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Manitoba
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{{about|the Canadian province|}}{{Use Canadian English|date=July 2014}}{{Use dmy dates|date=February 2017}}{{short description|Province of Canada}}







factoids
{{small>{{native phrase"Glorieux et libre"}}}}| Animal = BisonPasque flower>Prairie crocusPicea glauca>White spruce| Bird = Great grey owl| Capital = Winnipeg| LargestCity = Winnipeg| LargestMetro = Winnipeg Capital RegionEnglish language>English{{vcite webtitle=The legal context of Canada's official languagesaccessdate=10 April 2016archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20161221032458weblinkdf=dmy-all}}| Viceroy = Janice Filmon| ViceroyType = Lieutenant Governor| Premier = Brian Pallister Progressive Conservative Party of Manitoba>Progressive Conservative| Legislature = Legislative Assembly of Manitoba| PostalAbbreviation = MBList of R postal codes of Canada>R| AreaRank = 8th| TotalArea_km2 = 649950| LandArea_km2 = 548360| WaterArea_km2 = 101593| PercentWater = 15.6| PopulationRank = 5th| Population = 1278365 WORK=STATISTICS CANADA ACCESSDATE=APRIL 30, 2017 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170504080727/HTTP://WWW12.STATCAN.GC.CA/CENSUS-RECENSEMENT/2016/DP-PD/HLT-FST/PD-PL/TABLE.CFM?LANG=ENG&T=101&S=50&O=A DF=DMY-ALL, | Population_est = 1356836| Pop_est_as_of = 2018 Q4 PUBLISHER=STATISTICS CANADA ACCESSDATE=29 SEPTEMBER 2018 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20171223040248/HTTP://WWW5.STATCAN.GC.CA/CANSIM/A26?LANG=ENG&RETRLANG=ENG&ID=0510005&&PATTERN=&STBYVAL=1&P1=1&P2=31&TABMODE=DATATABLE&CSID= DF=DMY-ALL, | DensityRank = 8th| Density_km2 = 2.3| GDP_year = 2015 url=http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/econ15-eng.htm publisher=Statistics Canada accessdate=26 January 2017 archiveurl=https://www.webcitation.org/6BT3Jw27s?url=http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/econ15-eng.htm df=dmy-all }}| GDP_rank = 6th| GDP_per_capita = C$50,820| GDP_per_capita_rank = 9th| AdmittanceOrder = 5th| AdmittanceDate = 15 July 1870Central Time Zone>Central: Coordinated Universal Time–6, (daylight saving time>DST −5)| HouseSeats = 14| SenateSeats = 6| ISOCode = CA-MB| Demonym = Manitoban| Website =weblink}}Manitoba ({{IPAc-en|audio=En-ca-Manitoba.ogg|ˌ|m|æ|n|ɪ|ˈ|t|oʊ|b|ə}}) is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada. It is often considered one of the three prairie provinces (with Alberta and Saskatchewan) and is Canada's fifth-most populous province with its estimated 1.3 million people. Manitoba covers {{convert|649950|km2|-2}} with a widely varied landscape, stretching from the northern oceanic coastline to the southern border with the United States. The province is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, and Northwest Territories to the northwest, and the U.S. states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south.Aboriginal peoples have inhabited what is now Manitoba for thousands of years. In the late 17th century, fur traders arrived on two major river systems, what is now called the Nelson in northern Manitoba and in the southeast along the Winnipeg River system. A Royal Charter in 1670 granted all the lands draining into Hudson's Bay to the British company and they administered trade in what was then called Rupert's Land. During the next 200 years, communities continued to grow and evolve, with a significant settlement of Michif in what is now Winnipeg. The assertion of Métis identity and self-rule culminated in negotiations for the creation of the province of Manitoba. There are many factors that led to an armed uprising of the Métis people against the Government of Canada, a conflict known as the Red River Rebellion aka Resistance. The resolution of the assertion of the right to representation led to the Parliament of Canada passing the Manitoba Act in 1870 that created the province.Manitoba's capital and largest city, Winnipeg, is the eighth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Other census agglomerations in the province are Brandon, Steinbach, Portage la Prairie, and Thompson.

Etymology

The name Manitoba is believed to be derived from the Cree, Ojibwe or Assiniboine languages. The name derives from Cree manitou-wapow or Ojibwa manidoobaa, both meaning "straits of Manitou, the Great Spirit", a place referring to what are now called The Narrows in the centre of Lake Manitoba. It may also be from the Assiniboine for "Lake of the Prairie".{{vcite web|url=http://geonames.nrcan.gc.ca/education/prov_e.php#mb|title=Manitoba|publisher=Natural Resources Canada|accessdate=28 October 2009|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080604204017weblink|archivedate=4 June 2008}}The lake was known to French explorers as Lac des Prairies. Thomas Spence chose the name to refer to a new republic he proposed for the area south of the lake. Métis leader Louis Riel also chose the name, and it was accepted in Ottawa under the Manitoba Act of 1870.{{vcite web|url=https://www.gov.mb.ca/chc/louis_riel/pdf/origin_mb_name.pdf|accessdate=20 October 2013|publisher=Province of Manitoba|title=The Origin of the Name Manitoba|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130319044125weblink|archivedate=19 March 2013|df=dmy-all}}

Geography

{{See also|List of provincial parks in Manitoba|List of protected areas of Manitoba|List of lakes of Manitoba}}Manitoba is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, and the US states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south. The province possibly meets the Northwest Territories at the four corners quadripoint to the extreme northwest, though surveys have not been completed and laws are unclear about the exact location of the Nunavut–NWT boundary. Manitoba adjoins Hudson Bay to the northeast, and is the only prairie province to have a saltwater coastline. The Port of Churchill is Canada's only Arctic deep-water port. Lake Winnipeg is the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world. Hudson Bay is the world's second-largest bay by area. Manitoba is at the heart of the giant Hudson Bay watershed, once known as Rupert's Land. It was a vital area of the Hudson's Bay Company, with many rivers and lakes that provided excellent opportunities for the lucrative fur trade.

Hydrography and terrain

(File:Canada Manitoba relief location map.jpg|thumb|upright=1|Relief map of Manitoba)The province has a saltwater coastline bordering Hudson Bay and more than 110,000 lakes,{{vcite web|url=http://www40.statcan.gc.ca/l01/cst01/phys01-eng.htm |title=Land and Freshwater area, by province and territory |accessdate=7 August 2007 |publisher=Statistics Canada |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110524063547weblink |archivedate=24 May 2011 |df= }} covering approximately 15.6 percent or {{convert|101593|km2|sqmi}} of its surface area.{{vcite web|url=http://www.travelmanitoba.com/default.asp?page=130&node=585|title=Geography of Manitoba|publisher=Travel Manitoba|accessdate=10 February 2010|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20101129121538weblink|archivedate=29 November 2010|df=dmy-all}} Manitoba's major lakes are Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipegosis, and Lake Winnipeg, the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world.{{vcite web |url=http://www.lakewinnipeg.org/web/content.shtml?pfl=public/downloads.param&page=000103&op9.rf1=000103 |title=Lake Winnipeg Facts |publisher=Lake Winnipeg Stewardship Board |accessdate=7 August 2007 |df=dmy-all |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20040614003633weblink |archivedate=14 June 2004 |deadurl=yes }} Some traditional Native lands and boreal forest on Lake Winnipeg's east side are a proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site.{{vcite journal|author=Schwartz, Bryan; Cheung, Perry|year=2007|title=East vs. West: Evaluating Manitoba Hydro's Options for a Hydro-Transmission Line from an International Law Perspective|journal=Asper Review of International Business and Trade Law|publisher=University of Manitoba|volume=7|issue=4|page=4}}Manitoba is at the centre of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, with a high volume of the water draining into Lake Winnipeg and then north down the Nelson River into Hudson Bay. This basin's rivers reach far west to the mountains, far south into the United States, and east into Ontario. Major watercourses include the Red, Assiniboine, Nelson, Winnipeg, Hayes, Whiteshell and Churchill rivers. Most of Manitoba's inhabited south has developed in the prehistoric bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz. This region, particularly the Red River Valley, is flat and fertile; receding glaciers left hilly and rocky areas throughout the province.{{vcite book|author=Savage, Candace|title=Prairie: A Natural History|publisher=Greystone Books|year=2011|pages=52–53|isbn=978-1-55365-588-6|edition=2nd}}Baldy Mountain is the province's highest point at {{convert|832|m}} above sea level,{{vcite book|author=Manitoba Parks Branch|title=Outdoor recreation master plan: Duck Mountain Provincial Park|publisher=Manitoba Department of Tourism, Recreation and Cultural Affairs|location=Winnipeg|year=1973}} and the Hudson Bay coast is the lowest at sea level. Riding Mountain, the Pembina Hills, Sandilands Provincial Forest, and the Canadian Shield are also upland regions. Much of the province's sparsely inhabited north and east lie on the irregular granite Canadian Shield, including Whiteshell, Atikaki, and Nopiming Provincial Parks.{{vcite journal|author=Butler, George E|year=1950|title=The Lakes and Lake Fisheries of Manitoba|journal=Transactions of the American Fisheries Society|publisher=American Fisheries Society|volume=79|page=24|doi=10.1577/1548-8659(1949)79[18:tlalfo]2.0.co;2 }}Extensive agriculture is found only in the province's southern areas, although there is grain farming in the Carrot Valley Region (near The Pas). The most common agricultural activity is cattle husbandry (34.6%), followed by assorted grains (19.0%) and oilseed (7.9%).{{vcite web|url=http://www40.statcan.gc.ca/l01/cst01/agrc35h-eng.htm |title=Summary Table of Wheats and Grains by Province |publisher=Statistics Canada |accessdate=7 August 2007 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110115200707weblink |archivedate=15 January 2011 |df= }} Around 12 percent of Canada's farmland is in Manitoba.{{vcite web|url=http://www40.statcan.gc.ca/l01/cst01/agrc25h-eng.htm |title=Total farm area, land tenure and land in crops, by province (Census of Agriculture, 1986 to 2006) (Manitoba) |publisher=Statistics Canada |accessdate=28 October 2009 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110115190649weblink |archivedate=15 January 2011 |df= }}

