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Maine
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{{About|the U.S. state of Maine}}{{pp-pc1}}{{short description|state of the United States of America}}{{use American English|date=August 2019}}{{Use mdy dates|date=October 2013}}







factoids
| population_demonym = Mainer| motto = "Dirigo"(Latin for "I lead", "I guide", or "I direct")|Former = District of Maine (Massachusetts) |State number = 23rd stateAugusta, Maine>AugustaPortland, Maine>PortlandPortland, Maine metropolitan area>Greater PortlandJanet Mills (D)}}Troy Jackson (politician) (D)}}{{#tag:ref>In the event of a vacancy in the office of Governor, the President of the Maine Senate is first in line for succession.>group="nb"}}|Lieutenant Governor_alt = Senate President|Legislature = Maine LegislatureMaine Senate>SenateMaine House of Representatives>House of RepresentativesSusan Collins (Republican Party (United States))}}{{nowrap>Angus King (I)}}Maine's 1st congressional district. Chellie Pingree (D)}}{{nowrap>2. Jared Golden (D)}}| postal_code = ME|TradAbbreviation = Me.Maine does not have an official language.HTTPS://WWW.WORLDTRAVELGUIDE.NET/GUIDES/NORTH-AMERICA/UNITED-STATES-OF-AMERICA/MAINE/HISTORY-LANGUAGE-CULTURE/>TITLE=MAINE - WORLD TRAVEL GUIDEFIRST=WORK=WORLD TRAVEL GUIDELANGUAGE=EN-US, Both English and French language are considered the de facto languages of the state.HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=X9KOAKZFVQIC&PG=PA195#V=ONEPAGELAST=COBARRUBIASDATE=1983ISBN=9789027933584last=date=language=enLAST=DATE=ACCESS-DATE=JULY 20, 2018, French in particular is legally protected and recognized as Maine's minority language.HTTPS://STATISTICALATLAS.COM/STATE/MAINE/LANGUAGES>TITLE=LANGUAGES IN MAINE (STATE) - STATISTICAL ATLASFIRST=WEBSITE=STATISTICALATLAS.COMACCESS-DATE=JULY 20, 2018, HTTP://WWW.MAINE.GOV/DHHS/INTERPRETING.HTML>TITLE=MAINE DHHS - MULTICULTURAL RESOURCES - INTERPRETING SERVICES& REFERRAL AGENCIESFIRST=WEBSITE=WWW.MAINE.GOVACCESS-DATE=JULY 20, 2018, Maine (along with Louisiana) is considered a part of the Geographical distribution of French speakers and makes up the French language in the United States>largest French-speaking population in the United States.|group="nb"}}English language>English: 92%
  • French: 5%
  • Other: ≤ 3%| area_rank = 39th| area_total_sq_mi = 35,385| area_total_km2 = 91,646| area_land_sq_mi = 30,862| area_land_km2 = 80,005| area_water_sq_mi = 4,523| area_water_km2 = 11,724| area_water_percent = 13.5| population_rank = 42nd|2010Pop = 1,338,404 (2018)| population_density_rank = 38th|2000DensityUS = 43.8|2000Density = 16.9
TITLE=MEDIAN ANNUAL HOUSEHOLD INCOMEDATE=SEPTEMBER 22, 2017, |IncomeRank = 32nd|AdmittanceOrder = 23rd|AdmittanceDate = March 15, 1820Eastern Time Zone>Eastern| utc_offset1 = -05:00Eastern Daylight Time>EDT| utc_offset1_DST = -04:00|Longitude = 66° 57′ W to 71° 5′ W|Latitude = 42° 58′ N to 47° 28′ N| width_mi = 205| width_km = 330| length_mi = 320| length_km = 515Mount KatahdinQG1451ACCESSDATE= OCTOBER 20, 2011, HTTP://EGSC.USGS.GOV/ISB/PUBS/BOOKLETS/ELVADIST/ELVADIST.HTML>TITLE=ELEVATIONS AND DISTANCES IN THE UNITED STATESUNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY>YEAR=2001URL-STATUS=DEADARCHIVEDATE=OCTOBER 15, 2011, {{#tag:refNorth American Vertical Datum of 1988.>group="nb"}}| elevation_max_ft = 5,270| elevation_max_m = 1606.4| elevation_ft = 600| elevation_m = 180| elevation_min_point = Atlantic Ocean| elevation_min_ft = 0| elevation_min_m = 0| iso_code = US-ME| website = www.maine.gov|ElectoralVotes = 4}}







factoids
|Colors =|Dance =|Dinosaur =|Food = Blueberry pieWhoopie piePertica>Pertica quadrifaria|Gemstone = Tourmaline|Instrument =|Mineral =|Poem =|Rock =|Shell =|Ships =|Slogan =|Soil = Chesuncook soil series|Sport =|Tartan =|Toy =|Other =|Route Marker = MA Route 11.svg|Quarter = 2003 ME Proof.png|QuarterReleaseDate = 2003}}Maine ({{IPAc-en|audio=En-Maine-pronunciation.ogg|m|eɪ|n}}) is the northernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Maine is the 12th smallest by area, the 9th least populous, and the 38th most densely populated of the 50 U.S. states. It is bordered by New Hampshire to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Québec to the northeast and northwest, respectively. Maine is the only state to border just one other state, is the easternmost among the contiguous United States, and is the northernmost state east of the Great Lakes.Maine is known for its jagged, rocky coastline; low, rolling mountains; heavily forested interior; and picturesque waterways, as well as its seafood cuisine, especially lobster and clams. There is a humid continental climate throughout most of the state, including coastal areas.WEB,weblink Portland, Maine Climate Summary, Weatherbase, December 29, 2014, Maine's most populous city is Portland and its capital is Augusta.For thousands of years, indigenous peoples were the only inhabitants of the territory that is now Maine. At the time of European arrival in what is now Maine, several Algonquian-speaking peoples inhabited the area. The first European settlement in the area was by the French in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons. The first English settlement was the short-lived Popham Colony, established by the Plymouth Company in 1607. A number of English settlements were established along the coast of Maine in the 1620s, although the rugged climate, deprivations, and conflict with the local peoples caused many to fail over the years.As Maine entered the 18th century, only a half dozen European settlements had survived. Loyalist and Patriot forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution and the War of 1812. During the War of 1812, the largely-undefended eastern region of Maine was occupied by British forces, but returned to the United States as part of a peace treaty that was to include dedicated land on the Michigan peninsula for Native American peoples. Maine was part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts until 1820, when it voted to secede from Massachusetts to become a separate state. On March 15, 1820, under the Missouri Compromise, it was admitted to the Union as the 23rd state.{{TOC limit|3}}

