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Manchu people
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{{redirect|Manchu}}{{redirect-distinguish|Man people|Nanman}}{{short description|Members of an indigenous people of Manchuria}}{{Use dmy dates |date = April 2014}}







factoids
| population = 10,430,000| region1 = Mainland China| pop1 = 10,410,585| region2 = TaiwanAUTHOR=WEBSITE=WWW.MANCHUSOC.ORG, | region3 = Hong Kong(《民族研究》) VOLUME= PAGE = 21 LANGUAGE = ZH-HANS, {{Obsolete source|date=November 2018}}| region4 = United States| pop4 = 379Mandarin ChineseManchu language>Manchu{{#tag:refAUTHOR=WEBSITE=ETHNOLOGUE.COM, Several thousands can speak Manchu as second language through primary education or free classes for adults in China.HTTP://NEWS.TAKUNGPAO.COM/PAPER/Q/2015/0426/2982819.HTML > TITLE = TA KUNG PAO: MANCHU LANGUAGE AND REVIVING MANCHU CULTURE ARCHIVEDATE=2017-11-08 DATE=2012-03-06 DATE=2011-12-12 group=note}}Manchu shamanism, Buddhism, Chinese folk religion and Catholic Church>Roman Catholic| related = Other Tungusic peoples| native_name = | native_name_lang = }}{{contains Manchu text}}The Manchu{{#tag:ref|Also known as Man,WEB,weblink Manchu, Encyclopædia Britannica, 18 March 2015, Bannermen,{{harvnb|Elliott|2001|pp=13–15}}WEB,weblink zh:词语"旗人"的解释 汉典 zdic.net, lear, 18 March 2015, Banner people,{{harvnb|Elliott|2001|p=15}} Tartars,{{harvnb|Elliott|2001|p=98}} red-tasseled Mongols (),{{harvnb|Various authors|2008|p=258 (Shizu period)}} the Mongols of wearing red tassels ()WEB,weblink Uyun Bilig: The Files of Chahar and Ligdan Khan in Ming Dynasty (simplified Chinese), and the Tartars of wearing red tassels ()|group=note}} ({{manchu|m={{ManchuSibeUnicode|lang=mnc|ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ}}|v=manju|a=manju}}; {{zh |t = 滿族 |s = 满族 |w = Man3-tsu2 |p = Mǎnzú }}) are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.{{harvnb|Merriam-Webster, Inc|2003|p=754}} They are sometimes called "red-tasseled Manchus", a reference to the ornamentation on traditional Manchu hats.{{harvnb|Zheng|2009|p=79}}{{harvnb|Vollmer|2002|p=76}} The Later Jin (1616–1636), and Qing dynasty (1636–1912) were established and ruled by Manchus, who are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in China.Manchus form the largest branch of the Tungusic peoples and are distributed throughout China, forming the fourth largest ethnic group in the country.BOOK, zh:《中国2010年人口普查资料(上中下)》, Data of 2010 China Population Census, China Statistics Press, 2012, 9787503765070, harv, They can be found in 31 Chinese provincial regions. They also form the largest minority group in China without an autonomous region. Among them, Liaoning has the largest population and Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Beijing have over 100,000 Manchu residents. About half of the population live in Liaoning and one-fifth in Hebei. There are a number of Manchu autonomous counties in China, such as Xinbin, Xiuyan, Qinglong, Fengning, Yitong, Qingyuan, Weichang, Kuancheng, Benxi, Kuandian, Huanren, Fengcheng, Beizhen{{#tag:ref|Fengcheng and Beizhen are cities but treated as Manchu autonomous counties.{{harvnb|Writing Group of Manchu Brief History|2009|p=207}}|group=note}} and over 300 Manchu towns and townships.{{harvnb|Writing Group of Manchu Brief History|2009|pp=206–207}}{{anchor|Etymology|Demonym|Ethnonym}}

Name

(File:Eastern Hu.png|thumb|upright=1.5|Lineage of the Manchu people)The Jiu Manzhou Dang contains the earliest use of Manchu.BOOK, Endymion Porter Wilkinson, Chinese History: A Manual,weblink 2000, Harvard Univ Asia Center, 978-0-674-00249-4, 728–, However, the actual etymology of the ethnic name "Manju" is debatable.{{harvnb|Yan|2008|p=49}} According to the Qing dynasty's official historical record, the Researches on Manchu Origins, the ethnic name came from Mañjuśrī.{{harvnb|Agui|1988|p=2}} The Qianlong Emperor also supported the point of view and even wrote several poems on the subject.{{harvnb|Meng|2006|p=6}}Meng Sen, a scholar of the Qing dynasty, agreed. On the other hand, he thought the name "Manchu" might stem from Li Manzhu (), the chieftain of the Jianzhou Jurchens.{{harvnb|Meng|2006|pp=4–5}}Another scholar, Chang Shan, thinks Manju is a compound word. "Man" was from the word "mangga" ({{ManchuSibeUnicode|lang=mnc|ᠮᠠᠩᡤᠠ}}) which means strong and "ju" ({{ManchuSibeUnicode|lang=mnc|ᠵᡠ}}) means arrow. So Manju actually means "intrepid arrow".JOURNAL, zh:《族称Manju词源探析》, The Research of Ethnic Name "Manju"'s Origin, 《满语研究》 [Manchu Language Research], 2009, 1, There are other hypotheses, such as Fu Sinian's "etymology of Jianzhou"; Zhang Binglin's "etymology of Manshi"; (:jp:市村さん次郎|Isamura Sanjiro)'s "etymology of Wuji and Mohe"; Sun Wenliang's "etymology of Manzhe"; "etymology of mangu(n) river" and so on.JOURNAL, zh:《满洲名称之种种推测》, Feng, Jiasheng (冯家升), 《东方杂志》 [Dongfang Magazine], 30, 17, Many Kinds of Conjecture of the Name "Manju", JOURNAL, zh:《满洲名称考述》, Teng, Shaojian (滕绍箴), 《民族研究》 [Ethnicities Research], April 1996, 70–77, Textual Research of the Name "Manju", Norman 2003, p. 484.

