SUPPORT THE WORK

GetWiki

Manchuria

ARTICLE SUBJECTS
aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE TYPES
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
ARTICLE ORIGINS
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
Manchuria
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2017}}{{About|the region with various definitions of its extent|the region that falls entirely within China|Northeast China|the region ceded to Russia during the Qing dynasty|Outer Manchuria|other uses|Manchuria (disambiguation)}}{{Chinese
|s = 满洲|t = 滿洲|p = Mǎnzhōu|m=m3zh1}}|j = mun5 zau1|wuu = moe上tseu平|rus = Маньчжурия|rusr = Man'chzhuriya|japanesename = Japan–Qing War|kanji = 満州|romaji = Manshū|order = st}}Manchuria ({{zh|t=滿洲|s=满洲|p=Mǎnzhōu}}) is a name first used in the 17th century by Japanese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia. Depending on the context, Manchuria can either refer to a region that falls within the People's Republic of China"Manchuria". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 17 Jun. 2012BOOK,weblink In Manchuria: A Village Called Wasteland and the Transformation of Rural China, Michael, Meyer, 2016-02-09, Bloomsbury Press; Reprint edition, 9781620402887, en, or a larger region divided between China and Russia. "Manchuria" is widely used outside China to denote the geographical and historical region. This region is the traditional homeland of several ancient groups, including the KoreansBOOK, The Ancient State of Puyŏ in Northeast Asia: Archaeology and Historical Memory, Byington, Mark E., Harvard University Asia Center, 2016, 978-0-674-73719-8, Cambridge (Massachusetts) and London, 11, 13, BOOK,weblink Ethnic Fermented Foods and Alcoholic Beverages of Asia, Tamang, Jyoti Prakash, 2016-08-05, Springer, 9788132228004, en, , XianbeiWEB, Kallie, Szczepanski, A Brief History of Manchuria,weblink ThoughtCo, , Shiwei, Khitan, and Jurchen (later called Manchu) peoples, who built several states within the area historically (however, no term for "Manchuria" exists in the Manchu languageweblink{{harvnb |Giles|1912|p=8}}., which originally referred to the area as the "Three Eastern Provinces"; mnc. {{ManchuSibeUnicode|lang=mnc|ᡩᡝᡵᡤᡳᡳᠯᠠᠨᡤᠣᠯᠣ}}, Dergi ilan golo; zh. 東三省 / 东三省, Dōng Sānshěng).Clausen 1995, p. 7. Several modern ethnic groups such as MongolsJOURNAL, The Mongols of Manchuria, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 68, 4, 714–715, Lattimore, Owen, 1934, George Allen and Unwin, Ltd., en, 10.1017/S0035869X00085245, BOOK,weblink Manchuria; its people, resources and recent history, Alexander, Hosie, 1910, Boston : J. B. Millet, en, , KoreansBOOK,weblink Haan (han, Han) of Minjung Theology and Han (han, Han) of Han Philosophy: In the Paradigm of Process Philisophy and Metaphysics of Relatedness, Son, Chang-Hee, 2000, University Press of America, 9780761818601, en, BOOK,weblink Reconstructing Ancient Korean History: The Formation of Korean-ness in the Shadow of History, Xu, Stella, 2016-05-12, Lexington Books, 9781498521451, en, , and Han ChineseBOOK,weblink Manchuria; its people, resources and recent history, Alexander, Hosie, 1910, Boston : J. B. Millet, en, are also regarded as Manchurian indigenous peoples.

Definition

File:Northeast China.svg|upright=1.15|thumb|right|Inner Manchuria: Northeast China = red, Eastern Inner MongoliaInner MongoliaThe definition of Manchuria can be any one of several regions of various size. These are, from smallest to largest:
  1. Northeast China (Dōngběi): consisting of Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning. This is the area referred to as "Manchuria" in the World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions.BOOK, Brummitt, R.K., 2001, World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions: Edition 2, International Working Group on Taxonomic Databases For Plant Sciences (TDWG),weblink 2006-11-27, harv, 12,
  2. Inner Manchuria: the above, plus parts of modern Inner Mongolia (Hulunbuir, Hinggan, Tongliao, and Chifeng divisions), plus Chengde.
  3. The above, plus Outer Manchuria (Outer Northeast China or Russian Manchuria): the area from the Amur and Ussuri rivers to the Stanovoy Mountains and the Sea of Japan. In Russian administrative terms, Ussuri krai, southern Harbin oblast', Primorskiy kray. These were part of the Qing dynasty China according to the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) that defined the border in the region between China and Russia, but were ceded to Russia by the unequal treaties of the Treaty of Aigun (1858) and the Treaty of Peking (1860).
  4. The above, plus Sakhalin Island, which is generally included on Qing dynasty maps as part of Outer Manchuria even though it is not explicitly mentioned in the Treaty of Nerchinsk. The island was also included in Manchuria on maps made by the Japanese Shogunate and Russian Empire. Despite lines on maps and empires' political claims, the island was inhabited by Ainu people until the Soviet Union enforced an evacuation policy after 1945.
{{-}}