Climate

(File:Manitoba Köppen.svg|thumb|Köppen climate types of Manitoba)Manitoba has an extreme continental climate. Temperatures and precipitation generally decrease from south to north and increase from east to west.{{vcite book|author=Ritchie, JC|title=Post-Glacial Vegetation of Canada|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=2004|page=25|isbn=978-0-521-54409-2}} Manitoba is far from the moderating influences of mountain ranges or large bodies of water. Because of the generally flat landscape, it is exposed to cold Arctic high-pressure air masses from the northwest during January and February. In the summer, air masses sometimes come out of the Southern United States, as warm humid air is drawn northward from the Gulf of Mexico.{{vcite book|author=Vickers, Glenn; Buzza, Sandra; Schmidt, Dave; Mullock, John|title=The Weather of the Canadian Prairies|publisher=Navigation Canada|date=2001|url=http://www.navcanada.ca/ContentDefinitionFiles/publications/lak/CanadianPrairies/1-P32E.PDF|accessdate=11 February 2010|pages=48, 51, 53–64|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110722135648weblink|archivedate=22 July 2011|df=dmy-all}} Temperatures exceed {{convert|30|C}} numerous times each summer, and the combination of heat and humidity can bring the humidex value to the mid-40s.{{vcite web |url=http://climate.weatheroffice.gc.ca/climateData/generate_chart_e.html?timeframe=3&Prov=XX&StationID=28051&Year=2006&Month=1&Day=1&Type=line&MeasTypeID=meanmaxtemp |title=Mean Max Temp History at The Forks, Manitoba |work=Climate Data Online |publisher=Environment Canada |accessdate=7 August 2007 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20111028080958weblink |archivedate=28 October 2011 |df=dmy-all }} Carman, Manitoba recorded the second-highest humidex ever in Canada in 2007, with 53.0.{{vcite web|title=Canada's Top Ten Weather Stories for 2007|url=http://www.ec.gc.ca/EnviroZine/default.asp?lang=En&n=70BF6FA1-1|publisher=Environment Canada|accessdate=8 November 2010|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110611202120weblink|archivedate=11 June 2011|df=dmy-all}} According to Environment Canada, Manitoba ranked first for clearest skies year round, and ranked second for clearest skies in the summer and for the sunniest province in the winter and spring.{{vcite web|url=http://www.on.ec.gc.ca/weather/winners/manitoba-e.html|title=Manitoba Weather Honours|publisher=Environment Canada|accessdate=28 October 2009|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20081211154143weblink|archivedate=11 December 2008|df=dmy-all}}File:Deep Lake - Riding Mountain National Park.JPG|thumb|left|Deep Lake at Riding Mountain National ParkRiding Mountain National ParkSouthern Manitoba (including the city of Winnipeg), falls into the humid continental climate zone (Köppen Dfb). This area is cold and windy in the winter and has frequent blizzards because of the open landscape. Summers are warm with a moderate length. This region is the most humid area in the prairie provinces, with moderate precipitation. Southwestern Manitoba, though under the same climate classification as the rest of Southern Manitoba, is closer to the semi-arid interior of Palliser's Triangle. The area is drier and more prone to droughts than other parts of southern Manitoba. This area is cold and windy in the winter and has frequent blizzards due to the openness of the prairie landscape. Summers are generally warm to hot, with low to moderate humidity.{{vcite web|url=http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/geog101/textbook/climate_systems/midlatitude_steppe.html |title=Midlatitude Steppe Climate |work=The Physical Environment |author=Ritter, Michael E |accessdate=7 August 2007 |year=2006 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070822190831weblink |archivedate=22 August 2007 |df= }}Southern parts of the province just north of Tornado Alley, experience tornadoes, with 16 confirmed touchdowns in 2016. In 2007, on 22 and 23 June, numerous tornadoes touched down, the largest an F5 tornado that devastated parts of Elie (the strongest recorded tornado in Canada).{{vcite web|url=http://www.ec.gc.ca/default.asp?lang=En&n=714D9AAE-1&news=4B3DE57E-4967-4B09-98D6-EF974B32D6B5 |title=Elie Tornado Upgraded to Highest Level on Damage Scale Canada's First Official F5 Tornado |date=18 September 2007 |publisher=Environment Canada |accessdate=28 October 2009 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110611150927weblink |archivedate=11 June 2011 |df= }}The province's northern sections (including the city of Thompson) fall in the subarctic climate zone (Köppen climate classification Dfc). This region features long and extremely cold winters and brief, warm summers with little precipitation. Overnight temperatures as low as {{convert|-40|C}} occur on several days each winter.{{vcite web|url=http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/geog101/textbook/climate_systems/subarctic.html |title=Subarctic Climate |work=The Physical Environment |author=Ritter, Michael E |accessdate=7 August 2007 |year=2006 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080525080242weblink |archivedate=25 May 2008 |df= }}{| class="wikitable sortable" style="width:60%; font-size:95%;"!Community!Region!July dailymaximum{{vcite web|url=http://climate.weather.gc.ca/climate_normals/index_e.html|publisher=Environment Canada|accessdate=26 February 2014|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140227145147weblink|archivedate=27 February 2014|df=dmy-all}}!January dailymaximum!Annualprecipitation!Planthardinesszone{{vcite web |url=http://www.theweathernetwork.com/outdoors/lawn-and-garden/canada/manitoba/winnipeg |title=Lawn and Garden: Winnipeg, MB |publisher=Theweathernetwork.com |date= |accessdate=26 February 2014 |deadurl=no |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140306063802weblink |archivedate=6 March 2014 |df=dmy-all }}Morden, Manitoba>Morden Pembina Valley Region >260}} {{convertC5410| 3AWinnipeg >Winnipeg Capital Region>Winnipeg {{convertC-110}} {{convertmmabbr=on}} 2BPierson, Manitoba>Pierson Westman Region {{convertC-90}} {{convertmmabbr=on}} 2BDauphin, Manitoba>Dauphin Parkland Region, Manitoba >250}} {{convertC4820| 2BSteinbach, Manitoba>Steinbach Eastman Region, Manitoba >250}} {{convertC5810| 2BPortage la Prairie >Central Plains Region, Manitoba>Central Plains {{convertC-9F}} {{convertmmabbr=on}} 3ABrandon, Manitoba>Brandon Westman Region, Manitoba >250}} {{convertC4740| 2BThe Pas >Northern Region, Manitoba>Northern 240}} {{convertC4500| 2BThompson, Manitoba>Thompson Northern Region, Manitoba >230}} {{convertC4740| 2BChurchill, Manitoba>Churchill Northern Region, Manitoba >180}} {{convertC4530| 0A

Flora and fauna

(File:Polarbär 1 2004-11-17.jpg|thumb|upright|alt=A bear with white fur and black eyes|Polar bears are common in northern Manitoba)Manitoba natural communities may be grouped within five ecozones: boreal plains, prairie, taiga shield, boreal shield and Hudson plains. Three of these—taiga shield, boreal shield and Hudson plain—contain part of the Boreal forest of Canada which covers the province's eastern, southeastern, and northern reaches.{{vcite book|author=Oswald, Edward T.; Nokes, Frank H. |title=Field Guide to the Native Trees of Manitoba|publisher=Manitoba Conservation|year=2016}}Forests make up about {{convert|263000|km2|sqmi}}, or 48 percent, of the province's land area.{{vcite web|url=https://www.gov.mb.ca/conservation/forestry/forest-education/general.html |title=Manitoba Forest Facts |publisher=Manitoba Conservation |accessdate=11 April 2011 |deadurl=unfit |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090226181706weblink |archivedate=26 February 2009 }} The forests consist of pines (Jack Pine, Red Pine, Eastern White Pine), spruces (White Spruce, Black Spruce), Balsam Fir, Tamarack (larch), poplars (Trembling Aspen, Balsam Poplar), birches (White Birch, Swamp Birch) and small pockets of Eastern White Cedar.Two sections of the province are not dominated by forest. The province's northeast corner bordering Hudson Bay is above the treeline and is considered tundra. The tallgrass prairie once dominated the south central and southeastern parts including the Red River Valley. Mixed grass prairie is found in the southwestern region. Agriculture has replaced much of the natural prairie but prairie still can be found in parks and protected areas; some are notable for the presence of the endangered western prairie fringed orchid,.{{vcite web|url=http://www.cosewic.gc.ca/eng/sct1/searchdetail_e.cfm?id=200&StartRow=1&boxStatus=All&boxTaxonomic=All&location=All&change=All&board=All&commonName=orchid&scienceName=&returnFlag=0&Page=1 |title=Fringed-orchid, Western Prairie |publisher=Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada |accessdate=7 November 2009 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110706183933weblink |archivedate=6 July 2011 |df= }}JOURNAL, Goedeke, T, Sharma, J, Delphey, P, Marshall Mattson, K, Platanthera praeclara, The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2008, e.T132834A3464336, IUCN, 2008,weblink 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T132834A3464336.en, 12 January 2018, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171010214708weblink">weblink 10 October 2017, dmy-all, Manitoba is especially noted for its northern polar bear population; Churchill is commonly referred to as the "Polar Bear Capital".{{vcite book|author=Stirling, Ian; Guravich, Dan |title=Polar Bears|publisher=University of Michigan Press|year=1998|page=208|isbn=978-0-472-08108-0}} Other large animals, including moose, white-tailed deer, black bears, cougars, lynx, and wolves, are common throughout the province, especially in the provincial and national parks. There is a large population of red sided garter snakes near Narcisse; the dens there are home to the world's largest concentration of snakes.{{vcite book|author=LeMaster, MP; Mason, RT|title=Chemical signals in vertebrates|editor=Marchlewska-Koj, Anna; Lepri, John J; Müller-Schwarze, Dietland |publisher=Springer|year=2001|page=370|volume=9|chapter=Annual and seasonal variation in the female sexual attractiveness pheromone of the red-sided garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis|isbn=978-0-306-46682-3}}Manitoba's bird diversity is enhanced by its position on two major migration routes, with 392 confirmed identified species; 287 of these nesting within the province.{{vcite web |url=http://www.naturemanitoba.ca/sites/default/files/MB_bird_checklist.pdf |author=Manitoba Avian Research Committee |title=Checklist of the Birds of Manitoba |publisher=Nature Manitoba |accessdate=26 July 2016 |deadurl=no |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160421155557weblink |archivedate=21 April 2016 |df=dmy-all }} These include the great grey owl, the province's official bird, and the endangered peregrine falcon.{{vcite book|author=Bezener, Andy; De Smet, Ken D|title=Manitoba birds|publisher=Lone Pine|year=2000|pages=1–10|isbn=978-1-55105-255-7}}Manitoba's lakes host 18 species of game fish, particularly species of trout, pike, and goldeye, as well as many smaller fish.{{vcite web|url=http://www.manitoba.ca/waterstewardship/fisheries/recreation/09guide.pdf|title=Angler's Guide 2009|year=2009|publisher=Manitoba Fisheries|page=5|accessdate=22 February 2010|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110720135819weblink|archivedate=20 July 2011|df=dmy-all}}