History

Origins and early history

File:Wanggiyan Aguda.jpg|thumb|upright|Aguda, Emperor Taizu of Jurchen JinJurchen Jin{{Further|Sushen|Mogher|Jurchen people|Manchuria under Ming rule}}The Manchus are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in China,{{harvnb|Li|Guan|2003|p=2}}{{full citation needed|date=December 2018}}{{harvnb|Tong|2009|p=5}}Huang, P.: "New Light on the Origins of the Manchu", Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, vol. 50, no.1 (1990): 239–82. Retrieved from JSTOR database July 18, 2006. but as early as the semi-mythological chronicles of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors there is mention of the Sushen,{{harvnb|Agui|1988|p=1}}{{harvnb|Writing Group of Manchu Brief History|2009|p=7}}{{harvnb|Li|Guan|2003|p=1}}{{full citation needed|date=December 2018}}{{harvnb|Association for Asian Studies|1987|p=767}} a Tungusic people from the northern Manchurian region of northeast Asia, who paid bows and arrows as tribute to Emperor Shun{{harvnb|Anonymous|1879|p=151}} and later to the Zhou dynasty.{{harvnb|Meng|2006|pp=7, 9}} The Sushen used flint-headed wooden arrows, farmed, hunted and fished, and lived in caves and trees.Huang 1990 p. 246. The cognates Sushen or Jichen () again appear in the Shan Hai Jing and Book of Wei during the dynastic era referring to the Tungusic Mohe tribes of the far northeast.{{citation needed|date=June 2019}} The Mohe practiced pig farming extensively and were mainly sedentary,Gorelova 2002, pp. 13–4. and also used both pig and dog skins for coats. They were predominantly farmers and grew soybeans, wheat, millet and rice, in addition to hunting.Gorelova 2002, p. 14.In the 10th century AD, the term Jurchen first appeared in documents of the late Tang dynasty in reference to the state of Balhae in present-day northeastern China.Following the fall of Balhae, the Jurchens became vassals of the Khitan-led Liao dynasty. The Jurchens in the Yalu River region were tributaries of Goryeo since the reign of Wang Geon, who called upon them during the wars of the Later Three Kingdoms period, but the Jurchens switched allegiance between Liao and Goryeo multiple times, taking advantage of the tension between the two nations; posing a potential threat to Goryeo's border security, the Jurchens offered tribute to the Goryeo court, expecting lavish gifts in return.Breuker 2010, pp. 220–221. "The Jurchen settlements in the Amnok River region had been tributaries of Koryŏ since the establishment of the dynasty, when T'aejo Wang Kŏn heavily relied on a large segment of Jurchen cavalry to defeat the armies of Later Paekche. The position and status of these Jurchen is hard to determine using the framework of the Koryŏ and Liao states as reference, since the Jurchen leaders generally took care to steer a middle course between Koryŏ and Liao, changing sides or absconding whenever that was deemed the best course. As mentioned above, Koryŏ and Liao competed quite fiercely to obtain the allegiance of the Jurchen settlers who in the absence of large armies effectively controlled much of the frontier area outside the Koryŏ and Liao fortifications. These Jurchen communities were expert in handling the tension between Liao and Koryŏ, playing out divide-and-rule policies backed up by threats of border violence. It seems that the relationship between the semi-nomadic Jurchen and their peninsular neighbours bore much resemblance to the relationship between Chinese states and their nomad neighbours, as described by Thomas Barfield." Before the Jurchens overthrew the Khitan, married Jurchen women and Jurchen girls were raped by Liao Khitan envoys as a custom which caused resentment by the Jurchens against the Khitan.BOOK, Tillman, Hoyt Cleveland, Tillman, Hoyt Cleveland, West, Stephen H., China Under Jurchen Rule: Essays on Chin Intellectual and Cultural History, 1995, SUNY Press, 0791422739, 27, illustrated,weblink Song princesses committed suicide to avoid rape or were killed for resisting rape by the Jin.BOOK, Ebrey, Patricia Buckley, Emperor Huizong, 2014, Harvard University Press, 978-0674726420, 468, illustrated, reprint,weblink In the year 1114, Wanyan Aguda united the Jurchen tribes and established the Jin dynasty (1115–1234).{{harvnb|Toqto'a|1975|pp=19–46}} His brother and successor, Wanyan Wuqimai defeated the Liao dynasty. After the fall of the Liao dynasty, the Jurchens went to war with the Northern Song dynasty, and captured most of northern China in the Jin–Song wars.{{harvnb|Toqto'a|1975|pp=47–67}} During the Jin dynasty, the first Jurchen script came into use in the 1120s. It was mainly derived from the Khitan script.The Jurchens were sedentary,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140318135121weblink">Williamson 2011.Vajda. settled farmers with advanced agriculture. They farmed grain and millet as their cereal crops, grew flax, and raised oxen, pigs, sheep and horses.Sinor 1996, p. 416. Their farming way of life was very different from the pastoral nomadism of the Mongols and the Khitans on the steppes.Twitchett, Franke, Fairbank 1994, p. 217.de Rachewiltz 1993, p. 112.In 1206, the Mongols, vassals to the Jurchens, rose in Mongolia. Their leader, Genghis Khan, led Mongol troops against the Jurchens, who were finally defeated by Ögedei Khan in 1234.{{harvnb|Zheng|2009|pp=18}} Under the Mongols' control, the Jurchens were divided into two groups and treated differently: the ones who were born and raised in North China and fluent in Chinese were considered to be Chinese (Han), but the people who were born and raised in the Jurchen homeland (Manchuria) without Chinese-speaking abilities were treated as Mongols politically.{{harvnb|Zheng|2009|pp=39}} From that time, the Jurchens of North China increasingly merged with the Han Chinese while those living in their homeland started to be Mongolized.{{harvnb|Jin|2006|p=107}} They adopted Mongolian customs, names {{#tag:ref|e.g. Möngke Temür, Qing dynasty emperors' ancestor|group=note}} and the Mongolian language. As time went on, fewer and fewer Jurchens could recognize their own script.The Mongol-led Yuan dynasty was replaced by the Ming dynasty in 1368. In 1387, Ming forces defeated the Mongol commander Naghachu's resisting forces who settled in the Haixi area{{harvnb|Peterson|2006|p=11}} and began to summon the Jurchen tribes to pay tribute.{{harvnb|Meng|2006|p=21}} At the time, some Jurchen clans were vassals to the Joseon dynasty of Korea such as Odoli and Huligai.{{harvnb|Meng|2006|pp=97, 120}} Their elites served in the Korean royal bodyguard.