Etymology and names

File:John-Tallis-1851-Tibet-Mongolia-and-Manchuria-NE.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|One of the earliest European maps using the term "Manchuria" (Mandchouria) (John Tallis, 1851). Previously, the term "'Chinese (Tartary]]" had been commonly applied in the West to Manchuria and MongoliaE.g. Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, Volumes 11–12, 1867, p. 162)Three centuries and a half must now pass away before entering upon the next act of the Manchu drama. The Nü-chêns had been scotched, but not killed, by their Mongol conquerors, who, one hundred and thirty-four years later (1368), were themselves driven out of China, a pure native dynasty being re-established under the style of Ming, "Bright." During the ensuing two hundred years the Nü-chêns were scarcely heard of, the House of Ming being busily occupied in other directions. Their warlike spirit, however, found scope and nourishment in the expeditions organised against Japan and Tan-lo, or Quelpart, as named by the Dutch, a large island to the south of the Korean peninsula; while on the other hand the various tribes scattered over a portion of the territory known to Europeans as Manchuria, availed themselves of long immunity from attack by the Chinese to advance in civilization and prosperity. It may be noted here that "Manchuria" is unknown to the Chinese or to the Manchus themselves as a geographical expression. The present extensive home of the Manchus is usually spoken of as the Three Eastern Provinces, namely, (1) Shêngking, or Liao-tung, or Kuan-tung, (2) Kirin, and (3) Heilungchiang or Tsitsihar. – Herbert A. Giles, China and the Manchus, 1912File:Three Kingdoms of Korea Map.png|thumb|upright|The Three KingdomsThree Kingdoms"Manchuria" is a translation of the Japanese word ManshÅ«, which dates from the 19th century. The name Manju (Manzhou) was invented and given to the Jurchen people by Hong Taiji in 1635 as a new name for their ethnic group; however, the name "Manchuria" was never used by the Manchus or the Qing dynasty itself to refer to their homeland. According to the Japanese scholar Junko Miyawaki-Okada, the Japanese geographer Takahashi Kageyasu was the first to use the term "満州" (ManshÅ«) as a place name in 1809 in the Nippon Henkai Ryakuzu, and it was from that work that Westerners adopted the name.weblink{{harvnb |Pozzi|2006|p=159}}.weblink{{harvnb |Pozzi|2006|p=167}}. According to Mark C. Elliott, Katsuragawa HoshÅ«'s 1794 work, the "Hokusa bunryaku", was where "満州" (ManshÅ«) first appeared as a place name was in two maps included in the work, "Ashia zenzu" and "ChikyÅ« hankyÅ« sōzu" which were also created by Katsuragawa.Elliot 2000, p. 626. "満州" (ManshÅ«) then began to appear as a place names in more maps created by Japanese like Kondi JÅ«zō, Takahashi Kageyasu, Baba Sadayoshi and Yamada Ren, and these maps were brought to Europe by the Dutch Philipp von Siebold.Elliot 2000, p. 628. According to Nakami Tatsuo, Philip Franz von Siebold was the one who brought the usage of the term Manchuria to Europeans after borrowing it from the Japanese, who were the first to use it in a geographic manner in the eighteenth century although neither the Manchu nor Chinese languages had a term in their own language equivalent to "Manchuria" as a geographic place name.ed. Wolff & Steinberg 2007, p. 514. The Manchu and Chinese languages had no such word as "Manchuria" and the word has imperialist connotations.BOOK, Philippe Forêt, Mapping Chengde: The Qing Landscape Enterprise,weblink January 2000, University of Hawaii Press, 978-0-8248-2293-4, 16–, According to Bill Sewell, it was Europeans who first started using the name Manchuria to refer to the location and it is "not a genuine geographic term".ed. Edgington 2003, p. 114. The historian Gavan McCormack agreed with Robert H. G. Lee's statement that "The term Manchuria or Man-chou is a modern creation used mainly by westerners and Japanese", with McCormack writing that the term Manchuria is imperialistic in nature and has no "precise meaning" since the Japanese deliberately promoted the use of "Manchuria" as a geographic name to promote its separation from China at the time they were setting up their puppet state of Manchukuo.McCormack 1977, p. 4. The Japanese had their own motive for deliberately spreading the usage of the term Manchuria.PÊ»an 1938, p. 8. The historian Norman Smith wrote that "The term 'Manchuria' is controversial".Smith 2012, p. 219. Professor Mariko Asano Tamanoi said that she "should use the term in quotation marks" when referring to Manchuria.Tamanoi 2000, p. 249. In his 2012 dissertation on the Jurchen people to obtain a Doctor of Philosophy degree in History from the University of Washington, Professor Chad D. Garcia noted that usage of the term "Manchuria" is out of favor in "current scholarly practice" and that he had ceased using the term, instead using "the northeast" or referring to specific geographical features.Garcia 2012 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140911002021weblink |date=11 September 2014 }}, p. 15.