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Manchester
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{{About|the city of Manchester in England|the larger conurbation|Greater Manchester Built-up Area|the wider metropolitan county|Greater Manchester|other uses}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{use British English|date=July 2014}}{{use dmy dates|date=September 2016}}







factoids
| subdivision_name1 = EnglandRegions of England>Region| subdivision_name2 = North West EnglandCity region (United Kingdom)>City regionGreater Manchester Statutory City Region>ManchesterCeremonial counties of England>Ceremonial county| subdivision_name4 = Greater ManchesterHistoric counties of England>Historic county| subdivision_name5 = Salford Hundred, Lancashire (north of River Mersey) Cheshire (south of River Mersey)| government_footnotes = | governing_body = Manchester City Council| government_type = Metropolitan boroughExecutive arrangements#Leader and cabinet>Leadership| leader_name = Leader and CabinetPolitical make-up of local councils in the United Kingdom#Unitary authorities>ExecutiveGSS=E08000003}}| leader_title2 = Leader| leader_name2 = Sir Richard LeeseLord Mayor of Manchester>Lord MayorPUBLISHER= MANCHESTER.GOV.UK, 11 June 2019, Manchester City Council#Chief Executive>Chief Executive| leader_name4 = Joanne Roney| established_title = Founded| established_date = 1st century| established_title2 = Town charter| established_date2 = 1301| established_title3 = City statusList of cities in the United Kingdom>29 March 1853| seat_type = Administrative HQManchester Town Hall>Town Hall)| area_magnitude = | unit_pref = | total_type = City| area_footnotes = GSS=E08000003}}GSS=E08000003}}| area_land_km2 = | area_water_km2 = | area_total_sq_mi = | area_land_sq_mi = | area_water_sq_mi = | area_water_percent = | area_urban_km2 = 630.3| area_urban_sq_mi = | area_metro_km2 = | area_metro_sq_mi = | area_blank1_title = | area_blank1_km2 = | area_blank1_sq_mi = | population_as_of = {{English statistics year}}GSS = E08000003}}| population_footnotes = GSS = E08000003}}| population_blank1_title = | population_blank1 = GSS=E08000003}}PUBLISHER=OFFICE FOR NATIONAL STATISTICS >ACCESSDATE=7 NOVEMBER 2013, | population_blank2 = White groups (66.7% ) Asian (14.4%)Black (8.6%)Mixed (4.7%)Chinese (2.7%)Arab (1.9%) Other (1.2%)| population_density_sq_mi = | population_urban = 3,226,109 (List of urban areas in the European Union)| population_density_urban_km2 = 4051| population_density_urban_sq_mi = PUBLISHER=EUROSTAT, 27 August 2018, (List of metropolitan areas in Europe)| population_density_metro_km2 = | population_density_metro_sq_mi = List of people from Manchester>MancunianManc (colloq.)| timezone = Greenwich Mean Time| utc_offset = +0| timezone_DST = British Summer Time| utc_offset_DST = +15346243region:GB|display=inline,title}}| elevation_footnotes = | elevation_m = 38| elevation_ft = Government Statistical Service>GSS code| blank_info_sec1 = E08000003NUTS of the United Kingdom>NUTS 3 code| blank1_info_sec1 = UKD33Ordnance Survey National Grid>OS grid referenceSJ838980}}List of motorways in the United Kingdom>MotorwaysM56 motorway>M56M60 motorwayA57(M) motorway (Great Britain)>A57(M)A635(M)Highways England#The strategic road network>Trunk primary routesA5103 road>A5103UK railway stations>Major railway stationsManchester Airport station>Manchester Airport (United Kingdom railway station categories)Manchester Oxford Road railway station>Manchester Oxford Road (United Kingdom railway station categories)Manchester Piccadilly station>Manchester Piccadilly (United Kingdom railway station categories)Manchester Victoria station>Manchester Victoria (B)List of modern tramway & light rail systems in England>TramwaysManchester Metrolink>MetrolinkList of airports in the United Kingdom and the British Crown Dependencies>International airportsManchester Airport>Manchester (MAN)List of postcode areas in the United Kingdom>Postcode areasM postcode area>M, WA postcode area (Ringway, Manchester>Ringway)List of dialling codes in the United Kingdom>Dialling code| area_code = 0161GB-MAN)Gross domestic product>GDPAmerican dollar>US$ 113.3 billionHTTP://WWW.BROOKINGS.EDU/RESEARCH/REPORTS2/2015/01/22-GLOBAL-METRO-MONITOR>TITLE=GLOBAL CITY GDP 2013–2014ACCESSDATE=25 MARCH 2015, | blank1_name_sec2 = – Per capitaAmerican dollar>US$ 38,233List of MPs elected in the 2015 United Kingdom general election>MPsGraham Stringer (Labour Party (UK)>L)Lucy Powell (Labour Party (UK))Afzal Khan (British politician)>Afzal Khan (Labour Party (UK))Jeff Smith (British politician)>Jeff Smith (Labour Party (UK))Mike Kane (Labour Party (UK)>L)| blank3_name_sec2 = Councillors| blank3_info_sec2 = 96| blank4_name_sec2 = European ParliamentNorth West England (European Parliament constituency)>North West EnglandList of law enforcement agencies in the United Kingdom, Crown dependencies and British Overseas Territories>PoliceGreater Manchester Police>Greater ManchesterFire services in the United Kingdom>Fire and RescueGreater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service>Greater ManchesterEmergency medical services in the United Kingdom>AmbulanceNorth West Ambulance Service>North West| website = www.manchester.gov.uk| footnotes = }}Manchester ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|m|æ|n|tʃ|ɪ|s|t|É™r|,_|-|tʃ|É›|s|-}}){{citation |last=Wells |first=John C. |year=2008 |title=Longman Pronunciation Dictionary |edition=3rd |publisher=Longman |isbn=9781405881180}}{{citation |last=Roach |first=Peter |year=2011 |title=Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary |edition=18th |place=Cambridge |publisher=Cambridge University Press |isbn=9780521152532}} is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. With a population of 545,500 (2017) it is the sixth largest city in the United Kingdom.WEB, Population estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland,weblink www.ons.gov.uk, Office for National Statistics, en, 28 June 2018, 16 July 2018, It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority is Manchester City Council.The recorded history of Manchester began with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium or Mancunium, which was established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell. It is historically a part of Lancashire, although areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated in the 20th century. The first to be included, Wythenshawe, was added to the city in 1931. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a manorial township, but began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century. Manchester's unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution,BOOK, The Cotton Industry, Aspin, Chris, Shire Publications Ltd, 1981, 0-85263-545-1, 3, and resulted in it becoming the world's first industrialised city.BOOK, Manchester: A History, Kidd, Alan, 2006, Carnegie Publishing, Lancaster, 1-85936-128-5, • BOOK, Tradition in Action. The historical evolution of the Greater Manchester County, Frangopulo, Nicholas, 1977, EP Publishing, Wakefield, 0-7158-1203-3, • WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120309184810weblink">weblink 9 March 2012, Manchester – the first industrial city, Entry on Sciencemuseum website, 17 March 2012, Manchester achieved city status in 1853. The Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester and directly linking the city to the Irish Sea, {{convert|36|mi|km}} to the west. Its fortune declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation, but the IRA bombing in 1996 led to extensive investment and regeneration.WEB,weblink Recap: The IRA bomb in Manchester... what happened on June 15, 1996, Jennifer, Williams, 15 June 2016, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160817001934weblink">weblink 17 August 2016, In 2014, the Globalisation and World Cities Research Network ranked Manchester as a beta world city, the highest-ranked British city apart from London.WEB,weblink The World According to GaWC 2012, 25 March 2014, Globalization and World Cities Research Network, The 2018 Globalisation and World Cities Research Network had Manchester ranked alongside Edinburgh and Birmingham as Beta cities. Manchester is the third-most visited city in the UK, after London and Edinburgh.NEWS,weblink London visited by 50% of UK's tourists, 21 May 2013, BBC News, It is notable for its architecture, culture, musical exports, media links, scientific and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the world's first inter-city passenger railway station; scientists first split the atom, developed the stored-program computer and produced graphene in the city. Manchester hosted the 2002 Commonwealth Games.

{{anchor|Etymology}} Name

The name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunium and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians ({{IPAc-en|m|æ|n|ˈ|k|juː|n|i|ə|n}}). These are generally thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name, either from mamm- ("breast", in reference to a "breast-like hill") or from mamma ("mother", in reference to a local river goddess). Both meanings are preserved in Insular Celtic languages, such as mam meaning "breast" in Irish and "mother" in Welsh.JOURNAL, The Antiquaries Journal, 0003-5815, 2004, 84, 353–357, Manchester's Ancient Name, Andrew, Breeze, 10.1017/S0003581500045893, The suffix -chester is a survival of Old English ceaster and from that castra in latin for camp or settlement ("fort; fortified town").BOOK, A Dictionary of British Place-Names,weblink Mills, A.D., 2003, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 0-19-852758-6, 7 November 2013,

History

{{see also|Timeline of Manchester history}}

Early history

The Brigantes were the major Celtic tribe in what is now known as Northern England; they had a stronghold in the locality at a sandstone outcrop on which Manchester Cathedral now stands, opposite the banks of the River Irwell.BOOK, Glynis, Cooper, Salford: An Illustrated History, The Breedon Books Publishing Company, 2005, 1-85983-455-8, 19, Their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Salford and Stretford. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, General Agricola ordered the construction of a fort named Mamucium in the year 79 to ensure that Roman interests in Deva Victrix (Chester) and Eboracum (York) were protected from the Brigantes. Central Manchester has been permanently settled since this time.BOOK, Halloween: from Pagan Ritual to Party Night,weblink Rogers, Nicholas, 2003, 18, Oxford University Press, 0-19-516896-8, 7 November 2013, A stabilised fragment of foundations of the final version of the Roman fort is visible in Castlefield. The Roman habitation of Manchester probably ended around the 3rd century; its civilian settlement appears to have been abandoned by the mid-3rd century, although the fort may have supported a small garrison until the late 3rd or early 4th century.BOOK, Gregory, Richard (ed), Roman Manchester: The University of Manchester's Excavations within the Vicus 2001–5, 190, Oxbow Books, 2007, Oxford, 978-1-84217-271-1, After the Roman withdrawal and Saxon conquest, the focus of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell and Irk sometime before the arrival of the Normans after 1066.BOOK, Manchester: A History, Kidd, Alan, 2006, 12, 15–24, 224, Carnegie Publishing, Lancaster, 1-85936-128-5, Much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North.BOOK, A History of Manchester, Hylton, Stuart, 2003, 1–10, 22, 25, 42, 63–67, 69, Phillimore & Co, 1-86077-240-4, BOOK, Stockport: a History, Arrowsmith, Peter, 1997, 30, Stockport Metropolitan Borough Council, 0-905164-99-7, (File:Map of manchester circa 1650.jpg|thumb|left|A map of Manchester c. 1650)File:Map of Manchester 1801.PNG|thumb|left|A map of Manchester and Salford from 1801]]File:McConnel & Company mills, about 1820.jpg|thumb|left|Cotton mills in AncoatsAncoatsFile:Peterloo Massacre.png|thumb|left|The Peterloo MassacrePeterloo MassacreThomas de la Warre, lord of the manor, founded and constructed a collegiate church for the parish in 1421. The church is now Manchester Cathedral; the domestic premises of the college house Chetham's School of Music and Chetham's Library.BOOK, Pevsner Architectural Guides: Manchester, Hartwell, Clare, 2001, 11–17, 155, 256, 267–268, Penguin Books, London, 0-14-071131-7, The library, which opened in 1653 and is still open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom.BOOK, Robert, Nicholls, Curiosities of Greater Manchester, Sutton Publishing, 2004, 0-7509-3661-4, Manchester is mentioned as having a market in 1282.BOOK, Gazetteer of Markets and Fairs in England and Wales to 1516,weblink Letters, Samantha, 2005, 19, British History Online, 5 May 2009, Around the 14th century, Manchester received an influx of Flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the region's textile industry.BOOK, Lancashire, The Industrial and Commercial South, Pevsner, Nikolaus, 1969, 265, Penguin Books, London, 0-14-071036-1, Manchester became an important centre for the manufacture and trade of woollens and linen, and by about 1540, had expanded to become, in John Leland's words, "The fairest, best builded, quickest, and most populous town of all Lancashire." The cathedral and Chetham's buildings are the only significant survivors of Leland's Manchester.During the English Civil War Manchester strongly favoured the Parliamentary interest. Although not long-lasting, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP. Charles Worsley, who sat for the city for only a year, was later appointed Major General for Lancashire, Cheshire and Staffordshire during the Rule of the Major Generals. He was a diligent puritan, turning out ale houses and banning the celebration of Christmas; he died in 1656.BOOK, Cromwell's major generals: godly government during the English Revolution, Politics, culture, and society in early modern Britain, Durston, Christopher, 2001, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 0-7190-6065-6,weblink 5 May 2009, Significant quantities of cotton began to be used after about 1600, firstly in linen/cotton fustians, but by around 1750 pure cotton fabrics were being produced and cotton had overtaken wool in importance. The Irwell and Mersey were made navigable by 1736, opening a route from Manchester to the sea docks on the Mersey. The Bridgewater Canal, Britain's first wholly artificial waterway, was opened in 1761, bringing coal from mines at Worsley to central Manchester. The canal was extended to the Mersey at Runcorn by 1776. The combination of competition and improved efficiency halved the cost of coal and halved the transport cost of raw cotton. Manchester became the dominant marketplace for textiles produced in the surrounding towns. A commodities exchange, opened in 1729, and numerous large warehouses, aided commerce. In 1780, Richard Arkwright began construction of Manchester's first cotton mill. In the early 1800s, John Dalton formulated his atomic theory in Manchester.