{{harvnb|Peterson|2006|p=15}} The Joseon Koreans tried to deal with the military threat posed by the Jurchen by using both forceful means and incentives, and by launching military attacks. At the same time they tried to appease them with titles and degrees, traded with them, and sought to acculturate them by having Jurchens integrate into Korean culture. Despite these measures, however, fighting continued between the Jurchen and the Koreans.Seth 2006, p. 138.Seth 2010, p. 144. Their relationship was eventually stopped by the Ming dynasty government who wanted the Jurchens to protect the border. In 1403, Ahacu, chieftain of Huligai, paid tribute to the Yongle Emperor of the Ming dynasty. Soon after that, Möngke Temür, chieftain of the Odoli clan of the Jianzhou Jurchens, defected from paying tribute to Korea, becoming a tributary state to China instead. Yi Seong-gye, the Taejo of Joseon, asked the Ming Empire to send Möngke Temür back but was refused.{{harvnb|Meng|2006|p=120}} The Yongle Emperor was determined to wrest the Jurchens out of Korean influence and have China dominate them instead.Zhang 2008, p. 29.BOOK, John W. Dardess, Ming China, 1368–1644: A Concise History of a Resilient Empire,weblink 2012, Rowman & Littlefield, 978-1-4422-0490-4, 18–, Korea tried to persuade Möngke Temür to reject the Ming overtures, but was unsuccessful, and Möngke Temür submitted to the Ming Empire.Goodrich 1976, p. 1066.Peterson 2002, p. 13.Twitchett & Mote 1998, pp. 286–287.Zhang 2008, p. 30. Since then, more and more Jurchen tribes presented tribute to the Ming Empire in succession. The Ming divided them into 384 guards, and the Jurchen became vassals to the Ming Empire.Di Cosmo 2007, p. 3. During the Ming dynasty, the name for the Jurchen land was Nurgan. The Jurchens became part of the Ming dynasty's Nurgan Regional Military Commission under the Yongle Emperor, with Ming forces erecting the Yongning Temple Stele in 1413, at the headquarters of Nurgan. The stele was inscribed in Chinese, Jurchen, Mongolian, and Tibetan.In 1449, Mongol taishi Esen attacked the Ming Empire and captured the Zhengtong Emperor in Tumu. Some Jurchen guards in Jianzhou and Haixi cooperated with Esen's action,{{harvnb|Writing Group of Manchu Brief History|2009|p=185}} but more were attacked in the Mongol invasion. Many Jurchen chieftains lost their hereditary certificates granted by the Ming government.{{harvnb|Meng|2006|p=19}} They had to present tribute as secretariats () with less reward from the Ming court than in the time when they were heads of guards â€“ an unpopular development. Subsequently, more and more Jurchens recognised the Ming Empire's declining power due to Esen's invasion. The Zhengtong Emperor's capture directly caused Jurchen guards to go out of control.{{harvnb|Meng|2006|pp=19, 21}} Tribal leaders, such as CungÅ¡an{{#tag:ref|CungÅ¡an was considered as Nurhaci's direct ancestor by some viewpoints,{{harvnb|Meng|2006|p=130}} but disagreements also exist.{{harvnb|Peterson|2006|p=28}}|group=note}} and (:zh:王杲|Wang Gao), brazenly plundered Ming territory. At about this time, the Jurchen script was officially abandoned.{{harvnb|Jin|2006|p=120}} More Jurchens adopted Mongolian as their writing language and fewer used Chinese.{{harvnb|Fuge|1984|p=152}} The final recorded Jurchen writing dates to 1526.BOOK,weblink Manchu: A Textbook for Reading Documents, Gertraude Roth, Li, 20 July 2018, University of Hawaii Press, Google Books, 9780824822064, The Manchus are sometimes mistakenly identified as nomadic people.Pamela Crossley, The Manchus, p. 3Patricia Buckley Ebrey et al., East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, 3rd edition, p. 271Frederic Wakeman, Jr., The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in the Seventeenth Century, p. 24, note 1 The Manchu way of life (economy) was agricultural, farming crops and raising animals on farms.Wurm 1996, p. 828. Manchus practiced slash-and-burn agriculture in the areas north of Shenyang.Reardon-Anderson 2000, p. 504. The Haixi Jurchens were "semi-agricultural, the Jianzhou Jurchens and Maolian () Jurchens were sedentary, while hunting and fishing was the way of life of the "Wild Jurchens".Mote, Twitchett & Fairbank 1988, p. 266. Han Chinese society resembled that of the sedentary Jianzhou and Maolian, who were farmers.Twitchett & Mote 1998, p. 258. Hunting, archery on horseback, horsemanship, livestock raising, and sedentary agriculture were all part of the Jianzhou Jurchens' culture.Rawski 1996, p. 834. Although Manchus practiced equestrianism and archery on horseback, their immediate progenitors practiced sedentary agriculture.Rawski 1998, p. 43. The Manchus also partook in hunting but were sedentary.Thomas T. Allsen 2011, p. 215. Their primary mode of production was farming while they lived in villages, forts, and walled towns. Their Jurchen Jin predecessors also practiced farming.BOOK, Transactions, American Philosophical Society (vol. 36, Part 1, 1946),weblink American Philosophical Society, 978-1-4223-7719-2, 10–, BOOK, Karl August Wittfogel, Chia-shêng Fêng, History of Chinese Society: Liao, 907-1125,weblink 1949, American Philosophical Society, 10,
"The (people of) Chien-chou and Mao-lin [YLSL always reads Mao-lien] are the descendants of the family Ta of Po-hai. They love to be sedentary and sew, and they are skilled in spinning and weaving. As for food, clothing and utensils, they are the same as (those used by) the Chinese. Those living south of the Ch'ang-pai mountain are apt to be soothed and governed." |salign = left |source = WEB,weblink zh:明代汉族与女真族的马市贸易, 萧国亮, 2007-01-24, ARTX.cn, 1, 25 July 2014, Translation from Sino-J̌ürčed relations during the Yung-Lo period, 1403–1424 by Henry SerruysSerruys 1955, p. 22.}}
Although their Mohe ancestors did not respect dogs, the Jurchens began to respect dogs around the time of the Ming dynasty, and passed this tradition on to the Manchus. It was prohibited in Jurchen culture to use dog skin, and forbidden for Jurchens to harm, kill, or eat dogs. For political reasons, the Jurchen leader Nurhaci chose variously to emphasize either differences or similarities in lifestyles with other peoples like the Mongols.Perdue 2009, p. 127. Nurhaci said to the Mongols that "the languages of the Chinese and Koreans are different, but their clothing and way of life is the same. It is the same with us Manchus (Jušen) and Mongols. Our languages are different, but our clothing and way of life is the same." Later Nurhaci indicated that the bond with the Mongols was not based in any real shared culture. It was for pragmatic reasons of "mutual opportunism," since Nurhaci said to the Mongols: "You Mongols raise livestock, eat meat, and wear pelts. My people till the fields and live on grain. We two are not one country and we have different languages."Peterson 2002, p. 31.