(File:Карта Манжурии.png|thumb|left|Russian map of Manchuria, in yellow)In the 18th-century Europe, the region later known as "Manchuria" was most commonly referred to as "[Chinese] Tartary". However, the term Manchuria (Mantchourie, in French) started appearing by the end of the century; French missionaries used it as early as 1800."Mantchourie" appearing among the name of Jesuit missionary districts in China, with 10,000 Christians, in: {{citation|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Me0GAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA161|page=161|title= Annales de l'Oeuvre de la Sainte Enfance|volume=18|year=1800}} The French-based geographers Conrad Malte-Brun and Edme Mentelle promoted the use of the term Manchuria (Mantchourie, in French), along with "Mongolia", "Kalmykia", etc., as more precise terms than Tartary, in their world geography work published in 1804."Les provinces tributaires du nord ou la Mantchourie, la Mongolie, la Kalmouquie, le Sifan, la Petit Bucharie, et autres pays vulgairement compris sous la fausse dénomination de TARTARIE", in: {{citation
last=Mentellelast2=Brunyear=1804volume =12weblink>page=144}}(File:The Americana - a universal reference library, comprising the arts and sciences, literature, history, biography, geography, commerce, etc. of the world (1903) (14763639145).jpg|thumb|left|1900s map of Manchuria, in pink)In current Chinese parlance, an inhabitant of "the Northeast", or Northeast China, is a "Northeasterner" ({{zh|s=东北人|p=Dōngběi rén|labels=no}}). "The Northeast" is a term that expresses the entire region, encompassing its history, culture, traditions, dialects, cuisines and so forth, as well as the "Three East Provinces" or "Three Northeast Provinces". In China, the term Manchuria ({{zh|s=满洲|t=滿洲|p=Mǎnzhōu|first=t}}) is rarely used today, and the term is often negatively associated with the Japanese imperial legacy in the puppet state of Manchukuo ({{zh|s=满洲国|t=滿洲國|p=Mǎnzhōuguó|first=t}}).BOOK, Memory Maps: The State and Manchuria in Postwar Japan, Tamanoi, Mariko, University of Hawaii Press, 2009, 10, BOOK, A Lost Mathematician, Takeo Nakasawa: The Forgotten Father of Matroid Theory, Nishimura, Hirokazu, Kuroda, Susumu, Springer, 2009, 15, Manchuria has also been referred to as Guandong ({{zh|s=关东|t=關東|p=Guāndōng|first=t}}), which literally means "east of the pass", and similarly Guanwai (關外; 关外; Guānwài; "outside the pass"), a reference to Shanhai Pass in Qinhuangdao in today's Hebei, at the eastern end of the Great Wall of China. This usage is seen in the expression Chuǎng Guāndōng (literally "Rushing into Guandong") referring to the mass migration of Han Chinese to Manchuria in the 19th and 20th centuries. The name Guandong later came to be used more narrowly for the area of the Kwantung Leased Territory on the Liaodong Peninsula. It is not to be confused with the southern province of Guangdong.During the Qing dynasty, the region was known as the "three eastern provinces" ({{zh|s=东三省|t=東三省|p=Dōngsānshěng|first=t}}, Manchu:{{MongolUnicode|ᡩᡝᡵᡤᡳᡳᠯᠠᠨᡤᠣᠯᠣ}}(dergi ilan golo)) since 1683 when Jilin and Heilongjiang were separated even though it was not until 1907 that they were turned into actual provinces.BOOK,weblink Oriental Affairs: A Monthly Review, 1935, 189, The administrators of the three areas were the General of Heilongjiang (Sahaliyan Ula i Jiyanggiyūn), General of Jilin (Girin i Jiyanggiyūn), and General of Shengjing (Mukden i Jiyanggiyūn). The area of Manchuria was then converted into three provinces by the late Qing government in 1907. Since then, the phrase "Three Northeast Provinces" was officially used by the Qing government in China to refer to this region, and the post of Viceroy of the Three Northeast Provinces (dergi ilan goloi uheri kadalara amban) was established to take charge of these provinces. After the 1911 revolution, which resulted in the collapse of the Manchu-established Qing dynasty, the name of the region where the Manchus originated was known as "the Northeast" in official documents in the newly founded Republic of China, in addition to the "Three Northeast Provinces".During the Ming dynasty the area where the Jurchens lived was referred to as Nurgan.Crossley 1999, p. 55. Nurgan was the area of modern Jilin in Manchuria.

