admits Extramarital Affair,weblink CBS News, June 24, 2009, June 24, 2009, WEB,weblink The Politico, Sanford admits affair, June 24, 2009, June 24, 2009, and he was swiftly succeeded by Mississippi Governor Haley Barbour.WEB,weblink The Politico, Barbour takes over RGA, June 24, 2009, June 24, 2009, In a June 29 email to members of his political action committee, Sanford said he had no intention of resigning as governor.NEWS, Peter, Hamby, Sanford contradicts himself on meetings with mistress,weblink CNN, June 30, 2009, June 30, 2009,

Reimbursement for his private use of public funds

After his affair was revealed in June 2009, Sanford first claimed, "There's been a lot of speculation and innuendo on whether or not public moneys were used to advance my admitted unfaithfulness. To be very clear: no public money was ever used in connection with this."NEWS,weblink S.C. Attorney General to review Sanford's travel records, CNN, June 30, 2009, Peter, Hamby→, After a reporter used the Freedom of Information Act to seek records of what public funds were used to pay for Sanford's trip to Argentina,WEB,weblink Documentation released by the South Carolina Department of Commerce in connection with taxpayer funds used to fund Sanford delegation expenses in Argentina,, July 25, 2012, Sanford eventually chose to reimburse taxpayers for expenses he had incurred one year earlier with his mistress in Argentina.WEB, Vogel, Kenneth P.,weblink '' "Sanford had trade mission rendezvous" June 25, 2009,, June 26, 2009, July 25, 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink February 15, 2012, He said, "I made a mistake while I was there in meeting with the woman who I was unfaithful to my wife with. That has raised some very legitimate concerns and questions, and as such I am going to reimburse the state for the full cost of the Argentina leg of this trip." On August 9, 2009, the AP reported that Sanford may have violated state law by other abusive use of state planes, including to fly to get a haircut.NEWS, Davenport, Jim, AP Investigation: SC gov's plane use questioned,weblink August 9, 2009, Associated Press,weblink" title="">weblink August 12, 2009, Also published by CBS News as ""Sanford Took Personal Trips on Plane".

Impeachment proceedings

On August 25, state representatives Nathan Ballentine and Gary Simrill met with Sanford and warned him that the state legislature would impeach him if he did not resign. Ballentine, an ally of Sanford's, said afterward, "I told him the writing is on the wall. ...he could put an end to it all, but if he doesn't, members of the House will take things into their hands." Sanford still declined to resign.NEWS,weblink First on the Ticker: 'The writing is on the wall,' ally tells Sanford, CNN, August 25, 2009, Peter, Hamby, On August 28, The Washington Times reported that Republican lawmakers in South Carolina were "laying plans" for a special legislative session on whether to impeach Sanford. Two bills of impeachment were being prepared, with bipartisan support in the state legislature.NEWS,weblink S.C. GOP to push for Sanford's removal, The Washington Times, August 28, 2009, Ralph Z., Hallow, On October 23, 2009, two impeachment resolutions were introduced, but were blocked by Democrats in the South Carolina legislature.NEWS,weblink Los Angeles Times, Mark Sanford impeachment papers expected today, Richard, Fausset, October 28, 2009, May 12, 2010, A month later, the resolution was successfully introduced and it was announced that an ad hoc committee would begin drafting articles of impeachment starting on November 24.NEWS, Dewan, Shaila, Sanford Impeachment Considered,weblink New York Times, May 8, 2013, November 25, 2009, Meanwhile, the Ethics Commission formally charged Sanford with 37 violations.WEB, O'Connor, John,weblink Ethics panel votes to charge Sanford – SC Politics,, July 25, 2012, making his removal or resignation all that more likely.On December 3, during its third public hearing on the matter, the ad hoc committee unanimously voted to remove the vast majority of charges from the investigation, stating that they didn't warrant "overturning an election." On December 9, the committee voted 6–1 against impeachment, stating that the legislature had better things to do. However, the committee voted unanimously to censure the governor.WEB, O'Connor, John,weblink Panel votes to censure Sanford, but against impeachment – SC Politics,, December 10, 2009, July 25, 2012, On the 16th the full House Judiciary Committee voted 15–6 to formally end the process.WEB,weblink How they voted – News Extras,, July 25, 2012,


