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Manchukuo
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{{short description|Former Japan puppet state in China}}







factoids
'''}}Empire of (Great) Manchuria{{small{{nobold>}}}}|common_name = ManchukuoInterbellum{{·}}World War II}}|status = Client state/Puppet state/Buffer state of the Empire of JapanEmpire of Japan>JapanPersonalism>Personalist One-party state constitutional monarchy under a Totalitarianism>totalitarian military dictatorship|event_start = Proclaimed|year_start = 1932|date_start = 18 February|event1 = Empire proclaimed|date_event1 = 1 March 1934|event2 = Joined the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere|date_event2 = 27 September 1940|event3 = Surrender of Japan|date_event3 = 15 August 1945Evacuation of Manchukuo#The fate of the Puyi regime>Dissolution|year_end = 1945|date_end = 18 August|p1 = Republic of China (1912-1949){{!}}Republic of China|flag_p1 = Flag of the Republic of China.svg|s1 = Soviet occupation of Manchuria|flag_s1 = Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg|image_flag = Flag of Manchukuo.svg|image_coat = Emblem of the Emperor of Manchukuo.svg|symbol_type = Imperial Seal|image_map = Manchukuo in Empire of Japan.svg|image_map_caption = Manchukuo (dark red) within the Empire of Japan (light red) at its furthest extent|national_anthem = National Anthem of Manchukuo(File:Manchukuo National Anthem 1942.ogg)Five Races Under One Union (Manchukuo)>Five Races Under One Union"Changchun>Hsinking {{small{{smaller>(until 9 August 1945)}}Tonghua{{smaller|(from 9 August 1945)}}Japanese language>JapaneseManchu languageMandarin Chinese>MandarinMongolianChief Executive of Manchukuo>Chief ExecutivePuyi>Aisin-Gioro Puyi|year_leader1 = 1932–1934Emperor of Manchukuo>EmperorPuyi>Aisin-Gioro Puyi|year_representative1 = 1934–1945Prime Minister of Manchukuo>Prime Minister|deputy1 = Zheng Xiaoxu|year_deputy1 = 1932–1935|deputy2 = Zhang Jinghui|year_deputy2 = 1935–1945Legislative Council (Manchukuo)>Legislative Council|stat_year1 = 1934 est.|stat_pop1 = 85,200,700|stat_area1 = 1192081|currency = Manchukuo yuan|religion = State Shinto}}{{Chinesem3oug2}}mʊ̬ntsɐ́ukʷɔ̄ːk|}}State of Manchuria}}Empire of Manchuria}}{{nowrap|Manchurian Empire}}|w2= Man-chou Ti-kuo|j2= Mun⁵-zau¹ Dai³-gwok³mànʈʂóu̯ tîku̯ǒ|}}mʊ̬ntsɐ́u tɐ̄ikʷɔ̄ːk|}}Great Manchurian Empire}}|w3= Ta Man-chou Ti-kuo|j3= Daai⁶ Mun⁵-zau¹ Dai³-gwok³tâ mànʈʂóu̯ tîku̯ǒ|}}tàːi mʊ̬ntsɐ́u tɐ̄ikʷɔ̄ːk|}}Imperial Japan's sphere of influence (1939)]]Manchukuo, officially the State of Manchuria prior to 1934 and the Empire of Manchuria after 1934, was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945. It was founded in 1932 after the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, and in 1934 it became a constitutional monarchy. Under the de facto control of Japan, it had limited international recognition.The area was the homeland of the Manchus, including the emperors of the Qing dynasty. In 1931, the region was seized by Japan following the Mukden Incident. A pro-Japanese government was installed one year later with Puyi, the last Qing emperor, as the nominal regent and later emperor.Encyclopædia Britannica article on Manchukuo {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071221081805weblink |date = 21 December 2007 }} Manchukuo's government was dissolved in 1945 after the surrender of Imperial Japan at the end of World War II. The territories claimed by Manchukuo were first seized in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria in August 1945,WEB, C. Peter Chen,weblink Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation | World War II Database, World War II Database, 2015-09-10, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150904114522weblink">weblink 4 September 2015, dmy-all, and then formally transferred to Chinese administration in the following year.{{NoteTag|Although the territories came under the jurisdiction of the Nationalist government before the Chinese Civil War came to its conclusion in 1949, the brief Soviet occupation helped transform the region into a power base for the Chinese Communist troops led by Mao Zedong where the People's Liberation Army could resupply itself with Japanese equipment and gain strategic advantage against the National Revolutionary Army headed by Chiang Kai-shek.}}Manchus formed a minority in Manchukuo, whose largest ethnic group were Han Chinese. The population of Koreans increased during the Manchukuo period, and there were also Japanese, Mongols, White Russians and other minorities. The Mongol regions of western Manchukuo were ruled under a slightly different system in acknowledgement of the Mongolian traditions there. The southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula continued to be directly ruled by Japan as the Kwantung Leased Territory.{{anchor|Name|Etymology|Terminology|Toponymy}}