Geography and climate

Manchuria consists mainly of the northern side of the funnel-shaped North China Craton, a large area of tilled and overlaid Precambrian rocks spanning 100 million hectares. The North China Craton was an independent continent before the Triassic period and is known to have been the northernmost piece of land in the world during the Carboniferous. The Khingan Mountains in the west are a JurassicBogatikov, Oleg Alekseevich (2000); Magmatism and Geodynamics: Terrestrial Magmatism throughout the Earth's History; pp. 150–151. {{ISBN|90-5699-168-X}} mountain range formed by the collision of the North China Craton with the Siberian Craton, which marked the final stage of the formation of the supercontinent Pangaea.File:Photo by Xundaogong 巡道工出品 报恩寺海浪河大弯道K1452 - panoramio.jpg|thumb|250px|Hailang River near Hailin City in HeilongjiangHeilongjiangNo part of Manchuria was glaciated during the Quaternary, but the surface geology of most of the lower-lying and more fertile parts of Manchuria consists of very deep layers of loess, which have been formed by wind-borne movement of dust and till particles formed in glaciated parts of the Himalayas, Kunlun Shan and Tien Shan, as well as the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts.Kropotkin, Prince P.; "Geology and Geo-Botany of Asia"; in Popular Science, May 1904; pp. 68–69 Soils are mostly fertile mollisols and fluvents except in the more mountainous parts where they are poorly developed orthents, as well as in the extreme north where permafrost occurs and orthels dominate.Juo, A. S. R. and Franzlübbers, Kathrin Tropical Soils: Properties and Management for Sustainable Agriculture; pp. 118–119; {{ISBN|0-19-511598-8}}The climate of Manchuria has extreme seasonal contrasts, ranging from humid, almost tropical heat in the summer to windy, dry, Arctic cold in the winter. This pattern occurs because the position of Manchuria on the boundary between the great Eurasian continental landmass and the huge Pacific Ocean causes complete monsoonal wind reversal.In the summer, when the land heats faster than the ocean, low pressure forms over Asia and warm, moist south to southeasterly winds bring heavy, thundery rain, yielding annual rainfall ranging from 400 mm (16 in.), or less in the west, to over 1150 mm (45 in.) in the Changbai Mountains.WEB,weblink Average Annual Precipitation in China, 2010-05-18, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100602163920weblink">weblink 2 June 2010, dmy-all, Temperatures in the summer are very warm to hot, with July average maxima ranging from 31 Â°C (88 Â°F) in the south to 24 Â°C (75 Â°F) in the extreme north.Kaisha, Tesudo Kabushiki and Manshi, Minami; Manchuria: Land of Opportunities; pp. 1–2. {{ISBN|1-110-97760-3}} Except in the far north near the Amur River, high humidity causes major discomfort at this time of year.In the winter, however, the vast Siberian High causes very cold, north to northwesterly winds that bring temperatures as low as −5 Â°C (23 Â°F) in the extreme south and −30 Â°C (−22 Â°F) in the northKaisha and Manshi; Manchuria; pp. 1–2 where the zone of discontinuous permafrost reaches northern Heilongjiang. However, because the winds from Siberia are exceedingly dry, snow falls only on a few days every winter, and it is never heavy. This explains why corresponding latitudes of North America were fully glaciated during glacial periods of the Quaternary while Manchuria, though even colder, always remained too dry to form glaciersEarth History 2001{{dead link|date=June 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} (page 15) â€“ a state of affairs enhanced by stronger westerly winds from the surface of the ice sheet in Europe.