History

First Nations and European settlement

Modern-day Manitoba was inhabited by the First Nations people shortly after the last ice age glaciers retreated in the southwest about 10,000 years ago; the first exposed land was the Turtle Mountain area.{{vcite journal|author=Ritchie, James AM; Brown, Frank; Brien, David|year=2008|title=The Cultural Transmission of the Spirit of Turtle Mountain: A Centre for Peace and Trade for 10,000 Years|journal=General Assembly and International Scientific Symposium|publisher=International Council on Monuments and Sites|volume=16|pages=4–6}} The Ojibwe, Cree, Dene, Sioux, Mandan, and Assiniboine peoples founded settlements, and other tribes entered the area to trade. In Northern Manitoba, quartz was mined to make arrowheads. The first farming in Manitoba was along the Red River, where corn and other seed crops were planted before contact with Europeans.{{vcite journal|author=Flynn, Catherine; Syms, E Leigh|date=Spring 1996|title=Manitoba's First Farmers|journal=Manitoba History|publisher=Manitoba Historical Society|issue=31}}(File:Clay banks.jpg|thumb|First Nations would stampede American bison over these cliffs, near Cartwright, Manitoba.)In 1611, Henry Hudson was one of the first Europeans to sail into what is now known as Hudson Bay, where he was abandoned by his crew.{{vcite book|author=Neatby, LH|title=Dictionary of Canadian Biography|publisher=University of Toronto/Université Laval|year=2013|orig-year=1966|editor=Cook, Ramsay|volume=1|pages=374–379|chapter=Henry Hudson|edition=online|url=http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/hudson_henry_1E.html|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160212000811weblink|archivedate=12 February 2016|df=dmy-all}} The first European to reach present-day central and southern Manitoba was Sir Thomas Button, who travelled upstream along the Nelson River to Lake Winnipeg in 1612 in an unsuccessful attempt to find and rescue Hudson.{{vcite book|author=Eames, Aled|title=Dictionary of Canadian Biography|publisher=University of Toronto/Université Laval|year=1979|orig-year=1966|editor=Cook, Ramsay|volume=1|pages=144–145|chapter=Sir Thomas Button|edition=online|url=http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/button_thomas_1E.html|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20151222132621weblink|archivedate=22 December 2015|df=dmy-all}} When the British ship Nonsuch sailed into Hudson Bay in 1668–1669, she became the first trading vessel to reach the area; that voyage led to the formation of the Hudson's Bay Company, to which the British government gave absolute control of the entire Hudson Bay watershed. This watershed was named Rupert's Land, after Prince Rupert, who helped to subsidize the Hudson's Bay Company.{{vcite book|author=Simmons, Deidre|title=Keepers of the Record: The History of the Hudson's Bay Company Archives|publisher=McGill-Queen's University Press|year=2009|pages=19–23, 83–85, 115|isbn=978-0-7735-3620-3}} York Factory was founded in 1684 after the original fort of the Hudson's Bay Company, Fort Nelson (built in 1682), was destroyed by rival French traders.{{vcite journal|author=Stewart, Lillian|date=Spring 1988|title=York Factory National Historic Site|journal=Manitoba History|publisher=Manitoba Historical Society|issue=15}}Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye, visited the Red River Valley in the 1730s to help open the area for French exploration and trade.{{vcite book|author=Zoltvany, Yves F|title=Dictionary of Canadian Biography|publisher=University of Toronto/Université Lava|year=2015|orig-year=1974|editor=Cook, Ramsay|volume=3|pages=246–254|chapter=Pierre Gaultier De Varennes et De La Vérendrye|edition=online|url=http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/gaultier_de_varennes_et_de_la_verendrye_pierre_3E.html|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160105180950weblink|archivedate=5 January 2016|df=dmy-all}} As French explorers entered the area, a Montreal-based company, the North West Company, began trading with the local Indigenous people. Both the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company built fur-trading forts; the two companies competed in southern Manitoba, occasionally resulting in violence, until they merged in 1821 (the Hudson's Bay Company Archives in Winnipeg preserve the history of this era).Great Britain secured the territory in 1763 after their victory over France in the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War, better known as the French and Indian War in North America; lasting from 1754 to 1763. The founding of the first agricultural community and settlements in 1812 by Lord Selkirk, north of the area which is now downtown Winnipeg, led to conflict between British colonists and the Métis.{{vcite book|author=Gray, John Morgan|title=Dictionary of Canadian Biography|publisher=University of Toronto/Université Laval|year=2015|orig-year=1983|editor=Cook, Ramsay|volume=5|pages=264–269|chapter=Thomas Douglas|edition=online|url=http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/douglas_thomas_5E.html|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20151222094924weblink|archivedate=22 December 2015|df=dmy-all}} Twenty colonists, including the governor, and one Métis were killed in the Battle of Seven Oaks in 1816.{{vcite journal|author=Martin, Joseph E|year=1965|title=The 150th Anniversary of Seven Oaks|journal=MHS Transactions|publisher=Manitoba Historical Society|volume=3|issue=22}} Thomas Spence attempted to be President of the Republic of Manitobah in 1867, that he and his council named.

Confederation

(File:Canada provinces evolution 2.gif|thumb|right|alt=When Canada was formed in 1867 its provinces were a relatively narrow strip in the southeast, with vast territories in the interior. It grew by adding British Columbia in 1871, P. E. I. in 1873, the British Arctic Islands in 1880, and Newfoundland in 1949; meanwhile, its provinces grew both in size and number at the expense of its territories.|Evolution of Canadian provinces 1867–present)Rupert's Land was ceded to Canada by the Hudson's Bay Company in 1869 and incorporated into the Northwest Territories; a lack of attention to Métis concerns caused Métis leader Louis Riel to establish a local provisional government which formed into the Convention of Forty and the subsequent elected Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia on March 9, 1870.WEB, Indigenous and Northern Relations,weblink Province of Manitoba, en, WEB, Lawrence, Barkwell, A History of the Legislative Assembly of Assiniboia/le Conseil du Governement Provisoire,weblink www.legislativeassemblyofassiniboia.ca, This assembly subsequently sent three delegates to Ottawa to negotiate with the Canadian government. This resulted in the Manitoba Act and that province's entry into the Canadian Confederation. Prime Minister John A. Macdonald introduced the Manitoba Act in the House of Commons of Canada, the bill was given Royal Assent and Manitoba was brought into Canada as a province in 1870.{{vcite book|author=Sprague, DN|title=Canada and the Métis, 1869–1885|publisher=Wilfrid Laurier University Press|location=Waterloo, ON|year=1988|pages=33–67, 89–129|isbn=978-0-88920-964-0}} Louis Riel was pursued by British army officer Garnet Wolseley because of the rebellion, and Riel fled into exile.{{vcite book|author=Cooke, OA|title=Dictionary of Canadian Biography|editor=Cook, Ramsay|publisher=University of Toronto/Université Laval|year=2015|orig-year=1998|edition=online|volume=14|chapter=Garnet Joseph Wolseley|url=http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/wolseley_garnet_joseph_14E.html|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170615205354weblink|archivedate=15 June 2017|df=dmy-all}} The Canadian government blocked the Métis' attempts to obtain land promised to them as part of Manitoba's entry into confederation. Facing racism from the new flood of white settlers from Ontario, large numbers of Métis moved to what would become Saskatchewan and Alberta.Numbered Treaties were signed in the late 19th century with the chiefs of various First Nations that lived in the area. These treaties made specific promises of land for every family. As a result, a reserve system was established under the jurisdiction of the Federal Government.{{vcite book|author=Tough, Frank|title=As Their Natural Resources Fail: Native People and the Economic History of Northern Manitoba, 1870–1930|publisher=UBC Press|year=1997|pages=75–79|isbn=978-0-7748-0571-1}} The prescribed amount of land promised to the native peoples was not always given; this led aboriginal groups to assert rights to the land through aboriginal land claims, many of which are still ongoing.{{vcite web|url=https://www.gov.mb.ca/stem/mrd/mines/sustain/first.html|title=First Nations Land Claims|publisher=Government of Manitoba|accessdate=28 October 2009|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20091030030837weblink |archivedate=30 October 2009}}The original province of Manitoba was a square one-eighteenth of its current size, and was known colloquially as the "postage stamp province".{{vcite journal|author=Kemp, Douglas|date=April 1956|title=From Postage Stamp to Keystone|journal=Manitoba Pageant|publisher=Manitoba Historical Society}} Its borders were expanded in 1881, taking land from the Northwest Territories and the District of Keewatin, but Ontario claimed a large portion of the land; the disputed portion was awarded to Ontario in 1889. Manitoba grew to its current size in 1912, absorbing land from the Northwest Territories to reach 60°N, uniform with the northern reach of its western neighbours Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia.The Manitoba Schools Question showed the deep divergence of cultural values in the territory. The Catholic Franco-Manitobans had been guaranteed a state-supported separate school system in the original constitution of Manitoba, but a grassroots political movement among English Protestants from 1888 to 1890 demanded the end of French schools. In 1890, the Manitoba legislature passed a law removing funding for French Catholic schools.{{vcite journal|author=Fletcher, Robert|year=1949|title=The Language Problem in Manitoba's Schools|journal=MHS Transactions|publisher=Manitoba Historical Society|volume=3|issue=6}} The French Catholic minority asked the federal government for support; however, the Orange Order and other anti-Catholic forces mobilized nationwide to oppose them.{{vcite journal|author=McLauchlin, Kenneth|year=1986|title='Riding The Protestant Horse': The Manitoba Schools Question and Canadian Politics, 1890–1896|journal=Historical Studies|publisher=CCHA|volume=53|pages=39–52}}The federal Conservatives proposed remedial legislation to override Manitoba, but they were blocked by the Liberals, led by Wilfrid Laurier, who opposed the remedial legislation because of his belief in provincial rights. Once elected Prime Minister in 1896, Laurier implemented a compromise stating Catholics in Manitoba could have their own religious instruction for 30 minutes at the end of the day if there were enough students to warrant it, implemented on a school-by-school basis.