Industrial Revolution

Manchester's history is concerned with textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. The great majority of cotton spinning took place in the towns of south Lancashire and north Cheshire, and Manchester was for a time the most productive centre of cotton processing,BOOK, McNeil, Robina, Michael Nevell, A Guide to the Industrial Archaeology of Greater Manchester, Association for Industrial Archaeology, 2000, 0-9528930-3-7, and later the world's largest marketplace for cotton goods.BOOK, Hall, Peter, Cities in Civilisation, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1998, 0-297-84219-6, The first industrial city: Manchester 1760–1830, Manchester was dubbed "Cottonopolis" and "Warehouse City" during the Victorian era. In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the term "manchester" is still used for household linen: sheets, pillow cases, towels, etc.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Manchester, Oxford English Dictionary, March 2016,weblink 17 December 2016, Oxford, Oxford University Press, The industrial revolution brought about huge change in Manchester and was key to the increase in Manchester's population.Manchester began expanding "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century as people flocked to the city for work from Scotland, Wales, Ireland and other areas of England as part of a process of unplanned urbanisation brought on by the Industrial Revolution.WEB,weblink Timelines.tv Urban Slums, Timelines.tv, 2 February 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120218092606weblink">weblink 18 February 2012, yes, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Manchester: migrant city, Schofield, Jonathan, BBC Manchester:New Kids From The Bloc, BBC, 6 April 2013, BOOK, The Cotton Industry, Aspin, Chris, Shire Publications, Aylesbury, 1981, 0-85263-545-1, 3, It developed a wide range of industries, so that by 1835 "Manchester was without challenge the first and greatest industrial city in the world." Engineering firms initially made machines for the cotton trade, but diversified into general manufacture. Similarly, the chemical industry started by producing bleaches and dyes, but expanded into other areas. Commerce was supported by financial service industries such as banking and insurance.{{multiple image| align = right| direction = horizontal| width = | image1 = View from Kersal Moor, Salford - 1820.jpg| width1 = 220| alt1 = | caption1 = View from Kersal Moor towards Manchester by Thomas Pether, circa 1820, then still a rural landscape.| image2 = Manchester from Kersal Moor William Wylde (1857).jpg| width2 = 232| alt2 = | caption2 = Manchester from Kersal Moor, by William Wyld in 1857, a view now dominated by chimney stacks as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution.}} Trade, and feeding the growing population, required a large transport and distribution infrastructure: the canal system was extended, and Manchester became one end of the world's first intercity passenger railway—the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. Competition between the various forms of transport kept costs down. In 1878 the GPO (the forerunner of British Telecom) provided its first telephones to a firm in Manchester.WEB,weblink Events in Telecommunications History, 13 March 2015, BT Archives, 1878, The Manchester Ship Canal was built between 1888 and 1894, in some sections by canalisation of the Rivers Irwell and Mersey, running {{convert|36|mi|km|0}}WEB,weblink Manchester Ship Canal, Peel Ports, from Salford to Eastham Locks on the tidal Mersey. This enabled oceangoing ships to sail right into the Port of Manchester. On the canal's banks, just outside the borough, the world's first industrial estate was created at Trafford Park. Large quantities of machinery, including cotton processing plant, were exported around the world.A centre of capitalism, Manchester was once the scene of bread and labour riots, as well as calls for greater political recognition by the city's working and non-titled classes. One such gathering ended with the Peterloo Massacre of 16 August 1819. The economic school of Manchester capitalism developed there, and Manchester was the centre of the Anti-Corn Law League from 1838 onward.Manchester has a notable place in the history of Marxism and left-wing politics; being the subject of Friedrich Engels' work The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844; Engels spent much of his life in and around Manchester,WEB,weblink Marx-Engels Internet Archive – Biography of Engels, 5 May 2009, Marx/Engels Biography Archive, 1893, and when Karl Marx visited Manchester, they met at Chetham's Library. The economics books Marx was reading at the time can be seen in the library, as can the window seat where Marx and Engels would meet. The first Trades Union Congress was held in Manchester (at the Mechanics' Institute, David Street), from 2 to 6 June 1868. Manchester was an important cradle of the Labour Party and the Suffragette Movement.BOOK, Manchester: A history, Kidd, Alan, 2006, Chapter 9 England Arise! The Politics of Labour and Women's Suffrage, Carnegie Publishing, Lancaster, 1-85936-128-5, At that time, it seemed a place in which anything could happen—new industrial processes, new ways of thinking (the Manchester School, promoting free trade and laissez-faire), new classes or groups in society, new religious sects, and new forms of labour organisation. It attracted educated visitors from all parts of Britain and Europe. A saying capturing this sense of innovation survives today: "What Manchester does today, the rest of the world does tomorrow."BOOK, Speake, Jennifer, The Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs,weblink 6 July 2007, 2003, 4th, Oxford University Press, 0-19-860524-2, What Manchester says today, the rest of England says tomorrow, •WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090628122546weblink">weblink 28 June 2009,weblink Osborne: Our vision to make Manchester the creative capital of Europe, 4 May 2009, Osborne, George, George Osborne, 7 March 2007, Conservative Party Website, Conservative Party, The saying goes that what Manchester does today the rest of the world does tomorrow., •WEB,weblink Manchester Life, 5 May 2009, Manchester Metropolitan University, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080411200443weblink">weblink 8 November 2007, What Manchester does today, the world does tomorrow, Manchester's golden age was perhaps the last quarter of the 19th century. Many of the great public buildings (including Manchester Town Hall) date from then. The city's cosmopolitan atmosphere contributed to a vibrant culture, which included the Hallé Orchestra. In 1889, when county councils were created in England, the municipal borough became a county borough with even greater autonomy.File:Oxford Road, Manchester 1910, Valette.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|An oil painting of Oxford Road, Manchester in 1910 by Valette ]]Although the Industrial Revolution brought wealth to the city, it also brought poverty and squalor to a large part of the population. Historian Simon Schama noted that "Manchester was the very best and the very worst taken to terrifying extremes, a new kind of city in the world; the chimneys of industrial suburbs greeting you with columns of smoke". An American visitor taken to Manchester's blackspots saw "wretched, defrauded, oppressed, crushed human nature, lying and bleeding fragments".EPISODE, Victoria and Her Sisters, A History of Britain, A History of Britain (TV series), Simon Schama (presenter), BBC One, 4 June 2002, 13, The number of cotton mills in Manchester itself reached a peak of 108 in 1853. Thereafter the number began to decline and Manchester was surpassed as the largest centre of cotton spinning by Bolton in the 1850s and Oldham in the 1860s. However, this period of decline coincided with the rise of the city as the financial centre of the region. Manchester continued to process cotton, and in 1913, 65% of the world's cotton was processed in the area. The First World War interrupted access to the export markets. Cotton processing in other parts of the world increased, often on machines produced in Manchester. Manchester suffered greatly from the Great Depression and the underlying structural changes that began to supplant the old industries, including textile manufacture.

Blitz

Like most of the UK, the Manchester area was mobilised extensively during the Second World War. For example, casting and machining expertise at Beyer, Peacock and Company's locomotive works in Gorton was switched to bomb making; Dunlop's rubber works in Chorlton-on-Medlock made barrage balloons; and just outside the city in Trafford Park, engineers Metropolitan-Vickers made Avro Manchester and Avro Lancaster bombers and Ford built the Rolls-Royce Merlin engines to power them. Manchester was thus the target of bombing by the Luftwaffe, and by late 1940 air raids were taking place against non-military targets. The biggest took place during the "Christmas Blitz" on the nights of 22/23 and 24 December 1940, when an estimated {{convert|467|long ton|t|order=flip}} of high explosives plus over 37,000 incendiary bombs were dropped. A large part of the historic city centre was destroyed, including 165 warehouses, 200 business premises, and 150 offices. 376 were killed and 30,000 houses were damaged.BOOK, Hardy, Clive, Manchester at War, 2nd, 2005, Altrincham, 1-84547-096-6, 75–99, The blitz, First Edition Limited, Manchester Cathedral was among the buildings seriously damaged; its restoration took 20 years.WEB,weblink Timeline, 5 May 2009, Manchester Cathedral Online, 2008,

Post-Second World War

Cotton processing and trading continued to fall in peacetime, and the exchange closed in 1968. By 1963 the port of Manchester was the UK's third largest,BOOK, Manchester: an Architectural History, Parkinson-Bailey, John J, 2000, 127, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 0-7190-5606-3, • BOOK, Lancashire, The Industrial and Commercial South, Pevsner, Nikolaus, 1969, 267, Penguin Books, London, 0-14-071036-1, and employed over 3,000 men, but the canal was unable to handle the increasingly large container ships. Traffic declined, and the port closed in 1982.WEB,weblink PDF, Salford Quays milestones: the story of Salford Quays, 5 May 2009, Salford City Council, 2005, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090327122642weblink">weblink 27 March 2009, Heavy industry suffered a downturn from the 1960s and was greatly reduced under the economic policies followed by Margaret Thatcher's government after 1979. Manchester lost 150,000 jobs in manufacturing between 1961 and 1983.File:BBC picture Arndale centre after 1996 bomb.jpg|thumb|left|Corporation Street after the Manchester bombing on 15 June 1996. There were no fatalities, but it was one of the most expensive man-made disasters.JOURNAL, Kim, Sengupata,weblink £411m cost after Manchester bomb sets record, The IndependentThe IndependentRegeneration began in the late 1980s, with initiatives such as the Metrolink, the Bridgewater Concert Hall, the Manchester Arena, and (in Salford) the rebranding of the port as Salford Quays. Two bids to host the Olympic Games were part of a process to raise the international profile of the city.File:Oxford Road Manchester 2014.jpg|thumb|upright=0.95|right|Oxford Road, one of the main thoroughfares into Manchester city centreManchester city centreManchester has a history of attacks attributed to Irish Republicans, including the Manchester Martyrs of 1867, arson in 1920, a series of explosions in 1939, and two bombs in 1992.On Saturday 15 June 1996, the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) carried out the 1996 Manchester bombing, the detonation of a large bomb next to a department store in the city centre. The largest to be detonated on British soil, the bomb injured over 200 people, heavily damaged nearby buildings, and broke windows {{convert|1/2|mi|m}} away. The cost of the immediate damage was initially estimated at £50 million, but this was quickly revised upwards.BOOK, A History of Manchester, Stuart, Hylton, 2003, 227–230, Phillimore & Co, Chichester, 1-86077-240-4, The final insurance payout was over £400 million; many affected businesses never recovered from the loss of trade.NEWS,weblink Panorama – The cost of terrorism, 5 May 2009, BBC, 15 May 2004,