History

{{History of Manchuria}}

Early history

File:Ussuriysk-Stone-Tortoise-S-3542.jpg|thumb|A 12th-century Jurchen stone tortoise in today's UssuriyskUssuriyskManchuria was the homeland of several ethnic groups, including Manchu, Ulchs, Hezhen, Nivkhs and possibly Turkic peoples in northwestern Manchuria. Various ethnic groups and their respective kingdoms, including the Sushen, Donghu, Xianbei, Wuhuan, Mohe, Khitan and Jurchens have risen to power in Manchuria. At various times, Han dynasty, Cao Wei dynasty, Western Jin dynasty, Tang dynasty and some other minor kingdoms of China established control in parts of Manchuria and in some cases tributary relations with peoples in the area.The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 03: "Sui and T'ang China, 589–906, Part 1," at 32, 33. Various Koreanic kingdoms such as Gojoseon, Buyeo and Goguryeo were also established in large parts of this area. Parts of northwestern Manchuria were under control of the Turkic Khaganate. A number of world renowned linguists, including Dr. Bang-han Kim, Dr. Alexander Vovin, and Dr. J. Marshall Unger refer to the Goguryeo language and a number of other Koreanic languages like Ye-Maek or Buyeo as distinctly Old Korean.BOOK,weblink Haan (han, Han) of Minjung Theology and Han (han, Han) of Han Philosophy: In the Paradigm of Process Philisophy and Metaphysics of Relatedness, Son, Chang-Hee, 2000, University Press of America, 9780761818601, en, BOOK,weblink Reconstructing Ancient Korean History: The Formation of Korean-ness in the Shadow of History, Xu, Stella, 2016-05-12, Lexington Books, 9781498521451, en, According to several linguists the linguistic homeland of proto-Korean is located somewhere in Manchuria. Later, Koreanic-speakers already present in northern Korea started to expand further south, replacing or assimilating Japonic-speakers and likely causing the Yayoi migration.JOURNAL, Janhunen, Juha, 2010, RReconstructing the Language Map of Prehistorical Northeast Asia, Studia Orientalia, ... there are strong indications that the neighbouring Baekje state (in the southwest) was predominantly Japonic-speaking until it was linguistically Koreanized., 108, Vovin, Alexander (2013). "From Koguryo to Tamna: Slowly riding to the South with speakers of Proto-Korean". Korean Linguistics. 15 (2): 222–240. Whitman (2012) suggests that the proto-Koreans arrived in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula at around 300 BCE and coexist with the descendants of the Japonic Mumun cultivators (or assimilated them). Both had influence on each other and a later founder effect diminished the internal variety of both language families.JOURNAL, Whitman, John, 2011-12-01, Northeast Asian Linguistic Ecology and the Advent of Rice Agriculture in Korea and Japan,weblink Rice, en, 4, 3, 149–158, 10.1007/s12284-011-9080-0, 1939-8433, With the Song dynasty to the south, the Khitan people of Inner Mongolia created the Liao dynasty in the region, which went on to control adjacent parts of Northern China as well. The Liao dynasty was the first state to control all of Manchuria.Ruins of Identity: Ethnogenesis in the Japanese Islands By Mark HudsonLedyard, 1983, 323In the early 12th century the Tungusic Jurchen people, who were Liao's tributaries, overthrew the Liao and formed the Jin dynasty, which went on to control parts of Northern China and Mongolia after a series of successful military campaigns. During the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368),Patricia Ann Berger – Empire of emptiness: Buddhist art and political authority in Qing China, p.25 Manchuria was administered under the Liaoyang province. In 1375, Naghachu, a Mongol official of the Mongolia-based Northern Yuan dynasty in Liaoyang province invaded Liaodong, but later surrendered to the Ming dynasty in 1387. In order to protect the northern border areas, the Ming decided to "pacify" the Jurchens in order to deal with its problems with Yuan remnants along its northern border. The Ming solidified control over Manchuria under the Yongle Emperor (1402–1424), establishing the Nurgan Regional Military Commission. Starting in the 1580s, a Jianzhou Jurchen chieftain, Nurhaci (1558–1626), started to unify Jurchen tribes of the region. Over the next several decades, the Jurchen took control of most of Manchuria. In 1616, Nurhaci founded the Later Jin dynasty, later became known as the Qing dynasty.(File:A Tartar Huntsmen on His Horse.jpg|thumb|left|A Jurchen man hunting from his horse, from a 15th-century ink and color painting on silk)Chinese cultural and religious influence such as Chinese New Year, the "Chinese god", motifs such as the dragon, spirals, and scrolls, agriculture, husbandry, methods of heating, and material goods such as iron cooking pots, silk, and cotton spread among the Amur natives including the Udeghes, Ulchis, and Nanais.Forsyth 1994, p. 214.In 1644, after the Ming dynasty's capital of Beijing was sacked by the peasant rebels, the Jurchens (now called Manchus) allied with Ming general Wu Sangui and seized control of Beijing, overthrowing the short-lived Shun dynasty and establishing Qing dynasty rule (1644–1912) over all of China. The Willow Palisade was a system of ditches and embankments built by the Qing dynasty during the later 17th century to restrict the movement of Han civilians into Jilin and Heilongjiang.Elliott, Mark C. "The Limits of Tartary: Manchuria in Imperial and National Geographies." Journal of Asian Studies 59, no. 3 (2000): 603–46. Only bannermen, including Chinese bannermen, were allowed to settle in Jilin and Heilongjiang.After conquering