Names

{{further|Etymology of Manchu|Etymology of Manchuria}}"Manchukuo" is a variant of the Wade-Giles romanization Man-chou-kuo of the Mandarin pronunciation Mǎnzhōuguó of the original Japanese name of the state, Manshūkoku {{nowrap|(}}).}} In Japanese, the name refers to the state of Manchuria, the region of the Manchus. The English name, adapted to incorporate the word Manchu, would mean the state of the Manchu people. Indeed, Manchukuo was often referred to in English as "Manchuria", a name for Northeast China which had been particularly employed by the Imperial Japanese to promote its separation from the rest of the country.{{sfn|McCormack|1977|p=4}}{{sfn|Pʻan|1938|p=8}} Other European languages used equivalent terms: Manchukuo was known to its allies as in Italian and or in German. In present-day Chinese, Manchukuo's name is still often prefaced by the word wěi (}}, "so-called", "false", "pseudo-", &c.) to stress its illegitimacy.WEB,weblink Top 10 attractions in Changchun, China - China.org.cn, www.china.org.cn, 2019-04-11,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180707212402weblink">weblink 7 July 2018, live, dmy-all, The formal name of the country was changed to the "Empire of Manchuria" (sometimes referred to as "Manchutikuo"), after the establishment of Puyi as the Kangde Emperor in 1934. In Chinese and Japanese, the names were Dà Mǎnzhōu dìguó and Dai Manshū teikoku, with a further Dà/Dai }} ("big", "great") added after the model of the formal names of the Great Ming and Qing Empires, but this was unused in English.

History

Background

File:Greater Asian Co-prosperity sphere.png|thumb|upright=1.25|Members of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere; territory controlled at maximum height. Japan and its allies in dark red; occupied territories/client states in lighter red. Korea and Taiwan were integral parts of Japan.]]The Qing dynasty, which replaced the Shun and Ming dynasties in China, was founded by Manchus from Manchuria (modern Northeast China). The Manchu emperors separated their homeland in Jilin and Heilongjiang from the Han Liaoning province with the Willow Palisade. This ethnic division continued until the Qing dynasty encouraged massive immigration of Han in the 19th century during Chuang Guandong to prevent the Russians from seizing the area from the Qing. After conquering the Ming, the Qing identified their state as "China" (中國, Zhongguo; "Central Realm") and referred to it as "Dulimbai Gurun" in Manchu.{{sfn|Hauer|2007|p=117}}{{sfn|Dvořák|1895|p=80}}{{sfn|Wu|1995|p=102}} The Qing equated the lands of the Qing state (including present day Manchuria, Xinjiang, Mongolia, Tibet and other areas) as "China" in both the Chinese and Manchu languages, defining China as a multi-ethnic state, rejecting the idea that China only meant Han areas, proclaiming that both Han and non-Han peoples were part of "China", using "China" to refer to the Qing in official documents, international treaties, and foreign affairs, and the "Chinese language" (Dulimbai gurun i bithe) referred to Chinese, Manchu, and Mongol languages, and the term "Chinese people" (中國人 Zhongguo ren; Manchu: Dulimbai gurun i niyalma) referred to all Han, Manchus, and Mongol subjects of the Qing. The lands in Manchuria were explicitly stated by the Qing to belong to "China" (Zhongguo, Dulimbai gurun) in Qing edicts and in the Treaty of Nerchinsk.{{sfn|Zhao|2006|pp=4, 7–14}}During the Qing dynasty, the area of Manchuria was known as the "three eastern provinces" (三東省; Sān dōng shěng) since 1683 when Jilin and Heilongjiang were separated even though it was not until 1907 that they were turned into actual provinces.{{sfn|Clausen|1995|p=7}} The area of Manchuria was then converted into three provinces by the late Qing government in 1907. Since then, the "Three Northeast Provinces" ({{zh|t=東北三省|s=东北三省|p=Dōngběi Sānshěng|first=t}}) was officially used by the Qing government in China to refer to this region, and the post of Viceroy of Three Northeast Provinces was established to take charge of these provinces.{{Citation needed|date=December 2016}}As the power of the court in Beijing weakened, many outlying areas either broke free (such as Kashgar) or fell under the control of Imperialist powers. In the 19th century, Imperial Russia was most interested in the northern lands of the Qing Empire. In 1858, Russia gained control over a huge tract of land called Outer Manchuria thanks to the Supplementary Treaty of Beijing that ended the Second Opium War.NEWS,weblink Russia and China end 300 year old border dispute, BBC News, 1997-11-10, 2010-08-14, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111106025930weblink">weblink 6 November 2011, dmy-all, But Russia was not satisfied and, as the Qing Dynasty continued to weaken, they made further efforts to take control of the rest of Manchuria. Inner Manchuria came under strong Russian influence in the 1890s with the building of the Chinese Eastern Railway through Harbin to Vladivostok.BOOK, The Origins of the Russo-Japanese War, Ian, Nish, Routledge, 2014, 31, 9780582491144, The far right wing Japanese ultra-nationalist Black Dragon Society supported Sun Yat-sen's activities against the Manchus, believing that overthrowing the Qing would help the Japanese take over the Manchu homeland and that Han Chinese would not oppose the takeover. The far right wing Japanese ultranationalist Gen'yōsha leader Tōyama Mitsuru believed that the Japanese could easily take over Manchuria and Sun Yat-sen and other anti-Qing revolutionaries would not resist and help the Japanese take over and enlargen the opium trade in China while the Qing was trying to destroy the opium trade. The Japanese Black Dragons supported Sun Yat-sen and anti-Manchu revolutionaries until the Qing collapsed.BOOK, Jay Robert Nash, Spies: A Narrative Encyclopedia of Dirty Tricks and Double Dealing from Biblical Times to Today,weblink 1997-10-28, M. Evans, 978-1-4617-4770-3, 99–, Toyama supported anti-Manchu, anti-Qing revolutionary activities including by Sun Yat-sen and supported Japanese taking over Manchuria. The anti-Qing Tongmenghui was founded and based in exile in Japan where many anti-Qing revolutionaries gathered.The Japanese had been trying to unite anti-Manchu groups made out of Han people to take down the Qing. Japanese were the ones who helped Sun Yat-sen unite all anti-Qing, anti-Manchu revolutionary groups together and there were Japanese like Tōten Miyazaki inside of the anti-Manchu Tongmenghui revolutionary alliance. The Black Dragon Society hosted the Tongmenghui in its first meeting.BOOK, Marie-Claire Bergère, Janet Lloyd, Sun Yat-sen,weblink 1998, Stanford University Press, 978-0-8047-4011-1, 132–, The Black Dragon Society had very intimate relations with Sun Yat-sen and promoted pan-Asianism and Sun sometimes passed himself off as Japanese.BOOK,weblink Race War!: White Supremacy and the Japanese Attack on the British Empire, Gerald Horne, NYU Press, 2005, 978-0-8147-3641-8, 252–, That had connections with Sun for a long time.BOOK, Dooeum Chung, Élitist fascism: Chiang Kaishek's Blueshirts in 1930s China,weblink 2000, Ashgate, 978-0-7546-1166-0, 61, Japanese groups like the Black Dragon Society had a large impact on Sun Yat-sen.BOOK, Dooeum Chung, A re-evaluation of Chiang Kaishek's blueshirts: Chinese fascism in the 1930s,weblink 1997, University of London, 78, According to an American military historian, Japanese military officers were part of the Black Dragon Society. The Yakuza and Black Dragon Society helped arrange in Tokyo for Sun Yat-sen to hold the first Kuomintang meetings, and were hoping to flood China with opium and overthrow the Qing and deceive Chinese into overthrowing the Qing to Japan's benefit. After the revolution was successful, the Japanese Black Dragons started infiltrating China and spreading opium and anti-Communist sentiment. The Black Dragons pushed for the takeover of Manchuria by Japan in 1932.BOOK, Rodney Carlisle, Encyclopedia of Intelligence and Counterintelligence,weblink 2015-03-26, Routledge, 978-1-317-47177-6, 71–, Sun Yat-sen was married to a Japanese, Kaoru Otsuki.