Since 2000

Spurred by the investment after the 1996 bomb, and aided by the XVII Commonwealth Games, Manchester's city centre has undergone extensive regeneration.BOOK, Pevsner Architectural Guides: Manchester, Hartwell, Clare, 2001, Penguin Books, London, 0-14-071131-7, • BOOK, Manchester: an Architectural History, John J, Parkinson-Bailey, 2000, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 0-7190-5606-3, • BOOK, Lancashire: Manchester and the South-East,weblink Hartwell, Clare, Hyde, Matthew, Pevsner, Nikolaus, Nikolaus Pevsner, 2004, Yale University Press, New Haven & London, 0-300-10583-5, 7 November 2013, New and renovated complexes such as The Printworks and the Corn Exchange have become popular shopping, eating and entertainment destinations. The Manchester Arndale is the UK's largest city centre shopping centre.WEB,weblink Manchester Arndale, 9 October 2008, Prudential plc, 2007, Large sections of the city dating from the 1960s have been either demolished and re-developed or modernised with the use of glass and steel. Old mills have been converted into modern apartments, Hulme has undergone extensive regeneration programmes, and million-pound lofthouse apartments have since been developed. The 47-storey, {{convert|169|m|ft|adj=on|order=flip}} tall, Beetham Tower was the tallest building in the UK outside London and the highest residential accommodation in Europe when completed in 2006 (it was surpassed in 2018 by the {{convert|201|m|ft|adj=on|order=flip}} South Tower of the Deansgate Square project, also in Manchester).NEWS,weblink City building reaches full height, 9 October 2008, BBC, 26 April 2006, In January 2007, the independent Casino Advisory Panel awarded Manchester a licence to build the only supercasino in the UK,NEWS,weblink Greenwich loses Casino Bet, 9 October 2008, BBC, 15 February 2007, however plans were officially abandoned in February 2008.NEWS,weblink Empty promises and spin, 9 October 2008, M.E.N. media, Manchester Evening News, 26 February 2008, Ottewell, David, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130130203421weblink">weblink 30 January 2013, On 22 May 2017, an Islamic terrorist carried out a bombing at an Ariana Grande concert in the Manchester Arena. The bomb killed 23, including the attacker, and injured over 800.NEWS,weblink Manchester Arena attack: Bomb 'injured more than 800', BBC News, 16 May 2018, It was the deadliest terrorist attack and the first suicide bombing in Britain since the 7 July 2005 London bombings. The attack caused worldwide condemnation and the changing of the UK's threat level to "critical" for the first time since 2007.NEWS, Manchester attack: Terror threat reduced from critical to severe,weblink BBC News, Since around the turn of the 21st century, Manchester has been regarded by sections of the international press,WEB,weblink With Manchester Festival, England's second city bids for cultural spotlight, 5 May 2009, LA Times, 3 July 2007, British public,WEB,weblink Manchester poll 'England's second city', 3 February 2012, Ipsos MORI North, 2002, and government ministers as being the second city of the United Kingdom.NEWS, Prescott ranks Manchester as second city,weblink Manchester Evening News, M.E.N media, 3 February 2005, 5 May 2009, We have had fantastic co-operation here in Manchester—our second city, I am prepared to concede., yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131110104637weblink">weblink 10 November 2013, NEWS,weblink Manchester 'close to second city', 5 May 2009, BBC News, 29 September 2005, The BBC reports that redevelopment of recent years has heightened claims that Manchester is the second city of the UK.NEWS,weblink Manchester 'England's second city', 5 May 2009, BBC News, 12 September 2002, •NEWS,weblink Manchester tops second city poll, 5 May 2009, BBC News, 10 February 2007, •WEB,weblink Birmingham loses out to Manchester in second city face off, 5 May 2009, BBC, 9 February 2007, Manchester and Birmingham have traditionally competed as frontrunners for this unofficial title.

Governance

{{See also|Manchester local elections|List of Lord Mayors of Manchester|Healthcare in Greater Manchester}}File:Manchester Town Hall from Lloyd St.jpg|thumb|right|Manchester Town Hall in Albert Square, seat of local government, is an example of Victorian era Gothic revivalGothic revivalThe City of Manchester is governed by the Manchester City Council. The Greater Manchester Combined Authority, with a directly elected mayor, has responsibilities for economic strategy and transport, amongst other areas, on a Greater Manchester-wide basis. Manchester has been a member of the English Core Cities Group since its inception in 1995.WEB,weblink About the Core Cities Group, 9 July 2007, English Core Cities Group, 2004,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070919035621weblink">weblink 19 September 2007, The town of Manchester was granted a charter by Thomas Grelley in 1301, but lost its borough status in a court case of 1359. Until the 19th century local government was largely in the hands of manorial courts, the last of which was dissolved in 1846.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110211203737weblink">weblink 11 February 2011, Greater Manchester Gazetteer, Greater Manchester County Record Office, 9 July 2007, Places names – M to N, From a very early time, the township of Manchester lay within the historic or ceremonial county boundaries of Lancashire. Pevsner wrote "That [neighbouring] Stretford and Salford are not administratively one with Manchester is one of the most curious anomalies of England". A stroke of a Norman baron's pen is said to have divorced Manchester and Salford, though it was not Salford that became separated from Manchester, it was Manchester, with its humbler line of lords, that was separated from Salford.BOOK, Tradition in Action. The historical evolution of the Greater Manchester County, Frangopulo, Nicholas, 1977, EP Publishing, Wakefield, 0-7158-1203-3, It was this separation that resulted in Salford becoming the judicial seat of Salfordshire, which included the ancient parish of Manchester. Manchester later formed its own Poor Law Union using the name "Manchester". In 1792, Commissioners—usually known as "Police Commissioners"—were established for the social improvement of Manchester. Manchester regained its borough status in 1838, and comprised the townships of Beswick, Cheetham Hill, Chorlton upon Medlock and Hulme. By 1846, with increasing population and greater industrialisation, the Borough Council had taken over the powers of the "Police Commissioners". In 1853, Manchester was granted "city status" in the United Kingdom.In 1885, Bradford, Harpurhey, Rusholme and parts of Moss Side and Withington townships became part of the City of Manchester. In 1889, the city became a county borough as did many larger Lancashire towns, and therefore not governed by Lancashire County Council. Between 1890 and 1933, more areas were added to the city which had been administered by Lancashire County Council, including former villages such as Burnage, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Didsbury, Fallowfield, Levenshulme, Longsight, and Withington. In 1931, the Cheshire civil parishes of Baguley, Northenden and Northen Etchells from the south of the River Mersey were added. In 1974, by way of the Local Government Act 1972, the City of Manchester became a metropolitan district of the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester. That year, Ringway, the village where the Manchester Airport is located, was added to the City.In November 2014, it was announced that Greater Manchester would receive a new directly elected Mayor. The Mayor would have fiscal control over health, transport, housing and police in the area.NEWS,weblink Perils of the 'Northern Powerhouse': is devolution a mixed blessing, Phillip Inman, 16 May 2015, 17 May 2015, The Guardian, Andy Burnham was elected as the first Mayor of Greater Manchester in 2017.

Geography

{{See also|Geography of Greater Manchester}}(File:River irwell liz.JPG|thumb|River Irwell from Blackfriar's Bridge){{climate chart|Manchester6|697|509|6112|5115|6118|6720|6520|7917|7414|779|787|78|source=Climate-Charts.com|float=right}}At {{Coord|53|28|0|N|2|14|0|W|type:city}}, {{convert|160|mi|km|sigfig=2}} northwest of London, Manchester lies in a bowl-shaped land area bordered to the north and east by the Pennines, an upland chain that runs the length of northern England, and to the south by the Cheshire Plain. Manchester is {{convert|35.0|mi}} north-east of Liverpool and {{convert|35.0|mi}} north-west of Sheffield, making the city the halfway point between the two. The city centre is on the east bank of the River Irwell, near its confluences with the Rivers Medlock and Irk, and is relatively low-lying, being between {{convert|115|to|138|ft|m|abbr=off|order=flip}} above sea level.BOOK, Manchester: A History, Kidd, Alan, 2006, 11, Carnegie Publishing, Lancaster, 1-85936-128-5, The River Mersey flows through the south of Manchester. Much of the inner city, especially in the south, is flat, offering extensive views from many highrise buildings in the city of the foothills and moors of the Pennines, which can often be capped with snow in the winter months. Manchester's geographic features were highly influential in its early development as the world's first industrial city. These features are its climate, its proximity to a seaport at Liverpool, the availability of water power from its rivers, and its nearby coal reserves.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090327122645weblink">weblink 27 March 2009, The Manchester Coalfields, 5 May 2009, Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester, 2001, PDF, File:Map of Manchester.png|thumb|left|upright|The City of Manchester. The land useland useThe name Manchester, though officially applied only to the metropolitan district within Greater Manchester, has been applied to other, wider divisions of land, particularly across much of the Greater Manchester county and urban area. The "Manchester City Zone", "Manchester post town" and the "Manchester Congestion Charge" are all examples of this.For purposes of the Office for National Statistics, Manchester forms the most populous settlement within the Greater Manchester Urban Area, the United Kingdom's third-largest conurbation. There is a mixture of high-density urban and suburban locations in Manchester. The largest open space in the city, at around {{convert|260|ha|acre|0}},WEB,weblink Heaton Park, 20 July 2009, thecgf.com, is Heaton Park. Manchester is contiguous on all sides with several large settlements, except for a small section along its southern boundary with Cheshire. The M60 and M56 motorways pass through the south of Manchester, through Northenden and Wythenshawe respectively. Heavy rail lines enter the city from all directions, the principal destination being Manchester Piccadilly station.

Climate

Manchester experiences a temperate Oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb), like much of the British Isles, with mild summers and cool winters. Summer daytime temperatures regularly top 20 Celsius, typically reaching 25 Celsius on sunny days throughout July and August in particular. In more recent years, temperatures now reach over 30 Celsius on occasions. There is regular but generally light precipitation throughout the year. The city's average annual rainfall is {{convert|806.6|mm|in|2}}WEB,weblink Manchester Airport 1971–2000 weather averages, 5 May 2009, Met Office, 2001, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070929103050weblink">weblink 29 September 2007, compared to the UK average of {{convert|1125.0|mm|in|2}},WEB,weblink UK 1971–2000 averages, 5 May 2009, Met Office, 2001, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090705140124weblink">weblink 5 July 2009, and its mean rain days are 140.4 per annum, compared to the UK average of 154.4. Manchester has a relatively high humidity level and this, along with the abundant supply of soft water, was one of the factors that led to the localisation of the textile industry in the area.BOOK, Smith, Wilfred, An Economic Geography of Great Britain, Taylor and Francis, 1959, 470, II, Snowfalls are not common in the city because of the urban warming effect but the West Pennine Moors to the northwest, South Pennines to the northeast and Peak District to the east receive more snow, which can close roads leading out of the city.NEWS,weblink Roads chaos as snow sweeps in Manchester, 5 May 2009, Manchester Evening News, 24 February 2005, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131102012810weblink">weblink 2 November 2013, They include the A62 via Oldham and Standedge,WEB, Snow: West Yorkshire traffic and travel latest,weblink Halifax Courier, Halifax Courier, 9 November 2017, the A57, Snake Pass, towards Sheffield,WEB,weblink Peak District sightseer's guide – Snake Pass, 5 May 2009, High Peak, 2002, and the Pennine section of the M62.WEB, Live: M62 motorway closed and 20 miles of queues as snow and high winds return to Greater Manchester,weblink Manchester Evening News, Manchester Evening News, 9 November 2017, The lowest temperature ever recorded in Manchester was {{convert|-17.6|C|F|abbr=on}} on 7 January 2010.WEB, News, Manchester Evening, Minus 17.6C – Big freeze sets new record,weblink manchestereveningnews.co.uk, 7 January 2010, {{Manchester weatherbox}}

Green belt

{{further|North West Green Belt}}Manchester lies at the centre of a green belt region that extends into the wider surrounding counties, which is in place to reduce urban sprawl, prevent the towns in the conurbation from further convergence, protect the identity of outlying communities, and preserve nearby countryside. This is achieved by restricting inappropriate development within the designated areas, and imposing stricter conditions on permitted building.Due to being already highly urban, the city contains limited portions of protected green belt area within greenfield throughout the borough, with minimal development opportunities,WEB, Urban Density -v- Suburban Sprawl – The Leader's Blog,weblink www.manchester.gov.uk, en, at Clayton Vale, Heaton Park, Chorlton Water Park along with the Chorlton Ees & Ivy Green nature reserve and the floodplain surrounding the River Mersey, as well as the southern area around Manchester Airport.WEB, Manchester's Local Development Framework Core Strategy Development Plan Document Adopted 11th July 2012 Published by Manchester City Council,weblink www.manchester.gov.uk, The green belt was first drawn up in 1961.WEB, Local Development Framework Evidence Base Green Belt Review July 2010,weblink www.manchester.gov.uk,