On December 15, 2009, the House Judiciary Committee voted unanimously to censure Sanford. The full South Carolina House of Representatives voted 102–11 on the resolution in January 2010.WEB, Roth, Tanya,weblink South Carolina House Passes Censure of Gov. Mark Sanford – Celebrity Divorce – Celebrity Justice,, January 15, 2010, July 25, 2012, WEB, Thrush, Glenn,weblink Full text of resolution,, January 13, 2010, July 25, 2012,

Presidential elections

Role in 2008 election

In 2006, before the midterm elections, some commentators discussed the possibility of Sanford running for president.{{Citation needed|date=June 2009}} He said that he would not run, and claimed that his re-election bid would be his last election, win or lose. After Super Tuesday in 2008, Sanford received some mention as a potential running mate for the presumptive Republican presidential candidate, John McCain.Holmes, Elizabeth. Delicate Proposal: McCain-Sanford. The Wall Street Journal. March 29, 2008. Page A4. Retrieved April 10, 2008.'Meet the Press' transcript for Feb 17, 2008. NBC. MSNBC. February 17, 2008. Retrieved April 10, 2008.Cooper, Michael. McCain Considering Vice President Picks. The New York Times. April 2, 2008. Retrieved April 10, 2008. Sanford publicly aligned himself with McCain in a March 15, 2008, piece in The Wall Street Journal. Likening the presidential race to a football game at halftime, Sanford noted that he "sat out the first half, not endorsing a candidate...But I'm now stepping onto the field and going to work to help John McCain. It's important that conservatives do the same."NEWS, Mark, Sanford, The Conservative Case for McCain, March 15, 2008,weblink Wall Street Journal, A10, March 16, 2008, no,weblink" title="">weblink May 12, 2008, On January 11, 2008, shortly before the South Carolina presidential primaries (R Jan 19, D Jan 26), Sanford published a guest column in the Columbia newspaper The State.NEWS,weblink The State, January 11, 2008, Obama's symbolism here, Mark, Sanford,weblink" title="">weblink January 11, 2008, April 4, 2016, In the article, "Obama's Symbolism Here", Sanford wrote, "I won't be voting for Barack Obama for president", but noted the "historical burden" borne by South Carolinians on the topic of race. He advised voters in South Carolina to take note of the symbolism of Obama's early success, with the knowledge that South Carolina was a segregated state less than fifty years earlier, and discouraged voting either for or against Obama on the basis of his race.On a January 18, 2008 interview with CNN's Wolf Blitzer,NEWS,weblink – Transcripts,, July 25, 2012, Sanford discussed his Obama article. Wolf Blitzer asked, "Give us your mind-set. Why did you think it was so important to write this piece right now at this critical moment?" Sanford responded, "Well, it plays into a larger conversation that we're having as a family of South Carolinians on, in fact, the [constitutional] structure of our government." Also, Wolf Blitzer showed Sanford clips of recent comments made by John McCain and Mike Huckabee about the Confederate battle flag and asked Sanford, "All right, two different positions, obviously. Who's right in this?" Sanford responded, "Well, it depends who you talk to." Sanford elaborated that "if you were to talk to the vast majority of South Carolinians, they would say that we do not need to be debating where the Confederate flag is or is not."Sanford attracted derision in the liberal blogosphere and among pundits and analysts on the left for a gaffe during an interview with CNN's Wolf Blitzer on July 13, 2008, when he had difficulty answering a question about differences between Senator McCain and incumbent President George W. Bush on economic policy.WEB,weblink Sanford fumbles on CNN,, July 25, 2012, yes,weblink" title="">weblink November 22, 2008, "I'm drawing a blank, and I hate when I do that, especially on television", joked Sanford.NEWS,weblink Mark Sanford Draws A Blank On McCain/Bush Economics,, July 13, 2008, July 25, 2012, Nico, Pitney,