Etymology

There is no definitive explanation for the origin of the name "Maine", but the most likely origin is that the name was given by early explorers after the former province of Maine in France. Whatever the origin, the name was fixed for English settlers in 1665 when the English King's Commissioners ordered that the "Province of Maine" be entered from then on in official records. The state legislature in 2001 adopted a resolution establishing Franco-American Day, which stated that the state was named after the former French province of Maine.WEB,weblink doc, September 20, 2007, Journal of the Senate, State of Maine, HP1629, item 1, 123rd Maine State Legislature, March 6, 2002, "WHEREAS, the State of Maine is named after the Province of Maine in France...", Other theories mention earlier places with similar names, or claim it is a nautical reference to the mainland.WEB, Emily A., Schroeder,weblink September 20, 2007, Origin of Maine's Name, Maine State Library,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070716005630weblink">weblink July 16, 2007, dead, mdy, Attempts to uncover the history of the name of Maine began with James Sullivan's 1795 "History of the District of Maine". He made the unsubstantiated claim that the Province of Maine was a compliment to the queen of Charles I, Henrietta Maria, who once "owned" the Province of Maine in France. This was quoted by Maine historians until the 1845 biography of that queen by Agnes StricklandBOOK, Lives of the Queens of England, Henrietta Maria, VIII, Agnes, Strickland, 1845, 978-0217842747, established that she had no connection to the province; further, King Charles I married Henrietta Maria in 1625, three years after the name Maine first appeared on the charter. A new theory, put forward by Carol B. Smith Fisher in 2002, is that Sir Ferdinando Gorges chose the name in 1622 to honor the village where his ancestors first lived in England, rather than the province in France. "MAINE" appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 in reference to the county of Dorset, which is today Broadmayne, just southeast of Dorchester.NEWS, Fisher, Carol B. Smith, Who Really Named Maine?, Bangor Daily News, February 26, 2002, A8,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130829135802weblink">weblink August 29, 2013, mdy-all, BOOK, Guyton, Kathy, 2009, Mountain Storm Press, The U. S. State Names: The Stories of How Our States Were Named, 193–201, Nederland, Colorado, 978-0982523902, The view generally held among British place name scholars is that Mayne in Dorset is Brythonic, corresponding to modern Welsh "maen", plural "main" or "meini".{{citation needed|date=September 2016}} Some early spellings are: MAINE 1086, MEINE 1200, MEINES 1204, MAYNE 1236.WEB,weblink User-submitted name Maine, Campbell, Mike, Behind the Name, October 2, 2018, Today the village is known as Broadmayne, which is primitive Welsh or Brythonic, "main" meaning rock or stone, considered a reference to the many large sarsen stones still present around Little Mayne farm, half a mile northeast of Broadmayne village.correspondence to Carol B. Smith Fisher, April 26, 2002, from Hywel Wyn Owen, Director and Professor of the Place-Name Research Center, University of Wales Bangor{{Full citation needed|date=September 2016}}BOOK, Eilert, Ekwall, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place Names, 4th, Oxford University Press, 1960, 319, 978-0198691037, The first known record of the name appears in an August 10, 1622 land charter to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason, English Royal Navy veterans, who were granted a large tract in present-day Maine that Mason and Gorges "intend to name the Province of Maine". Mason had served with the Royal Navy in the Orkney Islands, where the chief island is called Mainland, a possible name derivation for these English sailors.BOOK, Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States, Stewart, George, George R. Stewart, 1945, 1982, Random House, New York, 41–42, 978-0-938530-02-2, registration,weblink In 1623, the English naval captain Christopher Levett, exploring the New England coast, wrote: "The first place I set my foote upon in New England was the Isle of Shoals, being Ilands{{sic}} in the sea, above two Leagues from the Mayne."BOOK, Samuella, Shain,weblink July 3, 2010, The Maine Reader: The Down East Experience from 1614 to the Present, David R. Godine Publisher, 978-1-56792-078-9, August 1, 1997, Initially, several tracts along the coast of New England were referred to as Main or Maine (cf. the Spanish Main). A reconfirmed and enhanced April 3, 1639, charter, from England's King Charles I, gave Sir Ferdinando Gorges increased powers over his new province and stated that it "shall forever hereafter, be called and named the PROVINCE OR COUNTIE OF MAINE, and not by any other name or names whatsoever..."BOOK, Baxter, James Phinney, Sir Ferdinando Gorges and his Province of Maine, 1890, Boston, Prince Society, 180, Maine is the only U.S. state whose name has exactly one syllable.WEB,weblink Real Fact #922, September 21, 2016, Snapple, WEB,weblink Maine Facts and Trivia, Digital Properties, Waltham, Massachusetts, September 11, 2015,

History

File:Maine state capitol.jpg|thumb|Maine State House, designed by Charles BulfinchCharles BulfinchFile:Brooklyn Museum - Misty Morning, Coast of Maine - Arthur Parton - overall.jpg|thumb|Misty Morning, Coast of Maine{{br}}Arthur Parton (1842–1914). Between 1865 and 1870, Brooklyn MuseumBrooklyn MuseumThe original inhabitants of the territory that is now Maine were Algonquian-speaking Wabanaki peoples, including the Passamaquoddy, Maliseet, Penobscot, Androscoggin and Kennebec. During the later King Philip's War, many of these peoples would merge in one form or another to become the Wabanaki Confederacy, aiding the Wampanoag of Massachusetts & the Mahican of New York. Afterwards, many of these people were driven from their natural territories, but most of the tribes of Maine continued, unchanged, until the American Revolution. Before this point, however, most of these people were considered separate nations. Many had adapted to living in permanent, Iroquois-inspired settlements, while those along the coast tended to be semi-nomadic—traveling from settlement to settlement on a yearly cycle. They would usually winter inland & head to the coasts by summer.WEB,weblink Native Americans or Indians in the Eastern United States in 1600, www.celebrateboston.com, WEB,weblink Abenaki, tolatsga.org, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100411025556weblink">weblink April 11, 2010, mdy-all, European contact with what is now called Maine started around 1200 CE when Norwegians interacted with the native Penobscot in present-day Hancock County, most likely through trade. About 200 years earlier, from the settlements in Iceland and Greenland, Norwegians had first identified America and attempted to settle areas such as Newfoundland, but failed to establish a permanent settlement there. Archeological evidence suggests that Norwegians in Greenland returned to North America for several centuries after the initial discovery to collect timber and to trade, with the most relevant evidence being the Maine Penny, an 11th-century Norwegian coin found at a Native American dig site in 1954.JOURNAL,weblink Science: Bye, Columbus, December 11, 1978, Time, The first European settlement in Maine was in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, led by French explorer Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons. His party included Samuel de Champlain, noted as an explorer. The French named the entire area Acadia, including the portion that later became the state of Maine. The first English settlement in Maine was established by the Plymouth Company at the Popham Colony in 1607, the same year as the settlement at Jamestown, Virginia. The Popham colonists returned to Britain after 14 months.MPBN, "Rolling Back the Frontier" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110704053256weblink |date=July 4, 2011 }}, The Story of Maine; accessed January 3, 2011The French established two Jesuit missions: one on Penobscot Bay in 1609, and the other on Mount Desert Island in 1613. The same year, Castine was established by Claude de La Tour. In 1625, Charles de Saint-Étienne de la Tour erected Fort Pentagouet to protect Castine. The coastal areas of eastern Maine first became the Province of Maine in a 1622 land patent. The part of western Maine north of the Kennebec River was more sparsely settled, and was known in the 17th century as the Territory of Sagadahock. A second settlement was attempted in 1623 by English explorer and naval Captain Christopher Levett at a place called York, where he had been granted {{convert|6000|acre|km2}} by King Charles I of England.BOOK, Massachusetts Historical Society, Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society,weblink 1884, The Society, 339, It also failed.Central Maine was formerly inhabited by people of the Androscoggin tribe of the Abenaki nation, also known as Arosaguntacook. They were driven out of the area in 1690 during King William's War. They were relocated at St. Francis, Canada, which was destroyed by Rogers' Rangers in 1759, and is now Odanak. The other Abenaki tribes suffered several severe defeats, particularly during Dummer's War, with the capture of Norridgewock in 1724 and the defeat of the Pequawket in 1725, which greatly reduced their numbers. They finally withdrew to Canada, where they were settled at Bécancour and Sillery, and later at St. Francis, along with other refugee tribes from the south.Bruce G. Trigger (ed.): Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. 15. Northeast. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. 1978 {{ISBN|0-16-004575-4}}The province within its current boundaries became part of Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1652. Maine was much fought over by the French, English, and allied natives during the 17th and early 18th centuries, who conducted raids against each other, taking captives for ransom or, in some cases, adoption by Native American tribes. A notable example was the early 1692 Abenaki raid on York, where about 100 English settlers were killed and another estimated 80 taken hostage."York commemorates Candlemas Raid". The Portsmouth Herald. February 1, 2001. The Abenaki took captives taken during raids of Massachusetts in Queen Anne's War of the early 1700s to Kahnewake, a Catholic Mohawk village near Montreal, where some were adopted and others ransomed.John Demos, The Unredeemed Captive: A Family Story from Early America, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994, pp. 186 and 224Darren Bonaparte, "The History of Akwesasne" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111008101830weblink |date=October 8, 2011 }}, The Wampum Chronicles, accessed February 1, 2010(File:Maine_1798.jpg|thumb|1798 map of MaineWEB,weblink 1798 Map of Maine, Tom, 2015-04-03, Cool Old Photos, en-US, 2019-03-03, )After the British defeated the French in Acadia in the 1740s, the territory from the Penobscot River east fell under the nominal authority of the Province of Nova Scotia, and together with present-day New Brunswick formed the Nova Scotia county of Sunbury, with its court of general sessions at Campobello. American and British forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution and the War of 1812, with the British occupying eastern Maine in both conflicts.Woodard, Colin. The Lobster Coast {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120219044647weblink |date=February 19, 2012 }}. New York. Viking/Penguin, {{ISBN|0-670-03324-3}}, 2004, pp. 139–140, 150–151 The territory of Maine was confirmed as part of Massachusetts when the United States was formed following the Treaty of Paris ending the revolution, although the final border with British North America was not established until the Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842.Maine was physically separate from the rest of Massachusetts. Long-standing disagreements over land speculation and settlements led to Maine residents and their allies in Massachusetts proper forcing an 1807 vote in the Massachusetts Assembly on permitting Maine to secede; the vote failed. Secessionist sentiment in Maine was stoked during the War of 1812 when Massachusetts pro-British merchants opposed the war and refused to defend Maine from British invaders. In 1819, Massachusetts agreed to permit secession, sanctioned by voters of the rapidly growing region the following year. Formal secession and formation of the state of Maine as the 23rd state occurred on March 15, 1820, as part of the Missouri Compromise, which geographically limited the spread of slavery and enabled the admission to statehood of Missouri the following year, keeping a balance between slave and free states.Woodard, Colin. "Parallel 44: Origins of the Mass Effect", The Working Waterfront, August 31, 2010. weblinkWoodard, Colin. The Lobster Coast: Rebels, Rusticators and the Forgotten Frontier (2004) Penguin Books. {{ISBN|0-670-03324-3}}WEB,weblink Maine History (Statehood), www.maine.gov, April 13, 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080504060335weblink">weblink May 4, 2008, Maine's original state capital was Portland, Maine's largest city, until it was moved to the more central Augusta in 1832. The principal office of the Maine Supreme Judicial Court remains in Portland.The 20th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment, under the command of Colonel Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, prevented the Union Army from being flanked at Little Round Top by the Confederate Army during the Battle of Gettysburg.Four U.S. Navy ships have been named USS Maine, most famously the armored cruiser {{USS|Maine|ACR-1}}, whose sinking by an explosion on February 15, 1898 precipitated the Spanish–American War.