Manchu rule over China

{{Further|Eight Banners|Qing conquest of the Ming|Qing dynasty|Ethnic identity in the Eight Banners}}File:清 佚名 《清太祖天命皇帝朝服像》.jpg|thumb|upright|An imperial portrait of NurgaciNurgaciA century after the chaos started in the Jurchen lands, Nurhaci, a chieftain of the Jianzhou Left Guard, began a campaign against the Ming Empire in revenge for their manslaughter of his grandfather and father in 1583.{{harvnb|Zhao|1998|p=2}} He reunified the Jurchen tribes, established a military system called the "Eight Banners", which organized Jurchen soldiers into groups of "Bannermen", and ordered his scholar Erdeni and minister Gagai to create a new Jurchen script (later known as Manchu script) using the traditional Mongolian alphabet as a reference.{{harvnb|Yan|2006|pp=71, 88, 116, 137}}When the Jurchens were reorganized by Nurhaci into the Eight Banners, many Manchu clans were artificially created as a group of unrelated people founded a new Manchu clan (mukun) using a geographic origin name such as a toponym for their hala (clan name).BOOK, Sneath, David, The Headless State: Aristocratic Orders, Kinship Society, and Misrepresentations of Nomadic Inner Asia, 2007, Columbia University Press, 978-0231511674, 99–100, illustrated,weblink The irregularities over Jurchen and Manchu clan origin led to the Qing trying to document and systematize the creation of histories for Manchu clans, including manufacturing an entire legend around the origin of the Aisin Gioro clan by taking mythology from the northeast.BOOK, Crossley, Pamela Kyle, Orphan Warriors: Three Manchu Generations and the End of the Qing World, 1991, Princeton University Press, 0691008779, 33, illustrated, reprint,weblink In 1603, Nurhaci gained recognition as the Sure Kundulen Khan ({{manchu|m={{ManchuSibeUnicode|lang=mnc|ᠰᡠᡵᡝᡴᡠᠨᡩᡠᠯᡝᠨᡥᠠᠨ}}|v=sure kundulen han|a=sure kundulen han}}, "wise and respected khan") from his Khalkha Mongol allies;{{harvnb|Elliott|2001|p=56}} then, in 1616, he publicly enthroned himself and issued a proclamation naming himself Genggiyen Khan ({{manchu|m={{ManchuSibeUnicode|lang=mnc|ᡤᡝᠩᡤᡳᠶᡝᠨᡥᠠᠨ}}|v=genggiyen han|a=genggiyen han}}, "bright khan") of the Later Jin dynasty ({{manchu|m={{ManchuSibeUnicode|lang=mnc|ᠠᡳᠰᡳᠨᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ}}|v=aisin gurun|a=aisin gurun}}{{#tag:ref|Aka. Manchu State ({{manchu|m={{ManchuSibeUnicode|lang=mnc|ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ}}|v=manju gurun|a=manju gurun}}){{harvnb|Various authors|2008|p=283 (Manchu Veritable Records)}}|group=note}}, 後金). Nurhaci then launched his attack on the Ming dynasty and moved the capital to Mukden after his conquest of Liaodong.{{harvnb|Yan|2006|p=282}} In 1635, his son and successor Huangtaiji changed the name of the Jurchen ethnic group ({{manchu|m={{ManchuSibeUnicode|lang=mnc|ᠵᡠᡧᡝᠨ}}|v=jušen|a=juxen}}) to the Manchu.{{harvnb|Various authors|2008|pp=330–331 (Taizong period)}} A year later, Huangtaiji proclaimed himself the emperor of the Qing dynasty ({{manchu|m={{ManchuSibeUnicode|lang=mnc|ᡩᠠᡳ᠌ᠴᡳᠩᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ}}|v=daicing gurun|a=daiqing gurun{{#tag:ref|The meaning of "daicing" (daiqing) is debatable. It has been reported that the word was imported from Mongolian means "fighting country"A Tentative Discussion about Its Origin and Meaning of Daicing as a Name of a State (simplified Chinese)|group=note}}}}).{{harvnb|Du|1997|p=15}} Factors for the change of name of these people from Jurchen to Manchu include the fact that the term "Jurchen" had negative connotations since the Jurchens had been in a servile position to the Ming dynasty for several hundred years, and it also referred to people of the "dependent class".Elliott 2001, p. 70.Elliot 2006, p. 38.In 1644, the Ming capital, Beijing, was sacked by a peasant revolt led by Li Zicheng, a former minor Ming official who became the leader of the peasant revolt, who then proclaimed the establishment of the Shun dynasty. The last Ming ruler, the Chongzhen Emperor, committed suicide by hanging himself when the city fell. When Li Zicheng moved against the Ming general Wu Sangui, the latter made an alliance with the Manchus and opened the Shanhai Pass to the Manchu army. After the Manchus defeated Li Zicheng, they moved the capital of their new Qing Empire to Beijing ({{manchu|m={{ManchuSibeUnicode|lang=mnc|ᠪᡝᡤᡳᠩ}}|v=beging|a=beging}}{{harvnb|Hu|1994|p=113}}) in the same year.{{harvnb|Du|1997|pp=19–20}}The Qing government differentiated between Han Bannermen and ordinary Han civilians. Han Bannermen were Han Chinese who defected to the Qing Empire up to 1644 and joined the Eight Banners, giving them social and legal privileges in addition to being acculturated to Manchu culture. So many Han defected to the Qing Empire and swelled up the ranks of the Eight Banners that ethnic Manchus became a minority within the Banners, making up only 16% in 1648, with Han Bannermen dominating at 75% and Mongol Bannermen making up the rest.Naquin 1987, p. 141.Fairbank, Goldman 2006, p. 2006.WEB,weblink Summing up Naquin/Rawski, 18 March 2015, It was this multi-ethnic, majority Han force in which Manchus were a minority, which conquered China for the Qing Empire.eds. Watson, Ebrey 1991, p. 175.A mass marriage of Han Chinese officers and officials to Manchu women to balance the massive number of Han women who entered the Manchu court as courtesans, concubines, and wives. These couples were arranged by Prince Yoto and Hong Taiji in 1632 to promote harmony between the two ethnic groups.ed. Walthall 2008, p. 148. Also to promote ethnic harmony, a 1648 decree from the Shunzhi Emperor allowed Han Chinese civilian men to marry Manchu women from the Banners with the permission of the Board of Revenue if they were registered daughters of officials or commoners or the permission of their banner company captain if they were unregistered commoners. It was only later in the dynasty that these policies allowing intermarriage were done away with.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140111230216weblink">weblink 2014-01-11, Wayback Machine, 11 January 2014, BOOK,weblink Servants of the Dynasty, 18 March 2015, 9780520254442, Walthall, Anne, 2008, (File:Qing Empire circa 1820 EN.svg|thumb|upright=1.5|The Qing Empire ca. 1820)The change of the name from Jurchen to Manchu was made to hide the fact that the ancestors of the Manchus, the Jianzhou Jurchens, had been ruled by the Chinese.BOOK, Abahai, Hummel, Arthur W., Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period, 1644–1912 (2 vols), 2010, Global Oriental, 978-9004218017, 2, reprint,weblink Via Dartmoutn.eduBOOK, Grossnick, Roy A., Early Manchu Recruitment of Chinese Scholar-officials, 1972, University of Wisconsin—Madison, 10,weblink BOOK, Till, Barry, The Manchu era (1644–1912): arts of China's last imperial dynasty, 2004, Art Gallery of Greater Victoria, 5,weblink The Qing dynasty carefully hid the 2 original editions of the books of "Qing Taizu Wu Huangdi Shilu" and the "Manzhou Shilu Tu" (Taizu Shilu Tu) in the Qing palace, forbidden from public view because they showed that the Manchu Aisin Gioro family had been ruled by the Ming dynasty.BOOK, Nuthaci, Hummel, Arthur W., Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period, 1644–1912 (2 vols), 2010, Global Oriental, 978-9004218017, 598,weblink reprint, Via Dartmouth.eduBOOK, The Augustan, Volumes 17-20, 1975, Augustan Society, 34,weblink In the Ming period, the Koreans of Joseon referred to the Jurchen inhabited lands north of the Korean peninsula, above the rivers Yalu and Tumen to be part of Ming China, as the "superior country" (sangguk) which they called Ming China.BOOK, Kim, Sun Joo, The Northern Region of Korea: History, Identity, and Culture, 2011, University of Washington Press, 978-0295802176, 19,weblink The Qing deliberately excluded references and information that showed the Jurchens (Manchus) as subservient to the Ming dynasty, from the History of Ming to hide their former subservient relationship to the Ming. The Veritable Records of Ming were not used to source content on Jurchens during Ming rule in the History of Ming because of this.BOOK, Smith, Richard J., The Qing Dynasty and Traditional Chinese Culture, 2015, Rowman & Littlefield, 978-1442221949, 216,weblink As a result of their conquest of China, almost all the Manchus followed the prince regent Dorgon and the Shunzhi Emperor to Beijing and settled there.