Possible 2012 candidacy

As early as January 2008, there had been anticipation that Sanford would run for President in 2012, and online support groups had sprung up on virtual social networks like Facebook in support of a Sanford ticket.WEB,weblink Mark Sanford for President 2012,, July 25, 2012, yes,weblink November 17, 2009, Mark Sanford President 2012 {{webarchive |url= |date=November 17, 2009 }}Further boosting Sanford's profile in advance of a potential candidacy, which at the time the governor neither ruled out nor expressly hinted at,WEB,weblink GOP's Sanford: It's Time to 'Rip the Band-Aid Off',, February 4, 2009, July 25, 2012, he was elected as Chairman of the Republican Governors Association in November 2008Republican Governors Announce Leadership {{webarchive |url= |date=November 26, 2008 }} and was cited by Michael S. Steele, the Chairman of the Republican Party as one of four "rising stars" in the GOP (alongside Governors Bobby Jindal of Louisiana, Tim Pawlenty of Minnesota and Sarah Palin of Alaska) in February 2009.WEB,weblink GOP's Steele Touts Four Rising Stars,, February 3, 2009, July 25, 2012, Sanford also received early support for a presidential run from the Republican Liberty Caucus.Republican Liberty Caucus Encourages Sanford to Run for President {{webarchive |url= |date=March 3, 2016 }}On February 22, 2009, Sanford declined to rule out a possible presidential bid in 2012, though he professed to have no current plans to run for national office.GOP governors don't say no to bids for president {{dead link|date=May 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}Washington Post blogger Chris Cillizza said that the revelation of the extramarital affair in June 2009 ended Sanford's chances of being a serious candidate in 2012.NEWS,weblink Sanford Admits Affair, First Thoughts, Chris, Cillizza, June 24, 2009, Washington Post, June 25, 2009, On January 4, 2010, Sanford admitted, "If there's anything that's abundantly clear, it's that I ain't running for president." In the same Republican meeting, he also indicated that he would enter the private sector after his last 11 months as governor.WEB, McCann, Josh,weblink Sanford welcomed Monday by friendly crowd on Hilton Head Island, The Island Packet, Hilton Head Island; S.C., January 4, 2010, January 6, 2010, yes,weblink" title="">weblink June 14, 2011,

Post-gubernatorial career

(File:Mark Sanford.jpg|right|thumb|Then-Governor Mark Sanford speaking at an event in September 2010.)Following completion of his service as governor in January 2011, Sanford moved to his family farm in Beaufort County, South Carolina, and later moved to a condominium in Charleston, South Carolina.WEB,weblink Sanford looking at potential campaign HQ space, The Post and Courier article, January 10, 2013, May 1, 2013, He has described this as a very quiet and spiritual time, and developed a Buddhist/Christian life approach including a daily quiet time, practicing mindfulness, and emphasising everyone's 'shared human experience.'WEB, Zengerle, Jason,weblink Former South Carolina Governor Mark Sanford Runs for Office Again – New York Magazine,, 2013-03-03, 2014-08-08, WEB, The Ticket,weblink Mark Sanford talks Buddhism, his daily meditation practice and unique campaign style | The Ticket – Yahoo! News,, 2013-05-06, 2014-08-08, In October 2011, Sanford was hired as a paid political contributor for Fox News Channel.WEB,weblink Former SC Governor to join Fox News team,, July 25, 2012, In August 2012, Sanford became engaged to his former mistress, Maria Belen Chapur.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink August 27, 2012, Former SC Gov. Sanford confirms engagement to ex-mistress in affair that ended political hopes – The Washington Post, The Washington Post, August 26, 2012, 0190-8286, August 26, 2012, yes, The engagement was subsequently broken off in September 2014.NEWS,weblink Mark Sanford and Maria Belen Chapur call off engagement, blame lingering divorce, Kropf, Schuyler, September 12, 2014, The Post and Courier, NEWS,weblink Mark Sanford breaks up with fiance, blames ex-wife, Watkins, Ali, September 12, 2014, The State,