Demography

{{See also|Demography of Greater Manchester}}{{Pie chart|thumb = right|caption = Racial structure, according to the 2011 census|label1 = White Groups|value1 = 66.7|color1 = Red|label2 = Asian|value2 = 14.4|color2 = Orange|label3 = Black|value3 = 8.6|color3 = Yellow|label4 = Mixed|value4 = 4.7|color4 = Green|label5 = Chinese|value5 = 2.7|color5 = Blue|label6 = Arab|value6 = 1.9|color6 = Purple|label7 = Other|value7 = 1.2|color7 = White}}Below are the 10 largest immigrant groups of Manchester in 2011.{|! Country of Birth! Immigrants in Manchester (2011 Census)Pakistan}}|20,712China}}|8,781Ireland}}|8,737Poland}}|6,836Nigeria}}|6,444India}}|6,433Somalia}}|3,645Jamaica}}|3,528Bangladesh}}|3,138Iraq}}|2,809{{Pie chart|thumb = right|caption = Religious beliefs, according to the 2011 census|label1 = Christian|value1 = 48.7|color1 = Red|label2 = No Religion|value2 = 25.3|color2 = Orange|label3 = Muslim|value3 = 15.8|color3 = Yellow|label4 = Hindu|value4 = 1.1|color4 = Green|label5 = Buddhist|value5 = 0.8|color5 = blue|label6 = Jewish|value6 = 0.5|color6 = purple|label7 = Other|value7 = 0.9|color7 = white|label8 = Religion Not Stated|value8 = 6.9|color8 = Grey}}Historically the population of Manchester began to increase rapidly during the Victorian era, estimated at 354,930 for Manchester and 110,833 for Salford in 1865,WEB,weblink New Zealand Herald, 1866-10-04, paperspast.natlib.govt.nz, en, 2018-11-11, and peaking at 766,311 in 1931. From then the population began to decrease rapidly, due to slum clearance and the increased building of social housing overspill estates by Manchester City Council after the Second World War such as Hattersley and Langley.JOURNAL, Shapely, Peter, 2002–2003, The press and the system built developments of inner-city Manchester, Manchester Region History Review, 16, 30–39, Manchester Centre for Regional History, Manchester, 0952-4320,weblink PDF, 22 November 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120210182610weblink">weblink 10 February 2012, The 2012 Mid-Year Estimate for the population of Manchester was 510,700. This was an increase of 7,900, or 1.6%, since the 2011 MYE. Since 2001, the population has grown by 87,900, or 20.8%. Manchester was the third fastest-growing of the areas in the 2011 census.WEB,weblink Public Intelligence Population Publications, Manchester City Council, 1 April 2005, 9 August 2014, The city experienced the greatest percentage population growth outside London, with an increase of 19% to over 500,000.NEWS, Townsend, Lucy, Westcott, Kathryn,weblink Census 2011: Five lesser-spotted things in the data, BBC News, 17 July 2012, 9 August 2014, Manchester's population is projected to reach 532,200 by 2021, an increase of 5.8% from 2011. This represents a slower rate of growth than the previous decade.The Greater Manchester Built-up Area had a population of 2,553,400 (2011 est.). An estimated 2,702,200 people live in Greater Manchester (2012 est.). 6,547,000 people live within {{convert|30|mi|km|sigfig=1}} of Manchester (2012 est.) and 11,694,000 within {{convert|50|mi|km|sigfig=1}} (2012 est.).Between the beginning of July 2011 and end of June 2012 (Mid-Year Estimate date), births exceeded deaths by 4,800. Migration (internal and international) and other changes accounted for a net increase of 3,100 people between July 2011 and June 2012. Compared to Greater Manchester and England, Manchester has a younger population, with a particularly large 20–35 age group.There were 76,095 under- and post-graduate students at the Manchester Metropolitan University, the University of Manchester and Royal Northern College of Music during the academic year 2011/12.Since the 2001 census, the proportion of Christians in Manchester has decreased by 22% from 62.4% to 48.7%. The proportion of people with no religious affiliation increased by 58.1% from 16% to 25.3%, whilst the proportion of Muslims increased by 73.6% from 9.1% to 15.8%. The size of the Jewish population in Greater Manchester is the largest in Britain outside London.WEB,weblink Second largest, 14 September 2007, Something Jewish, File:Greater Manchester Population.png|thumb|left|upright=1.35|The population of Manchester shown with other boroughs in the Greater ManchesterGreater ManchesterOf all households in Manchester, 0.23% were Same-Sex Civil Partnership couple households, compared to the English national average of 0.16% in 2011.WEB,weblink Manchester Neighbourhood Statistics â€“ Same-Sex couples, 26 February 2014, Office for National Statistics, 2001, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140303031924weblink">weblink 3 March 2014, dmy-all, In terms of ethnic composition, the City of Manchester has the highest non-white proportion of any district in Greater Manchester. Statistics from the 2011 census showed that 66.7% of the population was White (59.3% White British, 2.4% White Irish, 0.1% Gypsy or Irish Traveller, 4.9% Other White â€“ although those of mixed European and British ethnic groups is unknown; there are reportedly over 25,000 Mancunians of at least partial Italian descent alone which represents 5.5% of the city's populationNEWS,weblink BBC News, Italians revolt over church closure, 29 November 2003, 12 May 2010, David, Green, ). 4.7% were mixed race (1.8% White and Black Caribbean, 0.9% White and Black African, 1.0% White and Asian, 1.0% Other Mixed), 17.1% Asian (2.3% Indian, 8.5% Pakistani, 1.3% Bangladeshi, 2.7% Chinese, 2.3% Other Asian), 8.6% Black (5.1% African, 1.6% Other Black), 1.9% Arab and 1.2% of other ethnic heritage.WEB,weblink 2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in England and Wales, ONS, 12 December 2012, Kidd identifies Moss Side, Longsight, Cheetham Hill, Rusholme, as centres of population for ethnic minorities. Manchester's Irish Festival, including a St Patrick's Day parade, is one of Europe's largest.WEB,weblink The Manchester Irish Festival: the largest in the UK, 28 June 2007, Manchester Irish Festival Website, 2007, There is also a well-established Chinatown in the city with a substantial number of oriental restaurants and Chinese supermarkets. The area also attracts large numbers of Chinese students to the city who, in attending the local universities,WEB,weblink History of Manchester's Chinatown, 22 November 2007, 2004, BBC, contribute to Manchester having the third-largest Chinese population in Europe.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120313201103weblink">weblink 13 March 2012, Manchester Airport celebrates Diwali and Eid, 7 September 2012, 2011, MAG Airports Group, WEB,weblink Airport City bosses in £650m China mission, 7 September 2012, 2012, Manchester Evening News, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140117014055weblink">weblink 17 January 2014, The Manchester Larger Urban Zone, a Eurostat measure of the functional city-region approximated to local government districts, has a population of 2,539,100 in 2004.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130112222759weblink">weblink 12 January 2013, Urban Audit â€“ City Profiles: Manchester, Urban Audit, 5 October 2008, In addition to Manchester itself, the LUZ includes the remainder of the county of Greater Manchester.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081217143002weblink">weblink 17 December 2008, Towards a Common Standard, 29, PDF, Greater London Authority, 5 October 2008, The Manchester LUZ is the second largest within the United Kingdom, behind that of London.

Economy

{{See also|List of companies based in Greater Manchester}}{{See also|List of UK cities by GVA}}{| class="wikitable" style="float:right;"GVA for Greater Manchester South 2002–2012HTTP://WWW.ONS.GOV.UK/ONS/REL/REGIONAL-ACCOUNTS/REGIONAL-GROSS-VALUE-ADDED--INCOME-APPROACH-/DECEMBER-2013/RFT-NUTS3.XLS, Regional Gross Value Added (Income Approach) NUTS3 Tables, 2013, Office for National Statistics, 9 August 2014, ! Year || GVA (£ million) || Growth (%)| {{increase}}{{0}}3.8%| {{increase}}{{0}}4.4%| {{increase}}{{0}}11.2%| {{increase}}{{0}}2.6%| {{increase}}{{0}}6.3%| {{increase}}{{0}}5.4%| {{increase}}{{0}}0.2%| {{increase}}{{0}}3.4%| {{increase}}{{0}}1.7%| {{decrease}}{{0}}0.8%| {{increase}}{{0}}3.8%| {{increase}}{{0}}9.6%File:Manchester from the Sky, 2008.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|left|Aerial view of Manchester city centreManchester city centreThe Office for National Statistics does not produce economic data for the City of Manchester alone, but includes four other metropolitan boroughs, Salford, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, in an area named Greater Manchester South, which had a GVA of £34.8bn. The economy grew relatively strongly between 2002 and 2012, where growth was 2.3% above the national average.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131219012657weblink">weblink 19 December 2013, The Leeds Economy, 2004, Leeds City Council, 9 August 2014, yes, dmy, With a GDP of $102.3bn (2015 est., PPP) the wider metropolitan economy is the third-largest in the United Kingdom.WEB,weblink Global MetroMonitor, 28 March 2015, Istrate, Emilia, Nadeau, Carey Anne, November 2012, Washington, DC, The Brookings Institution, It is ranked as a beta world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.As the UK economy continues to recover from the downturn experienced in 2008–10, Manchester compares favourably to other geographies according to the latest figures. In 2012 it is shown the strongest annual growth in business stock (5%) of all the Core Cities.WEB,weblink Release Edition Reference Tables: Business Demography, 2012, Office for National Statistics, 27 November 2013, 9 August 2014, The city experienced a relatively sharp increase in the number of business deaths, the largest increase of all the Core Cities, however this was offset by strong growth in new businesses which resulted in a strong net growth.Manchester's civic leadership has a reputation for business acumen.NEWS,weblink Cities: The vacuum cleaners, The Economist, 9 November 2013, 9 August 2014, It owns two of the country's four busiest airports and uses its earnings to fund local projects.NEWS,weblink Manchester Airports Group dividend windfall for councils, BBC News, 31 July 2013, 9 August 2014, Meanwhile, KPMG's competitive alternative report found that in 2012 Manchester had the 9th lowest tax cost of any industrialised city in the world,WEB, Moonen, Tim, Clark, Greg,weblink The Business of Cities 2013, Jones Lang LaSalle IP, November 2013, 78–79, 9 August 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160201083204weblink">weblink 1 February 2016, no, dmy, and fiscal devolution has come earlier to Manchester than to any other British city: it can keep half the extra taxes it gets from transport investment.KPMG's competitive alternative report also found that Manchester was Europe's most affordable city featured, ranking slightly better than Dutch cities, Rotterdam and Amsterdam, who all have a cost of living index less than 95.Manchester is a city of contrast, where some of the country's most deprived and most affluent neighbourhoods can be found.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140715075839weblink">weblink 15 July 2014, South Manchester: Living in the area: Introducing South Manchester, Manchester City Council, 9 August 2014, NEWS,weblink Wealth hotspots 'outside London', BBC News, 7 July 2004, 9 August 2014, According to the 2010 Indices of Multiple Deprivation Manchester is the 4th most deprived local council in England.WEB,weblink The English Indices of Deprivation 2010: Local Authorities District Summaries File Notes, Department for Communities and Local Government, 2010, 9 August 2014, Unemployment throughout 2012–13 averaged 11.9%, which was above the national average, but lower than some of the country's other comparable large cities.WEB,weblinkweblink 17 July 2011, Labour Market Profile: Manchester, Office for National Statistics, 2010, 9 August 2014, On the other hand, Greater Manchester is home to more multi-millionaires than anywhere outside London, with the City of Manchester taking up most of the tally.NEWS, Robson, Steve,weblink Boom city Manchester has more super-rich than anywhere outside London, Manchester Evening News, 17 September 2012, 9 August 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131231024956weblink">weblink 31 December 2013, In 2013 Manchester was ranked 6th in the UK for quality of life, according to a rating of the UK's 12 largest cities.WEB, Philipson, Alice,weblink Bristol is 'best city to live in the UK', The Telegraph, 18 October 2013, 9 August 2014, Women fare better in Manchester than the rest of the country in terms of equal pay to men. The per hours worked gender pay gap is 3.3%, in contrast to 11.1% for Great Britain.WEB,weblink Labour Market Profile: Manchester, Office for National Statistics, 2013, 9 August 2014, 37% of the working-age population in Manchester have degree level qualifications in contrast to the average of 33% across other Core Cities, although schools under-perform slightly when compared to the national average.WEB, Education and skills in your area: Manchester LA,weblink Department for Education, 2012, 9 August 2014, Manchester has the largest UK office market outside London according to GVA Grimley with a quarterly office uptake (averaged over 2010–14) of approximately 250,000 square ft – equivalent to the quarterly office uptake of Leeds, Liverpool and Newcastle combined and 90,000 square feet more than the nearest rival Birmingham.WEB, The Big Nine – Regional Office Review – Q4 2014,weblink GVA Grimley, 2015, 16 March 2015, The strong office market in Manchester has been partly attributed to 'Northshoring', (from offshoring) which entails the relocation or alternative creation of jobs away from the overheated South to areas where office space is possibly cheaper and workforce market may not be as saturated.WEB, Prepare for regional renaissance as businesses favour 'northshoring', Oglesby, Chris,weblink propertyweek.com, 17 August 2012, 30 September 2014, According to 2019 property investment research, Manchester is rated as the number 2 location for "The Best Places To Invest In Property In The UK". This was attributed to a 5.6% increase in house prices and local investment into infrastructure and Manchester airport.WEB,weblink Where To Invest In Property, Property Investor Partnership, en-GB, 2019-04-11,