Geography

{{more citations needed|section|date=March 2018}}{{See also|List of counties in Maine|List of Maine rivers|List of lakes in Maine|Geology of Maine|Geology of New England}}(File:National-atlas-maine.png|thumb|upright=2.05|A map of Maine and surrounding regions)To the south and east is the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and northeast is New Brunswick, a province of Canada. The Canadian province of Québec is to the northwest. Maine is both the northernmost state in New England and also the largest, accounting for almost half of the region's entire land area. Maine is the only state to border exactly one other American state (New Hampshire).Maine is the easternmost state in the United States in both its extreme points and its geographic center. The town of Lubec is the easternmost organized settlement in the United States. Its Quoddy Head Lighthouse is also the closest place in the United States to Africa and Europe. Estcourt Station is Maine's northernmost point, as well as the northernmost point in New England. (For more information see extreme points of the United States.)Maine's Moosehead Lake is the largest lake wholly in New England, since Lake Champlain is located between Vermont, New York and Québec. A number of other Maine lakes, such as South Twin Lake, are described by Thoreau in The Maine Woods (1864). Mount Katahdin is both the northern terminus of the Appalachian Trail, which extends southerly to Springer Mountain, Georgia, and the southern terminus of the new International Appalachian Trail which, when complete, will run to Belle Isle, Newfoundland and Labrador.Machias Seal Island and North Rock, off the state's Downeast coast, are claimed by both Canada and the American town of Cutler, and are within one of four areas between the two countries whose sovereignty is still in dispute, but it is the only one of the disputed areas containing land. Also in this easternmost area in the Bay of Fundy is the Old Sow, the largest tidal whirlpool in the Western Hemisphere.Maine is the least densely populated U.S. state east of the Mississippi River. It is called the Pine Tree State; over 80% of its total land is forested and/or unclaimed.JOURNAL, Nowak, David J., Greenfield, Eric J., Tree and impervious cover in the United States, Landscape and Urban Planning, July 2012, 107, 1, 21–30, 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.04.005,weblink the most forest cover of any U.S. state. In the forested areas of the interior lies much uninhabited land, some of which does not have formal political organization into local units (a rarity in New England). The Northwest Aroostook, Maine unorganized territory in the northern part of the state, for example, has an area of {{convert|2668|sqmi|km2}} and a population of 10, or one person for every {{convert|267|sqmi|km2}}.Maine is in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome. The land near the southern and central Atlantic coast is covered by the mixed oaks of the Northeastern coastal forests. The remainder of the state, including the North Woods, is covered by the New England-Acadian forests.JOURNAL, Olson, Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Life on Earth, BioScience, 2001, 51, 11, 933–938,weblink 10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0933:TEOTWA]2.0.CO;2, D. M, E. Dinerstein, 3, 0006-3568, Burgess, Neil D., Powell, George V. N., Underwood, Emma C., d'Amico, Jennifer A., Itoua, Illanga, Strand, Holly E., dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111014034322weblink">weblink October 14, 2011, Maine has almost {{convert|230|mi|km|-2}} of coastline (and {{convert|3500|mi|km|-2}} of tidal coastline).WEB, Maine.gov: Facts About Maine,weblink State of Maine, September 17, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101114184346weblink">weblink November 14, 2010, WEB,weblink Length of the U.S. Coastline by State, fen.com, September 11, 2015, West Quoddy Head, in Lubec, Maine, is the easternmost point of land in the 48 contiguous states. Along the famous rock-bound coast of Maine are lighthouses, beaches, fishing villages, and thousands of offshore islands, including the Isles of Shoals which straddle the New Hampshire border. There are jagged rocks and cliffs and many bays and inlets. Inland are lakes, rivers, forests, and mountains. This visual contrast of forested slopes sweeping down to the sea has been summed up by American poet Edna St. Vincent Millay of Rockland and Camden, Maine, in "Renascence":File:A beach in maine on a clear day.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|The coast of Maine near Acadia National ParkAcadia National ParkFile:Boothbay Harbor, summer morning at low tide.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Boothbay Harbor ]]
All I could see from where I stood Was three long mountains and a wood; I turned and looked the other way, And saw three islands in a bay.
Geologists describe this type of landscape as a "drowned coast", where a rising sea level has invaded former land features, creating bays out of valleys and islands out of mountain tops.WEB,weblink Answers – The Most Trusted Place for Answering Life's Questions, Answers.com, September 11, 2015, A rise in the elevation of the land due to the melting of heavy glacier ice caused a slight rebounding effect of underlying rock; this land rise, however, was not enough to eliminate all the effect of the rising sea level and its invasion of former land features.Much of Maine's geomorphology was created by extended glacial activity at the end of the last ice age. Prominent glacial features include Somes Sound and Bubble Rock, both part of Acadia National Park on Mount Desert Island. Carved by glaciers, Somes Sound is considered to be the only fjord on the eastern seaboard and reaches depths of {{convert|175|ft|m|-1}}. The extreme depth and steep drop-off allow large ships to navigate almost the entire length of the sound. These features also have made it attractive for boat builders, such as the prestigious Hinckley Yachts.Bubble Rock, a glacial erratic, is a large boulder perched on the edge of Bubble Mountain in Acadia National Park. By analyzing the type of granite, geologists were able to discover that glaciers carried Bubble Rock to its present location from near Lucerne – {{convert|30|mi|km}} away. The Iapetus Suture runs through the north and west of the state, being underlain by the ancient Laurentian terrane, and the south and east underlain by the Avalonian terrane.Acadia National Park is the only national park in New England. Areas under the protection and management of the National Park Service include:WEB, Maine, National Park Service, July 16, 2008,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080703061048weblink">weblink July 3, 2008,