Modern era

File:WinnipegGeneralStrike.jpg|thumb|alt=Large group of people in the middle of a city street beside a large concrete building|Crowd gathered outside the old City Hall during the Winnipeg general strikeWinnipeg general strikeBy 1911, Winnipeg was the third largest city in Canada, and remained so until overtaken by Vancouver in the 1920s.{{vcite book|author=Hayes, Derek|title=Historical Atlas of Canada|publisher=D&M Adult|year=2006|page=227|isbn=978-1-55365-077-5}} A boomtown, it grew quickly around the start of the 20th century, with outside investors and immigrants contributing to its success.{{vcite web|url=http://www.cbc.ca/history/EPISCONTENTSE1EP10CH3PA5LE.html|title=Winnipeg Boomtown|publisher=CBC|accessdate=28 October 2009|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20111104213708weblink|archivedate=4 November 2011|df=dmy-all}} The drop in growth in the second half of the decade was a result of the opening of the Panama Canal in 1914, which reduced reliance on transcontinental railways for trade, as well as a decrease in immigration due to the outbreak of the First World War.{{vcite news|title=The heart of the continent?|author=Silicz, Michael|date=10 September 2008|work=The Manitoba|publisher=University of Manitoba}} Over 18,000 Manitoba residents enlisted in the first year of the war; by the end of the war, 14 Manitobans had received the Victoria Cross.{{vcite book|author=Morton, William L|title=Manitoba, a History|publisher=University of Toronto Press|year=1957|pages=345–359}}After the First World War ended, severe discontent among farmers (over wheat prices) and union members (over wage rates) resulted in an upsurge of radicalism, coupled with a polarization over the rise of Bolshevism in Russia.{{vcite book|author=Conway, John Frederick|title=The West: The History of a Region in Confederation |publisher=Lorimer|year=2005|edition=3rd|pages=63–64, 85–100|isbn=978-1-55028-905-3}} The most dramatic result was the Winnipeg general strike of 1919. It began on 15 May and collapsed on 25 June 1919; as the workers gradually returned to their jobs, the Central Strike Committee decided to end the movement.{{vcite book|author=Bercuson, David J|title=Confrontation at Winnipeg: Labour, Industrial Relations, and the General Strike|publisher=McGill-Queen's University Press|year=1990|pages=173–176|isbn=978-0-7735-0794-4}}Government efforts to violently crush the strike, including a Royal Northwest Mounted Police charge into a crowd of protesters that resulted in multiple casualties and one death, had led to the arrest of the movement's leaders. In the aftermath, eight leaders went on trial, and most were convicted on charges of seditious conspiracy, illegal combinations, and seditious libel; four were aliens who were deported under the Canadian Immigration Act.{{vcite journal|author=Lederman, Peter R|year=1976|title=Sedition in Winnipeg: An Examination of the Trials for Seditious Conspiracy Arising from the General Strike of 1919|journal=Queen's Law Journal|publisher=Queen's University|volume=3|issue=2|pages=5, 14–17}}The Great Depression (1929–c. 1939) hit especially hard in Western Canada, including Manitoba. The collapse of the world market combined with a steep drop in agricultural production due to drought led to economic diversification, moving away from a reliance on wheat production.{{vcite book|author=Easterbrook, William Thomas; Aitken, Hugh GJ|title=Canadian economic history|publisher=University of Toronto Press|location=Toronto|year=1988|pages=493–494|isbn=978-0-8020-6696-1}} The Manitoba Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, forerunner to the New Democratic Party of Manitoba (NDP), was founded in 1932.{{vcite book|author=Wiseman, Nelson|title=Social democracy in Manitoba|publisher=University of Manitoba|year=1983|page=13|isbn=978-0-88755-118-5}}Canada entered the Second World War in 1939. Winnipeg was one of the major commands for the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan to train fighter pilots, and there were air training schools throughout Manitoba. Several Manitoba-based regiments were deployed overseas, including Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry. In an effort to raise money for the war effort, the Victory Loan campaign organized "If Day" in 1942. The event featured a simulated Nazi invasion and occupation of Manitoba, and eventually raised over C$65 million.{{vcite journal|author=Newman, Michael|date=Spring 1987|title=February 19, 1942: If Day|journal=Manitoba History|publisher=Manitoba Historical Society|issue=13}}File:Red River Floodway from the air.JPG|thumb|Red River FloodwayRed River FloodwayWinnipeg was inundated during the 1950 Red River Flood and had to be partially evacuated. In that year, the Red River reached its highest level since 1861 and flooded most of the Red River Valley. The damage caused by the flood led then-Premier Duff Roblin to advocate for the construction of the Red River Floodway; it was completed in 1968 after six years of excavation. Permanent dikes were erected in eight towns south of Winnipeg, and clay dikes and diversion dams were built in the Winnipeg area. In 1997, the "Flood of the Century" caused over {{Nowrap|C$400 million}} in damages in Manitoba, but the floodway prevented Winnipeg from flooding.{{vcite journal|author=Haque, C Emdad|date=May 2000|title=Risk Assessment, Emergency Preparedness and Response to Hazards: The Case of the 1997 Red River Valley Flood, Canada|journal=Natural Hazards|publisher=Kluwer Academic Publishers|volume=21|issue=2|pages=226–237|issn=0921-030X|doi=10.1023/a:1008108208545}}In 1990, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney attempted to pass the Meech Lake Accord, a series of constitutional amendments to persuade Quebec to endorse the Canada Act 1982. Unanimous support in the legislature was needed to bypass public consultation. Manitoba politician Elijah Harper, a Cree, opposed because he did not believe First Nations had been adequately involved in the Accord's process, and thus the Accord failed.{{vcite book|author=Hawkes, David C; Devine, Marina|title=How Ottawa Spends, 1991–1992: The Politics of Fragmentation|editor=Abele, Frances|publisher=McGill-Queen's University Press|year=1991|pages=33–45|chapter=Meech Lake and Elijah Harper: Native-State Relations in the 1990s|isbn=978-0-88629-146-4}}In 2013, Manitoba was the second province to make accessibility legislation law, protecting the rights of persons with disabilities.{{vcite web|url=http://www.aodaalliance.org/strong-effective-aoda/05212015.asp|date=21 May 2015|title=Please support a barrier-free Canada|publisher=AODA Alliance|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160416085143weblink|archivedate=16 April 2016|df=dmy-all}}

Demography

{{See also|List of communities in Manitoba by population}}At the 2011 census, Manitoba had a population of 1,208,268, more than half of which is in the Winnipeg Capital Region; Winnipeg is Canada's eighth-largest Census Metropolitan Area, with a population of 730,018 (2011 Census{{vcite web |url=http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/data/popdwell/Table.cfm?T=303&SR=1&S=3&O=D&RPP=25&CMA=602 |title=Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) with census subdivision (municipal) population breakdowns |work=Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of Population |date=13 March 2007 |accessdate=13 March 2007 |deadurl=no |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080116205900weblink |archivedate=16 January 2008 |df=dmy-all }}). Although initial colonization of the province revolved mostly around homesteading, the last century has seen a shift towards urbanization; Manitoba is the only Canadian province with over fifty-five percent of its population located in a single city.{{vcite web|url=http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2006/dp-pd/prof/92-591/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CSD&Code1=4611040&Geo2=PR&Code2=46&Data=Count&SearchText=Winnipeg&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&GeoLevel=PR&GeoCode=4611040|title=2006 Community Profiles Manitoba & Winnipeg|publisher=Statistics Canada|accessdate=11 April 2011|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120614181311weblink|archivedate=14 June 2012|df=dmy-all}}{| class="wikitable" style="float: right; "|+ Largest cities by population! City! 2011! 2006| Winnipeg| 663,617| 633,451Brandon, Manitoba>Brandon| 46,061| 41,511Steinbach, Manitoba>Steinbach| 13,524| 11,066| Portage la Prairie| 12,996| 12,728Thompson, Manitoba>Thompson| 12,829| 13,446Winkler, Manitoba>Winkler| 10,670| 9,106Selkirk, Manitoba>Selkirk| 9,834| 9,515Dauphin, Manitoba>Dauphin| 8,251| 7,906Morden, Manitoba>Morden| 7,812| 6,571 Table source: Statistics Canada(File:Manitoba generalmap.png|thumb|A map of Manitoba with the location of the major cities){| class="wikitable"|+ Population of Manitoba since 1871!Year!Population!Five-year % change!Ten-year % change!Rank amongprovinces| 6| 6| 5| 5| 5| 4| 5| 6| 6| 6| 6| 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| 5 Source: Statistics Canada{{vcite webtitle=Manitoba Population trendaccessdate=28 October 2009archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110706182230weblinkdf=dmy-all}}{{vcite webtitle=Canada's populationaccessdate=28 October 2009archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20101203021858weblinkdf=dmy-all}}According to the 2006 Canadian census, the largest ethnic group in Manitoba is English (22.9%), followed by German (19.1%), Scottish (18.5%), Ukrainian (14.7%), Irish (13.4%), North American Indian (10.6%), Polish (7.3%), Métis (6.4%), French (5.6%), Dutch (4.9%), and Russian (4.0%)Icelandic(2,4%). Almost one-fifth of respondents also identified their ethnicity as "Canadian".{{vcite web|url=http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/dp-pd/tbt/Rp-eng.cfm?LANG=E&APATH=3&DETAIL=0&DIM=0&FL=A&FREE=0&GC=0&GID=838031&GK=0&GRP=1&PID=92333&PRID=0&PTYPE=88971,97154&S=0&SHOWALL=0&SUB=0&Temporal=2006&THEME=80&VID=0&VNAMEE=&VNAMEF=|title=Ethnic Origin (247), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3) and Sex (3) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census â€“ 20% Sample Data|publisher=Statistics Canada|accessdate=29 January 2010|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20111028054857weblink|archivedate=28 October 2011|df=dmy-all}} There is a significant indigenous community: aboriginals (including Métis) are Manitoba's fastest-growing ethnic group, representing 13.6 percent of Manitoba's population as of 2001 (some reserves refused to allow census-takers to enumerate their populations or were otherwise incompletely counted).{{vcite news|title=Native population fastest growing in country|author=Janzen, L|date=13 March 2002|newspaper=Winnipeg Free Press|page=B4}}{{vcite web|url=https://www.gov.mb.ca/inr/publications/pubs/2001-2026_population_demographic_profile.pdf|title=Manitoba's Aboriginal Community: a 2001 to 2026 population & demographic profile|date=July 2005|publisher=Government of Manitoba}} There is a significant Franco-Manitoban minority (148,370) and a growing aboriginal population (192,865, including the Métis). Gimli, Manitoba is home to the largest Icelandic community outside of Iceland.{{vcite web|url=https://www.gov.mb.ca/chc/hrb/plaques/plaq0570.html|publisher=Government of Manitoba|accessdate=8 March 2012|title=Icelandic Settlement, Gimli|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110912034544weblink|archivedate=12 September 2011|df=dmy-all}}Most Manitobans belong to a Christian denomination: on the 2001 census, 758,760 Manitobans (68.7%) reported being Christian, followed by 13,040 (1.2%) Jewish, 5,745 (0.5%) Buddhist, 5,485 (0.5%) Sikh, 5,095 (0.5%) Muslim, 3,840 (0.3%) Hindu, 3,415 (0.3%) Aboriginal spirituality and 995 (0.1%) pagan. 201,825 Manitobans (18.3%) reported no religious affiliation. The largest Christian denominations by number of adherents were the Roman Catholic Church with 292,970 (27%); the United Church of Canada with 176,820 (16%); and the Anglican Church of Canada with 85,890 (8%).{{vcite web|url=http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census01/products/highlight/Religion/Page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo=PR&View=1a&Code=46&Table=1&StartRec=1&Sort=2&B1=46&B2=All|title=Religions in Canada|publisher=Statistics Canada|accessdate=28 October 2009|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090909150624weblink|archivedate=9 September 2009|df=dmy-all}}