Origins

As a direct result of the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05), Japanese influence replaced Russia's in Inner Manchuria. During the war with Russia, Japan had mobilized one million soldiers to fight in Manchuria, meaning that one in eight families in Japan had a member fighting the war.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=33}} During the Russo-Japanese War, the losses were heavy with Japan losing a half-million dead or wounded.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=33}} From the time of the Russian-Japanese war onward, many Japanese people came to have a proprietary attitude to Manchuria, taking the viewpoint that a land where so much Japanese blood had been lost in some way now belonged to them.{{clarify|reason=Is this the consensus interpretation, or just Young's commentary?|date=February 2018}}{{sfn|Young|1998|p=33}} In 1906, Japan established the South Manchurian Railway on the former Chinese Eastern Railway built by Russia from Manzhouli to Vladivostok via Harbin with a branch line from Harbin to Port Arthur (Japanese: Ryojun), today's Dalian. Under the terms of the Treaty of Portsmouth, the Kwantung Army had the right to occupy southern Manchuria while the region fell into the Japanese economic sphere of influence.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=31}} The Japanese-owned South Manchurian Railroad company had a market capitalization of 200 million yen, making it Asia's largest corporation, which went beyond just running the former Russian railroad network in southern Manchuria to owning the ports, mines, hotels, telephone lines, and sundry other businesses, dominating the economy of Manchuria.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=31}} With the growth of the South Manchuria Railroad (Mantetsu) company went growth in number of Japanese living in Manchuria from 16,612 Japanese civilians in 1906 to 233,749 in 1930.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=33}} The majority of blue collar employees for the Mantetsu were Chinese, and the Japanese employees were mostly white collar, meaning most of the Japanese living in Manchuria were middle-class people who saw themselves as an elite.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=34}} Between World War I and World War II Manchuria became a political and military battleground between Russia, Japan, and China. Japan moved into Outer Manchuria as a result of the chaos following the Russian Revolution of 1917. A combination of Soviet military successes and American economic pressure forced the Japanese to withdraw from the area, however, and Outer Manchuria returned to Soviet control by 1925.{{citation needed|date=February 2018}}During the Warlord Era in China, the warlord Marshal Zhang Zuolin established himself in Inner Manchuria with Japanese backing.BOOK, Fenby, Jonathan, Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the China he lost, 2003, Free, London, 9780743231442, 103, Later, the Japanese Kwantung Army found him too independent, so he was assassinated in 1928. In assassinating Marshal Zhang, the "Old Marshal" the Kwantung Army generals expected Manchuria to descend into anarchy, providing the pretext for seizing the region.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=31}} Marshal Zhang was killed when the bridge his train was riding across was blown up while three Chinese men were murdered and explosive equipment placed on their corpses to make it appear that they were the killers, but the plot was foiled when Zhang's son Zhang Xueliang, the "Young Marshal" succeeded him without incident while the cabinet in Tokyo refused to send additional troops to Manchuria.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=31}} Given that the Kwantung Army had assassinated his father, the "Young Marshal"—who unlike his father was a Chinese nationalist—had strong reasons to dislike Japan's privileged position in Manchuria.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=38}} Marshal Zhang knew his forces were too weak to expel the Kwantung Army, but his relations with the Japanese were unfriendly right from the start.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=38}}File:Japan Manchukuo Protocol 15 September 1932.jpg|thumb|left|The Japan–Manchukuo ProtocolJapan–Manchukuo Protocol(File:Throne of Emperor in Manchukuo.JPG|thumb|left|The throne of the emperor of Manchukuo, c. 1937)After the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, Japanese militarists moved forward to separate the region from Chinese control and to create a Japanese-aligned puppet state. To create an air of legitimacy, the last Emperor of China, Puyi, was invited to come with his followers and act as the head of state for Manchuria. One of his faithful companions was Zheng Xiaoxu, a Qing reformist and loyalist.Reginald Fleming Johnston, p. 438.On 18 February 1932Between World Wars {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20061031081550weblink |date=31 October 2006 }} Manchukuo ("The Manchurian State") was proclaimed and recognized by Japan on 15 September 1932 through the Japan–Manchukuo Protocol,Continent, coast, ocean: dynamics of regionalism in Eastern Asia by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Institut Alam dan Tamadun Melayu, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies p.20 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140613022152weblink |date=13 June 2014 }} after the assassination of Japanese Prime Minister Inukai Tsuyoshi. The city of Changchun, renamed Hsinking (Pinyin: Xinjing) (新京, "New Capital"), became the capital of the new entity. Chinese in Manchuria organized volunteer armies to oppose the Japanese and the new state required a war lasting several years to pacify the country.{{citation needed|date=February 2018}}The Japanese initially installed Puyi as Head of State in 1932, and two years later he was declared Emperor of Manchukuo with the era name of Kangde {{nowrap|(}},}} w{{nbsp}}Kang-te, "Tranquility and Virtue"). Manchukuo thus became Manchutikuo ("The Manchurian Empire"). Zheng Xiaoxu served as Manchukuo's first prime minister until 1935, when Zhang Jinghui succeeded him. Puyi was nothing more than a figurehead and real authority rested in the hands of the Japanese military officials. An imperial palace was specially built for the emperor. The Manchu ministers all served as front-men for their Japanese vice-ministers, who made all decisions.BOOK, Yamamuro, Shin·ichi, Fogel, Joshua A., Manchuria under Japanese domination, 2006, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, Pa., 9780812239126, 116–117, In this manner, Japan formally detached Manchukuo from China over the course of the 1930s. With Japanese investment and rich natural resources, the area became an industrial powerhouse. Manchukuo had its own issued banknotes and postage stamps.WEB, MANCHUKUO,weblink www.banknote.ws, 11 December 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161129210635weblink">weblink 29 November 2016, dmy-all, Future of American Trade with Manchukuko, Roy H Akagi, 3 June 1940, accessed September 2009WEB, Stamp Atlas China,weblink www.sandafayre.com, 11 December 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130222085022weblink">weblink 22 February 2013, Several independent banks were founded as well.{{citation needed|date=February 2018}}The conquest of Manchuria proved to be extremely popular with the Japanese people who saw the conquest as providing a much needed economic "lifeline" to their economy which had been badly hurt by the Great Depression.{{sfn|Young|1998|pp=88–93}} The very image of a "lifeline" suggested that Manchuria—which was rich in natural resources—was essential for Japan to recover from the Great Depression, which explains why the conquest was so popular at the time and later why the Japanese people were so completely hostile towards any suggestion of letting Manchuria go.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=95}} At the time, censorship in Japan was nowhere near as stringent as it later become, and the American historian Louise Young noted: "Had they wished, it would have been possible in 1931 and 1932 for journalists and editors to express anti-war sentiments".{{sfn|Young|1998|p=85}} The popularity of the conquest meant that newspapers such as the Asahi Shimbun which initially opposed the war swiftly changed to supporting the war as the best way of improving sales.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=85}}In 1935, Manchukuo bought the Chinese Eastern Railway from the Soviet Union.WEB, Chinese Eastern Railway railway, China,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, 11 December 2016, live,weblink 21 December 2016, dmy-all,