Landmarks

File:67 Whitworth Street.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Neo-baroque Lancaster House. Manchester is known for opulent warehouses from the city's textile trade.]]{{See also|List of tallest buildings and structures in Manchester|List of streets and roads in Manchester |Grade I listed buildings in Greater Manchester|Grade II* listed buildings in Greater Manchester|List of public art in Greater Manchester}}Manchester's buildings display a variety of architectural styles, ranging from Victorian to contemporary architecture. The widespread use of red brick characterises the city, much of the architecture of which harks back to its days as a global centre for the cotton trade. Just outside the immediate city centre is a large number of former cotton mills, some of which have been left virtually untouched since their closure while many have been redeveloped into apartment buildings and office space. Manchester Town Hall, in Albert Square, was built in the Gothic revival style and is considered to be one of the most important Victorian buildings in England.BOOK, Robinson, John Martin, 1986, The Architecture of Northern England, 153, Macmillan, 9780333373965, Manchester also has a number of skyscrapers built during the 1960s and 1970s, the tallest of which was the CIS Tower located near Manchester Victoria station until the Beetham Tower was completed in 2006; it is an example of the new surge in high-rise building and includes a Hilton hotel, a restaurant, and apartments. The Green Building, opposite Oxford Road station, is a pioneering eco-friendly housing project, while the recently completed One Angel Square, is one of the most sustainable large buildings in the world.WEB, One Angel Square, Co-operative Group HQ,weblink breeam.org, 14 March 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130521150355weblink">weblink 21 May 2013, dmy-all, The award-winning Heaton Park in the north of the city borough is one of the largest municipal parks in Europe, covering {{convert|610|acre|ha}} of parkland.WEB,weblink About Heaton Park, 23 November 2007, Manchester City Council, 2005,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080315081308weblink">weblink 15 March 2008, yes, The city has 135 parks, gardens, and open spaces.WEB,weblink Manchester's parks and open spaces, 23 November 2007, Manchester City Council, 2005, (File:Beetham Tower seen from Castlefield.jpg|thumb|211x211px|Castlefield with Beetham Tower in the background.|alt=|left)Two large squares hold many of Manchester's public monuments. Albert Square has monuments to Prince Albert, Bishop James Fraser, Oliver Heywood, William Ewart Gladstone, and John Bright. Piccadilly Gardens has monuments dedicated to Queen Victoria, Robert Peel, James Watt and the Duke of Wellington. The cenotaph in St Peter's Square is Manchester's main memorial to its war dead; designed by Edwin Lutyens, it follows his design for the original on Whitehall in London. The Alan Turing Memorial in Sackville Park commemorates his role as the father of modern computing. A larger-than-life statue of Abraham Lincoln by George Gray Barnard in the eponymous Lincoln Square (having stood for many years in Platt Fields) was presented to the city by Mr. and Mrs. Charles Phelps Taft of Cincinnati, Ohio, to mark the part that Lancashire played in the cotton famine and American Civil War of 1861–1865.BOOK, Cocks, Harry, Wyke, Terry, Public Sculpture of Greater Manchester, Public Sculpture of Britain, Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, 2004, 11–27, 88–92, 111–121, 123–5, 130–2, 0-85323-567-8, A Concorde is on display near Manchester Airport.Manchester has six designated Local Nature Reserves which are Chorlton Water Park, Blackley Forest, Clayton Vale and Chorlton Ees, Ivy Green, Boggart Hole Clough and Highfield Country Park.WEB,weblink Local nature Reserves, Manchester City Council, 27 January 2011,

Transport

(File:Greater Manchester Railways map.svg|thumb|A map of railway and Metrolink lines in Greater Manchester){{See also|Transport for Greater Manchester|Manchester Metrolink|Manchester station group|Manchester Airport|Cycling in Manchester}}

Rail

File:Piccadilly Station Manchester - geograph.org.uk - 692981.jpg|thumb|Manchester Piccadilly Station, the busiest of the four major railway stations in the Manchester station groupManchester station groupManchester Liverpool Road was the world's first purpose-built passenger and goods railway station,WEB,weblink A History of the World : Liverpool Road Station sundial, BBC, 9 August 2014, and served as the Manchester terminus on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway – the world's first inter-city passenger railway. Today the city is well served by the rail network,NEWS, Extra track suggested to ease Manchester's rail bottlenecks,weblink Financial Times, 17 February 2010, 13 March 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140116173005weblink">weblink 16 January 2014, dmy-all, and is at the centre of an extensive countywide railway network, including the West Coast Main Line, with two mainline stations: Manchester Piccadilly and Manchester Victoria. The Manchester station group – comprising Manchester Piccadilly, Manchester Victoria, Manchester Oxford Road and Deansgate – is the third busiest in the United Kingdom, with 44.9 million passengers recorded in 2017/18.WEB,weblink Estimates of station usage, Office of Rail Regulation, 22 April 2014, 9 August 2014, The High Speed 2 link to Birmingham and London is also planned, which, if built, will include a {{Convert|12|km|abbr=on|0}} tunnel under Manchester on the final approach into an upgraded Piccadilly station.NEWS,weblink HS2 to enter Manchester via tunnel under city, BBC News, 28 January 2013, 9 August 2014, Recent improvements in Manchester as part of the Northern Hub in the 2010s have been numerous electrification schemes into and through Manchester, redevelopment of Victoria station and construction of the Ordsall Chord directly linking Victoria and Piccadilly.JOURNAL, Topham, Gwyn,weblink George Osborne launches £600m Northern Hub rail project, The Guardian, 7 February 2014, 9 August 2014, – work on two new through platforms at Piccadilly and an extensive upgrade Oxford Road have not commenced as of 2019. Manchester city centre suffers from constrained rail capacity that frequently leads to delays and cancellations – a 2018 report found that all three major Manchester stations are in the top ten worst stations in the United Kingdom for punctuality with Oxford Road deemed the worst in the country.WEB, UK's railway stations with most train delays revealed,weblink BBC News, 16 October 2018, 2019-04-26,

Metrolink (tram)

File:Two M5000 trams passing.jpg|thumb|Manchester Metrolink is the largest tram system in the UKlargest tram system in the UKManchester became the first city in the UK to acquire a modern light rail tram system when the Manchester Metrolink opened in 1992. In 2016–17, 37.8 million passenger journeys were made on the system.WEB, Light Rail and Tram Statistics: England 2016/17,weblink Department for Transport, 30 June 2017, The present system mostly runs on former commuter rail lines converted for light rail use, and crosses the city centre via on-street tram lines.WEB,weblink Metrolink History, 9 March 2004, Manchester Metrolink, 21 March 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090325191627weblink">weblink 25 March 2009, The network consists of seven lines with 93 stops.NEWS,weblink Manchester Evening News, 31 March 2014, 31 March 2014, Passenger trams start running to and from Rochdale town centre for first time in 80 years, John, Scheerhout, A new line to the Trafford Centre is currently under construction and is due to open by 2020."Metrolink's Trafford Park £350m Tramline Approved". BBC News. 13 October 2016.WEB,weblink Enabling works begin on new Trafford Park Metrolink line, Manchester city centre is also serviced by over a dozen heavy and light rail-based park and ride sites.WEB,weblink TFGM Park & Ride – Stations and Stops, GMPTE, 2007, 8 November 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131022114452weblink">weblink 22 October 2013, dmy-all,

Bus

The city has one of the most extensive bus networks outside London with over 50 bus companies operating in the Greater Manchester region radiating from the city. In 2011, 80% of public transport journeys in Greater Manchester were made by bus, amounting to 220 million passenger journeys by bus each year. Following deregulation in 1986, the bus system was taken over by GM Buses, which after privatisation was split into GM Buses North and GM Buses South and at a later date these were taken over by First Greater Manchester and Stagecoach Manchester. Much of First Greater Manchester has since been divested to Diamond Bus North West part of Rotala & Go North West part of The Go Ahead GroupWEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090327122708weblink">weblink 27 March 2009, GMPTE Trends and Statistics 2001/2002, 19 September 2007, 2002, PDF, GMPTE, 28–9, yes, Go North West operate a two-route zero-fare bus service, called ‘free bus around the city’, which carries 2.8 million commuters a yearWEB,weblink 2011/2012 Annual Report, Transport for Greater Manchester, 2012, 10, 16, 9 August 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140302015458weblink">weblink 2 March 2014, dmy-all, around Manchester's business districts.NEWS, Clarissa, Satchell, Free buses on another city route,weblink Manchester Evening News, M.E.N. media, 22 September 2005, 18 September 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131026062602weblink">weblink 26 October 2013, Stagecoach Manchester is the Stagecoach Group's largest subsidiary and operates around 690 buses.WEB, Stagecoach welcomes government funding for Greater Manchester transport strategy,weblink stagecoachplc.co.uk, 9 June 2008, 26 September 2010, (File:Manchester free bus.jpg|thumb|Free buses operate on two routes around Manchester city centre. Each bus departs every 10 minutes, Monday to Saturday.WEB,weblink Free bus in Manchester, )

Air

File:Manchester Airport.jpg|thumb|left|Manchester Airport is the busiest airport in the UK outside London, with over double the number of annual passengers of the next busiest non-London airport.]]Manchester, Northern England and North Wales are served by Manchester Airport. The airport is the third busiest in the United Kingdom and the largest outside the London region. Airline services exist to many destinations in Europe, North America, the Caribbean, Africa, the Middle East and Asia (with more destinations from Manchester than any other airport in Britain).NEWS, James, Wilson, A busy hub of connectivity, Financial Times, The Financial Times Limited, 26 April 2007, A second runway was opened in 2001 and there have been continued terminal improvements. The airport has the highest rating available: "Category 10", encompassing an elite group of airports which are able to handle "Code F" aircraft including the Airbus A380 and Boeing 747-8.WEB, Manchester Airport is Officially 'A380 Ready',weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100821061436weblink">weblink 21 August 2010, manchesterairport.co.uk, 18 August 2010, 1 September 2010, From September 2010 the airport became one of only 17 airports in the world and the only UK airport other than Heathrow Airport to operate the Airbus A380.NEWS, Giant Airbus A380 lands at Manchester Airport,weblink BBC News, 1 September 2010, 9 August 2014, A smaller airfield, City Airport Manchester, also exists {{Convert|9.3|km|abbr=on|0}} to the west of Manchester city centre. It was Manchester's first municipal airport, and became the site of the first Air traffic control tower in the UK, and the first municipal airfield in the UK to be licensed by the Air Ministry.WEB,weblink Airport History: City Airport and Heliport, City Airport Ltd, 9 August 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140625164943weblink">weblink 25 June 2014, yes, dmy-all, Today, private charter flights and general aviation use the airfield, it also has a flight school,WEB,weblink Where to start: City Airport and Heliport, City Airport Ltd, 9 August 2014, and both the Greater Manchester Police Air Support Unit and the North West Air Ambulance have helicopters based at the airfield.