Economy

{{See also|List of companies of Canada}}Manitoba has a moderately strong economy based largely on natural resources. Its Gross Domestic Product was C$50.834 billion in 2008.{{vcite web|url=http://www40.statcan.ca/l01/cst01/econ15.htm |publisher=Statistics Canada |title=Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory |accessdate=3 March 2010 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080420144936weblink |archivedate=20 April 2008 |df= }} The province's economy grew 2.4 percent in 2008, the third consecutive year of growth; in 2009, it neither increased nor decreased.{{vcite web|url=http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-016-x/2009001/hl-fs-eng.htm#manitoba|title=Highlights by province and territory|date=27 April 2009|publisher=Statistics Canada|accessdate=7 November 2009|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150924120653weblink|archivedate=24 September 2015|df=dmy-all}}{{vcite web|url=http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/13-016-x/13-016-x2010001-eng.htm|title=Provincial and Territorial Economic Accounts Review|date=11 April 2010|publisher=Statistics Canada|accessdate=11 April 2011|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120112143240weblink|archivedate=12 January 2012|df=dmy-all}} The average individual income in Manitoba in 2006 was C$25,100 (compared to a national average of C$26,500), ranking fifth-highest among the provinces.{{vcite web|url=http://www40.statcan.gc.ca/l01/cst01/famil105k-eng.htm |title=Individuals by total income level, by province and territory |date=11 February 2009 |publisher=Statistics Canada |accessdate=7 November 2009 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110115223540weblink |archivedate=15 January 2011 |df= }} As of October 2009, Manitoba's unemployment rate was 5.8 percent.{{vcite web|url=http://www.statcan.gc.ca/subjects-sujets/labour-travail/lfs-epa/lfs-epa-eng.htm|title=Latest release from the Labour Force Survey|date=6 November 2009|publisher=Statistics Canada|accessdate=7 November 2009}}Manitoba's economy relies heavily on agriculture, tourism, energy, oil, mining, and forestry. Agriculture is vital and is found mostly in the southern half of the province, although grain farming occurs as far north as The Pas. Around 12 percent of Canadian farmland is in Manitoba. The most common type of farm found in rural areas is cattle farming (34.6%), followed by assorted grains (19.0%) and oilseed (7.9%).Manitoba is the nation's largest producer of sunflower seed and dry beans,{{vcite web|url=http://www.umanitoba.ca/afs/agric_economics/Century/ACenturyofAgriculture.PDF |title=A Century of Agriculture |publisher=University of Manitoba |accessdate=28 October 2009 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080910211243weblink |archivedate=10 September 2008 |df= }} and one of the leading sources of potatoes. Portage la Prairie is a major potato processing centre, and is home to the McCain Foods and Simplot plants, which provide French fries for McDonald's, Wendy's, and other commercial restaurant chains.{{vcite journal|date=1 July 2002|title=New Simplot french fry plant in Canada expected to come on line later this year|journal=Quick Frozen Foods International|publisher=E.W. Williams Publications, Inc.|volume=2|issue=3|page=3}} Can-Oat Milling, one of the largest oat mills in the world, also has a plant in the municipality.{{vcite journal|date=November 2005|title=A Case Study of the Canadian Oat Market|journal=Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development |page=74|url=http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agc6751/$FILE/OatsStudyNov2005.pdf|accessdate=29 January 2010|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20111102165216weblink$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agc6751/$FILE/OatsStudyNov2005.pdf|archivedate=2 November 2011|df=dmy-all}}Manitoba's largest employers are government and government-funded institutions, including crown corporations and services like hospitals and universities. Major private-sector employers are The Great-West Life Assurance Company, Cargill Ltd., and James Richardson and Sons Ltd.{{vcite journal|date=July 2000|title=Top 100 Companies Survey 2000|journal=Manitoba Business Magazine|publisher=Manitoba Business|volume=26}} Manitoba also has large manufacturing and tourism sectors. Churchill's Arctic wildlife is a major tourist attraction; the town is a world capital for polar bear and beluga whale watchers.{{vcite book|author=Shackley, Myra L|title=Wildlife tourism|publisher=International Thomson Business Press|year=1996|page=xviii|isbn=978-0-415-11539-1}} Manitoba is the only province with an Arctic deep-water seaport, at Churchill.In January 2018, the Canadian Federation of Independent Business claimed that Manitoba was the most improved province for tackling red tape.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2018-02-02, no,weblink 3 February 2018, dmy-all,

Economic history

(File:Red River cart train 2.jpg|thumb|right|alt=A line of wooden carts with wagon wheels pulled by oxen move down a path through a prairie|Red River cart train)Manitoba's early economy depended on mobility and living off the land. Aboriginal Nations (Cree, Ojibwa, Dene, Sioux and Assiniboine) followed herds of bison and congregated to trade among themselves at key meeting places throughout the province. After the arrival of the first European traders in the 17th century, the economy centred on the trade of beaver pelts and other furs.{{vcite book|author=Friesen, Gerald|title=The Canadian prairies: a history|publisher=University of Toronto Press|year=1987|pages=22–47, 66, 183–184|isbn=978-0-8020-6648-0}} Diversification of the economy came when Lord Selkirk brought the first agricultural settlers in 1811,{{vcite journal|author=Morton, William L|date=April 1962|title=Lord Selkirk Settlers|journal=Manitoba Pageant|publisher=Manitoba Historical Society|volume=7|issue=3}} though the triumph of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) over its competitors ensured the primacy of the fur trade over widespread agricultural colonization.HBC control of Rupert's Land ended in 1868; when Manitoba became a province in 1870, all land became the property of the federal government, with homesteads granted to settlers for farming. Transcontinental railways were constructed to simplify trade. Manitoba's economy depended mainly on farming, which persisted until drought and the Great Depression led to further diversification.

Military bases

CFB Winnipeg is a Canadian Forces Base at the Winnipeg International Airport. The base is home to flight operations support divisions and several training schools, as well as the 1 Canadian Air Division and Canadian NORAD Region Headquarters.{{vcite web |url=http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/v2/page-eng.asp?id=24 |title=Organization Overview |publisher=Department of National Defence |accessdate=16 January 2010 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20101205085718weblink |archivedate=5 December 2010 |df=dmy-all }} 17 Wing of the Canadian Forces is based at CFB Winnipeg; the Wing has three squadrons and six schools.{{vcite web |url=http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/17w-17e/page-eng.asp?id=182 |title=17 Wing—General Information |publisher=Department of National Defence |accessdate=22 February 2010 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110611180114weblink |archivedate=11 June 2011 |df=dmy-all }} It supports 113 units from Thunder Bay to the Saskatchewan/Alberta border, and from the 49th parallel north to the high Arctic. 17 Wing acts as a deployed operating base for CF-18 Hornet fighter–bombers assigned to the Canadian NORAD Region.The two 17 Wing squadrons based in the city are: the 402 ("City of Winnipeg" Squadron), which flies the Canadian designed and produced de Havilland Canada CT-142 Dash 8 navigation trainer in support of the 1 Canadian Forces Flight Training School's Air Combat Systems Officer and Airborne Electronic Sensor Operator training programs (which trains all Canadian Air Combat Systems Officer);{{vcite book|author=Pigott, Peter|title=Taming the skies|publisher=Dundurn Press Ltd.|year=2003|page=203|isbn=978-1-55002-469-2}} and the 435 ("Chinthe" Transport and Rescue Squadron), which flies the Lockheed C-130 Hercules tanker/transport in airlift search and rescue roles, and is the only Air Force squadron equipped and trained to conduct air-to-air refuelling of fighter aircraft.Canadian Forces Base Shilo (CFB Shilo) is an Operations and Training base of the Canadian Forces located {{convert|35|km}} east of Brandon. During the 1990s, Canadian Forces Base Shilo was designated as an Area Support Unit, acting as a local base of operations for Southwest Manitoba in times of military and civil emergency.{{vcite web|url=http://www.army.gc.ca/iaol/143000440000579/index-Eng.html|title=CFB ASU Shilo|publisher=Department of National Defence|accessdate=2 April 2012|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120305213128weblink|archivedate=5 March 2012|df=dmy-all}} CFB Shilo is the home of the 1st Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery, both battalions of the 1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group, and the Royal Canadian Artillery. The Second Battalion of Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry (2 PPCLI), which was originally stationed in Winnipeg (first at Fort Osborne, then in Kapyong Barracks), has operated out of CFB Shilo since 2004. CFB Shilo hosts a training unit, 3rd Canadian Division Training Centre. It serves as a base for support units of 3rd Canadian Division, also including 3 CDSG Signals Squadron, Shared Services Unit (West), 11 CF Health Services Centre, 1 Dental Unit, 1 Military Police Regiment, and an Integrated Personnel Support Centre. The base currently houses 1,700 soldiers.

Government and politics

{{See also|Politics of Manitoba|Monarchy in Manitoba}}File:Parliamentwinnipeg manitoba.jpg|thumb|left|alt=A large concrete building with Classical-style columns and a green dome topped by a golden statue|The Manitoba Legislative Building, meeting place of the Legislative Assembly of ManitobaLegislative Assembly of ManitobaAfter the control of Rupert's Land was passed from Great Britain to the Government of Canada in 1869, Manitoba attained full-fledged rights and responsibilities of self-government as the first Canadian province carved out of the Northwest Territories.{{vcite book|author=Dupont, Jerry|title=The Common Law Abroad: Constitutional and Legal Legacy of the British Empire|publisher=Fred B Rothman & Co|year=2000|pages=139–142|isbn=978-0-8377-3125-4}} The Legislative Assembly of Manitoba was established on 14 July 1870. Political parties first emerged between 1878 and 1883, with a two-party system (Liberals and Conservatives).{{vcite journal|author=Adams, Chris|date=17 September 2006|title= Manitoba's Political Party Systems: An Historical Overview|journal=Annual Meeting of the Canadian Political Science Association|publisher=York University|pages=2–23}} The United Farmers of Manitoba appeared in 1922, and later merged with the Liberals in 1932. Other parties, including the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF), appeared during the Great Depression; in the 1950s, Manitoban politics became a three-party system, and the Liberals gradually declined in power. The CCF became the New Democratic Party of Manitoba (NDP), which came to power in 1969. Since then, the Progressive Conservatives and the NDP have been the dominant parties.Like all Canadian provinces, Manitoba is governed by a unicameral legislative assembly.{{vcite book|author=Summers, Harrison Boyd|title=Unicameral Legislatures|publisher=Wilson|year=1936|volume=11|page=9|oclc=1036784}} The executive branch is formed by the governing party; the party leader is the premier of Manitoba, the head of the executive branch. The head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, is represented by the Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba, who is appointed by the Governor General of Canada on advice of the Prime Minister.{{vcite web|url=http://www.lg.gov.mb.ca/role/resp.html|title=Roles and Responsibilities|publisher=Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba|accessdate=29 October 2009|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20091113194312weblink|archivedate=13 November 2009|df=dmy-all}} The head of state is primarily a ceremonial role, although the Lieutenant Governor has the official responsibility of ensuring that Manitoba has a duly constituted government.The Legislative Assembly consists of the 57 Members elected to represent the people of Manitoba.{{vcite book|author=Hogg, Peter W|title=The Role of Courts in Society|editor=Shetreet, Shimon|publisher=Aspen Publishing|year=1988|page=9|chapter=Necessity in Manitoba: The Role of Courts in Formative or Crisis Periods|isbn=978-90-247-3670-6}} The premier of Manitoba is Brian Pallister of the PC Party. The PCs were elected with a majority government of 40 seats.{{vcite web|url=http://www.electionsmanitoba.ca/en/Results/general_election_41_static.html|title=41st General Election|publisher=Elections Manitoba|accessdate=29 October 2009}}{{dead link|date=September 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}{{vcite web|url=http://electionsmanitoba.ca/election/results/flashresults.asp |title=40th Provincial Election |accessdate=8 March 2012 |publisher=Elections Manitoba |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120425050150weblink |archivedate=25 April 2012 |df= }} The NDP holds 14 seats, and the Liberal Party have three seats but does not have official party status in the Manitoba Legislature.{{vcite web|url=http://globalnews.ca/news/1127690/watch-live-premier-addresses-former-cabinet-ministers-allegations/|accessdate=5 March 2014|title=Manitoba premier kicks renegade MLA from caucus|author=Megan Batchelor and Peter Chura|date=4 February 2014|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140305105513weblink|archivedate=5 March 2014|df=dmy-all}} The last provincial general election was held on 19 April 2016. The province is represented in federal politics by 14 Members of Parliament and six Senators.{{vcite web|url=http://webinfo.parl.gc.ca/MembersOfParliament/MainMPsCompleteList.aspx?TimePeriod=Current&Language=E|title=Members of Parliament|publisher=Government of Canada|accessdate=12 November 2009|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110424171818weblink|archivedate=24 April 2011|df=dmy-all}}{{vcite web|url=http://www.parl.gc.ca/common/senmemb/senate/isenator.asp?Language=E|title=Senators|publisher=Government of Canada|accessdate=12 November 2009|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100224073149weblink|archivedate=24 February 2010|df=dmy-all}}Manitoba's judiciary consists of the Court of Appeal, the Court of Queen's Bench, and the Provincial Court. The Provincial Court is primarily for criminal law; 95 percent of criminal cases in Manitoba are heard here.{{vcite web|url=http://www.manitobacourts.mb.ca/pr/pr_work.html|title=Provincial Court â€“ Description of the Court's Work|date=21 September 2006|publisher=Manitoba Courts|accessdate=9 November 2009|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090422060626weblink|archivedate=22 April 2009|df=dmy-all}} The Court of Queen's Bench is the highest trial court in the province. It has four jurisdictions: family law (child and family services cases), civil law, criminal law (for indictable offences), and appeals. The Court of Appeal hears appeals from both benches; its decisions can only be appealed to the Supreme Court of Canada.{{vcite book|author=Brawn, Dale|title=The Court of Queen's Bench of Manitoba, 1870–1950: A Biographical History|publisher=University of Toronto Press |year=2006|pages=16–20|isbn=978-0-8020-9225-0}}