Diplomatic recognition

(File:Manchukuo's foreign recognition.png|thumb|left|Foreign recognition of Manchukuo represented by states in colors other than gray)China did not recognize Manchukuo but the two sides established official ties for trade, communications and transportation. In 1933, the League of Nations adopted the Lytton Report, declaring that Manchuria remained rightfully part of China, leading Japan to resign its membership. The Manchukuo case persuaded the United States to articulate the so-called Stimson Doctrine, under which international recognition was withheld from changes in the international system created by force of arms.WEB, Stimson Doctrine, 1932, United States Department of State,weblink 2016-12-10, dmy-all, In spite of the League's approach, the new state was diplomatically recognized by El Salvador (3 March 1934) and the Dominican Republic (1934), Costa Rica (23 September 1934), Italy (29 November 1937), Spain (2 December 1937), Germany (12 May 1938) and Hungary (9 January 1939). The Soviet Union extended de facto recognition on 23 March 1935, but explicitly noted that this did not mean de jure recognition.{{Citation|last=Nish|first=Ian Hill|title=Japanese foreign policy in the interwar period|year=2002|page=95|location=Westport, CT|publisher=Praeger|isbn=0-275-94791-2}}Turns, David. "Stimson Doctrine of Non-Recognition: Its Historical Genesis and Influence on Contemporary International Law, The." Chinese J. Int'l L. 2 (2003): 123. However, upon signing the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact on 13 April 1941, the Soviet Union recognized Manchukuo de jure in exchange for Japan recognizing the integrity of the neighboring Mongolian People's Republic.{{Citation|last=Kotkin|first=Stephen|title=Mongolia in the Twentieth Century: Landlocked Cosmopolitan|year=2000|page=123|location=|publisher=Routledge|isbn=0765605368}} The USSR did maintain five consulates-general in Manchukuo initially, although in 1936–37 these were reduced to just two: one in Harbin and another in Manzhouli.Генеральное консульство СССР в Харбине {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140318211826weblink |date=18 March 2014 }}Ivanov, Igor (2002). Outline of the History of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia. In Russian. OLMA Media Group, p. 219Chronology of China in the 1940s {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141023023540weblink |date=23 October 2014}}. Osaka University School of Law. Retrieved 29 December 2017. Manchukuo opened consulates in Blagoveshchensk (September 1932) and in Chita (February 1933).K. A. Karayeva. МАНЬЧЖОУ ГО (1931-1945): «МАРИОНЕТОЧНОЕ» ГОСУДАРСТВО В СИСТЕМЕ МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫХ ОТНОШЕНИЙ НА ДАЛЬНЕМ ВОСТОКЕ {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140903140739weblink |date=3 September 2014}}. Ural Federal University archives.It is commonly believed that the Holy See established diplomatic relations with Manchukuo in 1934, but the Holy See never did so. This belief is partly due to the erroneous reference in Bernardo Bertolucci's 1987 film The Last Emperor that the Holy See diplomatically recognized Manchukuo. Bishop Auguste Ernest Pierre Gaspais was appointed as "representative ad tempus of the Holy See and of the Catholic missions of Manchukuo to the government of Manchukuo" by the Congregation De Propaganda Fide (a purely religious body responsible for missions) and not by the Secretariat of State responsible for diplomatic relations with states.WEB,weblink Vatican-Manchukuo, mea culpas are not necessary, 30giorni, February 25, 2013, Valente, Gianni,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140203000105weblink">weblink 3 February 2014, live, In the 1940s the Vatican established full diplomatic relations with Japan, but it resisted Japanese and Italian pressure to recognize Manchukuo and the Nanjing regime.{{Citation|last=Pollard|first=John |title=The Papacy in the Age of Totalitarianism|year=2014|page=329|location=|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=0199208565}}After the outbreak of World War II, the state was recognized by Slovakia (1 June 1940), Vichy France (12 July 1940), Romania (1 December 1940), Bulgaria (10 May 1941), Finland (17 July 1941),BOOK, Suomen diplomaattiset suhteet ulkovaltoihin 1918–1996, Helsinki, Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland, Ulkoasiainministeriön julkaisuja, 1997, 951-724-118-6, fi, 139, Denmark (August 1941), Croatia (2 August 1941)—all controlled or influenced by Japan's ally Germany—as well as by Wang Jingwei's Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China (30 November 1940), Thailand (5 August 1941) and the Philippines (1943)—all under the control or influence of Japan.File:Kangde Emperor of Manchukuo.JPG|thumb|upright|PuyiPuyi