Canal

An extensive canal network, including the Manchester Ship Canal, was built to carry freight from the Industrial Revolution onward; the canals are still maintained, though now largely repurposed to leisure use.WEB,weblink Manchester Ship Canal, 16 March 2015, Inland Waterways Association, •NEWS, Nigel, Pivaro, Ship canal cruising is all the rage,weblink Manchester Evening News, M.E.N. media, 20 October 2006, 19 September 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131110100910weblink">weblink 10 November 2013, In 2012, plans were approved to introduce a water taxi service between Manchester city centre and MediaCityUK at Salford Quays.WEB,weblink Links, Manchester Water Taxis, 9 August 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140422233226weblink">weblink 22 April 2014, The taxi service ceased operation in June 2018, citing poor infrastructure.WEB,weblink Manchester's Waxi water taxi service runs aground after two years – and the boats are being sold off too, Manchester Evening News, 22 June 2018, Emily, Heward,

Culture

{{See also|List of people from Manchester}}

Music

{{see also|Popular music of Manchester|List of music artists and bands from Manchester|Madchester}}File:Oasis Liam and Noel.jpg|thumb|The Gallagher brothers of Oasis ]]Bands that have emerged from the Manchester music scene include Van der Graaf Generator, Oasis, The Smiths, Joy Division and its successor group New Order, Buzzcocks, The Stone Roses, The Fall, The Durutti Column, 10cc, Godley & Creme, The Verve, Elbow, Doves, The Charlatans, M People, The 1975, Simply Red, Take That, Dutch Uncles, Everything Everything, Pale Waves and The Outfield. Manchester was credited as the main driving force behind British indie music of the 1980s led by The Smiths, later including The Stone Roses, Happy Mondays, Inspiral Carpets, and James. The later groups came from what became known as the "Madchester" scene that also centred on The Haçienda nightclub developed by founder of Factory Records Tony Wilson. Although from southern England, The Chemical Brothers subsequently formed in Manchester.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090108091553weblink">weblink The Chemical Brothers – Alumni, 12 November 2007, 8 January 2009, University of Manchester, 2005, Former Smiths frontman Morrissey, whose lyrics often refer to Manchester locations and culture, later found international success as a solo artist. Previously, notable Manchester acts of the 1960s include The Hollies, Herman's Hermits, and Davy Jones of the Monkees (famed in the mid-1960s for not only their albums but also their American TV show) and the earlier Bee Gees, who grew up in Chorlton.NEWS,weblink Bee Gees go back to their roots, 12 November 2007, BBC News, 12 May 2004, Another notable contemporary band from Manchester is The Courteeners consisting of Liam Fray and four close friends. Singer-songwriter Ren Harvieu is also from Greater Manchester.File:MEN Arena, Manchester (7263927380).jpg|thumb|left|The Manchester Arena, the city's premier indoor multi-use venue and one of the largest purpose-built arenas in the European Union.]]Its main pop music venue is the Manchester Arena, which was voted "International Venue of the Year" in 2007.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130112222758weblink">weblink 12 January 2013, Pollstar Concert Industry Awards Winners Archives, 24 June 2007, Pollstar Online, 2001, •NEWS, Rachel, Brown, M.E.N Arena's world's top venue,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131026062551weblink">weblink 26 October 2013, Manchester Evening News, M.E.N. Media, 12 August 2007, The M.E.N. Arena is the top-selling venue in the world., 10 August 2007, With over 21,000 seats, it is the largest arena of its type in Europe. In terms of concertgoers, it is the busiest indoor arena in the world, ahead of Madison Square Garden in New York and The O2 Arena in London, respectively the second- and third-busiest.WEB, M.E.N Named Most Popular Entertainment Venue on Planet,weblink 8 May 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081206040846weblink">weblink 6 December 2008, yes, Other major venues include the Manchester Apollo, Albert Hall and the Manchester Academy. Smaller venues include the Band on the Wall, the Night and Day Café,WEB,weblink Night & Day Café, nightnday.org, 15 July 2011, the Ruby Lounge,WEB,weblink The Ruby Lounge: History, therubylounge.org, 15 July 2011, and The Deaf Institute.WEB,weblink Trof presents the Deaf Institute: café, bar and music hall, thedeafinstitute.co.uk, 15 July 2011, Manchester also has the most indie and rock music events outside of London.WEB,weblink Manchester: the UK's rock and indie music capital, tickx.co.uk, 6 November 2018, Manchester has two symphony orchestras, the Hallé and the BBC Philharmonic. There is also a chamber orchestra, the Manchester Camerata. In the 1950s, the city was home to the so-called "Manchester School" of classical composers, which comprised Harrison Birtwistle, Peter Maxwell Davies, David Ellis and Alexander Goehr. Manchester is a centre for musical education, with the Royal Northern College of Music, which celebrates its 40th Anniversary since its merger, and Chetham's School of Music.BOOK, Redhead, Brian, Manchester: a Celebration, Brian Redhead, Andre Deutsch, London, 1993, 60–61, 0-233-98816-5, Forerunners of the RNCM were the Northern School of Music (founded 1920) and the Royal Manchester College of Music (founded 1893), which were merged in 1973. One of the earliest instructors and classical music pianists/conductors at the RMCM, shortly after its founding was the famous Russian-born Arthur Friedheim, (1859–1932), who later had the music library at the famed Peabody Institute conservatory of music in Baltimore, Maryland, named for him. The main classical music venue was the Free Trade Hall on Peter Street, until the opening in 1996 of the 2,500 seat Bridgewater Hall.NEWS, Good Venue Guide; 28 – Bridgewater Hall, Manchester., Independent on Sunday, 12 April 1998, Brass band music, a tradition in the north of England, is an important part of Manchester's musical heritage;WEB,weblink Procession – Jeremy Deller, July 2009, Manchester International Festival, 24 July 2009, some of the UK's leading bands, such as the CWS Manchester Band and the Fairey Band, are from Manchester and surrounding areas, and the Whit Friday brass band contest takes place annually in the neighbouring areas of Saddleworth and Tameside.

Performing arts

File:Opera House (Manchester).jpg|thumb|upright|The Opera House, one of Manchester's largest theatre venues]]Manchester has a thriving theatre, opera and dance scene, and is home to a number of large performance venues, including the Manchester Opera House, which feature large-scale touring shows and West End productions; the Palace Theatre; and the Royal Exchange Theatre in Manchester's former cotton exchange, the largest theatre in the round space in the UK.Smaller performance spaces include the Contact Theatre and Z-arts in Hulme. The Dancehouse on Oxford Road is dedicated to dance productions.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090217073935weblink">weblink 17 February 2009, The Dancehouse Theatre, 7 February 2009, thedancehouse.co.uk, In 2014, HOME, a new custom built arts complex opened in the City. Housing two theatre spaces, five cinemas and an art exhibition space, it replaced the Cornerhouse and The Library Theatre.NEWS, Linton, Deborah,weblink New home for Cornerhouse and Library Theatre in £19m arts centre plan, Manchester Evening News, 24 November 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160203021952weblink">weblink 3 February 2016, Since 2007 the city has hosted the Manchester International Festival, a biennial international arts festival with a specific focus on original new work, which has included major new commissions by artists including Bjork. In Chancellor George Osborne's 2014 autumn statement he announced a £78 million grant to fund a new "large-scale, ultra-flexible arts space" for the city.NEWS,weblink The Guardian view on Manchester's new cultural space: from one kind of factory to another, The Guardian, 5 December 2014, 13 January 2015, Subsequently, the council stated that they had managed to secure a further £32 million from "a variety of sources",NEWS, Youngs, Ian,weblink BBC, The Factory Manchester £110m arts venue approved, 29 July 2015, 30 July 2015, The £110 million venue was confirmed in July 2016.REPORT, Manchester City Council, Manchester City Council, July 2016, Executive meeting: 16. Updated Draft St Johns Strategic regeneration framework and Factory Manchester,weblink Manchester City Council, 22 July 2016, Pdf.{{rp|13–14}} The theatre, to be called The Factory, after Manchester's Factory Records, will provide a permanent home for the Manchester International Festival, it is due to open at the end of 2019.{{rp|15}}

Museums and galleries

(File:Manchester_Art_Gallery_March_2010.jpg|thumb|left|Manchester Art Gallery)Manchester's museums celebrate Manchester's Roman history, rich industrial heritage and its role in the Industrial Revolution, the textile industry, the Trade Union movement, women's suffrage and football. A reconstructed part of the Roman fort of Mamucium is open to the public in Castlefield. The Museum of Science and Industry, housed in the former Liverpool Road railway station, has a large collection of steam locomotives, industrial machinery, aircraft and a replica of the world's first stored computer program (known as the Manchester Baby).WEB,weblink Explore MOSI, 2009, Museum of Science and Industry, 24 July 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090806065715weblink">weblink 6 August 2009, dmy-all, The Museum of Transport displays a collection of historic buses and trams.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100213222852weblink">weblink 13 February 2010, Vehicle Collection, 2007, Greater Manchester Museum of Transport, 24 July 2009, Trafford Park in the neighbouring borough of Trafford is home to Imperial War Museum North.WEB,weblink iwm.org.uk, 2013, IWM North, Imperial War Museum, 9 March 2013, The Manchester Museum opened to the public in the 1880s, has notable Egyptology and natural history collections.WEB,weblink The History of The Manchester Museum, University of Manchester, 24 July 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090627082857weblink">weblink 27 June 2009, File:Shackleton AEW.JPG|Museum of Science & Industry|thumb|The Museum of Science and Industry ]]The municipally owned Manchester Art Gallery on Mosley Street houses a permanent collection of European painting, and has one of Britain's most significant collections of Pre-Raphaelite paintings.WEB,weblink The Pre-Raphaelite Collections, Moss, Richard, 17 October 2003, 24-Hour Museum, 24 July 2009, BOOK, Morris, Edward, Public art collections in north-west England, Liverpool University Press, 2001, 118, 0-85323-527-9, In the south of the city, the Whitworth Art Gallery displays modern art, sculpture and textiles and was recently voted Museum of the Year in 2015.WEB,weblink Collection, Whitworth Gallery, 24 July 2009, Other exhibition spaces and museums in Manchester include Islington Mill in Salford, the National Football Museum at Urbis, Castlefield Gallery, the Manchester Costume Gallery at Platt Fields Park, the People's History Museum and the Manchester Jewish Museum.WEB,weblink Manchester Museums Guide, 2009, Virtual Manchester, 24 July 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090530143656weblink">weblink 30 May 2009, dmy-all, The works of Stretford-born painter {{nowrap|L. S. Lowry}}, known for his "matchstick" paintings of industrial Manchester and Salford, can be seen in both the city and Whitworth Manchester galleries, and at the Lowry art centre in Salford Quays (in the neighbouring borough of Salford) which devotes a large permanent exhibition to his works.WEB,weblink The Lowry Collection, 2009, The Lowry, 24 July 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100330200042weblink">weblink 30 March 2010, dmy-all,

Literature

File:Gaskell_House_Plymouth_Grove_front.JPG|thumb|left|upright=1.25|Gaskell HouseGaskell HouseManchester is a UNESCO City of Literature known for possessing a "radical literary history".NEWS, Royle, Nicholas,weblink A new chapter begins: Manchester named Unesco City of Literature, The Guardian, 2 November 2017, 12 November 2017, NEWS, Atkinson, David,weblink A literary tour of Manchester, The Guardian, 4 October 2014, 29 September 2015, In the 19th century, Manchester featured in works highlighting the changes that industrialisation had brought to Britain. These included Elizabeth Gaskell's novel Mary Barton: A Tale of Manchester Life (1848),WEB,weblink Elizabeth Gaskell (1810–1865), BBC, 2 November 2007, and studies such as The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844, written by Friedrich Engels while living and working in Manchester.BOOK, The Condition of the Working-Class in England in 1844, Engels, Fredrick, 1892, Swan Sonnenschein & Co, London, 45, 48–53,weblink Internet History Sourcebooks Project, 11 March 2015, Manchester was the meeting place of Engels and Karl Marx. The two began writing The Communist Manifesto in Chetham's Library. The library was founded in 1653 and lays claim to being the oldest public library in the English-speaking world. Elsewhere in the city, the John Rylands Library holds an extensive collection of early printing. The Rylands Library Papyrus P52, believed to be the earliest extant New Testament text, is on permanent display in the library.{{wikisource|Letitia Elizabeth Landon (L. E. L.) in Fisher's Drawing Room Scrap Book, 1835/Manchester|'Manchester' a poem by L. E. L.}}Letitia Landon's poem Manchester in Fisher's Drawing Room Scrap Book, 1835, records the rapid growth of the city and its cultural importance.Charles Dickens is reputed to have set his novel Hard Times in the city, and while it is partly modelled on Preston, it shows the influence of his friend Mrs Gaskell.WEB,weblink Charles Dickens's Hard Times for These Times as an Industrial Novel, 20 October 2013, Gaskell penned all her novels, with the exception of Mary Barton, at her residence on Plymouth Grove. On numerous occasions Gaskell's house played host to influential authors including Dickens, Charlotte Brontë, Harriet Beecher Stowe and Charles Eliot Norton.NEWS, Nurden, Robert,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100514042503weblink">weblink 14 May 2010, An ending Dickens would have liked, The Independent, 26 March 2006, 29 September 2015, London, It is now open as a literary museum.Charlotte Brontë began writing her masterpiece Jane Eyre in 1846, while staying lodgings in Hulme. Brontë was accompanying her father Patrick, who was convalescing in the city, having visited to undergo cataract surgery.NEWS,weblink Jane Eyre: a Mancunian?, BBC, 10 October 2006, 17 July 2018, She likely envisioned Manchester Cathedral churchyard as the burial place for Jane's parents and the birthplace of Jane herself.Alexander, Christine, and Sara L. Pearson. Celebrating Charlotte Brontë: Transforming Life into Literature in Jane Eyre. Brontë Society, 2016, p. 173. Also closely associated with the city is Victorian poet and novelist Isabella Banks, most famed for her 1876 novel The Manchester Man. Anglo-American author Frances Hodgson Burnett was born in the city's Cheetham Hill district in 1849, and wrote much of her classic children's novel The Secret Garden while visiting nearby Salford's Buile Hill Park.NEWS, Keeling, Neal,weblink Derelict Buile Hill Mansion could be turned into Hilton hotel, Manchester Evening News, 3 May 2014, 29 September 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150930025047weblink">weblink 30 September 2015, Anthony Burgess is among the 20th century writers who made Manchester their home, he wrote the dystopian satire A Clockwork Orange in 1962.See the essay "A Prophetic and Violent Masterpiece" by Theodore Dalrymple in "Not With a Bang but a Whimper" (2008) pp. 135–49 Dame Carol Ann Duffy, the current Poet Laureate, moved to the city in 1996 and lives in West Didsbury.WEB, Forbes, Peter,weblink Winning lines, The Guardian, 31 August 2002, 29 September 2015, Poet, novelist and academic Jackie Kay also lives in the city. John Cooper Clarke the performance poet who first became famous during the punk rock era of the late 1970s when he became known as a "punk poet" grew up here.