Return to the U.S. House of Representatives

2013 Congressional special election

In December 2012, CNN reported that Sanford was considering a bid to retake his congressional seat. The previous holder, fellow Republican Tim Scott, had been appointed to the United States Senate by Governor Nikki Haley after the resignation of Senator Jim DeMint.NEWS,weblink FIRST ON CNN: Mark Sanford plans to run for Congress – CNN Political Ticker – Blogs,, December 20, 2012, May 1, 2013, On December 22, 2012, Sanford sent an email to supporters, confirming rumors that he intended to run for Congress in 2013.NEWS,weblink Former S.C. Governor Mark Sanford to run for Congress, WSOC-TV, December 23, 2012, Sanford formally launched his bid for Congress in early 2013. He quickly became a front-runner in a crowded field of 16 Republican candidates, because of his name recognition.NEWS, Karen Tumulty,weblink With House campaign, Mark Sanford goes from Appalachian Trail to comeback trail, The Washington Post, February 23, 2013, May 1, 2013, On April 2, 2013, Sanford won his Republican House primary runoff against Curtis Bostic, a former Charleston County Councilman. The special election was held on May 7, 2013 and Sanford defeated Democratic Party Candidate Elizabeth Colbert Busch.WEB, Cameron Joseph, Mark Sanford wins South Carolina House GOP primary runoff,weblink The Hill, April 3, 2013, On April 17, 2013, the National Republican Congressional Committee pulled support from the Sanford campaign in the wake of revelations that Jenny Sanford had filed a trespassing complaint against him on February 4.Isenstadt, Mark. Republicans pull plug on Mark Sanford. Politico, April 17, 2013. According to the complaint, Jenny Sanford had caught her former husband sneaking out of her home in Sullivan's Island, using his cellphone as a flashlight. Under the terms of their divorce agreement, neither Mark nor Jenny Sanford may come to the other's house without permission—a condition Jenny Sanford alleged that Mark Sanford had flouted on numerous occasions despite Jenny Sanford filing a "no trespass" letter with the Sullivan's Island Police Department.WEB,weblink Trespassing complaint against Sanford,, April 17, 2013, May 1, 2013, In a statement, Mark Sanford admitted that he'd gone to the house to watch the second half of Super Bowl XLVII with his son. He claimed to have tried to contact Jenny beforehand, but was unable to do so. Jenny Sanford filed the complaint the next morning. Several Republican operatives said that they were upset Sanford had known about this complaint for some time and failed to disclose it.Sanford was endorsed by FreedomWorks,WEB,weblink SC-1: FreedomWorks Backs Mark Sanford, FITSNews, May 1, 2013, South Carolina Governor Nikki Haley,NEWS,weblink Nikki Haley to appear at Mark Sanford fundraiser,, May 1, 2013, U.S. Representative and House Speaker John Boehner,WEB, Joseph, Cameron,weblink Boehner endorses Mark Sanford in SC special election – The Hill's Ballot Box,, April 9, 2013, May 1, 2013, State Senator Tom Davis,WEB, Drury, Shawn,weblinkweblink yes, January 26, 2013, EXCLUSIVE: Sen. Tom Davis Endorses Mark Sanford in SC1 – North Charleston, SC Patch,, January 25, 2013, May 1, 2013, WEB,weblink Tom Davis Endorses Mark Sanford, FITSNews, February 12, 2013, May 1, 2013, WEB, Conley, Casey,weblink Sen. Tom Davis endorses Mark Sanford's Congress comeback bid | Election, The Island Packet, May 1, 2013, former South Carolina State Treasurer Thomas Ravenel,WEB, Ravenel, Thomas,weblink T-Rav: My Endorsement Of Mark Sanford, FITSNews, April 1, 2013, May 1, 2013, perennial candidate Ben Frasier,NEWS,weblink Ben Frasier Endorses Mark Sanford Over Former Rival Elizabeth Colbert Busch,, May 1, 2013, April 4, 2013, WEB, Ould, Mohamedou,weblink The Alvin Greene Scam: It Lives!,, April 5, 2013, May 1, 2013, former U.S. Representative from Texas Ron Paul,NEWS,weblink Ron Paul Endorses Mark Sanford, Because #YOLO,, April 25, 2013, May 1, 2013, WEB,weblink Will Ron Paul be the saving grace for Mark Sanford's campaign?,, April 26, 2013, May 1, 2013, WEB, Alexis Levinson,weblink Ron Paul endorses Mark Sanford, The Daily Caller, April 26, 2013, May 1, 2013, U.S. Senator from Kentucky Rand Paul.NEWS,weblink Rand Paul Endorses Mark Sanford In South Carolina Congressional Race,, May 1, 2013, April 30, 2013, NEWS, Associated Press,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink April 30, 2013, After months of refusing to attack, Sanford's opponent puts him on the defensive over affair, The Washington Post, May 1, 2013, yes, On May 1, 2013, U.S. Senator and former U.S. Representative Tim ScottNEWS,weblink Tim Scott endorses Mark Sanford,, January 1, 1970, May 2, 2013, WEB, Joseph, Cameron,weblink Tim Scott endorses Mark Sanford, says he 'merits support' – The Hill's Ballot Box,, May 2, 2013, and U.S. Senator Lindsey GrahamWEB, Igor Bobic 11:03 AM EDT, Wednesday May 1, 2013,weblink Lindsey Graham Endorses Mark Sanford: 'We Need Him In Washington' | TPM LiveWire,, May 2, 2013, WEB, Alexis Levinson,weblink Scott, Graham endorsements give boost to Sanford campaign, The Daily Caller, April 26, 2013, May 2, 2013, endorsed Sanford. Pornographer Larry Flynt also endorsed him, saying "His open embrace of his mistress in the name of love, breaking his sacred marriage vows, was an act of bravery that has drawn my support."NEWS,weblink Larry Flynt Endorses Mark Sanford, 'America's Great Sex Pioneer',, May 1, 2013, Chris, Gentilviso, April 30, 2013, On May 7, 2013, Sanford was once again elected to the U.S. House of Representatives with 54.04% of the vote, defeating Elizabeth Colbert Busch, sister of late-night television personality Stephen Colbert.NEWS, Mark Sanford wins South Carolina special election,weblink Washington Post, May 8, 2013, WEB, Statewide Results,weblink South Carolina Dept. of Elections, May 8, 2013, Sanford was unopposed for re-election in 2014.NEWS,weblink Once disgraced, Mark Sanford is unopposed, USA Today, March 31, 2014, March 31, 2014, In 2016, Sanford was renominated by the Republican Party for another Congressional term, defeating his sole primary opponent, state Representative Jenny Horne, with 55.61% of the vote, and in the November general election was re-elected by a margin of 58.56% to a total of 36.83% for his major opponent, Dimitri Cherry, who was nominated on the lines of the Democratic, Working Families and Green Parties, as South Carolina is one of the states practicing electoral fusion. (Other candidates received approximately 4.6% of the vote.) WEB,weblink 1stcdresults, April 10, 2017,