World War II and aftermath

(File:Second world war asia 1937-1942 map en6.png|thumb|upright=1.25|A map of the Japanese advance from 1937 to 1942)Before World War II, the Japanese colonized Manchukuo and used it as a base from which to invade China. The Manchu General Tong Linge was killed in action by the Japanese in the Battle of Beiping–Tianjin, which marked the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War.WEB,weblink 基督徒将军佟麟阁:抗战殉国的第一位高级将领, 李, 世峥, 2010-09-01, 中国民族报, 2018-06-04,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180524080749weblink">weblink 24 May 2018, live, dmy-all, WEB,weblink 佟麟阁中国抗日战争牺牲的第一位高级将领, 2017-05-27, 每日头条, WEB,weblink 佟麟阁中国抗日战争牺牲的第一位高级将领, 2017-05-27, 每日头条,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180524004216weblink">weblink 24 May 2018, live, dmy-all, In the summer of 1939 a border dispute between Manchukuo and the Mongolian People's Republic resulted in the Battle of Khalkhin Gol. During this battle, a combined Soviet-Mongolian force defeated the Japanese Kwantung Army (Kantōgun) supported by limited Manchukuoan forces.BOOK, Coox, Alvin D., Nomonhan : Japan against Russia, 1939, 1990, Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif., 978-0804718356, 841, 1st, On 8 August 1945, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan, in accordance with the agreement at the Yalta Conference, and invaded Manchukuo from outer Manchuria and Outer Mongolia. During the Soviet offensive, the Manchukuo Imperial Army, on paper a 200,000-man force, performed poorly and whole units surrendered to the Soviets without firing a single shot; there were even cases of armed riots and mutinies against the Japanese forces.{{sfn|Jowett|2004|pp=36–38}} Emperor Kangde had hoped to escape to Japan to surrender to the Americans, but the Soviets captured him and eventually extradited him to the communist government in China, where the authorities had him imprisoned as a war criminal along with all other captured Manchukuo officials.{{sfn|Behr|1987|p=285}}From 1945 to 1948, Manchuria (Inner Manchuria) served as a base area for the People's Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War against the National Revolutionary Army.Borisov, O. (1977). The Soviet Union and the Manchurian Revolutionary Base (1945-1949). Moscow, Progress Publishers. The Chinese Communists used Manchuria as a staging ground until the final Nationalist retreat to Taiwan in 1949. Many Manchukuo army and Japanese Kantōgun personnel served with the communist troops during the Chinese Civil War against the Nationalist forces. Most of the 1.5 million Japanese who had been left in Manchukuo at the end of World War II were sent back to their homeland in 1946–1948 by U.S. Navy ships in the operation now known as the Japanese repatriation from Huludao.Paul K. Maruyama, Escape from Manchuria (iUniverse, 2009) {{ISBN|978-1-4502-0581-8}} (hard cover), 9781450205795 (paperback), based on the earlier books in Japanese by K. Maruyama (1970) and M. Musashi (2000) and other sources

Administrative divisions

{{For|a complete list of prefecture-level divisions|List of administrative divisions of Manchukuo}}During its short-lived existence, Manchukuo was divided into between five (in 1932) and 19 (in 1941) provinces, one special ward of Beiman ({{zh|北滿特別區}}) and two Special cities which were Xinjing ({{zh|新京特別市}}) and Harbin ({{zh|哈爾濱特別市}}). Each province was divided into between four (Xing'an dong) and 24 (Fengtian) prefectures. Beiman lasted less than 3 years (1 July 1933 – 1 January 1936) and Harbin was later incorporated into Binjiang province. Longjiang also existed as a province in 1932 before being divided into Heihe, Longjiang and Sanjiang in 1934. Andong and Jinzhou provinces separated themselves from Fengtian while Binjiang and Jiandao from Jilin separated themselves in the same year.

