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Luhansk
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{{Use dmy dates|date=March 2018}}{{Coord|48|34|N|39|18|E|type:city|display=title}}







factoids
Subdivisions of Ukraine>OblastLuhansk Oblast}}Raions of Ukraine>Raion|subdivision_name2 = City of Luhansk|established_title = Founded|established_date = 1795|established_title1 =|established_date1 = |leader_title = |leader_name =|area_magnitude = area_land_km2 = |area_water_km2 = |population_as_of = 2013|population_note = population_footnotes=|population_metro =| population_density_km2 = 1802|pushpin_map = Ukraine Lugansk Oblast#Ukraine|pushpin_label_position = left |pushpin_map_caption =Location of Luhansk|pushpin_mapsize =480390region:UA|display=inline}}|elevation_m = 105|postal_code_type=Postal code|postal_code = 91000|area_code = +380 642Köppen climate classification>ClimateHot-summer humid continental climate>Dfa|website =weblink|footnotes =}}File:Luhansk raions eng.svg|thumb|100px|RaionRaionLuhansk or Lugansk (, {{IPA-uk|luˈɦɑnʲsʲk|}}, , {{IPA-ru|ɫʊˈɡansk|}}), formerly known as Voroshilovgrad (1935–1958 and 1970–1990), is a city in eastern Ukraine near the border of western Russia.Luhansk is the capital and administrative center of the Luhansk People's Republic (LPR), an unrecognized nation that was established in 2014. Until its capture by LPR, Luhansk was the administrative center of the Luhansk Oblast.

History

The city traces its history to 1795 when the British industrialist Charles Gascoigne founded a metal factory near the Zaporizhian Cossacks settlement Kamianyi Brid. The settlement around the factory was known as Luganskiy Zavod. In 1882 the factory settlement Luganskiy Zavod was merged with the town of Kamianyi Brid into the city of Luhansk. Located in the Donets Basin, Luhansk developed into an important industrial center of Eastern Europe, particularly as a home to the major locomotive-building company Luhanskteplovoz. The city was occupied by Nazi Germany between 14 July 1942 and 14 February 1943.On 5 November 1935, the city was renamed Voroshilovgrad (; ) in honour of Soviet military commander and politician Kliment Voroshilov. On 5 March 1958, with the call of Khrushchev not to give names of living people to cities, the old name was reinstated.WEB,weblink ru:'Военная Литература' - Биографии - С.Н. Хрущёв, 'Military Literature' - Biographies - S. N. Khrushchev, ru, Militera.lib.ru, 30 October 2017, WEB,weblink Записки из Якирова Посада - Луганск-Ворошиловград-Луганск, Shusek.livejournal.com, 2 November 2009, 16 September 2011, On 5 January 1970, after the death of Voroshilov on 2 December 1969, the name changed again to Voroshilovgrad. Finally, on 4 May 1990, a decree of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR gave the city back its original name.In 1994 a referendum took place in the Donetsk Oblast and the Luhansk Oblast, with around 90% supporting the Russian language gaining status of an official language alongside Ukrainian, and for the Russian language to be an official language on a regional level; however, the referendum was annulled by the Ukrainian government.NEWS,weblink ru:Донбасс: забытый референдум-1994, Donbass: the forgotten referendum-1994, ru, Thekievtimes.ua, 14 May 2014, 30 October 2017, During the 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine, separatists seized governmental buildings in the region, proclaiming the Luhansk People's Republic. An independence referendum, unconstitutional under the Ukrainian law, was held on 11 May 2014. This referendum was not recognized as legitimate by any government except South Ossetia.WEB, Ukraine's Eastern Region Of Luhansk May Now Hold Referendum On Joining Russia,weblink Business Insider, 12 May 2014, Ukraine does not recognize the referendum, while the EU and US said the polls were illegal.NEWS,weblink Ukraine rebels seek to join Russia, 2014-05-12, 2019-04-15, en-GB, The Republic of South Ossetia, a state with very limited international recognition, considered the referendum legitimate and recognized its outcome.WEB,weblink South Ossetia Recogntition for Donetsk and Lughansk Republics, 23 November 2014, On 25 June 2014, Luhansk was officially pronounced as the capital of the Luhansk People's Republic by the government of the separatist republic.WEB, ru:ЗАКОН 'О системе исполнительных органов государственной власти Луганской Народной Республики', LAW 'On the system of executive bodies of state power of the Lugansk People's Republic', ru,weblink lugansk-online.info, 2014, 23 November 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140915024216weblink">weblink 15 September 2014, dmy-all, In August 2014, Ukrainian government forces completely surrounded rebel-held Luhansk."East Ukraine city of Luhansk dying under siege, residents say". The Denver Post. 5 August 2014. Heavy shelling caused civilian casualties in the city.NEWS,weblink Ukraine conflict: Under siege in Luhansk, Bbc.com, 13 August 2014, 30 October 2017, "In Shell-Torn Luhansk, Food and Water Is Scarce: 'Welcome to Hell!'". Newsweek. 15 August 2014.NEWS, Magnay, Diana, Lister, Tim,weblink Air attack on pro-Russian separatists in Luhansk kills 8, stuns city, CNN.com, 3 June 2014, 30 October 2017, On 17 August, Ukrainian soldiers entered the rebel-controlled Luhansk and for a time had control over a police station.NEWS,weblink Ukraine troops claim breakthrough in battle for rebel city Luhansk, The Guardian, 17 August 2014, Reuters, 17 August 2014, After the Ilovaisk counteroffensive, LPR forces regained Lutuhyne and other Luhansk suburbs. Ukrainian forces withdrew from the Luhansk International Airport on 1 September after heavy fighting.NEWS,weblink Ukraine crisis: Troops abandon Luhansk airport after clashes, Bbc.com, 1 September 2014, 30 October 2017, Luhansk became the capital and the administrative center of the rebel state of Luhansk People's Republic. The administration of the Luhansk Oblast was moved to Sievierodonetsk by the government of Ukraine.