Climate

File:Stratton Flagstaff Lake Maine 262258633.jpg|thumb|left|Autumn in Stratton ]](File:Maine Köppen.svg|thumb|right|Köppen climate map of Maine)File:Bangor Maine.JPG|thumb|left|Winter in Bangor ]]Maine has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb), with warm (although generally not hot), humid summers. Winters are cold and very snowy throughout the state, and are especially severe in the Northern and Western parts of Maine. Coastal areas are moderated slightly by the Atlantic Ocean, resulting in slightly milder winters and cooler summers in immediate coastal areas. Daytime highs are generally in the {{convert|75|–|80|F|C}} range throughout the state in July, with overnight lows in the high 50s °F (around 15 Â°C). January temperatures range from highs near {{convert|30|F|C|abbr=on}} on the southern coast to overnight lows averaging below {{convert|0|F|C|abbr=on}} in the far north.NEWS,weblink November 6, 2011, New All Time Low Temperature Recorded in Maine, February 10, 2009, Lent, Robert, U.S. Geological Survey, The state's record high temperature is {{convert|105|°F|°C|abbr=on}}, set in July 1911, at North Bridgton.NEWS,weblink February 11, 2009, Each state's high temperature record, August 2006, USA Today, Precipitation in Maine is evenly distributed year-round, but with a slight summer maximum in northern/northwestern Maine and a slight late-fall or early-winter maximum along the coast due to "nor'easters" or intense cold-season rain/snow storms. In coastal Maine, the late spring and summer months are usually driest – a rarity across the Eastern United States. Maine has fewer days of thunderstorms than any other state east of the Rockies, with most of the state averaging less than 20 days of thunderstorms a year. Tornadoes are rare in Maine, with the state averaging fewer than four per year, although this number is increasing. Most severe thunderstorms and tornadoes occur in the Sebago Lakes & Foothills region of the state.weblink NOAA National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved on October 24, 2006. Maine only occasionally sees tropical cyclones.In January 2009, a new record low temperature for the state was set at Big Black River of {{convert|-50|°F|°C|abbr=on}}, tying the New England record.Annual precipitation varies from {{convert|909|mm|in|abbr=on}} in Presque Isle, to {{convert|1,441|mm|in|abbr=on}} in Acadia National Park.National Climatic Data Center. NOAA's 1981–2010 Climate Normals.weblink{| class="wikitable sortable" style="margin:auto;"!Location!July (°F)!July (°C)!January (°F)!January (°C)Portland, Maine>Portland 78/59 26/15 31/13 −0/−10Lewiston, Maine>Lewiston 81/61 27/16 29/11 −2/−12Bangor, Maine>Bangor 79/57 26/14 27/6 −2/−14Augusta, Maine>Augusta 79/60 26/15 27/11 −2/−11Presque Isle, Maine>Presque Isle 77/55 25/13 20/1 −6/−17

Demographics

Population

{{US Census population|1790= 96540|1800= 151719|1810= 228705|1820= 298335|1830= 399455|1840= 501793|1850= 583169|1860= 628279|1870= 626915|1880= 648936|1890= 661086|1900= 694466|1910= 742371|1920= 768014|1930= 797423|1940= 847226|1950= 913774|1960= 969265|1970= 992048|1980= 1124660|1990= 1227928|2000= 1274923|2010= 1328361|estimate= 1338404|estyear= 2018|align-fn=centerTITLE=RESIDENT POPULATION DATA – 2010 CENSUS ACCESSDATE=MARCH 15, 2012 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20111028064539/HTTP://2010.CENSUS.GOV/2010CENSUS/DATA/APPORTIONMENT-POP-TEXT.PHP DF=MDY, 2018 estimateHTTPS://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/QUICKFACTS/FACT/TABLE/ME,US/PST045218>TITLE=QUICKFACTS MAINE; UNITED STATESWEBSITE=2018 POPULATION ESTIMATESUNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, POPULATION DIVISION>DATE=MARCH 11, 2019, March 11, 2019, }}(File:Maine population map.png|thumb|left|Maine population density map)The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Maine was 1,338,404 on July 1, 2018, a 0.76% increase since the 2010 United States Census. The population density of the state is 41.3 people per square mile, making it the least densely populated state east of the Mississippi River. As of 2010 Maine was also the most rural state in the Union, with only 38.7% of the state's population living within urban areasweblink As explained in detail under "Geography", there are large tracts of uninhabited land in some remote parts of the interior of the state, particularly in the North Maine Woods.The mean population center of Maine is located in Kennebec County, just east of Augusta.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110429025307weblink">weblink dead, April 29, 2011, Population and Population Centers by State: 2010 (US Census Bureau), April 9, 2011, The Greater Portland metropolitan area is the most densely populated with nearly 40% of Maine's population.WEB,weblink census.gov, August 3, 2013, This area spans three counties and includes many farms and wooded areas; the 2016 population of Portland proper was 66,937.WEB,weblink U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Portland city, Maine, www.census.gov, en, January 15, 2018, Maine has experienced a very slow rate of population growth since the 1990 census; its rate of growth (0.57%) since the 2010 census ranks 45th of the 50 states.WEB,weblink Mass. Benchmarks, The modest population growth in the state has been concentrated in the southern coastal counties; with more diverse populations slowly moving into these areas of the state. However, the northern, more rural areas of the state have experienced a slight decline in population in recent years.NEWS,weblink Interactive: Population change in Maine towns, 2010-2016, May 26, 2017, Portland Press Herald, January 15, 2018, en-US, According to the 2010 Census, Maine has the highest percentage of non-Hispanic whites of any state, at 94.4% of the total population. In 2011, 89.0% of all births in the state were to non-Hispanic white parents."Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". The Plain Dealer. June 3, 2012.The table below shows the racial composition of Maine's population as of 2016.{|class="wikitable sortable collapsible nowrap" style="font-size: 90%; text-align: right; display:inline-table;"Maine racial composition of population2016 AMERICAN COMMUNITY SURVEY - DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES,weblink United States Census Bureau, November 21, 2018, ! Race !! Population (2016 est.) !! Percentage Total population 1,329,923 100% White American >| 94.8% African American >| 1.2% Native Americans in the United States >| 0.6% Asian American >| 1.1% Pacific Islander American >| 0.0% Race and ethnicity in the United States Census >| 0.2% Multiracial American >| 2.0%According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 1.5% of Maine's population were of Hispanic or Latino origin (of any race): Mexican (0.4%), Puerto Rican (0.4%), Cuban (0.1%), and other Hispanic or Latino origin (0.6%). The five largest ancestry groups were: English (20.7%), Irish (17.3%), French (15.7%), German (8.1%), and American (7.8%).WEB, 2016 American Community Survey - Selected Social Characteristics,weblink United States Census Bureau, November 21, 2018, People citing that they are American are of overwhelmingly English descent, but have ancestry that has been in the region for so long (often since the 1600s) that they choose to identify simply as Americans.Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America By Dominic J. Pulera.Reynolds Farley, "The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?", Demography, Vol. 28, No. 3 (August 1991), pp. 414, 421.Stanley Lieberson and Lawrence Santi, "The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns", Social Science Research, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1985), pp. 44–6.Stanley Lieberson and Mary C. Waters, "Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites", Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 487, No. 79 (September 1986), pp. 82–86.Mary C. Waters, Ethnic Options: Choosing Identities in America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990), p. 36.French Canadian Emigration to the United States 1840–1930. Claude Bélanger, Department of History, Marianopolis CollegeFrench-Canadian Americans by Marianne FedunkiwMaine has the highest percentage of French Americans of any state. Most of them are of Canadian origin, but in some cases have been living there since prior to the American Revolutionary War. There are particularly high concentrations in the northern part of Maine in Aroostook County, which is part of a cultural region known as Acadia that goes over the border into New Brunswick. Along with the Acadian population in the north, many French came from Quebec as immigrants between 1840 and 1930.The upper Saint John River valley area was once part of the so-called Republic of Madawaska, before the frontier was decided in the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842. Over one quarter of the population of Lewiston, Waterville, and Biddeford are Franco-American. Most of the residents of the Mid Coast and Down East sections are chiefly of British heritage. Smaller numbers of various other groups, including Irish, Italian and Polish, have settled throughout the state since the late 19th and early 20th century immigration waves.
Birth data
Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.{| class="wikitable" style="font-size: 90%;"|+Live births by single race/ethnicity of mother! Race! 2013WEB,weblink Statistics, cdc.gov, ! 2014WEB,weblink Statistics, cdc.gov, ! 2015WEB,weblink Statistics, cdc.gov, ! 2016WEB,weblink National Vital Statistics Reports, cdc.gov, January 31, 2018, July 11, 2018, ! 201weblinkWhite Americans>White:| 11,950 (93.5%)| 11,842 (93.2%)| 11,805 (93.6%)| ...| ... Non-Hispanic whites>Non-Hispanic White| 11,774 (92.1%)| 11,654 (91.8%)| 11,563 (91.7%)| 11,484 (90.4%)| 10,958 (89.1%)African Americans>Black| 455 (3.6%)| 450 (3.5%)| 473 (3.7%)| 411 (3.2%)| 545 (4.4%)Asian Americans>Asian| 253 (2.0%)| 248 (1.9%)| 186 (1.5%)| 192 (1.5%)| 219 (1.8%)Native Americans in the United States>American Indian| 118 (0.9%)| 158 (1.2%)| 143 (1.1%)| 97 (0.7%)| 88 (0.7%)Hispanic and Latino Americans>Hispanic (of any race)| 172 (1.3%)| 200 (1.6%)| 251 (2.0%)| 238 (1.9%)| 229 (1.9%)| Total Maine| 12,776 (100%)| 12,698 (100%)| 12,607 (100%)| 12,705 (100%)| 12,298 (100%)
  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Language