Politics

File:Manchuguo Poster.harmony of J,C and Mpeople.jpg|thumb|upright|Propaganda poster promoting harmony between Japanese, Chinese, and (Manchu people|Manchu]]. The caption says (Right to left): "With the cooperation of Japan, China, and Manchukuo, the world can be in peace.")File:Hideki Tōjō and Nobusuke Kishi in 1943.jpg|thumb|Hideki Tōjō (right) and Nobusuke KishiNobusuke KishiHistorians generally consider Manchukuo a puppet state of Imperial JapanColumbia Encyclopedia article on Manchukuo {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070313111538weblink |date=13 March 2007 }} because of the Japanese military's strong presence and strict control of the government administration. Chinese historians generally refer to the state as Wei Manzhouguo ("false state of Manchuria"). Some historians see Manchukuo as an effort at building a glorified Japanese state in mainland Asia that deteriorated due to the pressures of war.{{Citation |last=Doak |first=Kevin Michael |title=Review: Sovereignty and Authenticity: Manchukuo and the East Asian Modern by Prasenjit Duara |journal=The Journal of Japanese Studies |volume=30 |issue=2 |year=2004 |pages=502–507 |issn=0095-6848 |jstor = 25064511 |doi=10.1353/jjs.2004.0054}}The independence of Manchuria was proclaimed on 18 February 1932, and it was renamed Manchukuo. The Japanese military commander appointed Puyi as regent (reign name Datong) for the time being, stating that he would become Emperor of Manchukuo but could not reign using the title of Emperor of the Great Qing Empire as he once held. Manchukuo was proclaimed a monarchy on 1 March 1934, with Puyi assuming the throne under the reign name of Emperor Kang-de. Puyi was assisted in his executive duties by a Privy Council ({{zh|參議府}}), and a General Affairs State Council ({{zh|國務院}}). This State Council was the center of political power, and consisted of several cabinet ministers, each assisted by a Japanese vice-minister.The commanding officer of the Kwantung Army in Manchukuo was also the Japanese ambassador to Manchukuo. He functioned in a manner similar to that of a British resident officer in British overseas protectorates, with the power to veto decisions by the emperor. The Kwangtung Army leadership placed Japanese vice ministers in his cabinet, while all Chinese advisors gradually resigned or were dismissed.The Legislative Council ({{zh|立法院}}) was largely a ceremonial body, existing to rubber-stamp decisions issued by the State Council. The only authorized political party was the government-sponsored Concordia Association, although various émigré groups were permitted their own political associations.The American historian Louise Young noted that one of the most striking aspects of Manchukuo was that many of the young Japanese civil servants who went to work in Manchukuo were on the left, or at least had once been.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=269}} In the 1920s, much of the younger intelligentsia in Japan had rejected their parents' values, and had become active in various left-wing movements. Starting with the Peace Preservation Law of 1925, which made the very act of thinking about "altering the kokutai a crime, the government had embarked on a sustained campaign to stomp out all left-wing thought in Japan. However, many of the bright young university graduates active in left-wing movements in Japan were needed to serve as civil servants in Manchukuo, which Young noted led the Japanese state to embark upon a contradictory policy of recruiting the same people active in the movements that it was seeking to crush."{{sfn|Young|1998|p=269}} To rule Manchukuo, which right from the start had a very statist economy, the Japanese state needed university graduates who were fluent in Mandarin Chinese, and the 1920s-30s, many of the university graduates in Japan who knew Mandarin were "progressives" involved in left-wing causes.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=278}} The fact that young Japanese civil servants in Manchukuo with their degrees in economics, sociology, etc., who had once been active in left-wing movements helps explain the decidedly leftist thrust of social and economic policies in Manchukuo with the state playing an increasingly large role in society.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=278}} Likewise, much of the debate between Japanese civil servants about the sort of social-economic policies Japan should follow in Manchukuo in the 1930s was framed in Marxist terms, with the civil servants arguing over whatever Manchuria prior to September 1931 had a "feudal" or a "capitalist" economy.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=293}} The American historian Joshua Fogel wrote about the young servants of Manchukuo: "Tremendous debates transpired on such things as the nature of the Chinese economy, and the lingua franca of these debates was always Marxism".{{sfn|Fogel|1995|p=125}} To resolve this debate, various research teams of five or six young civil servants, guarded by detachments from the Kwantung Army of about 20 or 30 men, went out to do field research in Manchukuo, gathering material about the life of ordinary people, to determine Manchukuo was in the "feudal" or "capitalist" stage of development.{{sfn|Young|1998|pp=296–297}} Starting in 1936, the Manchukuo state launched Five Year Plans for economic development, which were closely modeled after the Five Year Plans in the Soviet Union.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=298}}In Manchukuo, the Japanese were creating a brand new state that was in theory independent, which meant that there were no limits upon the sort of policies that the new state could carry out, and many university graduates in Japan, who despite being opposed to the social system that existed in Japan itself, went to work in Manchukuo, believing that they could carry out reforms there that might inspire similar reforms in Japan.{{sfn|Young|1998|pp=269–270}} This was especially the case since it was impossible to effect any reforms in Japan itself as the very act of thinking about "altering the kokutai" was a crime, which led many leftist Japanese university graduates to go work in Manchukuo, where they believed they could achieve the sort of social revolution that was impossible in Japan.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=282}} By 1933, the Japanese state had essentially destroyed both the Japanese Socialist Party and the Japanese Communist Party via mass arrests and Tenkō with both parties reduced down to mere rumps, which caused many Japanese student leftists to draw the conclusion that change was impossible in Japan, but still possible in Manchukuo, where paradoxically the Kwantung Army was sponsoring the sort of policies that were unacceptable in Japan.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=294}} Moreover, the Great Depression had made it very difficult for university graduates in Japan to find work, which made the prospect of a well-paying job in Manchukuo very attractive to otherwise underemployed Japanese university graduates.