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Manifesto
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{{split|List of manifestos|date=July 2018}}{{Other uses}}{{prose|date=January 2015}}{{Use mdy dates|date=August 2014}}A manifesto is a published verbal declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of the issuer, be it an individual, group, political party or government.Merriam-Webster online dictionary definition of Manifesto.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2013-09-14, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130912054800weblink">weblink September 12, 2013, mdy-all, {{de icon}}, article on "Wahlprogramm", literally "election programme".Dictionary.com definition of Manifesto.David Robertson, The Routledge Dictionary of Politics,Edition 3, Psychology Press, 1890 p. 295, {{ISBN|0415323770}}, 9780415323772 A manifesto usually accepts a previously published opinion or public consensus or promotes a new idea with prescriptive notions for carrying out changes the author believes should be made. It often is political or artistic in nature, but may present an individual's life stance. Manifestos relating to religious belief are generally referred to as creeds.

Etymology

It is derived from the Italian word manifesto, itself derived from the Latin manifestum, meaning clear or conspicuous. Its first recorded use in English is from 1620, in Nathaniel Brent's translation of Paolo Sarpi's History of the Council of Trent: "To this citation he made answer by a Manifesto" (p. 102). Similarly, "They were so farre surprised with his Manifesto, that they would never suffer it to be published" (p. 103).Oxford English Dictionary''

Educational Manifestos

{{Undue weight section|date=May 2018}}{{Refimprove section|date=May 2018}}(File:Democracy and Education title page.jpg|thumb|322x322px|An Early Manifesto on Education)Educational manifestos are documents proposing a change or changes to a current education system.NEWS,weblink Manifesto summaries: what do they say about education? {{!, The Key|last=Edwards|first=Mark|date=2017-05-20|work=The Key|access-date=2018-04-15|language=en-GB}}{{Unreliable source?|date=May 2018}} They can be written by governing bodies, organizations, or individuals involved in education as parents, student, administrators, or other stakeholders.WEB,weblink Better Education for better Democracies, Education, en-GB, 2018-04-15, {{Specify|reason=This just goes to a homepage|date=May 2018}} The writer or writers are positioned as a minority group, with manifestos aimed at a majority group. Educational manifestos include personal or group beliefs about what is important or right in education, make statements about the current state of education, differentiate common terms in education, and make suggestions for changing current education systems.NEWS,weblink A Teaching Manifesto - DAVIN EBANKS, DAVIN EBANKS, 2018-04-15, en-US, {{Self-published source|date=May 2018}} They can often include observations about society and whether or not students are prepared to participate fully in it when they are finished with mandatory schooling.NEWS,weblink Radical Hope: A Teaching Manifesto, 2016-07-06, The Tattooed Professor, 2018-04-15, en, {{Self-published source|date=May 2018}} These observations can include a perceived misalignment between mandatory school and society, an unjust, unfair, or right aspect of education, or perceived lack of personalization in learning. Other topics that are frequently addressed in educational manifestos include curriculum, funding, personalization, class size, teacher burnout, and standardized testing, among others.{{Self-published source|date=May 2018}}(File:ManifestoforTeachingOnline.jpg|thumb|300x300px|Digital Humanities Education Manifesto)These manifestos may offer a reflection or rethinking of some aspect of education or teaching and learning.NEWS,weblink manifesto for education {{!, A movement from status to value|date=2012-11-05|work=Claire Boonstra|access-date=2018-04-15|language=en-US}}{{Self-published source|date=May 2018}} These may include personal stories, quotes, anecdotes, or experiences in the classroom or administration. The reflection or rethinking serves to illustrate how or why an aspect of an educational system requires change.WEB,weblink Education Manifestos 2017 – Testing, Testing, 123…, RSA, Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, 2018-04-15, These reflections often remind readers of the importance of positive, consistent teacher-student relationships in a good education system.{{Self-published source|date=May 2018}}Educational manifestos call for reflection or ‘rethinking' on the part of the majority in education, offer a reason to hope for change, and make recommendations to put change into action.{{Self-published source|date=May 2018}} Reasons for hope can include anecdotes from students, teachers, or parents, or a callback to what motivates teachers and students to teach and learn together. Manifestos written by individuals frequently conclude by sharing techniques, tactics, or philosophies that the writer has found helpful in their own teaching or administrative practice.WEB,weblink A Teaching Manifesto {{!, Tomorrow's Professor Postings|website=tomprof.stanford.edu|language=en|access-date=2018-04-15}}{{Reliable source?|date=May 2018|reason=This looks like it's a message sent out by staff to students, so not sure if it can be used}} Those written by groups or organizations include recommendations for initiating or continuing change in appropriate areas.

Notable manifestos

Political

Examples of notable manifestos:

Artistic

(File:Premiere manifeste de la Revue de stijl.JPG|thumb|1IERE MANIFESTE DE LA REVUE D'ART "LE STYLE" {{sic}}, published in 1918)

Scientific and Educational

  • The Behaviorist Manifesto (1913) issued by John B. Watson in opposition to the introspection method in psychologyWEB,weblink Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it, March 30, 2013,
  • (Custer Died For Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto) (1969) written by Vine Deloria, Jr.
  • The UNESCO Public Library ManifestoWEB, UNESCO Public Library Manifesto,weblink Unesco.org, Unesco, 10 May 2017, (2001)
  • The History Manifesto (2014) written by Jo Guldi and David Armitage, published by Cambridge University Press

Professional

Technology

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

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