Higher Education

(File:Institute of Culture.jpg|thumb|Institute of Culture and Art of the Lugansk National University.)Some of the more prestigious universities in Ukraine have their home in Luhansk. Luhansk is the location of the main campus of the Taras Shevchenko National University of Luhansk, East Ukrainian Volodymyr Dahl National University and of Luhansk State Medical University.

Demographics

In the Ukrainian Census of 2001,WEB, All-Ukrainian Population Census ’2001, State Statistics Committee of Ukraine,weblink 49.6% of the inhabitants declared themselves as ethnically Ukrainians and 47% declared themselves as ethnically Russian. The most widespread native language was Russian, at 85.3% of the population. Ukrainian was the native language for 13.7% of the population, and there was also smaller numbers of speakers of Armenian (0.2%) and Belarusian (0.1%).

Sport

Luhansk is home to Zorya Luhansk which now plays in the Ukrainian Premier League annual football championship and plays at the Avanhard Stadium. The club won the 1972 Soviet Top League.The other football team was Dynamo Luhansk.

Merheleva Ridge

On 7 September 2006, archaeologists in Ukraine announced that an ancient structure had been discovered near Luhansk, which the press reported as a pyramid antedating those in Egypt by at least 300 years. The stone foundations of the structure were said to resemble Aztec and Mayan pyramids in Mesoamerica. It was later concluded that the site in question was not a pyramid but was still of great interest.

Gallery

During 2014 and 2015, Luhansk has been the scene of intense fighting and most of these buildings are damaged to some extent. Some may be destroyed.File:Драматический театр.jpg|Luhansk drama theatreFile:Институт Культуры.jpg|Luhansk UniversityFile:Night Luhansk sovetskya street.jpg|Night Luhansk, Radianska streetFile:Гостиница "Луганск".jpg|"Luhansk" hotelFile:Свято-Владимирский кафедральный собор.jpg|St. Volodymyr Cathedral in LuhanskFile:Музей истории Луганска.jpg|City history museumFile:Эстакада.jpg|Luhansk Railway stationFile:Кукольный Театр.jpg|Soviet buildings in central LuhanskFile:В.И.Даль 02.jpg|City old hospitalFile:В.И.Даль 01.jpg|Vladimir Dal monumentFile:Lugansk Lenini kujuga 09.08. 2015.jpg|Lugansk drama theatreFile:Sõjapurustused Luganskis.jpg|A consumer electronics and appliance store in Luhansk, heavily damaged as a consequence of the War in Donbass.

Notable people

File:Mark V tank of the Don army 1919.jpg|thumbnail|180px|British Mark V captured by Don ArmyDon Army(File:LUHANSK 111.jpg|thumb|180px|Monument for Revolution Heroes in Luhansk.)