{{harvnb|Zhang|Zhang|2005|p=134}}{{harvnb|Liu|Zhao|Zhao|1997|p=1 (Preface)}} A few of them were sent to other places such as Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and Tibet to serve as garrison troops. There were only 1524 Bannermen left in Manchuria at the time of the initial Manchu conquest.{{harvnb|Zhang|Zhang|2005|p=18}} After a series of border conflicts with the Russians, the Qing emperors started to realize the strategic importance of Manchuria and gradually sent Manchus back where they originally came from. But throughout the Qing dynasty, Beijing was the focal point of the ruling Manchus in the political, economic and cultural spheres. The Yongzheng Emperor noted: "Garrisons are the places of stationed works, Beijing is their homeland."{{harvnb|Ortai|1985|p=1326}}While the Manchu ruling elite at the Qing imperial court in Beijing and posts of authority throughout China increasingly adopted Han culture, the Qing imperial government viewed the Manchu communities (as well as those of various tribal people) in Manchuria as a place where traditional Manchu virtues could be preserved, and as a vital reservoir of military manpower fully dedicated to the regime.{{harvnb|Lee|1970|pp=182–184}} The Qing emperors tried to protect the traditional way of life of the Manchus (as well as various other tribal peoples) in central and northern Manchuria by a variety of means. In particular, they restricted the migration of Han settlers to the region. This had to be balanced with practical needs, such as maintaining the defense of northern China against the Russians and the Mongols, supplying government farms with a skilled work force, and conducting trade in the region's products, which resulted in a continuous trickle of Han convicts, workers, and merchants to the northeast.{{harvnb|Lee|1970|pp=20–23,78–90,112–115}}Han Chinese transfrontiersmen and other non-Jurchen origin people who joined the Later Jin very early were put into the Manchu Banners and were known as "Baisin" in Manchu, and not put into the Han Banners to which later Han Chinese were placed in.BOOK, Chʻing Shih Wen Tʻi, Volume 10, Issues 1–2, 1989, Society for Qing Studies, 71,weblink BOOK, Crossley, Pamela Kyle, A Translucent Mirror: History and Identity in Qing Imperial Ideology, 2000, University of California Press, 0520928849, 82,weblink An example was the Tokoro Manchu clan in the Manchu banners which claimed to be descended from a Han Chinese with the surname of Tao who had moved north from Zhejiang to Liaodong and joined the Jurchens before the Qing in the Ming Wanli emperor's era.BOOK, Chʻing Shih Wen Tʻi, Volume 10, Issues 1–2, 1989, Society for Qing Studies, 71,weblink BOOK, Crossley, Pamela Kyle, A Translucent Mirror: History and Identity in Qing Imperial Ideology, 2000, University of California Press, 0520928849, 48,weblink BOOK, 清代名人傳略: 1644-1912, 1943, 經文書局, 780, reprint,weblink Via brill.comBOOK, Tuan-Fang, Hummel, Arthur William, Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing period (1644–1912), Volume 2; Volume 5, 1991, United States Government Printing Office, 9576380669, 780,weblink Via Dartmouth.edu The Han Chinese Banner Tong 佟 clan of Fushun in Liaoning falsely claimed to be related to the Jurchen Manchu Tunggiya 佟佳 clan of Jilin, using this false claim to get themselves transferred to a Manchu banner in the reign of the Kangxi emperor.JOURNAL, Crossley, Pamela, restricted access The Tong in Two Worlds: Cultural Identities in Liaodong and Nurgan during the 13th-17th centuries, Ch'ing-shih Wen-t'i, June 1983, 4, 9, 21–46,weblink Johns Hopkins University Press, Select groups of Han Chinese bannermen were mass transferred into Manchu Banners by the Qing, changing their ethnicity from Han Chinese to Manchu. Han Chinese bannermen of Tai Nikan 台尼堪 (watchpost Chinese) and Fusi Nikan 抚顺尼堪 (Fushun Chinese)BOOK, Elliott, Mark C., The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China, 2001, Stanford University Press, 0804746842, 84, illustrated, reprint,weblink backgrounds into the Manchu banners in 1740 by order of the Qing Qianlong emperor.BOOK, Crossley, Pamela Kyle, A Translucent Mirror: History and Identity in Qing Imperial Ideology, 2000, University of California Press, 0520928849, 128,weblink It was between 1618-1629 when the Han Chinese from Liaodong who later became the Fushun Nikan and Tai Nikan defected to the Jurchens (Manchus).BOOK, Crossley, Pamela Kyle, A Translucent Mirror: History and Identity in Qing Imperial Ideology, 2000, University of California Press, 0520928849, 103–5,weblink These Han Chinese origin Manchu clans continue to use their original Han surnames and are marked as of Han origin on Qing lists of Manchu clans.WEB,weblink WEB,weblink WEB,weblink WEB,weblink "闫"姓一支的来历_闫嘉庆_新浪博客, The Fushun Nikan became Manchufied and the originally Han banner families of Wang Shixuan, Cai Yurong, Zu Dashou, Li Yongfang, Shi Tingzhu and Shang Kexi intermarried extensively with Manchu families.WEB, Recent thoughts on the Hanjun flag,weblink bazww, 2019-03-08, Manchu families adopted Han Chinese sons from families of bondservant Booi Aha (baoyi) origin and they served in Manchu company registers as detached household Manchus and the Qing imperial court found this out in 1729. Manchu Bannermen who needed money helped falsify registration for Han Chinese servants being adopted into the Manchu banners and Manchu families who lacked sons were allowed to adopt their servant's sons or servants themselves.BOOK, Elliott, Mark C., The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China, 2001, Stanford University Press, 0804746842, 324, illustrated, reprint,weblink The Manchu families were paid to adopt Han Chinese sons from bondservant families by those families. The Qing Imperial Guard captain Batu was furious at the Manchus who adopted Han Chinese as their sons from slave and bondservant families in exchange for money and expressed his displeasure at them adopting Han Chinese instead of other Manchus.BOOK, Elliott, Mark C., The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China, 2001, Stanford University Press, 0804746842, 331, illustrated, reprint,weblink These Han Chinese who infiltrated the Manchu Banners by adoption were known as "secondary-status bannermen" and "false Manchus" or "separate-register Manchus", and there were eventually so many of these Han Chinese that they took