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=302}} In Manchukuo, the Japanese state was creating an entire state anew, which meant that Manchukuo had a desperate need for university graduates to work in its newly founded civil service.{{sfn|Fogel|1995|p=126}} In addition, the Pan-Asian rhetoric of Manchukuo and the prospect of Japan helping ordinary people in Manchuria greatly appealed to the idealistic youth of Japan.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=302}} Young wrote about the young Japanese people who went to work in Manchukuo: "The men, and in some cases, the women, who answered the call of this land of opportunity, brought with them tremendous drive and ambition. In their efforts to remake their own lives, they remade an empire. They invested it with their preoccupations of modernity and their dreams of an Utopian future. They pushed it to embrace an idealist rhetoric of social reform and justified itself in terms of Chinese nationalist aspiration. They turned it to architectural ostentation and the heady luxury of colonial consumption. They made it into a project of radical change, experimentation and possibility".{{sfn|Young|1998|p=302}}File:Hokushin-ron-Map.svg|thumb|Map of Japanese Hokushin-ron plans for a potential attack on the Soviet Union. Dates indicate the year that Japan gained control of the territory.]]The Kwantung Army for its part tolerated the talk of social revolution in Manchukuo as the best way of gaining support from the Han majority of Manchukuo, who did not want Manchuria to be severed from China.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=287}} Even more active in going to Manchukuo were the products of Tenkō ("Changing directions"), a process of brainwashing by the police of left-wing activists to make them accept that the Emperor was a god after all, whom they were best to serve.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=276}} Tenkō was a very successful process that turned young Japanese who once been ardent liberals or leftists who rejected the idea that the Emperor was a god into fanatical rightists, who made up for their previous doubts about the divinity of the Emperor with militant enthusiasm.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=276}} One tenkōsha was Tachibana Shiraki, who once been a Marxist Sinologist who after his arrest and undergoing Tenkō become a fanatical right-winger.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=276}} Tachibana went to Manchukuo in 1932, proclaiming that the theory of the "five races" working together was the best solution to Asia's problems and argued in his writings that only Japan could save China from itself, which was a complete change from his previous policies, where he criticized Japan for exploiting China.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=276}} Other left-wing activists like Ōgami Suehiro did not undergo Tenkō, but still went to work in Manchukuo, believing it was possible to effect social reforms that would end the "semi-feudal" condition of the Chinese peasants of Manchukuo, and that he could use the Kwantung Army to effect left-wing reforms in Manchukuo.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=276}} Ōgami went to work in the "agricultural economy" desk of the Social Research Unit of the South Manchurian Railroad company, writing up reports about the rural economy of Manchukuo that were used by the Kwantung Army and the Manchukuo state.{{sfn|Fogel|1995|p=124}} Ōgami believed that his studies helped ordinary people, citing one study he did about water use in rural Manchukuo, where he noted a correlation between villages that were deprived of water and "banditry" (the codeword for anti-Japanese guerillas), believing that the policy of improving water supply in villages was due to his study.{{sfn|Fogel|1995|p=125}} The outbreak of the war with China in 1937 caused the state in Manchukuo to grow even bigger as a policy of "total war" came in, which meant there was a pressing demand for people with university degrees trained to think "scientifically".{{sfn|Fogel|1995|p=126}} Fogel wrote that almost all of the university graduates from Japan who arrived in Manchukuo in the late 1930s were "largely left-wing Socialists and Communists. This was precisely at the time when Marxism had been all but banned in Japan, when (as Yamada Gōichi put) if the expression shakai (social) appeared in the title of a book, it was usually confiscated".{{sfn|Fogel|1995|p=126}}Young also noted—with reference to Lord Acton's dictum that "Absolute power corrupts absolutely"—that for many of the idealistic young Japanese civil servants, who believed that they could effect a "revolution from above" that would make the lives of ordinary people better, that the absolute power that they enjoyed over millions of people "went to their heads", causing them to behave with abusive arrogance towards the very people that they had gone to Manchukuo to help.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=298}} Young wrote that it was a "monumental conceit" of the part of the young idealists to believe that they could use the Kwantung Army to achieve a "revolution from above", when it was the Kwantung Army that was using them.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=298}} The ambitious plans for land reform in Manchukuo were vetoed by the Kwantung Army for precisely the reason that it might inspire similar reforms in Japan.{{sfn|Young|1998|p=299}} The landlords in Japan tended to come from families who once belonged to the samurai caste, and almost all of the officers in the Imperial Japanese Army came from samurai families, which made the Kwantung Army very hostile towards any sort of land reform which might serve as an example for Japanese peasants. In October 1941, the Soviet spy ring headed by Richard Sorge was uncovered in Tokyo, which caused the authorities to become paranoid about Soviet espionage, and led to new crackdown on the left. In November 1941, the Social Research Unit of the South Manchurian Railroad Company, which was well known as a hotbed of Marxism since the early 1930s, was raided by the Kenpeitai, who arrested 50 of those working in the Social Research Unit.{{sfn|Hotta|2007|p=128}} At least 44 of those working in the Social Research Unit were convicted of violating the Peace Preservation Law, which made thinking about "altering the kokutai" a crime in 1942–43 and were given long prison sentences, of whom four died due to the harsh conditions of prisons in Manchukuo.{{sfn|Hotta|2007|p=126}} As the men working in the Social Research Unit had played important roles in Manchukuo's economic policy and were university graduates from good families, the Japanese historian Hotta Eri wrote that the Kenpeitai were ordered to "handle them with care", meaning no torture of the sort that the Kenpeitai normally employed in its investigations.{{sfn|Hotta|2007|p=126}}When the Japanese surrender was announced on 15 August 1945, Puyi agreed to abdicate.