the Ming, the Qing often identified their state as "China" (中國, Zhongguo; "Middle Kingdom"), and referred to it as "Dulimbai Gurun" ("Middle Kingdom") in Manchu.Hauer 2007, p. 117.Dvořák 1895, p. 80.Wu 1995, p. 102. In the Qing shilu the lands of the Qing state (including Manchuria and present-day Xinjiang, Mongolia, Tibet) are thus identified "the Middle Kingdom" in both the Chinese and Manchu languages in roughly two thirds of the cases, while the term refers to the traditional Chinese provinces populated by the Han in roughly one third of the cases. It was also common to use "China" (Zhongguo, Dulimbai gurun) to refer to the Qing in official documents, international treaties, and foreign affairs. In diplomatic documents, the term "Chinese language" (Dulimbai gurun i bithe) referred to Chinese, Manchu, and Mongol languages, and the term "Chinese people" (中國人 Zhongguo ren; Manchu: Dulimbai gurun i niyalma) referred to all Han, Manchus, and Mongol subjects of the Qing. The lands in Manchuria were explicitly stated by the Qing to belong to "China" (Zhongguo, Dulimbai gurun) in Qing edicts and in the Treaty of Nerchinsk.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140325231543weblink">Zhao 2006, pp. 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14.However Qing rule saw a massively increasing amount of Han Chinese both illegally and legally streaming into Manchuria and settling down to cultivate land as Manchu landlords desired Han Chinese peasants to rent on their land and grow grain, most Han Chinese migrants were not evicted as they went over the Great Wall and Willow Palisade, during the eighteenth century Han Chinese farmed 500,000 hectares of privately owned land in Manchuria and 203,583 hectares of lands which were part of coutrier stations, noble estates, and Banner lands, in garrisons and towns in Manchuria Han Chinese made up 80% of the population.Richards 2003, p. 141.Han Chinese farmers were resettled from north China by the Qing to the area along the Liao River in order to restore the land to cultivation.Reardon-Anderson 2000, p. 504. Wasteland was reclaimed by Han Chinese squatters in addition to other Han who rented land from Manchu landlords.Reardon-Anderson 2000, p. 505. Despite officially prohibiting Han Chinese settlement on Manchu and Mongol lands, by the 18th century the Qing decided to settle Han refugees from northern China who were suffering from famine, floods, and drought into Manchuria and Inner Mongolia, so that Han Chinese farmed 500,000 hectares in Manchuria and tens of thousands of hectares in Inner Mongolia by the 1780s.Reardon-Anderson 2000, p. 506. The Qianlong Emperor allowed Han Chinese peasants suffering from drought to move into Manchuria despite his having issued edicts in favor of banning them from 1740 to 1776.Scharping 1998, p. 18. Chinese tenant farmers rented or even claimed title to land from the "imperial estates" and Manchu Bannerlands in the area.Reardon-Anderson 2000, p. 507. Besides moving into the Liao area in southern Manchuria, the path linking Jinzhou, Fengtian, Tieling, Changchun, Hulun, and Ningguta was settled by Han Chinese during the Qianlong Emperor's reign, and Han Chinese were the majority in urban areas of Manchuria by 1800.Reardon-Anderson 2000, p. 508. To increase the Imperial Treasury's revenue, the Qing sold formerly Manchu-only lands along the Sungari to Han Chinese at the beginning of the Daoguang Emperor's reign, and Han Chinese filled up most of Manchuria's towns by the 1840s, according to Abbe Huc.Reardon-Anderson 2000, p. 509.File:Iveron church in Harbin1.jpg|thumb|Russian Orthodox Church building in HarbinHarbinThe Russian conquest of Siberia was accompanied by massacres due to indigenous resistance to colonization by the Russian Cossacks, who savagely crushed the natives. At the hands of people like Vasilii Poyarkov in 1645 and Yerofei Khabarov in 1650 some peoples like the Daur were slaughtered by the Russians to the extent that it is now considered to have been genocide.Bisher 2006, p. 6. The Daurs initially deserted their villages since they heard about the cruelty of the Russians the first time Khabarov came.NEWS, 17 December 2009, The Amur's siren song,weblink The Economist, From the print edition: Christmas Specials, 15 August 2014, The second time he came, the Daurs decided to do battle against the Russians instead but were slaughtered by Russian guns.Forsyth 1994, p. 104. The indigenous peoples of the Amur region were attacked by Russians who came to be known as "red-beards".Stephan 1996, p. 64. The Russian Cossacks were named luocha (羅剎), after Demons found in Buddhist mythology, by the Amur natives because of their cruelty towards the Amur tribes people, who were subjects of the Qing.Kang 2013 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140523204757weblink |date=23 May 2014 }}, p. 1. The Russian proselytization of Eastern Orthodox Christianity to the indigenous peoples along the Amur River was viewed as a threat by the Qing.Kim 2012/2013, p. 169.In 1858, a weakening Qing Empire was forced to cede Manchuria north of the Amur to Russia under the Treaty of Aigun. In 1860, at the Treaty of Peking, the Russians managed to obtain a further large slice of Manchuria, east of the Ussuri River. As a result, Manchuria was divided into a Russian half known as "Outer Manchuria", and a remaining Chinese half known as "Inner Manchuria". In modern literature, "Manchuria" usually refers to Inner (Chinese) Manchuria.{{citation needed|date=December 2012}} As a result of the Treaties of Aigun and Peking, China lost access to the Sea of Japan.{{-}}