Sanford was sworn-in on May 15, 2013.On June 5, 2014, Sanford introduced the TSA Office of Inspection Accountability Act of 2014 (H.R. 4803; 113th Congress), a bill that would direct the Inspector General of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to review the data and methods that the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) uses to classify personnel as law enforcement officers and to reclassify, as necessary, any staff of the Office of Inspection that are currently misclassified according to the results of that review.WEB, CBO – H.R. 4803,weblink Congressional Budget Office, 23 July 2014, Sanford said that "even though there are federal standards in place that lay out how employees qualify for higher wages, the Transportation Security Administration pays some of their employees more for jobs they're not doing. That wouldn't make sense anywhere outside of government and our bill would help fix that problem by clarifying those employees' responsibilities."NEWS, House Passes Legislation On Transportation Security,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 26 July 2014, 24 July 2014, Homeland Security Today, 23 July 2014, According to Sanford, accurately reclassifying employees who do not spent at least 50 percent of the time on law enforcement activities and putting them on an accurate pay scale would save the government $17 million a year.NEWS, Medici, Andy, House passes bill to demote some TSA officers,weblink 24 July 2014, Federal Times, 23 July 2014, On May 4, 2017, he voted to repeal the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obamacare) and pass the American Health Care Act.WEB,weblink How the House voted to pass the GOP health-care bill, Washington Post, 2017-05-04, NEWS,weblink Health care vote puts pressure on dozens of vulnerable GOP reps, USA TODAY, 2017-05-04, en,