over military positions in the Banners which should have been reserved for Manchus. Han Chinese foster-son and separate register bannermen made up 800 out of 1,600 soldiers of the Mongol Banners and Manchu Banners of Hangzhou in 1740 which was nearly 50%. Han Chinese foster-son made up 220 out of 1,600 unsalaried troops at Jingzhou in 1747 and an assortment of Han Chinese separate-register, Mongol, and Manchu bannermen were the remainder. Han Chinese secondary status bannermen made up 180 of 3,600 troop households in Ningxia while Han Chinese separate registers made up 380 out of 2,700 Manchu soldiers in Liangzhou. The result of these Han Chinese fake Manchus taking up military positions resulted in many legitimate Manchus being deprived of their rightful positions as soldiers in the Banner armies, resulting in the real Manchus unable to receive their salaries as Han Chinese infiltrators in the banners stole their social and economic status and rights. These Han Chinese infiltrators were said to be good military troops and their skills at marching and archery were up to par so that the Zhapu lieutenant general couldn't differentiate them from true Manchus in terms of military skills.BOOK, Elliott, Mark C., The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China, 2001, Stanford University Press, 0804746842, 325, illustrated, reprint,weblink Manchu Banners contained a lot of "false Manchus" who were from Han Chinese civilian families but were adopted by Manchu bannermen after the Yongzheng reign. The Jingkou and Jiangning Mongol banners and Manchu Banners had 1,795 adopted Han Chinese and the Beijing Mongol Banners and Manchu Banners had 2,400 adopted Han Chinese in statistics taken from the 1821 census. Despite Qing attempts to differentiate adopted Han Chinese from normal Manchu bannermen the differences between them became hazy.BOOK, Walthall, Anne, Servants of the Dynasty: Palace Women in World History, 2008, University of California Press, 978-0520254442, 144–145, illustrated,weblink These adopted Han Chinese bondservants who managed to get themselves onto Manchu banner roles were called kaihu ren (開戶人) in Chinese and dangse faksalaha urse in Manchu. Normal Manchus were called jingkini Manjusa.A Manchu Bannerman in Guangzhou called Hequan illegally adopted a Han Chinese named Zhao Tinglu, the son of former Han bannerman Zhao Quan, and gave him a new name, Quanheng in order that he be able to benefit from his adopted son receiving a salary as a Banner soldier.WEB, Porter, David, Zhao Quan Adds a Salary: Losing Banner Status in Qing Dynasty Guangzhou,weblink Fairbank Center Blog, Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies, Harvard University, Oct 31, 2016, Commoner Manchu bannermen who were not nobility were called irgen which meant common, in contrast to the Manchu nobility of the "Eight Great Houses" who held noble titles.BOOK, Crossley, Pamela Kyle, Orphan Warriors: Three Manchu Generations and the End of the Qing World, 1991, Princeton University Press, 0691008779, 14, illustrated, reprint,weblink BOOK, Rawski, Evelyn S., The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions, 2001, University of California Press, 0520228375, 66, illustrated, reprint,weblink This policy of artificially isolating the Manchus of the northeast from the rest of China could not last forever. In the 1850s, large numbers of Manchu bannermen were sent to central China to fight the Taiping rebels. (For example, just the Heilongjiang province – which at the time included only the northern part of today's Heilongjiang – contributed 67,730 bannermen to the campaign, of whom only 10–20% survived).{{harvnb|Lee|1970|p=117}} Those few who returned were demoralized and often disposed to opium addiction.{{harvnb|Lee|1970|pp=124–125}} In 1860, in the aftermath of the loss of "Outer Manchuria", and with the imperial and provincial governments in deep financial trouble, parts of Manchuria became officially open to Chinese settlement;{{harvnb|Lee|1970|p=103,sq}} within a few decades, the Manchus became a minority in most of Manchuria's districts.Dulimbai Gurun {{ManchuSibeUnicode|lang=mnc|ᡩᡠᠯᡳᠮᠪᠠᡳᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ}} is the Manchu name for China ({{zh|labels=no |t=中國 |p=Zhōngguó |l=Middle Kingdom}}).Hauer 2007, p. 117.Dvořák 1895, p. 80.Wu 1995, p. 102. After conquering the Ming dynasty, the Qing rulers typically referred to their state as the "Great Qing" ({{zh|labels=no |c=大清}}), or Daicing gurun in Manchu. In some documents, the state, or parts of it, is called "China" (Zhongguo), or "Dulimbai Gurun" in the Manchu tongue. Debate continues over whether the Qing equated the lands of the Qing state, including present-day Manchuria, Xinjiang, Mongolia, Tibet and other areas, with "China" in both the Chinese and Manchu languages. Some scholars claim that the Qing rulers defined China as a multiethnic state, rejecting the idea that China only meant Han areas, proclaiming that both Han and non-Han peoples were part of "China", using "China" to refer to the Qing dynasty's empire in official documents, international treaties, and foreign affairs, and the term "Chinese people" ({{zh|labels=no |t=中國人 |p=Zhōngguó Rén}}; Manchu: {{ManchuSibeUnicode|lang=mnc|ᡩᡠᠯᡳᠮᠪᠠᡳᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ {{zwj}}ᡳᠨᡳᠶᠠᠯᠮᠠ}} Dulimbai gurun-i niyalma) referred to all the Han, Manchu, and Mongol subjects of the Qing Empire.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140325231543weblink">Zhao 2006, pp. 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14.When the Qing Empire conquered Dzungaria in 1759, it proclaimed that the new land was absorbed into "China" (Dulimbai Gurun) in a Manchu language memorial.Dunnell 2004, p. 77.Dunnell 2004, p. 83.Elliott 2001, p. 503. The Qing government expounded in its ideology that it was bringing the "outer" non-Han Chinese like the Inner Mongols, Eastern Mongols, Oirat Mongols, and Tibetans together with the "inner" Han Chinese into "one family" united in the Qing state. The Qing government used the phrase "Zhongwai yijia" or "neiwai yijia" ("interior and exterior as one family") to convey this idea of unification of the different peoples of their empire.Dunnell 2004, pp. 76–77. A Manchu language version of a treaty with the Russian Empire concerning criminal jurisdiction over bandits called people from the Qing Empire as "people of the Central Kingdom (Dulimbai Gurun)".Cassel 2011, p. 205.Cassel 2012, p. 205.Cassel 2011, p. 44.Cassel 2012, p. 44. In the Manchu official Tulisen's Manchu language account of his meeting with the Torghut leader Ayuka Khan, it was mentioned that while the Torghuts were unlike the Russians, the "people of the Central Kingdom" (dulimba-i gurun , Zhongguo) were like the Torghuts; "people of the Central Kingdom" meant Manchus.Perdue 2009, p. 218.It was possible for Han Bannermen and Han bondservants (booi) to become Manchu by being transferred into the upper three Manchu Banners and having their surname "Manchufied" with the addition of a "giya" ({{zh|c=佳|labels=no}}) as a suffix. The process was called taiqi ({{zh|c=抬旗|l=raising of the banner|labels=no}}) in Chinese. It typically occurred in cases of intermarriage with the Aisin Gioro clan (the imperial clan); close relatives (fathers and brothers) of the concubine or Empress would get promoted from the Han Banner to the Manchu Banner and become Manchu.