History after 1860

File:1940 Manchurian visa.jpg|thumb | left |1940 ManchukuoManchukuoInner Manchuria also came under strong Russian influence with the building of the Chinese Eastern Railway through Harbin to Vladivostok. In the Chuang Guandong movement, many Han farmers, mostly from the Shandong peninsula moved there. By 1921, Harbin, northern Manchuria's largest city, had a population of 300,000, including 100,000 Russians."Memories of Dr. Wu Lien-teh, plague fighter". Yu-lin Wu (1995). World Scientific. p.68. {{ISBN|981-02-2287-4}} Japan replaced Russian influence in the southern half of Inner Manchuria as a result of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904–1905. Most of the southern branch of the Chinese Eastern Railway was transferred from Russia to Japan, and became the South Manchurian Railway. Japanese influence extended into Outer Manchuria in the wake of the Russian Revolution of 1917, but Outer Manchuria had reverted to Soviet control by 1925. Manchuria was an important region due to its rich natural resources including coal, fertile soil, and various minerals. For pre–World War II Japan, Manchuria was an essential source of raw materials. Without occupying Manchuria, the Japanese probably could not have carried out their plan for conquest over Southeast Asia or taken the risk to attack Pearl Harbor and the British Empire in 1941.Edward Behr, The Last Emperor, 1987, p. 202It was reported that among Banner people, both Manchu and Chinese (Hanjun) in Aihun, Heilongjiang in the 1920s, would seldom marry with Han civilians, but they (Manchu and Chinese Bannermen) would mostly intermarry with each other.Rhoads 2011, p. 263. Owen Lattimore reported that during his January 1930 visit to Manchuria, he studied a community in Jilin (Kirin), where both Manchu and Chinese bannermen were settled at a town called Wulakai, and eventually the Chinese Bannermen there could not be differentiated from Manchus since they were effectively Manchufied (assimilated). The Han civilian population was in the process of absorbing and mixing with them when Lattimore wrote his article.Lattimore 1933, p. 272.{{-}}File:Manchukuo map.png|thumb|Map of ManchukuoManchukuoAround the time of World War I, Zhang Zuolin established himself as a powerful warlord with influence over most of Manchuria. During his rule, the Manchurian economy grew tremendously, backed by immigration of Chinese from other parts of China. The Japanese assassinated him on 2 June 1928, in what is known as the Huanggutun Incident.Edward Behr, ibid, p. 168 Following the Mukden Incident in 1931 and the subsequent Japanese invasion of Manchuria, the Japanese declared Inner Manchuria an "independent state", and appointed the deposed Qing emperor Puyi as puppet emperor of Manchukuo. Under Japanese control Manchuria was one of the most brutally run regions in the world, with a systematic campaign of terror and intimidation against the local Russian and Chinese populations including arrests, organised riots and other forms of subjugation.Edward Behr, ibid, p. 202 Manchukuo was used by Japan as a base to invade the rest of China.After the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, Japan in 1945, the Soviet Union invaded from Soviet Outer Manchuria as part of its declaration of war against Japan. Soon afterwards, the Communist Party of China and Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) started fighting for control over Manchuria. The communists won in the Liaoshen Campaign and took complete control over Manchuria. With the encouragement of the Soviet Union, Manchuria was then used as a staging ground during the Chinese Civil War for the Communist Party of China, which emerged victorious in 1949. Ambiguities in the treaties that ceded Outer Manchuria to Russia led to dispute over the political status of several islands. This led to armed conflict in 1969, called the Sino-Soviet border conflict, resulting in an agreement. In 2004, Russia agreed to transfer Yinlong Island and one half of Heixiazi Island to the PRC, ending an enduring border dispute.{{-}}