Official languages

English and French are the official languages of the legislature and courts of Manitoba, according to §23 of the Manitoba Act, 1870 (part of the Constitution of Canada). In April 1890, the Manitoba legislature attempted to abolish the official status of French, and ceased to publish bilingual legislation. However, in 1985 the Supreme Court of Canada ruled in the Reference re Manitoba Language Rights that §23 still applied, and that legislation published only in English was invalid (unilingual legislation was declared valid for a temporary period to allow time for translation).{{vcite book|author=Hebert, Raymond M|title=Manitoba's French-Language Crisis: A Cautionary Tale|publisher=McGill-Queen's University Press|year=2005|pages=xiv–xvi, 11–12, 30, 67–69|isbn=978-0-7735-2790-4}}Although French is an official language for the purposes of the legislature, legislation, and the courts, the Manitoba Act does not require it to be an official language for the purpose of the executive branch (except when performing legislative or judicial functions).In [1992] 1 S.C.R. 221–222 scc-csc.lexum.com {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140520003655weblink |date=20 May 2014 }}, the Supreme Court rejected the contentions of the Société Franco-manitobaine that §23 extends to executive functions of the executive branch. Hence, Manitoba's government is not completely bilingual. The Manitoba French Language Services Policy of 1999 is intended to provide a comparable level of provincial government services in both official languages.{{vcite web|url=https://www.gov.mb.ca/fls-slf/pdf/fls_policy.pdf|title=Manitoba Francophone Affairs Secretariat|publisher=Government of Manitoba|accessdate=29 October 2009|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100524231502weblink|archivedate=24 May 2010|df=dmy-all}} According to the 2006 Census, 82.8 percent of Manitoba's population spoke only English, 3.2 percent spoke only French, 15.1 percent spoke both, and 0.9 percent spoke neither.{{vcite web|url=http://www40.statcan.gc.ca/l01/cst01/demo15-eng.htm |title=Population by knowledge of official language, by province and territory (2006 Census) |date=11 December 2007 |publisher=Statistics Canada |accessdate=8 March 2010 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110115061228weblink |archivedate=15 January 2011 |df= }}In 2010, the provincial government of Manitoba passed the Aboriginal Languages Recognition Act, which gives official recognition to seven indigenous languages: Cree, Dakota, Dene, Inuktitut, Michif, Ojibway and Oji-Cree.{{vcite web |url=http://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/a001-5e.php |title=The Aboriginal Languages Recognition Act |publisher=Web2.gov.mb.ca |date=17 June 2010 |accessdate=31 March 2013 |deadurl=no |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130411062204weblink |archivedate=11 April 2013 |df=dmy-all }}

Transportation

{{See also|List of bridges in Canada|List of Manitoba provincial highways}}File:Union Station Winnipeg.jpg|thumb|Union Station (Winnipeg)Union Station (Winnipeg)Transportation and warehousing contribute approximately {{Nowrap|C$2.2 billion}} to Manitoba's GDP. Total employment in the industry is estimated at 34,500, or around 5 percent of Manitoba's population.{{vcite web|url=https://www.gov.mb.ca/ctt/profiles/trans1/index.html|title=Employment|publisher=Government of Manitoba|accessdate=28 October 2009|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090908092806weblink|archivedate=8 September 2009|df=dmy-all}} Trucks haul 95 percent of land freight in Manitoba, and trucking companies account for 80 percent of Manitoba's merchandise trade to the United States.{{vcite web|url=https://www.gov.mb.ca/ctt/profiles/trans1/index.html|title=Transportation & Logistics|publisher=Government of Manitoba|accessdate=28 October 2009|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090908092806weblink|archivedate=8 September 2009|df=dmy-all}} Five of Canada's twenty-five largest employers in for-hire trucking are headquartered in Manitoba. {{Nowrap|C$1.18 billion}} of Manitoba's GDP comes directly or indirectly from trucking.Greyhound Canada and Grey Goose Bus Lines offer domestic bus service from the Winnipeg Bus Terminal. The terminal was relocated from downtown Winnipeg to the airport in 2009, and is a Greyhound hub.{{vcite web|url=http://www.cbc.ca/canada/manitoba/story/2009/08/14/manitoba-bus-depot.html|title=Winnipeg bus depot to move after 45 years downtown|date=14 August 2009|publisher=CBC News|accessdate=31 January 2010|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20091130215859weblink|archivedate=30 November 2009|df=dmy-all}} Municipalities also operate localized transit bus systems.Manitoba has two Class I railways: Canadian National Railway (CN) and Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR). Winnipeg is centrally located on the main lines of both carriers, and both maintain large inter-modal terminals in the city. CN and CPR operate a combined {{convert|2439|km}} of track in Manitoba. Via Rail offers transcontinental and Northern Manitoba passenger service from Winnipeg's Union Station. Numerous small regional and short-line railways also run trains within Manitoba: the Hudson Bay Railway, the Southern Manitoba Railway, Burlington Northern Santa Fe Manitoba, Greater Winnipeg Water District Railway, and Central Manitoba Railway. Together, these smaller lines operate approximately {{convert|1775|km}} of track in the province.File:Churchill Seaport 1996-08-12.jpg|thumb|left|alt=An industrial seaport sits on the coast of a large body of water|The Port of Churchill ]]Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport, Manitoba's largest airport, is one of only a few 24-hour unrestricted airports in Canada and is part of the National Airports System.{{vcite web|url=https://www.gov.mb.ca/ctt/invest/busfacts/transport/wiairport.html|title=Transportation: Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport|publisher=Government of Manitoba|accessdate=28 October 2009|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090527213850weblink|archivedate=27 May 2009|df=dmy-all}} A new, larger terminal opened in October 2011.{{vcite web|url=http://www.waa.ca/media/news/read,article/619/winnipeg-airports-authority-officially-opens-community-s-new-front-door|publisher=Winnipeg Airports Authority|accessdate=9 March 2012|title=Winnipeg Airports Authority Officially Opens Community's New Front Door|date=31 October 2011|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20111211023311weblink|archivedate=11 December 2011|df=dmy-all}} The airport handles approximately {{convert|195000|t|lb}} of cargo annually, making it the third largest cargo airport in the country.Eleven regional passenger airlines and nine smaller and charter carriers operate out of the airport, as well as eleven air cargo carriers and seven freight forwarders. Winnipeg is a major sorting facility for both FedEx and Purolator, and receives daily trans-border service from UPS. Air Canada Cargo and Cargojet Airways use the airport as a major hub for national traffic.The Port of Churchill, owned by OmniTRAX, is the only Arctic deep-water port in Canada. It is nautically closer to ports in Northern Europe and Russia than any other port in Canada.{{vcite web|url=http://www.portofchurchill.ca/|title=Port of Churchill|publisher=Hudson Bay Port Company|accessdate=28 October 2009|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090926203126weblink|archivedate=26 September 2009|df=dmy-all}} It has four deep-sea berths for the loading and unloading of grain, general cargo and tanker vessels. The port is served by the Hudson Bay Railway (also owned by OmniTRAX). Grain represented 90 percent of the port's traffic in the 2004 shipping season. In that year, over {{convert|600000|t|lb}} of agricultural products were shipped through the port.{{Clear}}

Education

{{See also|Higher education in Manitoba|Manitoba Public Schools Act}}The first school in Manitoba was founded in 1818 by Roman Catholic missionaries in present-day Winnipeg; the first Protestant school was established in 1820.{{vcite book|author=Badertscher, John M|author2=Harland, Gordon; Miller, Roland E|title=Religious Studies in Manitoba and Saskatchewan|publisher=Wilfrid Laurier University Press|year=1993|page=8|isbn=978-0-88920-223-8}} A provincial board of education was established in 1871; it was responsible for public schools and curriculum, and represented both Catholics and Protestants. The Manitoba Schools Question led to funding for French Catholic schools largely being withdrawn in favour of the English Protestant majority.{{vcite journal|author=Bale, Gordon|year=1985|title=Law, Politics, and the Manitoba School Question: Supreme Court and Privy Council|journal=Canadian Bar Review|publisher=Canadian Bar Association|volume=63|issue=461|pages=467–473}} Legislation making education compulsory for children between seven and fourteen was first enacted in 1916, and the leaving age was raised to sixteen in 1962.{{vcite journal|author=Oreopoulos, Philip|date=May 2003|title=Oreopoulos|journal=Conference on Education, Schooling and The Labour Market|publisher=Canadian Employment Research Forum|page=9}}Public schools in Manitoba fall under the regulation of one of thirty-seven school divisions within the provincial education system (except for the Manitoba Band Operated Schools, which are administered by the federal government).{{vcite book|author=Hajnal, Vivian J|title=Saving America's School Infrastructure|editor=Crampton, Faith E; Thompson, David C|publisher=Information Age Publishing|year=2003|pages=57–58|chapter=Canadian Approaches to the Financing of School Infrastructure|isbn=978-1-931576-17-8}} Public schools follow a provincially mandated curriculum in either French or English. There are sixty-five funded independent schools in Manitoba, including three boarding schools.{{vcite web|url=http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/schools/ind/funded_ind.html|title=Funded Independent Schools|publisher=Government of Manitoba|accessdate=12 November 2009|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20091206110211weblink|archivedate=6 December 2009|df=dmy-all}} These schools must follow the Manitoban curriculum and meet other provincial requirements. There are forty-four non-funded independent schools, which are not required to meet those standards.{{vcite web|url=http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/schools/ind/non_fund_ind.html|title=Non-Funded Independent Schools|publisher=Government of Manitoba|accessdate=12 November 2009|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20091206115302weblink|archivedate=6 December 2009|df=dmy-all}}There are five universities in Manitoba, regulated by the Ministry of Advanced Education and Literacy.{{vcite web|accessdate=8 October 2008 |url=http://www.aucc.ca/can_uni/our_universities/index_e.html |title=Canadian Universities |publisher=Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20081031233354weblink |archivedate=31 October 2008 |df= }} Four of these universities are in Winnipeg: the University of Manitoba, the largest and most comprehensive; the University of Winnipeg, a liberal arts school primarily focused on undergrad studies located downtown; Université de Saint-Boniface, the province's only French-language university; and the Canadian Mennonite University, a religious-based institution. The Université de Saint-Boniface, established in 1818 and now affiliated with the University of Manitoba, is the oldest university in Western Canada. Brandon University, formed in 1899 and located in Brandon, is the province's only university not in Winnipeg.{{vcite web|url=http://www.aucc.ca/_pdf/english/aboutaucc/joinaucc_e.pdf|title=Founding Year and Joining Year of AUCC Member Institutions|date=2 November 2009|publisher=AUCC|accessdate=2 February 2010|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110807100142weblink|archivedate=7 August 2011|df=dmy-all}}Manitoba has thirty-eight public libraries; of these, twelve have French-language collections and eight have significant collections in other languages.{{vcite web|url=http://www.umanitoba.ca/libraries/engineering/mla/libdir.html|title=Directory of libraries in Manitoba|publisher=Manitoba Library Association|accessdate=29 October 2009|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090601203131weblink|archivedate=1 June 2009|df=dmy-all}} Twenty-one of these are part of the Winnipeg Public Library system. The first lending library in Manitoba was founded in 1848.{{vcite book|title=Winnipeg Public Library: A Capsule History|publisher=Winnipeg Public Library|year=1988}}