Modern times

(File:So Hung Son, Manchurian noble lady.jpg|thumb| A Manchurian noble lady at her backyard)File:载涛.jpg |thumb|upright|Prince ZaitaoZaitao(File:王敏彤.jpg|thumb|upright|A noble lady, 1900s)Many Manchu Bannermen in Beijing supported the Boxers in the Boxer Rebellion and shared their anti-foreign sentiment.Crossley 1990, p. 174. The Manchu Bannermen were devastated by the fighting during the First Sino-Japanese War and the Boxer Rebellion, sustaining massive casualties during the wars and subsequently being driven into extreme suffering and hardship.Rhoads 2011, p. 80. Much of the fighting in the Boxer Rebellion against the foreigners in defense of Beijing and Manchuria was done by Manchu Banner armies, which were destroyed while resisting the invasion. The German Minister Clemens von Ketteler was assassinated by a Manchu.Rhoads 2000, p. 72. Thousands of Manchus fled south from Aigun during the fighting in the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, their cattle and horses then stolen by Russian Cossacks who razed their villages and homes.Shirokogorov 1924, p. 4. The clan system of the Manchus in Aigun was obliterated by the despoliation of the area at the hands of the Russian invaders.Chang 1956, p. 110.By the 19th century, most Manchus in the city garrison spoke only Mandarin Chinese, not Manchu, which still distinguished them from their Han neighbors in southern China, who spoke non-Mandarin dialects. That they spoke Beijing dialect made recognizing Manchus relatively easy.Rhoads 2011, p. 204.Rhoads 2000, p. 204. It was northern Standard Chinese which the Manchu Bannermen spoke instead of the local dialect the Han people around the garrison spoke, so that Manchus in the garrisons at Jingzhou and Guangzhou both spoke Mandarin even though Cantonese was spoken at Guangzhou, and the Beijing dialect distinguished the Manchu bannermen at the Xi'an garrison from other people.Rhoads 2011, p. 42.Rhoads 2000, p. 42. Many Manchu Bannermen got jobs as Mandarin teachers, writing textbooks for learning Mandarin and instructing people in Mandarin.Kaske 2008, p. 69. In Guangdong, the Manchu Mandarin teacher Sun Yizun advised that the Yinyun Chanwei and Kangxi Zidian, dictionaries issued by the Qing government, were the correct guides to Mandarin pronunciation, rather than the pronunciation of the Beijing and Nanjing dialects.Kaske 2008, p. 51. For teaching the Beijing dialect, Kyugaigo, the Japanese foreign language school, hired a Manchu in 1876.Kaske 2008, p. 70.In the late 19th century and early 1900s, intermarriage between Manchus and Han bannermen in the northeast increased as Manchu families were more willing to marry their daughters to sons from well off Han families to trade their ethnic status for higher financial status.Chen, Bijia, et al. "Interethnic Marriage in Northeast China, 1866–1913." Demographic Research, vol. 38, 2018, p. 953. JSTOR,weblink Han Chinese Li Guojie, the grandson of Li Hongzhang, married the Manchu daughter of Natong (), the Grand Secretary ().BOOK, Edward J. M. Rhoads, Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861–1928,weblink 2000, University of Washington Press, 978-0-295-98040-9, 76–77, Most intermarriage consisted of Han Bannermen marrying Manchus in areas like Aihun.BOOK, Edward J. M. Rhoads, Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861–1928,weblink 1 December 2011, University of Washington Press, 978-0-295-80412-5, 263–, Han Chinese Bannermen wedded Manchus and there was no law against this.BOOK, Owen Lattimore, Manchuria, Cradle of Conflict,weblink 1932, Macmillan, 47, Two of the Han Chinese General Yuan Shikai's sons married Manchu women, his sons Yuan Kequan 克权 marrying one of Manchu official Duanfang's daughters and Yuan Kexiang 克相 marrying one of Manchu official Natong's daughters, and one his daughters married a Manchu man, Yuan Fuzhen 复祯 marrying one of Manchu official Yinchang's sons.JOURNAL, Chao, Sheau-yueh J., Gee, KaChuen Yuan, Early Life of Yuan Shikai and the Formation ofYuan Family, 2012, 26, 28, 29, 32,weblink CUNY AcademicWorks, As the end of the Qing dynasty approached, Manchus were portrayed as outside colonizers by Chinese nationalists such as Sun Yat-sen, even though the Republican revolution he brought about was supported by many reform-minded Manchu officials and military officers.{{harvnb|Rhoads|2000|p=265}} This portrayal dissipated somewhat after the 1911 revolution as the new Republic of China now sought to include Manchus within its national identity.{{harvnb|Rhoads|2000|p=275}} In order to blend in, some Manchus switched to speaking the local dialect instead of Standard Chinese.Rhoads 2011, p. 270.Rhoads 2000, p. 270.By the early years of the Republic of China, very few areas of China still had traditional Manchu populations. Among the few regions where such comparatively traditional communities could be found, and where the Manchu language was still widely spoken, were the Aigun ({{manchu|m={{ManchuSibeUnicode|lang=mnc|ᠠᡳ᠌ᡥᡡᠨ}}|v=aihÅ«n|a=aihvn}}) District and the Qiqihar ({{manchu|m={{ManchuSibeUnicode|lang=mnc|ᠴᡳᠴᡳᡤᠠᡵ}}|v=cicigar|a=qiqigar}}) District of Heilongjiang Province.{{harvnb|Shirokogorov|1924|pp=i,3–4}}Until 1924, the Chinese government continued to pay stipends to Manchu bannermen, but many cut their links with their banners and took on Han-style names to avoid persecution.{{harvnb|Rhoads|2000|p=270}} The official total of Manchus fell by more than half during this period, as they refused to admit their ethnicity when asked by government officials or other outsiders.{{harvnb|Rhoads|2000|pp=270, 283}} On the other hand, in warlord Zhang Zuolin's reign in Manchuria, much better treatment was reported.{{harvnb|Jin|2009|p=157}}{{harvnb|Writing Group of Manchu Brief History|2009|p=153}} There was no particular persecution of Manchus. Even the mausoleums of Qing emperors were still allowed to be managed by Manchu guardsmen, as in the past. Many Manchus joined the Fengtian clique, such as Xi Qia, a member of the Qing dynasty's imperial clan.As a follow-up to the Mukden Incident, Manchukuo, a puppet state in Manchuria, was created by the Empire of Japan which was nominally ruled by the deposed Last Emperor, Puyi, in 1932. Although the nation's name implied a primarily Manchu affiliation, it was actually a completely new country for all the ethnicities in Manchuria,{{harvnb|Puyi|2007|pp=223–224}}{{harvnb|Jin|2009|p=160}} which had a majority Han population and was opposed by many Manchus as well as people of other ethnicities who fought against Japan in the Second Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese Ueda Kyōsuke labeled all 30 million people in Manchuria "Manchus", including Han Chinese, even though most of them were not ethnic Manchu, and the Japanese-written "Great Manchukuo" built upon Ueda's argument to claim that all 30 million "Manchus" in Manchukuo had the right to independence to justify splitting Manchukuo from China.Tamanoi 2000, p. 253. In 1942, the Japanese-written "Ten Year History of the Construction of Manchukuo" attempted to emphasize the right of ethnic Japanese to the land of Manchukuo while attempting to delegitimize the Manchus' claim to Manchukuo as their native land, noting that most Manchus moved out during the Qing dynasty and only returned later.Tamanoi 2000, p. 255.In 1952, after the failure of both Manchukuo and the Nationalist Government (KMT), the newborn People's Republic of China officially recognized the Manchu as one of the ethnic minorities in 1952 as Mao Zedong had criticized the Han chauvinism that dominated the KMT.{{harvnb|Rhoads|2000|p=277}} In the 1953 census, 2.5 million people identified themselves as Manchu.{{harvnb|Rhoads|2000|p=276}} The Communist government also attempted to improve the treatment of Manchu people; some Manchu people who had hidden their ancestry during the period of KMT rule became willing to reveal their ancestry, such as the writer Lao She, who began to include Manchu characters in his fictional works in the 1950s.{{harvnb|Rhoads|2000|p=280}} Between 1982 and 1990, the official count of Manchu people more than doubled from 4,299,159 to 9,821,180, making them China's fastest-growing ethnic minority,{{harvnb|Rhoads|2000|p=282}} but this growth was only on paper, as people formerly registered as Han applied for official recognition as Manchu.{{harvnb|Rhoads|2000|p=283}} Since the 1980s, thirteen Manchu autonomous counties have been created in Liaoning, Jilin, Hebei, and Heilongjiang.Patrick Fuliang Shan, "Elastic Self-consciousness and the reshaping of Manchu Identity," in Ethnic China: Identity, Assimilation and Resistance, (Lexington and Rowman & Littlefield, 2015), pp. 39–59.The Eight Banners system is one of the most important ethnic identity of today's Manchu people.{{harvnb|Elliott|2001|p=43}} So nowadays, Manchus are more like an ethnic coalition which not only contains the descendants of Manchu bannermen, also has a large number of Manchu-assimilated Chinese and Mongol bannermen.{{harvnb|Du|2008|p=46}}{{harvnb|Li|2006|p=121}}{{harvnb|Zhang|2008|pp=230, 233, 248}}{{harvnb|Jin|2009|p=5 (Preface)}} However, Solon and Sibe Bannermen who were considered as part of Eight Banner system under the Qing dynasty were registered as independent ethnic groups by the PRC government as Daur, Evenk, Nanai, Oroqen, and Sibe.{{harvnb|Rhoads|2000|p=295}}Since the 1980s, the reform after Cultural Revolution, there has been a renaissance of Manchu culture and language among the government, scholars and social activities with remarkable achievements.{{harvnb|Writing Group of Manchu Brief History|2009|pp=209, 215, 218–228}} It was also reported that the resurgence of interest also spread among Han Chinese.WEB,weblink Eras Journal – Tighe, J: Review of "The Manchus", Pamela Kyle Crossley, 27 April 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110303003630weblink">weblink 3 March 2011, dmy-all, In modern China, Manchu culture and language preservation is promoted by the Communist Party of China, and Manchus once again form one of the most socioeconomically advanced minorities within China.BOOK, Poston, Dudley, The Population of Modern China, Plenum Press, 595, Manchus generally face little to no discrimination in their daily lives, there is however, a remaining anti-Manchu sentiment amongst extremist Han nationalists. It is particularly common with participants of the Hanfu movement who subscribe to conspiracy theories about Manchu people, such as the Chinese Communist Party being occupied by Manchu elites hence the better treatment Manchus receive under the People's Republic of China in contrast to their persecution under the KMT's Republic of China rule.Kevin Carrico, A State of Warring Styles