Maine does not have an official language, but the most widely spoken language in the state is English. The 2000 Census reported 92.25% of Maine residents aged five and older spoke only English at home. French-speakers are the state's chief linguistic minority; census figures show that Maine has the highest percentage of people speaking French at home of any state: 5.28% of Maine households are French-speaking, compared with 4.68% in Louisiana, which is the second highest state.WEB,weblink MLA Language Map Data Center, Modern Language Association, Although rarely spoken, Spanish is the third-most-common language in Maine, after English and French.WEB,weblink Languages – Maine, www.city-data.com,

Religion

{{bar boxDATE=MAY 11, 2015, |titlebar=|left1=religion|right1=percent|float=right|bars={{bar percent|Protestant|DarkViolet|37}}{{bar percent|No religion|black|31}}{{bar percent|Catholic|DodgerBlue|21}}{{bar percent|Other faith|green|5}}{{bar percent|Mormon|yellow|2}}{{bar percent|Jewish|cyan|2}}{{bar percent|Don't know|pink|2}}{{bar percent|Other Christian|red|1}}{{bar percent|Buddhist|orange|1}}}}According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA),WEB,weblink The Association of Religion Data Archives | State Membership Report, www.thearda.com, November 15, 2013, the religious affiliations of Maine in 2010 were: The Catholic Church was the largest religious institution with 202,106 members, the United Methodist Church had 28,329 members, the United Church of Christ had 22,747 membersIn 2010, a study named Maine as the least religious state in the United States.WEB,weblink The Role of Religion in Maine, Hendrickson, Dyke, August 19, 2010, Maine Public Broadcasting Network, October 19, 2011,

Economy

{{See also|Maine locations by per capita income}}File:TotallyFreeImages com-280902-Standard-preview.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|StereoscopicStereoscopicFile:Biw aerial.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Bath Iron WorksBath Iron WorksThe Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Maine's total gross state product for 2010 was $52 billion.WEB, GDP by State,weblink Greyhill Advisors, September 13, 2011, Its per capita personal income for 2007 was US$33,991, 34th in the nation. {{as of|2018|May}}, Maine's unemployment rate is 3.0%WEB,weblink Local Area Unemployment Statistics program of Maine, www.maine.gov, July 19, 2018, File:Old Port area of Portland, ME.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Old port area of Portland ]]Maine's agricultural outputs include poultry, eggs, dairy products, cattle, wild blueberries, apples, maple syrup, and maple sugar. Aroostook County is known for its potato crops. Commercial fishing, once a mainstay of the state's economy, maintains a presence, particularly lobstering and groundfishing. While lobster is the main seafood focus for Maine, the harvest of both oysters and seaweed are on the rise. In 2015, 14% of the Northeast's total oyster supply came from Maine. In 2017, the production of Maine's seaweed industry was estimated at $20 million per year. The shrimp industry of Maine is on a government-mandated hold. With an ever-decreasing Northern shrimp population, Maine fishermen are no longer allowed to catch and sell shrimp. The hold began in 2014 and is expected to continue until 2021.JOURNAL, Losneck, Caroline, April 2019, "NORTHEAST: Oyster, seaweed industries continue rise in Maine; Northern shrimp shutdown extends 3 years; scup and squid try to find strong markets.", National Fisherman, UMA Library, Western Maine aquifers and springs are a major source of bottled water.Maine's industrial outputs consist chiefly of paper, lumber and wood products, electronic equipment, leather products, food products, textiles, and bio-technology. Naval shipbuilding and construction remain key as well, with Bath Iron Works in Bath and Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery.Brunswick Landing, formerly Naval Air Station Brunswick, is also in Maine. Formerly a large support base for the U.S. Navy, the BRAC campaign initiated the Naval Air Station's closing, despite a government-funded effort to upgrade its facilities. The former base has since been changed into a civilian business park, as well as a new satellite campus for Southern Maine Community College.WEB,weblink Brunswick Landing – Midcoast Regional Redevelopment Authority, Midcoast Regional Redevelopment Authority, September 11, 2015, Maine is the number one US producer of low-bush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium). Preliminary data from the USDA for 2012 also indicate Maine was the largest blueberry producer of the major blueberry producing states in the US, with 91,100,000 lbs.WEB,weblink Data, usda.mannlib.cornell.edu, This data includes both low (wild), and high-bush (cultivated) blueberries: Vaccinium corymbosum. The largest toothpick manufacturing plant in the United States used to be located in Strong, Maine. The Strong Wood Products plant produced 20 million toothpicks a day. It closed in May 2003.Tourism and outdoor recreation play a major and increasingly important role in Maine's economy. The state is a popular destination for sport hunting (particularly deer, moose and bear), sport fishing, snowmobiling, skiing, boating, camping and hiking, among other activities.Historically, Maine ports played a key role in national transportation. Beginning around 1880, Portland's rail link and ice-free port made it Canada's principal winter port, until the aggressive development of Halifax, Nova Scotia, in the mid-1900s. In 2013, 12,039,600 short tons passed into and out of Portland by sea,WEB,weblink Part1_Ports_tonsbycommCY2013.htm, www.navigationdatacenter.us, which places it 45th of US water ports.WEB,weblink Table 1-57: Tonnage of Top 50 U.S. Water Ports, Ranked by Total Tons(a) – Bureau of Transportation Statistics, www.rita.dot.gov, Portland Maine's Portland International Jetport was recently expanded, providing the state with increased air traffic from carriers such as JetBlue and Southwest Airlines.Maine has very few large companies that maintain headquarters in the state, and that number has fallen due to consolidations and mergers, particularly in the pulp and paper industry. Some of the larger companies that do maintain headquarters in Maine include Fairchild Semiconductor in South Portland; IDEXX Laboratories, in Westbrook; Hannaford Bros. Co. in Scarborough; Unum in Portland; TD Bank in Portland; L.L.Bean in Freeport; and Cole Haan in Yarmouth. Maine is also the home of the Jackson Laboratory, the world's largest non-profit mammalian genetic research facility and the world's largest supplier of genetically purebred mice.