Culture

Arts

File:Wpgconcerthall.jpg|thumb|Centennial Concert HallCentennial Concert HallManitoba's culture has been influenced by traditional (Aboriginal and Métis) and modern Canadian artistic values, as well as by the cultures of its immigrant populations and American neighbours. The Minister of Culture, Heritage, Tourism and Sport is responsible for promoting and, to some extent, financing Manitoban culture.{{vcite web|url=https://www.gov.mb.ca/chc/ourdept/index.html|title=Culture, Heritage and Tourism|publisher=Government of Manitoba|accessdate=11 April 2011|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110427070113weblink|archivedate=27 April 2011|df=dmy-all}} Manitoba is the birthplace of the Red River Jig, a combination of aboriginal pow-wows and European reels popular among early settlers.{{vcite journal|author=Bolton, David|date=September 1961|title=The Red River Jig|journal=Manitoba Pageant|publisher=Manitoba Historical Society|volume=7|issue=1}} Manitoba's traditional music has strong roots in Métis and Aboriginal culture, in particular the old-time fiddling of the Métis.{{vcite journal|author=Lederman, Anne|year=1988|title=Old Indian and Metis Fiddling in Manitoba: Origins, Structure, and Questions of Syncretism|journal=The Canadian Journal of Native Studies|volume=7|issue=2|pages=205–230}} Manitoba's cultural scene also incorporates classical European traditions. The Winnipeg-based Royal Winnipeg Ballet (RWB), is Canada's oldest ballet and North America's longest continuously operating ballet company; it was granted its royal title in 1953 under Queen Elizabeth II.{{vcite book|author=Dafoe, Christopher|title=Dancing through time: the first fifty years of Canada's Royal Winnipeg Ballet|publisher=Portage & Main Press|year=1990|pages=4, 10, 154|isbn=978-0-9694264-0-0}} The Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra (WSO) performs classical music and new compositions at the Centennial Concert Hall.{{vcite web|url=http://www.wso.mb.ca/history.asp|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080504203455weblink|archivedate=4 May 2008|title=More About the WSO|year=2008|publisher=Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra|accessdate=23 February 2010}} Manitoba Opera, founded in 1969, also performs out of the Centennial Concert Hall.File:MLHome.jpg|thumb|Author Margaret LaurenceMargaret LaurenceLe Cercle Molière (founded 1925) is the oldest French-language theatre in Canada,{{vcite journal|author=Moss, Jane|date=Spring 2004|title=The Drama of Identity in Canada's Francophone West|journal=American Review of Canadian Studies|publisher=Routledge|volume=34|issue=1|pages=82–83|issn=0272-2011|doi=10.1080/02722010409481686}} and Royal Manitoba Theatre Centre (founded 1958) is Canada's oldest English-language regional theatre.{{vcite journal|author=Hendry, Thomas B|date=Autumn 1965|title=Trends in Canadian Theatre|journal=The Tulane Drama Review|publisher=MIT Press|volume=10|issue=1|page=65}} Manitoba Theatre for Young People was the first English-language theatre to win the Canadian Institute of the Arts for Young Audiences Award, and offers plays for children and teenagers as well as a theatre school.{{vcite web|url=http://www.mtyp.ca/about-mtyp.cfm|title=About Us|publisher=Manitoba Theatre for Young People|accessdate=11 April 2011|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110706190335weblink|archivedate=6 July 2011|df=dmy-all}} The Winnipeg Art Gallery (WAG), Manitoba's largest art gallery and the sixth largest in the country, hosts an art school for children; the WAG's permanent collection comprises over twenty thousand works, with a particular emphasis on Manitoban and Canadian art.{{vcite web|url=http://www.umanitoba.ca/schools/art/gallery/hpgs/wag/ |title=Winnipeg Art Gallery |publisher=University of Manitoba |accessdate=8 November 2009 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20091022224230weblink |archivedate=22 October 2009 |df= }}{{vcite web|url=http://wag.ca/about/history|title=History|year=2009|publisher=Winnipeg Art Gallery|accessdate=8 November 2009|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20091025103850weblink|archivedate=25 October 2009|df=dmy-all}}The 1960s pop group The Guess Who was formed in Manitoba, and later became the first Canadian band to have a No. 1 hit in the United States;{{vcite journal|author=Elliott, Robin|date=December 1998|title=Before the Gold Rush: Flashbacks to the Dawn of the Canadian Sound|journal=CAML Review|publisher=Canadian Association of Music Libraries, Archives, and Documentation Centres|volume=26|issue=3|pages=26–27}} Guess Who guitarist Randy Bachman later created Bachman–Turner Overdrive (BTO) with fellow Winnipeg-based musician Fred Turner.{{vcite book|author=Melhuish, Martin|title=Bachman-Turner Overdrive: Rock Is My Life, This Is My Song|publisher=Methuen Publications|year=1976|page=74|isbn=978-0-8467-0104-0}} Fellow rocker Neil Young, lived for a time in Manitoba, played with Stephen Stills in Buffalo Springfield, and again in supergroup Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young.{{vcite web|url=http://www.rockhall.com/inductees/neil-young|title=Neil Young|year=2007|publisher=The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, Inc.|accessdate=23 February 2010|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100329002745weblink|archivedate=29 March 2010|df=dmy-all}} Soft-rock band Crash Test Dummies formed in the late 1980s in Winnipeg and were the 1992 Juno Awards Group of the Year.{{vcite book|author=Bianco, David P|title=Parents aren't supposed to like it|publisher=U*X*L|year=2001|edition=2nd|volume=1|page=42|isbn=978-0-7876-1732-5}}Several prominent Canadian films were produced in Manitoba, such as The Stone Angel, based on the Margaret Laurence book of the same title, The Saddest Music in the World, Foodland, For Angela, and My Winnipeg. Major films shot in Manitoba include The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford and Capote,{{vcite web|url=http://www.mbfilmmusic.ca/Film/WhosFilmedHere/tabid/73/language/en-US/Default.aspx|title=Who's filmed here?|publisher=Manitoba Film & Music|accessdate=11 November 2009|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20091214150627weblink|archivedate=14 December 2009|df=dmy-all}} both of which received Academy Award nominations.{{vcite web|url=http://old.oscars.org/press/presskit/nomannc/pdf/03_80th_fact_sheet.pdf|title=80th Annual Academy Awards Oscar Nominations Fact Sheet|publisher=Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences|accessdate=11 November 2009|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://www.webcitation.org/5lKGcKIcw?url=http://old.oscars.org/press/presskit/nomannc/pdf/03_80th_fact_sheet.pdf|archivedate=16 November 2009|df=dmy-all}} Falcon Beach, an internationally broadcast television drama, was filmed at Winnipeg Beach, Manitoba.{{vcite news|url=http://falconbeach.ca/index.aspx?go=/pr_060621.aspx|title=Falcon Beach filming again in Manitoba|author=St. Germain, Pat|date=21 June 2006|publisher=Winnipeg Sun|accessdate=11 November 2009|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110706180330weblink|archivedate=6 July 2011|df=dmy-all}}Manitoba has a strong literary tradition. Manitoban writer Bertram Brooker won the first-ever Governor General's Award for Fiction in 1936.{{vcite web|url=http://www.canadacouncil.ca/NR/rdonlyres/CCA1B1A6-59E5-4748-BFEE-B64313E92624/0/CumulativeWinners2008.pdf|title=Cumulative List of Winners of the Governor General's Literary Awards|year=2008|publisher=Canada Council for the Arts|accessdate=11 November 2009|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20111102194218weblink|archivedate=2 November 2011|df=dmy-all}} Cartoonist Lynn Johnston, author of the comic strip For Better or For Worse, was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize and inducted into the Canadian Cartoonist Hall of Fame.{{vcite web |url=http://www.editorandpublisher.com/eandp/search/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1003835602 |title=Lynn Johnston to Enter Canadian Cartoonists' Hall of Fame on Friday |author=Astor, Dave |editor= Publisher|date=6 August 2008 |accessdate=5 September 2008|archiveurl=http://able2know.org/topic/120511-1|archivedate=6 August 2008}} Margaret Laurence's The Stone Angel and A Jest of God were set in Manawaka, a fictional town representing Neepawa; the latter title won the Governor General's Award in 1966.{{vcite book|author=Rosenthal, Caroline|title=The Canadian Short Story: Interpretations|editor=Reingard M. Nischik|editor-link=Reingard M. Nischik|publisher=Camden House|year=2007|page=219|chapter=Collective Memory and Personal Identity in the Prairie town of Manawaka|isbn=978-1-57113-127-0}} Carol Shields won both the Governor General's Award and the Pulitzer Prize for The Stone Diaries''.{{vcite book|author=Werlock, Abby|title=Carol Shields's the Stone Diaries|publisher=Continuum|year=2001|page=69|isbn=978-0-8264-5249-8}} Gabrielle Roy, a Franco-Manitoban writer, won the Governor General's Award three times. A quote from her writings is featured on the Canadian $20 bill.{{vcite web|url=http://www.bankofcanada.ca/banknotes/bank-note-series/canadian-journey/gabrielle-roy-canadian-author-of-the-quotation-on-the-back-of-the-new-20-note/|title=Gabrielle Roy, Canadian author of the quotation on the back of the new $20 note|publisher=Bank of Canada|accessdate=2 April 2012|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20121025084642weblink|archivedate=25 October 2012|df=dmy-all}}