Head of State









factoids
{| class="wikitable"|+ Manchukuo 1932–1945! Personal Names! Period of Reigns! Era names (年號) and their corresponding range of yearsAll given names in bold.Puyi>Aisin-Gioro Puyi 愛新覺羅溥儀 Àixīnjuéluó Pǔyì| 9 March 1932 – 15 August 1945| Datong (大同 Dàtóng) 1932–1934Kangde (康德 Kāngdé) 1934–1945">

Prime Minister {| class"wikitable" style"text-align:center"

! scope="col" | No.! scope="col" | Portrait! scope="col" width=180|Name{{small|(Birth–Death)}}! scope="col" colspan="2" |Term of Office! scope="col" | Party! scope="row" style="background:{{Concordia Association of Manchukuo/meta/color}}; color:white;" | 180px) Zheng Xiaoxu{{small| Concordia Association! scope="row" style="background:{{Concordia Association of Manchukuo/meta/color}}; color:white;" | 280px) Zhang Jinghui{{small| Concordia Association

Demographics

(File:Manchukuo map.png|thumb|Map of Manchukuo)File:Map of Manchukuo divisions en.svg|thumb|Administrative divisions of Manchukuo in 1938]]In 1908, the number of residents was 15,834,000, which rose to 30,000,000 in 1931 and 43,000,000 for the Manchukuo state. The population balance remained 123 men to 100 women and the total number in 1941 was 50,000,000. Other statistics indicate that in Manchukuo the population rose by 18,000,000.{{citation needed|date=February 2018}}In early 1934, the total population of Manchukuo was estimated as 30,880,000, with 6.1 persons the average family, and 122 men for each 100 women. These numbers included 29,510,000 Chinese (96%, which should have included the Manchurian population), 590,760 Japanese (2%), 680,000 Koreans (2%), and 98,431 (

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