Nightlife

(File:Green Dragonfly, Castlefield, Manchester 8622447230.jpg|thumb|The Green Dragonfly)The night-time economy of Manchester has expanded significantly since about 1993, with investment from breweries in bars, public houses and clubs, along with active support from the local authorities. The more than 500 licensed premises in the city centre have a capacity to deal with more than {{Formatnum:250000}} visitors,WEB, Hobbs, Dick,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120608000633weblink">weblink 8 June 2012, Seven Deadly Sins: A new look at society through an old lens, Economic and Social Research Council, 24–27, 27 November 2011, with 110–{{Formatnum:130000}} people visiting on a typical weekend night, making Manchester the most popular city for events at 79 per thousand people.WEB, Chadha, Aayush, UK Event Data – In Review,weblink www.tickx.co.uk, 1 December 2017, The night-time economy has a value of about {{nowrap|£100 million}}NEWS,weblink Guide to Manchester, BBC Sport, 12 November 2007, 16 June 2002, and supports {{Formatnum:12000}} jobs.JOURNAL, Hobbs, Dick, Winlow, Simon, Hadfield, Philip, Lister, Stuart, 2005, Violent Hypocrisy: Governance and the Night-time Economy, European Journal of Criminology, 2, 161, 10.1177/1477370805050864, 2, The Madchester scene of the 1980s, from which groups including New Order, The Smiths, The Stone Roses, the Happy Mondays, Inspiral Carpets, 808 State, James and The Charlatans emerged, was based on clubs such as the world-famous The Haçienda.BOOK, Haslam, Dave, Manchester, England, Fourth Estate, 2000, 1-84115-146-7, The period was the subject of the film 24 Hour Party People. Many of the big clubs suffered problems with organised crime at that time; Haslam describes one where staff were so completely intimidated that free admission and drinks were demanded (and given) and drugs were openly dealt. Following a series of drug-related violent incidents, The Hacienda closed in 1998. In 1988, Manchester was often referred to as Madchester for its rave scene. Owned by Tony Wilson's Factory Records, it was given the catalogue number FAC51 and official club name, FAC51 The Hacienda. Known for developing many talented 1980s influential acts, it also influenced the graphic design industry via Factory artists such as Peter Saville (PSA), Octavo (8vo), Central Design Station, etc. The memorabilia from this club holds a high value among collectors and fans of these artists and the club. Peter Saville was most notable for his minimalistic influence that still affects contemporary graphic design everywhere.File:Canal street manchester.jpg|thumb|right|Canal Street, one of Manchester's liveliest nightspots, part of the city's gay village]]

Gay Village

Public houses in the Canal Street area have had an LGBTQ+ clientele since at least 1940, and now form the centre of Manchester's LGBTQ+ community. Since the opening of new bars and clubs, the area attracts 20,000 visitors each weekend and has hosted a popular festival, Manchester Pride, each August since 2003.NEWS, Europe's biggest gay festival to be held in UK,weblink The Guardian, M.E.N media, 11 February 2003, 20 May 2007,

Education

File:Whitworth Hall Manchester.jpg|thumb|right|Whitworth Hall at the University of Manchester, with approximately 40,000 students it is the largest university in the UK in terms of enrolment ]]{{See also|List of schools in Manchester}}There are three universities in the City of Manchester. The University of Manchester, Manchester Metropolitan University and Royal Northern College of Music.The University of Manchester is the largest full-time non-collegiate university in the United Kingdom and was created in 2004 by the merger of Victoria University of Manchester founded in 1904 and UMIST, founded in 1956,WEB,weblink Manchester still top of the popularity league, 6 October 2008, University of Manchester, 18 January 2007, though the university's logo appears to claim it was established in 1824. It includes the Manchester Business School, which offered the first MBA course in the UK in 1965. Manchester Metropolitan University was formed as Manchester Polytechnic on the merger of three colleges in 1970. It gained university status in 1992, and in the same year absorbed Crewe and Alsager College of Higher Education in South Cheshire.BOOK, Fowler, Alan, Many Arts, Many Skills: Origins of Manchester Metropolitan University, 1994, Manchester Metropolitan University, 1-870355-05-9, 115–20, 226–8, The University of Law, the largest provider of vocation legal training in Europe, has a campus in the city.WEB,weblink The College of Law, 20 January 2013, International Bar Association, The three Universities are grouped around Oxford Road on the southern side of the city centre, which forms Europe's largest urban higher education precinct.BOOK, Pevsner Architectural Guides: Manchester, Hartwell, Clare, 2001, 105, Penguin Books, 0-14-071131-7, Together they have a combined population of 76,025 students in higher education as of 2015,WEB,weblink Table 0a – All students by institution, mode of study, level of study, gender and domicile 2006/07, 21 March 2008, 2008, XLS, Students and Qualifiers Data Tables, Higher Education Statistics Agency,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130709132444weblink">weblink 9 July 2013, although almost 6,000 of them were based at Manchester Metropolitan University's campuses at Crewe and Alsager in Cheshire.WEB,weblink History – About Us, 6 October 2008, 2008, MMU Cheshire, Manchester Metropolitan University, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110313084529weblink">weblink 13 March 2011, dmy-all, One of Manchester's most notable secondary schools is the Manchester Grammar School. Established in 1515,BOOK, Manchester: A History, Kidd, Alan, 2006, 206, Carnegie Publishing, Lancaster, 1-85936-128-5, •BOOK, A History of Manchester, Hylton, Stuart, 2003, 25, Phillimore & Co, 1-86077-240-4, as a free grammar school next to what is now the Cathedral, it moved in 1931 to Old Hall Lane in Fallowfield, south Manchester, to accommodate the growing student body. In the post-war period, it was a direct grant grammar school (i.e. partially state funded), but it reverted to independent status in 1976 after abolition of the direct-grant system.BOOK, Dare to be wise: a history of the Manchester Grammar School, Bentley, James, 1990, 108, 114, 119–121, James & James, 0-907383-04-1, Its previous premises are now used by Chetham's School of Music. There are three schools nearby: William Hulme's Grammar School, Withington Girls' School and Manchester High School for Girls.In 2010, the Manchester Local Education Authority was ranked last out of Greater Manchester's ten LEAs â€“ and 147th out of 150 in the country LEAs â€“ based on the percentage of pupils attaining at least five A*-C grades at General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) including maths and English (38.6% compared with the national average of 50.7%). The LEA also had the highest occurrence of absences, with 11.11% of "half-day sessions missed by pupils", above the national average of 5.8%.NEWS,weblink How different areas performed, BBC Sport, 13 January 2009, 28 November 2010, NEWS,weblink How different areas performed in school league tables, BBC News, 13 January 2010, 28 November 2010, Of the schools in the LEA with 30 or more pupils, four had 90% or more pupils achieving at least five A*–C grades at GCSE including maths and English (Manchester High School for Girls, St Bede's College, Manchester Islamic High School for Girls, and The King David High School) while three managed 25% or below (Plant Hill Arts College, North Manchester High School for Boys, Brookway High School and Sports College).NEWS,weblink Secondary schools in Manchester, BBC News, 13 January 2010, 28 November 2010,

Sport

File:Etihad Stadium.jpg|thumb|upright=1.25|The Etihad Stadium, home to Premier League club Manchester City FC and host stadium for the 2002 Commonwealth Games2002 Commonwealth GamesManchester is well known for being a city of sport.NEWS, Manchester: Award winning city of sport,weblink Manchester City Council, 9 May 2012, 10 September 2012, Two decorated Premier League football clubs bear the city name – Manchester United and Manchester City.WEB,weblink Manchester is a City United in celebration as both clubs end the day with silverware, White, Duncan, Smith, Rory, The Telegraph, 14 May 2011, 9 August 2014, Manchester United play its home games at Old Trafford, in the Manchester suburb of Trafford, the largest club football ground in the United Kingdom.WEB,weblink Football fever, 6 October 2008, Visit Manchester web pages, Visit Manchester,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071027081212weblink">weblink 27 October 2007, • WEB,weblink Sporting heritage, 6 October 2008, Visit Manchester web pages, Visit Manchester,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100206131231weblink">weblink 6 February 2010, Manchester City's home ground is the City of Manchester Stadium (also known as the Etihad Stadium for sponsorship purposes); its former ground, Maine Road was demolished in 2003. The City of Manchester Stadium was initially built as the main athletics stadium for the 2002 Commonwealth Games and was subsequently reconfigured into a football stadium before Manchester City's arrival. Manchester has hosted domestic, continental and international football competitions at Fallowfield Stadium, Maine Road, Old Trafford and the City of Manchester Stadium. Competitions hosted in city include the FIFA World Cup (1966), UEFA European Football Championship (1996), Olympic Football (2012), UEFA Champions League Final (2003), UEFA Cup Final (2008), four FA Cup Finals (1893, 1911, 1915, 1970) and three League Cup Finals (1977, 1978, 1984).First-class sporting facilities were built for the 2002 Commonwealth Games, including the City of Manchester Stadium, the National Squash Centre and the Manchester Aquatics Centre.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071111071627weblink">weblink 11 November 2007, Sporting Legacy, 6 October 2008, 2003, Commonwealth Games Legacy Manchester 2002, Commonwealth Games Legacy, Manchester has competed twice to host the Olympic Games, beaten by Atlanta for 1996 and Sydney for 2000. The National Cycling Centre includes a velodrome, BMX Arena and Mountainbike trials and is the home of British Cycling, UCI ProTeam Team Sky and Sky Track Cycling. The Manchester Velodrome was built as a part of the bid for the 2000 games and has become a catalyst for British success in cycling.BOOK, Parkinson-Bailey, John J, Manchester: an Architectural History, 2000, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 0-7190-5606-3, 249–250, 284–6, The velodrome hosted the UCI Track Cycling World Championships for a record third time in 2008. The National Indoor BMX Arena (2,000 capacity) adjacent to the velodrome opened in 2011. The Manchester Arena hosted the FINA World Swimming Championships in 2008.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150904003207weblink">weblink yes, 4 September 2015, 9th Fina World Swimming Championships (25m), 6 October 2008, Fina.org, 2008, Manchester Cricket Club evolved into Lancashire County Cricket Club and play at Old Trafford Cricket Ground. Manchester also hosted the World Squash Championships in 2008,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080715100407weblink">weblink 15 July 2008, Hi-Tec World Squash Championships – Manchester 2008, Hi-Tec World Squash Championships Manchester 2008, 2008, 5 May 2009, and also hosted the 2010 World Lacrosse Championship in July 2010.WEB,weblink World Lacrosse Championships – Manchester 2010, World Lacrosse Championships 2010, 2010, 29 March 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100211113204weblink">weblink 11 February 2010, Recent sporting events hosted by Manchester include the 2013 Ashes series, 2013 Rugby League World Cup and the 2015 Rugby World Cup.