Donald Trump

Sanford supported Donald Trump in the 2016 presidential election.NEWS,weblink Sanford's primary problem shows Trump's vice grip, CNN, Analysis by Harry Enten,, CNN, 2018-06-12, Early into President Trump's tenure as president, Sanford was "one of the president’s most eloquent critics" according to The Washington Post.NEWS,weblink For Republican candidates, the only issue that matters is loyalty to Trump, Weigel, David, 2018-06-11, Washington Post, 2018-06-12, en-US, 0190-8286, According to NPR, "Sanford hasn't been shy at voicing his disgust with Trump and his distaste for the president's brash style of politics and frequent bending of the truth."NEWS,weblink Will Voters Tell Mark Sanford To 'Take A Hike' For His Criticism Of Trump?,, 2018-06-12, en, In a February 2017 interview, Sanford said that Trump "at some level... represents the antithesis, or the undoing, of everything I thought I knew about politics, preparation and life."NEWS,weblink ‘I’m a Dead Man Walking’, POLITICO Magazine, 2018-06-12, en, According to an analysis by FiveThirtyEight, only four Republican House members voted less frequently with Trump than Sanford.Sanford criticized President Donald Trump's 2017 executive order to temporarily curtail Muslim immigration until better screening methods are devised. He stated that "I'm hearing a voice of concern that things are moving from weird to reckless in their view. And that even if you're going to enact this policy, the way in which it was done just seems bizarre."WEB, Blake, Aaron, Coffman, Gardner join Republicans against President Trump's travel ban; here's where the rest stand,weblink Denver Post, 30 January 2017, In February/March 2017, Sanford signed a letter to urge Congress to request Donald Trump's tax returns so that they can be reviewed in a closed session of Congress and determined whether the returns can be released to the public.NEWS,weblink Senate Democrats seek Trump tax returns, 2017-03-01, Reuters, 2017-03-09, in his 2018 re-election campaign ads, Sanford boasted of having voted with the president "89 percent of the time.” Sanford also expressed support for Trump's wall on the US-Mexico border.

2018 election

Sanford was criticized by President Donald Trump via Twitter for being "very unhelpful," and "nothing but trouble" hours before polls closed on the day of the June 12th Republican primary.NEWS, Blinder, Alan, The New York Times, Trump Calls Mark Sanford ‘Nothing But Trouble’ Hours Before Polls Close, June 13, 2018,weblink Trump also endorsed state Representative Katie Arrington as the Republican nominee for Sanford's seat. Arrington defeated Sanford in the Republican primary by garnering 50.5% of the vote, to Sanford's 46.5%. Sanford became the second Republican to lose renomination to the House of Representatives in the 2018 election cycle.NEWS, Voorhees, Josh,, Mark Sanford Survived the "Appalachian Trail." He Couldn’t Survive Trump., June 13, 2018,weblink After his loss, The New York Times wrote, "Mark Sanford of South Carolina found out the hard way, in his surprise primary defeat" that "having a conservative voting record is less important than demonstrating total loyalty to Mr. Trump."NEWS,weblink Republicans in Primaries Absorb Lesson: Cross Trump at Their Peril, 2018-06-14, en, On November 6, 2018, Democrat Joe Cunningham was elected as his successor, defeating Arrington in an upset election.South Carolina 2018 House results from CNNCommittee assignments Caucus memberships


In 2000 Sanford's first book, The Trust Committed To Me, was published. It discussed term limits, and featured a foreword by Robert Novak.BOOK, The Trust Committed to Me, Mark, Sanford, U.S. Term Limits Foundation, 2000, 0-9638615-1-4, Washington, D.C., A second book, titled Within Our Means, was scheduled to be published by Sentinel in 2010: however the contract was terminated by mutual agreement after the revelation of Sanford's extramarital affair.NEWS, Sentinel Kills Sanford Book, Rachel, Deahl, Publishers Weekly, July 2, 2009,weblink Sanford is also the subject of a book by a speech aide, Barton Swaim, titled The Speechwriter: A Brief Education in Politics.