Population

Mainland China

Most Manchu people now live in Mainland China with a population of 10,410,585, which is 9.28% of ethnic minorities and 0.77% of China's total population. Among the provincial regions, there are two provinces, Liaoning and Hebei, which have over 1,000,000 Manchu residents. Liaoning has 5,336,895 Manchu residents which is 51.26% of Manchu population and 12.20% provincial population; Hebei has 2,118,711 which is 20.35% of Manchu people and 70.80% of provincial ethnic minorites. Manchus are the largest ethnic minority in Liaoning, Hebei, Heilongjiang and Beijing; 2nd largest in Jilin, Inner Mongolia, Tianjin, Ningxia, Shaanxi and Shanxi and 3rd largest in Henan, Shandong and Anhui.

Distribution

{{Hidden begin|toggle =|border =|header = Distribution of Manchu population in the People's Republic of China|title =|titlestyle =|bodystyl =|bg1 =|bg2 =|ta1 =|ta2 =|extra1 =|extra2 =}}{| class="wikitable sortable" style="font-size: 90%; text-align: right;"! Rank! Region! TotalPopulation! Manchu! Percentagein ManchuPopulation! Percentagein the PopulationofEthnic Minorities(%! Regional PercentageofPopulation! Regional RankofEthnic Population style="background:#9cf;"| Total| 1,335,110,869{{color>#008000|10,410,585}}| 100| 9.28| 0.77| style="background:#ff0;"| Total(in all 31 provincial regions)| 1,332,810,869{{color>#008000|10,387,958}}| 99.83| 9.28| 0.78| style="background:silver;"| G1 Northeast| 109,513,129{{color>#008000|6,951,280}}| 66.77| 68.13| 6.35| style="background:silver;"| G2 North| 164,823,663{{color>#008000|3,002,873}}| 28.84| 32.38| 1.82| style="background:silver;"| G3 East| 392,862,229{{color>#008000|122,861}}| 1.18| 3.11| 0.03| style="background:silver;"| G4 South Central| 375,984,133{{color>#008000|120,424}}| 1.16| 0.39| 0.03| style="background:silver;"| G5 Northwest| 96,646,530{{color>#008000|82,135}}| 0.79| 0.40| 0.08| style="background:silver;"| G6 Southwest| 192,981,185{{color>#008000|57,785}}| 0.56| 0.15| 0.03| style="background:#c9f;"| 1Liaoning Province>Liaoning| 43,746,323{{color>#008000|5,336,895}}| 51.26| 80.34| 12.20#FFD700|2nd}} style="background:#c9f;"| 2Hebei Province>Hebei| 71,854,210{{color>#008000|2,118,711}}| 20.35| 70.80| 2.95#FFD700|2nd}} style="background:#fdbbca;"| 3Jilin Province>Jilin| 27,452,815{{color>#008000|866,365}}| 8.32| 39.64| 3.16#C0C0C0"|3rd}} style="background:#fdbbca;"| 4Heilongjiang Province>Heilongjiang| 38,313,991{{color>#008000|748,020}}| 7.19| 54.41| 1.95#FFD700"|2nd}} style="background:#fdbbca;"| 5| Inner Mongolia| 24,706,291{{color>#008000|452,765}}| 4.35| 8.96| 2.14#C0C0C0"|3rd}} style="background:#fdbbca;"| 6| Beijing| 19,612,368{{color>#008000|336,032}}| 3.23| 41.94| 1.71#FFD700"|2nd}}| 7| Tianjin| 12,938,693{{color>#008000|83,624}}| 0.80| 25.23| 0.65#C0C0C0"|3rd}}| 8Henan Province>Henan| 94,029,939{{color>#008000|55,493}}| 0.53| 4.95| 0.06#CC9966"|4th}}| 9Shandong Province>Shandong| 95,792,719{{color>#008000|46,521}}| 0.45| 6.41| 0.05#CC9966"|4th}}| 10Guangdong Province>Guangdong| 104,320,459{{color>#008000|29,557}}| 0.28| 1.43| 0.03| 9th| 11| Shanghai| 23,019,196{{color>#008000|25,165}}| 0.24| 9.11| 0.11| 5th| 12| Ningxia| 6,301,350{{color>#008000|24,902}}| 0.24| 1.12| 0.40#C0C0C0"|3rd}}| 13Guizhou Province>Guizhou| 34,748,556{{color>#008000|23,086}}| 0.22| 0.19| 0.07| 18th| 14| Xinjiang| 21,815,815{{color>#008000|18,707}}| 0.18| 0.14| 0.09| 10th| 15Jiangsu Province>Jiangsu| 78,660,941{{color>#008000|18,074}}| 0.17| 4.70| 0.02| 7th| 16Shaanxi Province>Shaanxi| 37,327,379{{color>#008000|16,291}}| 0.16| 8.59| 0.04#C0C0C0"|3rd}}| 17Sichuan Province>Sichuan| 80,417,528{{color>#008000|15,920}}| 0.15| 0.32| 0.02| 10th| 18Gansu Province>Gansu| 25,575,263{{color>#008000|14,206}}| 0.14| 0.59| 0.06| 7th| 19Yunnan Province>Yunnan| 45,966,766{{color>#008000|13,490}}| 0.13| 0.09| 0.03| 24th| 20Hubei Province>Hubei| 57,237,727{{color>#008000|12,899}}| 0.12| 0.52| 0.02| 6th| 21Shanxi Province>Shanxi| 25,712,101{{color>#008000|11,741}}| 0.11| 12.54| 0.05#C0C0C0"|3rd}}| 22Zhejiang Province>Zhejiang| 54,426,891{{color>#008000|11,271}}| 0.11| 0.93| 0.02| 13th| 23| Guangxi| 46,023,761{{color>#008000|11,159}}| 0.11| 0.07| 0.02| 12th| 24Anhui Province>Anhui| 59,500,468{{color>#008000|8,516}}| 0.08| 2.15| 0.01#CC9966"|4th}}| 25Fujian Province>Fujian| 36,894,217{{color>#008000|8,372}}| 0.08| 1.05| 0.02| 10th| 26Qinghai Province>Qinghai| 5,626,723{{color>#008000|8,029}}| 0.08| 0.30| 0.14| 7th| 27Hunan Province>Hunan| 65,700,762{{color>#008000|7,566}}| 0.07| 0.12| 0.01| 9th| 28Jiangxi Province>Jiangxi| 44,567,797{{color>#008000|4,942}}| 0.05| 2.95| 0.01| 6th| 29| Chongqing| 28,846,170{{color>#008000|4,571}}| 0.04| 0.24| 0.02| 7th| 30Hainan Province>Hainan| 8,671,485{{color>#008000|3,750}}| 0.04| 0.26| 0.04| 8th| 31Tibet Autonomous Region>Tibet| 3,002,165{{color>#008000|718}}|

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