Taxation

{{further|State tax levels in the United States}}Maine has an income tax structure containing two brackets, 6.5 and 7.95 percent of personal income.WEB,weblink Tax forms, maine.gov, Before July 2013 Maine had four brackets: 2, 4.5, 7, and 8.5 percent.WEB,weblink Tax forms, maine.gov, Maine's general sales tax rate is 5.5 percent. The state also levies charges of 9 percent on lodging and prepared food and 10 percent on short-term auto rentals.WEB,weblink Title 36, §1811: Sales tax, legislature.maine.gov, Commercial sellers of blueberries, a Maine staple, must keep records of their transactions and pay the state 1.5 cents per pound ($1.50 per 100 pounds) of the fruit sold each season. All real and tangible personal property located in the state of Maine is taxable unless specifically exempted by statute. The administration of property taxes is handled by the local assessor in incorporated cities and towns, while property taxes in the unorganized territories are handled by the State Tax Assessor.

Shipbuilding

{{Further|Bath Iron Works|Portsmouth Naval Shipyard}}Maine has a long-standing tradition of being home to many shipbuilding companies. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Maine was home to many shipyards that produced wooden sailing ships. The main function of these ships was to transport either cargos or passengers overseas. One of these yards was located in Pennellville Historic District in what is now Brunswick, Maine. This yard, owned by the Pennell family, was typical of the many family-owned shipbuilding companies of the time period. Other such examples of shipbuilding families were the Skolfields and the Morses. During the 18th and 19th centuries, wooden shipbuilding of this sort made up a sizable portion of the economy.

Transportation

Airports

File:KPWM Aerial Wiki.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Portland International JetportPortland International JetportMaine receives passenger jet service at its two largest airports, the Portland International Jetport in Portland, and the Bangor International Airport in Bangor. Both are served daily by many major airlines to destinations such as New York, Atlanta, and Orlando. Essential Air Service also subsidizes service to a number of smaller airports in Maine, bringing small turboprop aircraft to regional airports such as the Augusta State Airport, Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport, Knox County Regional Airport, and the Northern Maine Regional Airport at Presque Isle. These airports are served by regional providers such as Cape Air with Cessna 402s, PenAir with Saab 340s, and CommutAir with Embraer ERJ 145 aircraft.Many smaller airports are scattered throughout Maine, only serving general aviation traffic. The Eastport Municipal Airport, for example, is a city-owned public-use airport with 1,200 general aviation aircraft operations each year from single-engine and ultralight aircraft.KEPM – Eastport, Maine – Eastport Municipal Airport". Great Circle Mapper.weblink Retrieved August 9, 2009.

Highways

File:Penobscot Narrows Bridge and Observatory.jpg|thumb|right|The Penobscot Narrows Bridge, carrying U.S. Route 1 and Maine State Route 3 over the Penobscot RiverPenobscot RiverInterstate 95 (I-95) travels through Maine, as well as its easterly branch I-295 and spurs I-195, I-395 and the unsigned I-495 (the Falmouth Spur). In addition, U.S. Route 1 (US 1) starts in Fort Kent and travels to Florida. The eastern terminus of the eastern section of US 2 starts in Houlton, near the New Brunswick, Canada border to Rouses Point, New York, at US 11. US 2A connects Old Town and Orono, primarily serving the University of Maine campus. US 201 and US 202 flow through the state. US 2, Maine State Route 6 (SR 6), and SR 9 are often used by truckers and other motorists of the Maritime Provinces en route to other destinations in the United States or as a short cut to Central Canada.

Rail

{{See also|List of Maine railroads}}

Passenger

File:Amtrak downeaster ocean park 2005.jpg|thumb|right|A southbound Downeaster passenger train at Ocean Park, MaineOcean Park, MaineThe Downeaster passenger train, operated by Amtrak, provides passenger service between Brunswick and Boston's North Station, with stops in Freeport, Portland, Old Orchard Beach, Saco, and Wells. The Downeaster makes five daily trips.WEB,weblink Downeaster Schedule, Amtrak Downeaster, May 20, 2019, May 10, 2019,

Freight

Freight service throughout the state is provided by a handful of regional and shortline carriers: Pan Am Railways (formerly known as Guilford Rail System), which operates the former Boston & Maine and Maine Central railroads; St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad; Maine Eastern Railroad; Central Maine and Quebec Railway; and New Brunswick Southern Railway.

Law and government

{{See also|List of Governors of Maine|List of United States Senators from Maine|List of Maine State Senators|Electoral reform in Maine}}The Maine Constitution structures Maine's state government, composed of three co-equal branches—the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The state of Maine also has three Constitutional Officers (the Secretary of State, the State Treasurer, and the State Attorney General) and one Statutory Officer (the State Auditor).The legislative branch is the Maine Legislature, a bicameral body composed of the Maine House of Representatives, with 151 members, and the Maine Senate, with 35 members. The Legislature is charged with introducing and passing laws.The executive branch is responsible for the execution of the laws created by the Legislature and is headed by the Governor of Maine (currently Janet Mills). The Governor is elected every four years; no individual may serve more than two consecutive terms in this office. The current attorney general of Maine is Aaron Frey. As with other state legislatures, the Maine Legislature can by a two-thirds majority vote from both the House and Senate override a gubernatorial veto. Maine is one of seven states that do not have a lieutenant governor.The judicial branch is responsible for interpreting state laws. The highest court of the state is the Maine Supreme Judicial Court. The lower courts are the District Court, Superior Court and Probate Court. All judges except for probate judges serve full-time, are nominated by the Governor and confirmed by the Legislature for terms of seven years. Probate judges serve part-time and are elected by the voters of each county for four-year terms.

Counties

{{See also|List of counties in Maine}}Maine is divided into political jurisdictions designated as counties. Since 1860 there have been 16 counties in the state, ranging in size from {{convert|370|to|6829|sqmi|km2|sigfig=3}}.{| class="wikitable mw-collapsible" style="margin: auto;" Maine counties! scope="col" | County name! scope="col" | County seat! scope="col" | Year founded! scope="col" | Population2010 Census! scope="col" | Population2017 EstimateWEB,weblink County Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2017, Census Bureau, United States Census Bureau, March 11, 2019, March 11, 2019, ! scope="col" | Percent of total! scope="col" | Area (sq. mi.)! scope="col" | Percent of totalAndroscoggin County, Maine>AndroscogginAuburn, Maine>|1.44%Aroostook County, Maine>AroostookHoulton, Maine>|19.76%Cumberland County, Maine>CumberlandPortland, Maine>|3.52%Franklin County, Maine>FranklinFarmington, Maine>|5.05%Hancock County, Maine>HancockEllsworth, Maine>|4.40%Kennebec County, Maine>KennebecAugusta, Maine>|2.75%Knox County, Maine>KnoxRockland, Maine>|3.30%Lincoln County, Maine>LincolnWiscasset, Maine>|2.03%Oxford County, Maine>OxfordParis, Maine>|6.29%Penobscot County, Maine>PenobscotBangor, Maine>|10.29%Piscataquis County, Maine>PiscataquisDover-Foxcroft, Maine>|12.67%Sagadahoc County, Maine>SagadahocBath, Maine>|1.07%Somerset County, Maine>SomersetSkowhegan, Maine>|11.85%Waldo County, Maine>WaldoBelfast, Maine>|2.47%Washington County, Maine>WashingtonMachias, Maine>|9.42%York County, Maine>YorkAlfred, Maine>|3.68%34554km2|0}}