Electoral history{| class"wikitable" style"margin:0.5em ; font-size:95%"

South Carolina|1|}}: results 1994–2013WEB,weblink Election Statistics, January 10, 2008, Office of the Clerk of the House of Representatives, yes,weblink" title="">weblink July 30, 2008, mdy, !Year!!Democrat!Votes!Pct!!Republican!Votes!Pct!!3rd party!Party!Votes!Pct!United States House of Representatives elections, 1994>1994|Robert A. Barber Jr.47,76932%|{{nowrap|Mark Sanford}}97,80366%|Robert PayneLibertarian1,8361%*United States House of Representatives elections, 1996>1996|No candidate|Mark Sanford138,46796%|! style="background:#00bfff; "|Joseph F. Innella! style="background:#00bfff; "|Natural Law! style="background:#00bfff; text-align:right;"|5,105! style="background:#00bfff; text-align:right;"|4%|United States House of Representatives elections, 1998>1998|No candidate|Mark Sanford118,41491%|! style="background:#00bfff; "|Joseph F. Innella! style="background:#00bfff; "|Natural Law! style="background:#00bfff; text-align:right;"|11,586! style="background:#00bfff; text-align:right;"|9%*United States elections, 2013>2013|Elizabeth Colbert-Busch64,81845.2%|Mark Sanford77,46654.0%|Eugene PlattGreen Party6900.5%*
  • Write-in and minor candidate notes: In 1994, write-ins received 63 votes. In 1998, write-ins received 71 votes. In 2013, write-ins received 383 votes.
{{Election box begin |title=South Carolina gubernatorial election 2002}}{{Election box candidate with party linkparty = Republican Party (United States)
|candidate = Mark Sanford
|votes = 583,339
|percentage = 52.9
|change =
}}{{Election box candidate with party linkparty = Democratic Party (United States)
|candidate = Jim Hodges (incumbent)
|votes = 518,310
|percentage = 47.3
|change =
}}{{Election box end}}{{Election box begin |title=South Carolina gubernatorial election 2006}}{{Election box candidate with party linkparty = Republican Party (United States)
|candidate = Mark Sanford (incumbent)
|votes = 601,868
|percentage = 55.1
|change = +2.2
}}{{Election box candidate with party linkparty = Democratic Party (United States)
|candidate = Tommy Moore
|votes = 489,076
|percentage = 44.8
|change =
}}{{Election box end}}{{Election box begin |title={{ushr|South Carolina|1|}} Republican primary runoff election 2013RUNOFF – U.S. House of Representatives District 1 Primary, South Carolina Secretary of State, April 2, 2013.}}{{Election box candidate with party linkparty = Republican Party (United States)
|candidate = Mark Sanford
|votes = 26,066
|percentage = 56.58
|change =
}}{{Election box candidate with party linkparty = Republican Party (United States)
|candidate = Curtis Bostic
|votes = 20,005
|percentage = 43.42
|change =
}}{{Election box end}}



External links

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  • {{CongLinks | congbio=s000051 | votesmart=21991 | fec=H4SC01073 | congress=marshall-sanford/1012 }}

{{USRepSuccessionBox|state = South Carolina|district = 1|before = Arthur Ravenel Jr.|after = Henry E. Brown Jr.|years = 1995–2001}}{{USRepSuccessionBox|state = South Carolina|district = 1|before = Tim Scott|years = 2013–2019Joe Cunningham (American politician)>Joe Cunningham}}{{USCongRep-start|congresses= 104th–106th & 113th–115th United States Congresses |state=South Carolina}}{{USCongRep/SC/104}}{{USCongRep/SC/105}}{{USCongRep/SC/106}}{{USCongRep/Line}}{{USCongRep/SC/113}}{{USCongRep/SC/114}}{{USCongRep/SC/115}}{{USCongRep-end}}{{Governors of South Carolina}}{{Authority control}}

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