See also

References

{{Reflist}}

Bibliography

  • BOOK, White Terror: Cossack Warlords of the Trans-Siberian, Jamie, Bisher, 2006, Routledge,weblink 1135765952, 24 April 2014, harv,
  • BOOK, White Terror: Cossack Warlords of the Trans-Siberian, Jamie, Bisher, 2006, Routledge,weblink 1135765960, 24 April 2014, harv,
  • BOOK, The Making of a Chinese City: History and Historiography in Harbin, Søren, Clausen, Contributor: Stig Thøgersen, illustrated, 1995, M.E. Sharpe,weblink 1563244764, 10 March 2014, {{harvid, }}
  • BOOK, A Translucent Mirror: History and Identity in Qing Imperial Ideology, Pamela Kyle, Crossley, 1999, University of California Press,weblink 0520928849, 10 March 2014, {{harvid, }}
  • BOOK, Chinas religionen ..., Rudolf, Dvořák, Volume 12; Volume 15 of Darstellungen aus dem Gebiete der nichtchristlichen Religionsgeschichte, illustrated, 1895, Aschendorff (Druck und Verlag der Aschendorffschen Buchhandlung),weblink 0199792054, 10 March 2014, {{harvid, }}
  • JOURNAL, 2658945, no,weblink" title="archive.is/20161217200852weblink">weblink 17 December 2016,weblink 17 December 2016, 10.2307/2658945, The Journal of Asian Studies, The Limits of Tartary: Manchuria in Imperial and National Geographies, Elliott, Mark C., 59, 3, August 2000, 603–646, Association for Asian Studies,
  • Elliott, Mark C. "The Limits of Tartary: Manchuria in Imperial and National Geographies." Journal of Asian Studies 59, no. 3 (2000): 603–46.
  • BOOK, A History of the Peoples of Siberia: Russia's North Asian Colony 1581–1990, James, Forsyth, illustrated, reprint, revised, 1994, Cambridge University Press,weblink 0521477719, 24 April 2014, harv,
  • THESIS, Garcia, Chad D., 2012, Horsemen from the Edge of Empire: The Rise of the Jurchen Coalition,weblinkweblink yes, 2014-09-11, University of Washington, 1–315, A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 6 September 2014,
  • BOOK, China and the Manchus, Herbert A., Giles, 1912, (Cambridge: at the University Press) (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons),weblink 31 January 2014, harv,
  • Hata, Ikuhiro. "Continental Expansion: 1905–1941". In The Cambridge History of Japan. Vol. 6. Cambridge University Press. 1988.
  • BOOK, Handwörterbuch der Mandschusprache, Erich, Hauer, Oliver, Corff, Volume 12; Volume 15 of Darstellungen aus dem Gebiete der nichtchristlichen Religionsgeschichte, illustrated, 2007, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag,weblink 978-3447055284, 10 March 2014, {{harvid, }}
  • Jones, Francis Clifford, Manchuria Since 1931, London, Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1949
  • JOURNAL, KANG, HYEOKHWEON, Shiau, Jeffrey, Big Heads and Buddhist Demons:The Korean Military Revolution and Northern Expeditions of 1654 and 1658,weblinkweblink March 2013, Emory Endeavors in World History, 4: Transnational Encounters in Asia, 2013, 1–22, 10 March 2014,
  • JOURNAL, Kim 金, Loretta E. 由美, 2012–2013, Saints for Shamans? Culture, Religion and Borderland Politics in Amuria from the Seventeenth to Nineteenth Centuries, Central Asiatic Journal, Harrassowitz Verlag, 56, 169–202, 10.13173/centasiaj.56.2013.0169,
  • Kwong, Chi Man. War and Geopolitics in Interwar Manchuria (2017).
  • JOURNAL, 10.2307/535718, 535718, Wulakai Tales from Manchuria, Lattimore, Owen, Jul–Sep 1933, 46, 181, The Journal of American Folklore, 272–286, American Folklore Society,
  • BOOK, Chang Tso-lin in Northeast China, 1911–1928: China, Japan, and the Manchurian Idea, Gavan, McCormack, illustrated, 1977, Stanford University Press,weblink 0804709459, 10 March 2014, {{harvid, }}
  • Masafumi, Asada. "The China-Russia-Japan Military Balance in Manchuria, 1906–1918." Modern Asian Studies 44.6 (2010): 1283-1311.
  • Nish, Ian. The History of Manchuria, 1840-1948: A Sino-Russo-Japanese Triangle (2016)
  • BOOK, American Diplomacy Concerning Manchuria, Chao-ying, PÊ»an, 1938, The Catholic University of America,weblink 10 March 2014, {{harvid, }}
  • BOOK, Tumen Jalafun Jecen AkÅ« Manchu Studies in Honour of Giovanni Stary, Alessandra, Pozzi, Juha Antero, Janhunen, Michael, Weiers, Contributor: Giovanni Stary, Volume 20 of Tunguso Sibirica, 2006, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 344705378X,weblink 1 April 2013, {{harvid, Pozzi, 2006, }}
  • JOURNAL, 3985584, Land Use and Society in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia during the Qing Dynasty, Reardon-Anderson, James, October 2000, 5, 4, Environmental History, 503–530, Forest History Society and American Society for Environmental History, 10.2307/3985584,
  • BOOK, Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861–1928, Edward J. M., Rhoads, 2011, University of Washington Press,weblink 978-0295804125, 10 March 2014, {{harvid, }}
  • JOURNAL, Scharping, Thomas, 1998, Minorities, Majorities and National Expansion: The History and Politics of Population Development in Manchuria 1610–1993,weblink Cologne China Studies Online – Working Papers on Chinese Politics, Economy and Society (Kölner China-Studien Online – Arbeitspapiere zu Politik, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft Chinas), Modern China Studies, Chair for Politics, Economy and Society of Modern China, at the University of Cologne, 1, 14 August 2014,
  • Tamanoi, Mariko Asano. Crossed Histories: Manchuria in the Age of Empire (2005)
  • BOOK, Japan at the Millennium: Joining Past and Future, Bill, Sewell, David W., Edgington, illustrated, 2003, UBC Press,weblink 0774808993, 10 March 2014, {{harvid, }}
  • BOOK, Intoxicating Manchuria: Alcohol, Opium, and Culture in China's Northeast, Contemporary Chinese Studies Series, Norman, Smith, illustrated, 2012, UBC Press,weblink 978-0774824316, 10 March 2014, {{harvid, }}
  • BOOK, The Russian Far East: A History, John J., Stephan, illustrated, reprint, 1996, Stanford University Press,weblink 0804727015, 24 April 2014, harv,
  • JOURNAL, 2658656, 10.2307/2658656, The Journal of Asian Studies, Knowledge, Power, and Racial Classification: The "Japanese" in "Manchuria", Tamanoi, Mariko Asano, 59, 2, May 2000, 248–276, Association for Asian Studies,
  • Tao, Jing-shen, The Jurchen in Twelfth-Century China. University of Washington Press, 1976, {{ISBN|0-295-95514-7}}.
  • KISHI Toshihiko, MATSUSHIGE Mitsuhiro and MATSUMURA Fuminori eds, 20 Seiki Manshu Rekishi Jiten [Encyclopedia of 20th Century Manchuria History], Tokyo: Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 2012, {{ISBN|978-4642014694}}
  • BOOK, Die Eroberung von Qinghai unter Berücksichtigung von Tibet und Khams 1717 – 1727: anhand der Throneingaben des Grossfeldherrn Nian Gengyao, Shuhui, Wu, Volume 2 of Tunguso Sibirica, reprint, 1995, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag,weblink 3447037563, 10 March 2014, {{harvid, }}
  • BOOK, The Russo-Japanese War in Global Perspective: World War Zero, Volume 2, David, Wolff, John W., Steinberg, Volume 2 of The Russo-Japanese War in Global Perspective, 2007, illustrated, BRILL, 978-9004154162,weblink 1 April 2013, {{harvid, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 2006, }}
  • JOURNAL, 20062627, 10.1177/0097700405282349,weblink 25 March 2014,weblink Reinventing China Imperial Qing Ideology and the Rise of Modern Chinese National Identity in the Early Twentieth Century, Modern China, Zhao, Gang, 32, 3–30, 1, January 2006, Sage Publications,

External links

  • {{commons category inline|Manchuria}}
{{coord|43|N|125|E|dim:1000km|display=title}}{{Authority control}}{{Regions of the world}}


- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Manchuria" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 10:53pm EDT - Tue, Aug 20 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
GETWIKI 09 JUL 2019
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
GETWIKI 09 MAY 2016
GETWIKI 18 OCT 2015
M.R.M. Parrott
Biographies
GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014
CONNECT