State and local politics

{{See also|As Maine goes, so goes the nation|Maine Democratic Party|Maine Green Independent Party|Libertarian Party of Maine|Maine Republican Party|Political party strength in Maine}}{| class="wikitable" style="float:right; margin:1em; font-size:95%;"Gubernatorial election resultsWEB,weblink General Election Results – Maine, United States Election Atlas, November 18, 2016, Leip, David, style="background:lightgrey;"! Year! Democratic! Republican195454.5% 135,67345.5% 113,298195659.2% 180,25440.8% 124,395195852.0% 145,67348.0% 134,572196249.9% 146,12150.1% 146,604196653.1% 172,03646.9% 151,802197050.1% 163,13849.9% 162,248197436.8% 132,21923.5% 84,1761978 47.8% 176,493 34.4% 126,862198261.9% 281,06638.1% 172,949198630.2% 128,74439.9% 170,312 199044.1% 230,03846.7% 243,766199433.8% 172,95123.1% 117,990199812.0% 50,50618.9% 79,716200247.2% 238,17941.5% 209,496200638.1% 209,92730.2% 166,425201018.8% 109,38737.6% 218,065201443.4% 265,12548.2% 294,533201850.9% 320,96243.2% 272,311{| class="wikitable" style="float:right; margin:1em; font-size:95%;"Presidential election results style="background:lightgrey;"! Year! Democratic! Republican195233.8% 118,80666.1% 232,353195629.1% 102,46870.9% 249,238196043.0% 181,15957.1% 240,608196468.8% 262,26431.1% 118,701196855.3% 217,31243.1% 169,254197238.5% 160,58461.5% 256,458197648.1% 232,27948.9% 236,3201980 42.3% 220,974 45.6% 238,522198438.8% 214,51560.8% 336,500198843.9% 243,56955.3% 307,131199238.8% 263,42030.4% 206,504199651.6% 312,78830.8% 186,378200049.1% 319,95144.0% 286,6162004 53.6% 396,84244.6% 330,201200857.7% 421,92340.4% 295,273201256.3% 401,30641.0% 292,276201647.8% 357,73544.9% 335,593In state general elections, Maine voters tend to accept independent and third-party candidates more frequently than most states. Maine has had two independent governors recently (James B. Longley, 1975–1979 and current U.S. Senator Angus King, 1995–2003). Maine state politicians, Democrats and Republicans alike, are noted for having more moderate views than many in the national wings of their respective parties.Maine is an alcoholic beverage control state.On May 6, 2009, Maine became the fifth state to legalize same-sex marriage; however, the law was repealed by voters on November 3, 2009. On November 6, 2012, Maine, along with Maryland and Washington, became the first state to legalize same-sex marriage at the ballot box."Maine Passes Gay Marriage in Historic 'Question 1' Vote". The Huffington Post. November 7, 2012.

Federal politics

In the 1930s, Maine was one of very few states which retained Republican sentiments. In the 1936 presidential election, Franklin D. Roosevelt received the electoral votes of every state other than Maine and Vermont; these were the only two states in the nation that never voted for Roosevelt in any of his presidential campaigns, though Maine was closely fought in 1940 and 1944. In the 1960s, Maine began to lean toward the Democrats, especially in presidential elections. In 1968, Hubert Humphrey became just the second Democrat in half a century to carry Maine, perhaps because of the presence of his running mate, Maine Senator Edmund Muskie, although the state voted Republican in every presidential election in the 1970s and 1980s.File:United States presidential election in Maine, 2016.svg|thumb|left|TreemapTreemapSince 1969, two of Maine's four electoral votes have been awarded based on the winner of the statewide election; the other two go to the highest vote-getter in each of the state's two congressional districts. Every other state except Nebraska gives all its electoral votes to the candidate who wins the popular vote in the state at large, without regard to performance within districts. Maine split its electoral vote for the first time in 2016, with Donald Trump's strong showing in the more rural central and northern Maine allowing him to capture one of the state's four votes in the Electoral College.WEB,weblink Trump takes 1 of Maine's 4 electoral votes, in a first for the state, November 8, 2016, Ross Perot achieved a great deal of success in Maine in the presidential elections of 1992 and 1996. In 1992, as an independent candidate, Perot came in second to Democrat Bill Clinton, despite the long-time presence of the Bush family summer home in Kennebunkport. In 1996, as the nominee of the Reform Party, Perot did better in Maine than in any other state.Maine has voted for Democratic Bill Clinton twice, Al Gore in 2000, John Kerry in 2004, and Barack Obama in 2008 and 2012. In 2016, Republican Donald Trump won one of Maine's electoral votes with Democratic opponent Hillary Clinton winning the other three. Although Democrats have mostly carried the state in presidential elections in recent years, Republicans have largely maintained their control of the state's U.S. Senate seats, with Edmund Muskie, William Hathaway and George J. Mitchell being the only Maine Democrats serving in the U.S. Senate in the past fifty years.In the 2010 midterm elections, Republicans made major gains in Maine. They captured the governor's office as well as majorities in both chambers of the state legislature for the first time since the early 1970s. However, in the 2012 elections Democrats managed to recapture both houses of Maine Legislature.Maine's U.S. senators are Republican Susan Collins and Independent Angus King. The governor is Democrat Janet Mills. The state's two members of the United States House of Representatives are Democrats Chellie Pingree and Jared Golden.Maine is the first state to have introduced ranked-choice voting in federal elections.NEWS,weblink Maine Adopts Ranked-Choice Voting. What Is It, and How Will It Work?, The New York Times, Katharine Q., Seely, 3 December 2016, 9 April 2017,

Municipalities

Organized municipalities

An organized municipality has a form of elected local government which administers and provides local services, keeps records, collects licensing fees, and can pass locally binding ordinances, among other responsibilities of self-government. The governmental format of most organized towns and plantations is the town meeting, while the format of most cities is the council-manager form. {{as of|2013}} the organized municipalities of Maine consist of 23 cities, 431 towns, and 34 plantations. Collectively these 488 organized municipalities cover less than half of the state's territory. Maine also has 3 Reservations: Indian Island, Indian Township Reservation, and Pleasant Point Indian Reservation.WEB,weblink Maine.gov: Local, maine.gov, September 11, 2015,
  • The largest municipality in Maine, by population, is the city of Portland (pop. 66,318).
  • The smallest city by population is Eastport (pop. 1,331).
  • The largest town by population is Brunswick (pop. 20,278).
  • The smallest town by population is Frye Island, a resort town which reported zero year-round population in the 2000 Census; one plantation, Glenwood Plantation, Maine, also reported a permanent population of zero.
  • In the 2000 census, the smallest town aside from Frye Island was Centerville with a population of 26, but since that census, Centerville voted to disincorporate and therefore is no longer a town. The next smallest town with a population listed in that census is Beddington (pop. 50 at the 2010 census).
  • The largest municipality by land area is the town of Allagash, at {{convert|128|sqmi|km2|0}}.
  • The smallest municipality by land area is Monhegan Island, at {{convert|0.86|sqmi|km2|sigfig=2}}. The smallest municipality by area that is not an island is Randolph, at {{convert|2.23|sqmi|km2|0}}.