Festivals

{{See also|Category:Festivals in Manitoba|List of music festivals in Canada#Manitoba}}File:Apple and Corn Festival Morden Manitoba Canada (4).JPG|thumb|upright|The Morden Corn and Apple Festival]]Festivals take place throughout the province, with the largest centred in Winnipeg. The inaugural Winnipeg Folk Festival was held in 1974 as a one-time celebration to mark Winnipeg's 100th anniversary. Today, the five-day festival is one of the largest folk festivals in North America with over 70 acts from around the world and an annual attendance that exceeds 80,000. The Winnipeg Folk Festival's home â€“ Birds Hill Provincial Park â€“ is located 34 kilometres outside of Winnipeg and for the five days of the festival, it becomes Manitoba's third largest "city." The Festival du Voyageur is an annual ten-day event held in Winnipeg's French Quarter, and is Western Canada's largest winter festival. It celebrates Canada's fur-trading past and French-Canadian heritage and culture. Folklorama, a multicultural festival run by the Folk Arts Council, receives around 400,000 pavilion visits each year, of which about thirty percent are from non-Winnipeg residents.{{vcite book|author=Selwood, John|title=Food Tourism Around The World: Development, Management and Markets|editor=Hall, C Michael; Sharples, Liz; Mitchell, Richard; Macionis, Niki; Cambourne, Brock|publisher=Butterworth-Heinemann|year=2003|pages=180–182|chapter=The lure of food: food as an attraction in destination marketing in Manitoba, Canada|isbn=978-0-7506-5503-3}}{{vcite web|url=http://www.folklorama.ca/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=55&Itemid=53 |title=FAQs |publisher=Folklorama |accessdate=11 November 2009 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100811070804weblink |archivedate=11 August 2010 |df= }} The Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival is an annual alternative theatre festival, the second-largest festival of its kind in North America (after the Edmonton International Fringe Festival).{{vcite journal|author=Woosnam, Kyle M; McElroy, Kerry E; Van Winkle, Christine M|date=July 2009|title=The Role of Personal Values in Determining Tourist Motivations: An Application to the Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival, a Cultural Special Event |journal=Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management|publisher=Routledge|volume=18|issue=5|pages=500–502|doi=10.1080/19368620902950071}}

Museums

Manitoban museums document different aspects of the province's heritage. The Manitoba Museum is the largest museum in Manitoba and focuses on Manitoban history from prehistory to the 1920s.{{vcite book|author=Dutton, Lee S|title=Anthropological Resources: A Guide to Archival, Library, and Museum Collections|publisher=Routledge|year=1999|pages=6–9|isbn=978-0-8153-1188-1}} The full-size replica of the Nonsuch is the museum's showcase piece.{{vcite journal|author=Barbour, Alex; Collins, Cathy; Grattan, David|year=1986|title=Monitoring the Nonsuch|journal=LIC-CG Annual Conference|publisher=International Institute for Conservation â€“ Canada Group|location=Ottawa|volume=12|pages=19–21}} The Manitoba Children's Museum at The Forks presents exhibits for children.{{vcite web|url=http://childrensmuseum.com/capital_campaign/about-us/|title=About MCM|publisher=Manitoba Children's Museum|accessdate=11 November 2009|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20101002055202weblink|archivedate=2 October 2010|df=dmy-all}} There are two museums dedicated to the native flora and fauna of Manitoba: the Living Prairie Museum, a tall grass prairie preserve featuring 160 species of grasses and wildflowers, and FortWhyte Alive, a park encompassing prairie, lake, forest and wetland habitats, home to a large herd of bison.{{vcite journal|author=Stewart, Jane|date=April 1986|title=Winnipeg: a big city with the heart of a small town|journal=Canadian Medical Association Journal|publisher=Canadian Medical Association|volume=134|issue=7|page=810}} The Canadian Fossil Discovery Centre houses the largest collection of marine reptile fossils in Canada.{{vcite book|author=Janzic, A; Hatcher, J|title=Late Cretaceous Marine Reptile Fossils of the Canadian Fossil Discovery Centre|publisher=Mount Royal College|year=2008|series=Alberta Palaeontological Society, Twelfth Annual Symposium|volume=Abstracts Volume|page=28}} Other museums feature the history of aviation, marine transport, and railways in the area. The Canadian Museum for Human Rights is the first Canadian national museum outside of the National Capital Region.{{vcite web|url=http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/canadian-museum-for-human-rights/|work=The Canadian Encyclopedia|title=Canadian Museum for Human Rights|author=Bingham, Russell; Baird, Daniel|date=26 March 2015|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20161104205551weblink|archivedate=4 November 2016|df=dmy-all}}

Media

{{see also|Media in Winnipeg}}Winnipeg has two daily newspapers: the Winnipeg Free Press, a broadsheet with the highest circulation numbers in Manitoba, as well as the Winnipeg Sun, a smaller tabloid-style paper. There are several ethnic weekly newspapers,{{vcite web|url=http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/8/16/r16-205-e.html |title=Canadian Ethnic Newspapers Currently Received |publisher=Collections Canada |accessdate=17 July 2009 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080107093413weblink |archivedate=7 January 2008 |df= }} including the weekly French-language La Liberté, and regional and national magazines based in the city. Brandon has two newspapers: the daily Brandon Sun and the weekly Wheat City Journal.{{vcite web|url=http://www.econdev.brandon.mb.ca/main.nsf/Pages+By+ID/666|title=Local Media|publisher=Economic Development Brandon|accessdate=11 November 2009|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100104193747weblink|archivedate=4 January 2010|df=dmy-all}} Many small towns have local newspapers.{{vcite web|url=https://www.gov.mb.ca/chc/leg-lib/newspapers.html|title=Current Newspapers at the Library|publisher=Legislative Library|accessdate=23 February 2010|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20100811225332weblink|archivedate=11 August 2010|df=dmy-all}}There are five English-language television stations and one French-language station based in Winnipeg. The Global Television Network (owned by Canwest) is headquartered in the city.{{vcite book|author=Carlin, Vincent A|title=How Canadians communicate|editor=Frits Pannekoek, David Taras, Maria Bakardjieva|publisher=University of Calgary Press|year=2003|volume=1|pages=59–60|chapter=No Clear Channel: The Rise and Possible Fall of Media Convergence|isbn=978-1-55238-104-5}} Winnipeg is home to twenty-one AM and FM radio stations, two of which are French-language stations. Brandon's five local radio stations are provided by Astral Media and Westman Communications Group.{{vcite web|url=http://www.winnipegradio.ca/|title=Winnipeg Radio|year=2008|publisher=Fresh Traffic Group|accessdate=11 November 2009|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20090420212946weblink|archivedate=20 April 2009|df=dmy-all}} In addition to the Brandon and Winnipeg stations, radio service is provided in rural areas and smaller towns by Golden West Broadcasting, Corus Entertainment, and local broadcasters. CBC Radio broadcasts local and national programming throughout the province.{{vcite journal|author=Smith, John H|year=1969|title=The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation|journal=International Communication Gazette|publisher=Sage Publications|volume=15|pages=139–143|doi=10.1177/001654926901500205}} Native Communications is devoted to Aboriginal programming and broadcasts to many of the isolated native communities as well as to larger cities.{{vcite journal|author=Buddle, Kathleen|year=2005|title=Aboriginal Cultural Capital Creation and Radio Production in Urban Ontario|journal=Canadian Journal of Communication|publisher=Canadian Journal of Communication Corporation|volume=30|issue=1|pages=29–30}}File:Winnipeg Jets first home victory celebration.jpg|thumb|The Winnipeg JetsWinnipeg Jets

Sports

Manitoba has four professional sports teams: the Winnipeg Blue Bombers (Canadian Football League), the Winnipeg Jets (National Hockey League), the Manitoba Moose (American Hockey League), and the Winnipeg Goldeyes (American Association). The province was previously home to another team called the Winnipeg Jets, which played in the World Hockey Association and National Hockey League from 1972 until 1996, when financial troubles prompted a sale and move of the team, renamed the Phoenix Coyotes.{{vcite news |title=Latest Example of an NHL Trend Is the Flight of the Winnipeg Jets |publisher=The Wall Street Journal |url=https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB830488243239275000?mod=googlewsj |author=Helyar, John |date=26 April 1996 |accessdate=22 May 2009 |deadurl=no |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20171010214721weblink |archivedate=10 October 2017 |df=dmy-all }} A second incarnation of the Winnipeg Jets returned, after True North Sports & Entertainment bought the Atlanta Thrashers and moved the team to Winnipeg in time for the 2011 hockey season.{{vcite news|url=http://sports.nationalpost.com/2011/06/24/its-official-the-winnipeg-jets-are-back/|title=It's official: the Winnipeg Jets are back|author=Traikos, Michael|publisher=National Post|date=24 June 2011|accessdate=8 March 2012|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://archive.is/20120715040234weblink|archivedate=15 July 2012|df=dmy-all}} Manitoba has one major junior-level hockey team, the Western Hockey League's Brandon Wheat Kings, and one junior football team, the Winnipeg Rifles of the Canadian Junior Football League.The province is represented in university athletics by the University of Manitoba Bisons, the University of Winnipeg Wesmen, and the Brandon University Bobcats. All three teams compete in the Canada West Universities Athletic Association, a regional division of U Sports.{{vcite web|url=http://www.canadawest.org/sports/2010/8/9/About-CW.aspx?|title=About Canada West|year=2006|publisher=Canada West Universities Athletic Association|accessdate=11 April 2011|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110425232906weblink|archivedate=25 April 2011|df=dmy-all}}Curling is an important winter sport in the province with Manitoba producing more men's national champions than any other province, while additionally in the top 3 women's national champions, as well as multiple world champions in the sport. The province also hosts the world's largest curling tournament in the MCA Bonspiel.{{vcite news |title=World's biggest bonspiel open to women curlers in 2014 |url=http://www.winnipegfreepress.com/breakingnews/Worlds-biggest-bonspiel-open-to-women-curlers-in-2014-172702291.html |publisher=Winnipeg Free Press |date=10 April 2012 |accessdate=2 December 2012 |deadurl=no |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20121214102745weblink |archivedate=14 December 2012 |df=dmy-all }} The province is regular host to Grand Slam events which feature as the largest cash events in the sport such as the annual Manitoba Lotteries Women's Curling Classic as well as other rotating events.Though not as prominent as hockey and curling, long track speed skating also features as a notable and top winter sport in Manitoba. The province has produced some of the world's best female speed skaters including Susan Auch and the country's top Olympic medal earners Cindy Klassen and Clara Hughes.{{vcite news |title=Canadian Athletes: The Greatest Athletes Canada Has Ever Produced |url=http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2012/11/22/canada-greatest-athletes_n_2175537.html#slide=more240920 |publisher=Huffington Post Canada |date=22 November 2012 |deadurl=no |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130216061835weblink |archivedate=16 February 2013 |df=dmy-all }}

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • {{vcite book|author=Donnelly, MS|title=The Government of Manitoba|publisher=University of Toronto Press|year=1963}}
  • {{vcite book|author=Hanlon, Christine; Edie, Barbara; Pendgracs, Doreen|title=Manitoba Book of Everything|publisher=MacIntyre Purcell Publishing Inc.|year=2008|isbn=978-0-9784784-5-2}}
  • {{vcite book|author=Whitcomb, Ed|title=A Short History of Manitoba|publisher=Canada's Wings|year=1982|isbn=978-0-920002-15-5}}

External links

{{Sister project links|voy=Manitoba|collapsible=collapsed}} {{Manitoba|regions=yes|census=yes|rural=yes}}{{Provinces and territories of Canada}}{{Canada topics}}{{Coord|55|N|097|W|type:adm1st_scale:10000000_region:CA-MB|display=title}}{{featured article}}{{Authority control}}

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