Media

{{See also|List of television programmes set, produced or filmed in Manchester|Films set in Manchester|List of national radio programmes made in Manchester}}File:Express Building Manchester.jpg|thumb|left|The Daily Express Building, ManchesterDaily Express Building, ManchesterThe ITV franchise Granada Television is partially headquartered in the old Granada Studios site on Quay Street and the new location at MediaCityUKNEWS, £1bn vision for former ITV site revealed,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160201135241weblink">weblink 1 February 2016, as part of the initial phase of its migration to Salford Quays.WEB,weblink The creative media industries and workforce in North West England, skillset.org, 2008, 6 October 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110113021242weblink">weblink 13 January 2011, It produces Coronation Street,BOOK, Little, Daran, The Coronation Street Story, 1995, Boxtree, London, 1-85283-464-1, 6, Coronation Street is without doubt the most successful television programme in the world. ... what is today the world's longest running drama serial., local news and programmes for North West England. Although its influence has waned Granada had been described as 'the best commercial television company in the world'.NEWS, Obituary – David Plowright, As he himself liked to quote, not for nothing had Granada been dubbed the best commercial television company in the world.,weblink The Independent, 29 August 2006, 4 February 2012, NEWS, Party People returns as presenter Rob McLoughlin celebrates thirtieth year at ITV, The Financial Times was to claim that 'Granada was probably the best commercial TV company in the world' – with respect to Thames TV; LWT and our American cousins – they may have been right but when that quote was hauled over reception in Quay Street I found it both inspiring and daunting.,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120419172834weblink">weblink 19 April 2012, 25 January 2012, 4 February 2012, Manchester was one of the BBC's three main centres in England. Programmes including Mastermind,PRESS,weblink Championing sustainable TV production in the nations and regions, 6 October 2008, BBC, 23 November 2005, and Real Story,PRESS,weblink BBC One's Real Story with Fiona Bruce series comes to end in 2007, 6 October 2008, BBC, 15 November 2006, were made at New Broadcasting House. The Cutting It series set in the city's Northern Quarter and The Street were set in ManchesterNEWS, International Emmys Awards to honor Al Gore,weblink 19 November 2007, 6 October 2008, USA Today, Charles J., Gans, as was Life on Mars. The first edition of Top of the Pops was broadcast from a studio in Rusholme on New Year's Day 1964.NEWS,weblink 'Top of the Pops' shows, 6 October 2008, Observer Music Monthly, Guardian News and Media Limited, 16 July 2006, London, Manchester was the regional base for BBC One North West Region programmes before it relocated to MediaCityUK in nearby Salford Quays.WEB,weblink Television & Radio Stations in Manchester, 11 September 2007, Manchester 2002 UK, 2002, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070922233804weblink">weblink 22 September 2007, WEB,weblink BBC R&D to relocate to Salford Quays, 6 October 2008, Digital TV Group, 1 June 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081206144955weblink">weblink 6 December 2008, yes, dmy-all, • PRESS,weblink BBC move to Salford gets green light, 6 October 2008, BBC, 31 May 2007, The Manchester television channel, Channel M, owned by the Guardian Media Group operated from 2000 but closed in 2012.WEB,weblink Manchester's Channel M closes after 12 years, John, Plunkett, The Guardian, 16 April 2012, 8 May 2012, Manchester is also covered by two internet television channels: Quays News and Manchester.tv. The city will also have a new terrestrial channel from January 2014 when YourTV Manchester, who won the OFCOM licence bid in February 2013 begins its first broadcast but in 2015 when That's Manchester took over to air on 31 May and launched on the freeview channel 8 service slot before moving to channel 7 in April 2016.File:Granada TV.jpg|thumb|Granada Studios, headquarters of Granada TelevisionGranada TelevisionThe city has the highest number of local radio stations outside London including BBC Radio Manchester, Hits Radio Manchester, Capital Manchester, Piccadilly Magic 1152, Real Radio North West, 100.4 Smooth FM, Capital Gold 1458, 96.2 The Revolution, NMFM (North Manchester FM) and Xfm.WEB,weblink northwestradio.info, 2005, 8 November 2007, A Guide to Radio Stations in and Around North West England, Student radio stations include Fuse FM at the University of Manchester and MMU Radio at the Manchester Metropolitan University.WEB,weblink FUSE FM – Manchester Student Radio, 6 October 2008, fusefm.co.uk, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080919151313weblink">weblink 19 September 2008, A community radio network is coordinated by Radio Regen, with stations covering Ardwick, Longsight and Levenshulme (All FM 96.9) and Wythenshawe (Wythenshawe FM 97.2).See Radio at the Ofcom web site and subpages, especially the directory of analogue radio stations, the mapWEB,weblink Commercial Radio Styles, 14 December 2015, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090304085205weblink">weblink 4 March 2009, dmy, (PDF), and the mapWEB,weblink Community Radio in the UK, 14 December 2015, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100414200018weblink">weblink 14 April 2010, dmy, (PDF). Retrieved on 6 November 2007 Defunct radio stations include Sunset 102, which became Kiss 102, then Galaxy Manchester), and KFM which became Signal Cheshire (now Imagine FM). These stations and pirate radio played a significant role in the city's house music culture, the Madchester scene, which was based in clubs like The Haçienda.The Guardian newspaper was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian. Its head office is still in the city, though many of its management functions were moved to London in 1964. Its sister publication, the Manchester Evening News, has the largest circulation of a UK regional evening newspaper. The paper is free in the city centre on Thursdays and Fridays, but paid for in the suburbs. Despite its title, it is available all day.NEWS,weblink Paid-for sales of MEN slump, 6 October 2008, Sweney, Mark, 30 August 2007, The Guardian, UK, Guardian News and Media Limited,
The Metro North West is available free at Metrolink stops, rail stations and other busy locations. The MEN group distributes several local weekly free papers.WEB,weblink M.E.N. Makes Changes To Metro Distribution, 6 October 2008, 9 March 2007, Merry Media News,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071022154944weblink">weblink 22 October 2007, • WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110812015752weblink">weblink 12 August 2011, manchester local press, 6 November 2007, 2007, ManchesterOnline, GMG Regional Digital, For many years most of the national newspapers had offices in Manchester: The Daily Telegraph, Daily Express, Daily Mail, The Daily Mirror, The Sun. At its height, {{Formatnum:1500}} journalists were employed, though in the 1980s office closures began and today the "second Fleet Street" is no more.BOOK, Waterhouse, Robert, The Other Fleet Street, First Edition Limited, 2004, 1-84547-083-4, An attempt to launch a Northern daily newspaper, the North West Times, employing journalists made redundant by other titles, closed in 1988. Another attempt was made with the North West Enquirer, which hoped to provide a true "regional" newspaper for the North West, much in the same vein as the Yorkshire Post does for Yorkshire or The Northern Echo does for the North East; it folded in October 2006.NEWS,weblink New quality weekly for Manchester is a good idea on paper, 6 October 2008, Herbert, Ian, 30 January 2006, The Independent, Independent News and Media Limited, London, • WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070226214918weblink">weblink The Enquirer suspends publication, 6 October 2008, 3 April 2007, Waterhouse, Robert, 20 September 2006, The North West Enquirer, The North West Enquirer,

Twin cities and consulates

Manchester has formal twinning arrangements (or "friendship agreements") with several places.WEB,weblink Manchester City Council: International civic links, Manchester.gov.uk, 3 February 2014, NEWS,weblink Twinning link with LA, Manchester Evening News, 28 July 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130731001604weblink">weblink 31 July 2013, In addition, the British Council maintains a metropolitan centre in Manchester.WEB,weblink British Council Annual Report 2013–14, 16 March 2015, British Council, 31 March 2014, Manchester is home to the largest group of consuls in the UK outside London. The expansion of international trade links during the Industrial Revolution led to the introduction of the first consuls in the 1820s and since then over 800, from all parts of the world, have been based in Manchester. Manchester hosts consular services for most of the north of England.BOOK, Fox, David, Manchester Consuls, 2007, Carnegie Publishing, Lancaster, 978-1-85936-155-9, vii–ix, •WEB, Manchester Consular Association,weblink •WEB,weblink List of Consulates, Consulate Generals and High Commissioners, MCA (subsidiary of Sheffield University), 5 January 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131212001011weblink">weblink 12 December 2013,

Honorary citizens

On 12 July 2017, American singer Ariana Grande became the first honorary citizen of Manchester, after a unanimous vote by the Manchester City Council.WEB,weblink Ariana Grande made 'honorary citizen' of Manchester, 12 July 2017, CNN, Zamira, Rahim,

See also

{{clear}}

References

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

{{col-begin|width=auto}}{{col-break}}
Architecture
  • BOOK, Atkins, Philip, Guide across Manchester, Civic Trust for the North West, Manchester, 1975, 978-0-901347-29-9,
  • BOOK, Hands, David, Parker, Sarah, Manchester: A Guide to Recent Architecture, Ellipsis Arts, London, 2000, 978-1-899858-77-4,
  • BOOK, Hartwell, Clare, Manchester, Pevsner Architectural Guides, 2001, Penguin Books, London, 978-0-14-071131-8,
  • BOOK, Hartwell, Clare, Hyde, Matthew, Pevsner, Nikolaus, Nikolaus Pevsner, The Buildings of England, Lancashire: Manchester and the South-East, 2004, Yale University Press, New Haven & London, 978-0-300-10583-4,
  • BOOK, Parkinson-Bailey, John J., Manchester: an Architectural History, 2000, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 978-0-7190-5606-2,
  • BOOK, Robinson, John Martin, The Architecture of Northern England, 1986, Macmillan, London, 978-0-333-37396-5,


General
  • BOOK, Beesley, Ian, Victorian Manchester and Salford, Ryburn, Keele, 1988, 978-1-85331-006-5,
  • BOOK, Hylton, Stuart, A History of Manchester, Phillimore & Company, Chichester, 2003, 978-1-86077-240-5,
  • BOOK, Kidd, Alan J., Manchester, Town and City Histories, Ryburn, Keele, 1993, 978-1-85331-016-4,
  • BOOK, Mottley, A L, A Northern Life, Any Subject Books, Coventry, 2013, 978-1-909392-53-3,
  • BOOK, The Mancunian Way, Clinamen Press, Manchester, 2002, 978-1-903083-81-9, Price, Jane, Stebbing, Ben,
  • BOOK, Redhead, Brian, Manchester: a Celebration, Brian Redhead, André Deutsch, London, 1993, 978-0-233-98816-0,
  • BOOK, Schofield, Jonathan, The City Life Guide to Manchester, 2005, City Life, Manchester, 978-0-9549042-2-7,
  • BOOK, Worthington, Barry, Discovering Manchester, Sigma Leisure, Ammanford, 2011, 978-1-85058-862-7,
{{col-break}}
Culture
  • BOOK, Cantrell, J. A., James Nasmyth and the Bridgewater Foundry, A study of entrepreneurship in the early engineering industry, 1985, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 978-0-7190-1339-3,
  • BOOK, Champion, Sarah, And God Created Manchester, 1990, Wordsmith, Manchester, 978-1-873205-01-3,
  • BOOK, Gatenby, Phill, Morrissey's Manchester: The Essential "Smiths" Tour, 2002, Manchester, Empire Publications, 978-1-901746-28-0,
  • BOOK, Haslam, Dave, Manchester, England, Fourth Estate, New York, 2000, 978-1-84115-146-5,
  • BOOK, Lee, C. P., Shake, Rattle and Rain: popular music making in Manchester 1955–1995, 2002, Hardinge Simpole, Ottery St Mary, 978-1-84382-049-9,
  • BOOK, Lee, C. P., Like the Night (Revisited): Bob Dylan and the Road to the Manchester Free Trade Hall, Helter Skelter Publishing, London, 2004, 978-1-900924-33-7,
  • JOURNAL, Pearce, Lynne, Women writers and the elusive urban sublime: the view from "Manchester, England", Contemporary Women's Writing, 1, 1–2, 192–202, 10.1093/cww/vpm014, December 2007,
  • BOOK, Jon, Savage, The Haçienda Must Be Built, 1992, International Music Publications, Woodford Green, 978-0-86359-857-9,


Sport
  • BOOK, Inglis, Simon, Played In Manchester, Played in Britain, 2004, 978-1-873592-78-6,
  • BOOK, James, Gary, Manchester: a football history, James Ward, Halifax, 2008, 978-0-9558127-0-5,
{{col-end}}

External links

{{Sister project links |wikt=Manchester |commons=Manchester |q=no |b=no |v=no |voy=Manchester}} {{Spoken Wikipedia-2|2008-02-03|Manchester (Part 1).ogg|Manchester (Part 2).ogg}}{{Geographic location|title = Destinations from ManchesterBolton, Wigan, Preston, Lancashire>PrestonBury, Greater Manchester>Bury, Blackburn, BurnleyOldham, Rochdale, Huddersfield, Dewsbury, Halifax, West Yorkshire>Halifax, LeedsLeigh, Greater Manchester>Leigh, St Helens, Liverpool|Centre = ManchesterHyde, Greater Manchester>Hyde, Stalybridge, Glossop, SheffieldSale, Greater Manchester>Sale, Altrincham, KnutsfordCheadle, Greater Manchester>Cheadle, Wilmslow, Alderley Edge|Southeast = Stockport, Chapel-en-le-Frith, Buxton, Derby}}{{Core Cities Group}}{{UK cities}}{{Manchester}}{{Greater Manchester}}{{Manchester B&S}}{{Metropolitan districts of England}}{{NW England}}{{Commonwealth Games Host Cities}}{{Authority control}}{{Featured article}}

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