Unorganized territory

Unorganized territory has no local government. Administration, services, licensing, and ordinances are handled by the state government as well as by respective county governments who have townships within each county’s bounds. The unorganized territory of Maine consists of over 400 townships (towns are incorporated, townships are unincorporated), plus many coastal islands that do not lie within any municipal bounds. The UT land area is slightly over one half the entire area of the State of Maine. Year-round residents in the UT number approximately 9,000, about 1.3% of the state's total population, with many more people residing only seasonally within the UT. Only four of Maine's sixteen counties (Androscoggin, Cumberland, Waldo and York) are entirely incorporated, although a few others are nearly so, and most of the unincorporated area is in the vast and sparsely populated Great North Woods of Maine.WEB,weblink Unorganized Territory, maine.gov, September 11, 2015,

Most populous cities and towns

weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160119213049weblink">QuickFacts US Census Maine Portland:{| class="wikitable"|+ The 49 most populous cities and towns at the 2017 Census Estimate style="text-align:center;" Portland(66,882) Lewiston(36,221) Bangor(31,903) South Portland(25,483) Auburn(23,033) Biddeford(21,488) Sanford(21,028) style="text-align:center;"Brunswick, Maine>Brunswick(20,278)Saco, Maine>Saco(19,485)Scarborough, Maine>Scarborough(18,919)Westbrook, Maine>Westbrook(18,730)Augusta, Maine>Augusta(18,594)Windham, Maine>Windham(17,001)Waterville, Maine>Waterville(16,600) style="text-align:center;"Gorham, Maine>Gorham(16,381)York, Maine>York(12,529)Falmouth, Maine>Falmouth(11,185)Kennebunk, Maine>Kennebunk(10,798)Orono, Maine>Orono(10,362)Standish, Maine>Standish(9,874)Presque Isle, Maine>Presque Isle(9,078) style="text-align:center;"Wells, Maine>Wells(9,589)Kittery, Maine>Kittery(9,490)Buxton, Maine>Buxton(9,093)Brewer, Maine>Brewer(9,043)Cape Elizabeth, Maine>Cape Elizabeth(9,015)Lisbon, Maine>Lisbon(9,009)Topsham, Maine>Topsham(8,794) style="text-align:center;"Old Orchard Beach, Maine>Old Orchard Beach(8,624)Skowhegan, Maine>Skowhegan(8,589)Bath, Maine>Bath(8,317)Yarmouth, Maine>Yarmouth(8,349)Ellsworth, Maine>Ellsworth(7,973)Freeport, Maine>Freeport(7,879)Winslow, Maine>Winslow(7,794) style="text-align:center;"Gray, Maine>Gray(7,761)Farmington, Maine>Farmington(7,760)Waterboro, Maine>Waterboro(7,693)Caribou, Maine>Caribou(7,684)Old Town, Maine>Old Town(7,497)Hampden, Maine>Hampden(7,257)Rockland, Maine>Rockland(7,186) style="text-align:center;"Berwick, Maine>Berwick(7,246)South Berwick, Maine>South Berwick(7,220)Cumberland, Maine>Cumberland(7,211)Belfast, Maine>Belfast(6,752)Fairfield, Maine>Fairfield(6,735)Oakland, Maine>Oakland(6,240)Eliot, Maine>Eliot(6,204)File:Augusta from across the Kennebec River, ME IMG_2043.JPG|AugustaFile:BangorSkyline.jpg|BangorFile:Bath city hall Maine USA.jpg|BathFile:City Hall Biddeford, ME 2005.jpg|BiddefordFile:Downtown Brunswick, ME IMG_1967.JPG|BrunswickFile:Lew2maine.jpg|LewistonFile:Oldtown ME Mainstreet.jpg|Old TownFile:DowntownPortlandMe1.jpg|PortlandFile:Saco Maine Street.jpg|SacoThroughout Maine, many municipalities, although each separate governmental entities, nevertheless form portions of a much larger population base. There are many such population clusters throughout Maine, but some examples from the municipalities appearing in the above listing are:
  • Portland, South Portland, Cape Elizabeth, Westbrook, Scarborough, and Falmouth
  • Lewiston and Auburn
  • Bangor, Orono, Brewer, Old Town, and Hampden
  • Biddeford, Saco and Old Orchard Beach
  • Brunswick and Topsham
  • Waterville, Winslow, Fairfield, and Oakland
  • Presque Isle and CaribouFact Finder US Census Maine Portland {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111103172506weblink |date=November 3, 2011 }}

Education

{{Further| List of colleges and universities in Maine|Education in Maine|List of high schools in Maine|List of school districts in Maine}}{{multiple image| align = right| direction = vertical| width = 180Bates College and Bowdoin College of Lewiston, Maine>Lewiston and Brunswick| image1 = Entrance to Coram Library.jpg| caption1 =| image2 = Hubbard Hall - Bowdoin College - IMG 7782.JPG| caption2 =}}There are thirty institutions of higher learning in Maine.WEB,weblink Carnegie Classifications {{!, Basic Classification|website=carnegieclassifications.iu.edu|access-date=August 12, 2016}} These institutions include the University of Maine, which is the oldest, largest and only research university in the state. UMaine was founded in 1865 and is the state's only land grant and sea grant college. The University of Maine is located in the town of Orono and is the flagship of Maine. There are also branch campuses in Augusta, Farmington, Fort Kent, Machias, and Presque Isle.WEB,weblink About UMaine, Umaine.edu, July 18, 2016, Bowdoin College is a liberal arts college founded in 1794 in Brunswick, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state. Colby College in Waterville was founded in 1813 making it the second oldest college in Maine.WEB,weblink About, en-US, August 19, 2016, Bates College in Lewiston was founded in 1855 making it the third oldest institution in the state and the oldest coeducational college in New England.WEB,weblink Bates College, Forbes, June 16, 2016, [Bates College] was the first coeducational college in New England., The three colleges collectively form the Colby-Bates-Bowdoin Consortium and are ranked among the best colleges in the United States; often placing in the top 10% of all liberal arts colleges.WEB,weblink National Liberal Arts College Rankings {{!, Top Liberal Arts Colleges {{!}} US News Best Colleges |website=colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com |access-date=August 12, 2016 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20161012042527weblink |archivedate=October 12, 2016 |df= }}WEB,weblink College Guide Rankings 2015 – Liberal Arts Colleges, Washington Monthly, en-US, August 12, 2016, WEB,weblink America's Top Colleges, August 12, 2016, File:UMaine StevensHall.jpg|upright=0.9|thumb|Stevens Hall at the University of Maine in OronoOrono Maine's per-student public expenditure for elementary and secondary schools was 21st in the nation in 2012, at $12,344.WEB,weblink How States Are Spending Money in Education, Bidwell, Allie, U.S. News & World Report – News, May 5, 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150505044339weblink">weblink May 5, 2015, The collegiate system of Maine also includes numerous baccalaureate colleges such as: the Maine Maritime Academy (MMA), Unity College, and Thomas College. There is only one medical school in the state, (University of New England's College of Osteopathic Medicine) and only one law school (The University of Maine School of Law).Private schools in Maine are funded independently of the state and its furthered domains. Private schools are less common than public schools. A large number of private elementary schools with under 20 students exist, but most private high schools in Maine can be described as "semi-private".

Culture

(File:Hockey East ERI 3775 (5383521678).jpg|thumb|UMaine Division 1 Hockey)

Sports teams

Professional

Non-professional

NCAA

File:Moose exhibit, Maine State Museum in Augusta IMG 2004.JPG|right|thumb|The moosemoose

State symbols

Adapted from the Maine facts site.WEB, Facts About Maine,weblink Maine.gov, September 20, 2015, File:Maine quarter, reverse side, 2003.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Maine State Quarter ]]

In popular culture

Notable people

A citizen of Maine is known as a "Mainer",WEB, Dictionary.com – definition of "Mainer",weblink Dictionary.com, July 21, 2010, though the term is often reserved for those whose roots in Maine go back at least three generations.WEB, Maine: A Spiritual Frontier Opens for Business,weblink July 20, 2014, April 3, 2014, The term "Downeaster" may be applied to residents of the northeast coast of the state. The term "Mainiac" is considered by some to be derogatory, but embraced with pride by others,Louise Dickinson Rich. State o'Maine. Harper & Row, 1964, p ix and is used for a variety of organizations and for events such as the YMCA Mainiac Sprint Triathlon & Duathlon.WEB, Mainiac Tri,weblink August 13, 2014, dead,weblink August 14, 2014, mdy,

See also

References

Notes

Citations

{{reflist}}

External links

{{Sister project links|voy=Maine}}State government U.S. government Information {{New England}}{{Northeast US}}{{United States political divisions}}{{United States topics}}{{Coord|display=title|45.5|N|69|W|region:US-ME_type:adm1st_scale:3000000}}{{Authority control}}

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