Climate

Luhansk features hot summer humid continental climate (Dfa), it has both the highest and lowest temperature recorded in Ukraine; a record high of {{convert|42.0|°C|°F|abbr=on}} was recorded on 12 August 2010 while a record low of {{convert|-41.9|°C|°F|abbr=on}} was recorded on 8 January 1935.WEB,weblink Кліматичні рекорди, Central Observatory for Geophysics, Ukrainian, 4 August 2016, Climate of the city is similar to that Cedar Rapids has.{{Weather box|location = Luhansk|metric first = Yes|single line = Yes| Jan record high C = 12.8| Feb record high C = 17.3| Mar record high C = 23.1| Apr record high C = 31.8| May record high C = 36.6| Jun record high C = 39.4| Jul record high C = 40.5| Aug record high C = 42.0| Sep record high C = 36.8| Oct record high C = 31.2| Nov record high C = 22.8| Dec record high C = 15.6|year record high C = 42.0| Jan high C = -1.0| Feb high C = -0.4| Mar high C = 5.7| Apr high C = 15.6| May high C = 22.2| Jun high C = 26.4| Jul high C = 28.7| Aug high C = 28.2| Sep high C = 21.8| Oct high C = 13.9| Nov high C = 5.2| Dec high C = 0.1|year high C = 13.9| Jan mean C = -4.0| Feb mean C = -4.1| Mar mean C = 1.4| Apr mean C = 9.7| May mean C = 15.8| Jun mean C = 20.1| Jul mean C = 22.3| Aug mean C = 21.2| Sep mean C = 15.3| Oct mean C = 8.6| Nov mean C = 1.8| Dec mean C = -2.7|year mean C = 8.8| Jan low C = -6.8| Feb low C = -7.4| Mar low C = -2.4| Apr low C = 4.2| May low C = 9.4| Jun low C = 13.8| Jul low C = 16.0| Aug low C = 14.5| Sep low C = 9.4| Oct low C = 4.0| Nov low C = -1.3| Dec low C = -5.5|year low C = 4.0| Jan record low C = -41.9| Feb record low C = -36.9| Mar record low C = -27.3| Apr record low C = -12.1| May record low C = -8.2| Jun record low C = -1.8| Jul record low C = 5.2| Aug record low C = -0.4| Sep record low C = -7.2| Oct record low C = -16.3| Nov record low C = -26.3| Dec record low C = -29.6|year record low C = -41.9|precipitation colour = green| Jan precipitation mm = 36| Feb precipitation mm = 36| Mar precipitation mm = 32| Apr precipitation mm = 33| May precipitation mm = 50| Jun precipitation mm = 61| Jul precipitation mm = 63| Aug precipitation mm = 34| Sep precipitation mm = 45| Oct precipitation mm = 35| Nov precipitation mm = 39| Dec precipitation mm = 39|year precipitation mm = 503| Jan rain days = 10| Feb rain days = 8| Mar rain days = 11| Apr rain days = 14| May rain days = 13| Jun rain days = 14| Jul rain days = 12| Aug rain days = 8| Sep rain days = 11| Oct rain days = 11| Nov rain days = 13| Dec rain days = 10|year rain days = 135| Jan snow days = 17| Feb snow days = 16| Mar snow days = 10| Apr snow days = 1| May snow days = 0.1| Jun snow days = 0.03| Jul snow days = 0| Aug snow days = 0| Sep snow days = 0.1| Oct snow days = 1| Nov snow days = 7| Dec snow days = 16|year snow days = 68| Jan humidity = 84| Feb humidity = 82| Mar humidity = 77| Apr humidity = 65| May humidity = 62| Jun humidity = 63| Jul humidity = 63| Aug humidity = 60| Sep humidity = 67| Oct humidity = 75| Nov humidity = 84| Dec humidity = 85|year humidity = 72TRANS-TITLE=WEATHER AND CLIMATEPUBLISHER=POGODAIKLIMAT.RUDEADURL=YESARCHIVEDATE=12 JULY 2014, |date=June 2012}}

International relations

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in Ukraine}}Luhansk is twinned with:
  • {{flagicon|UK}} Cardiff, United KingdomWEB,weblink Cardiff's twin cities, Cardiff Council, 15 June 2010, 10 August 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110609144903weblink">weblink 9 June 2011, dmy, WEB,weblink History of Luhansk, Official site of Luhansk City Council, 15 October 2012, 10 June 2015,
  • {{flagicon|POL}} Lublin, PolandWEB,weblink Miasta Partnerskie Lublina, Partner Cities of Lublin, pl, 7 August 2013, Lublin.eu, Lublin, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116171020weblink">weblink 16 January 2013,
  • {{flagicon|HUN}} Székesfehérvár, HungaryWEB,weblink Partnervárosok Névsora Partner és Testvérvárosok Névsora, Partner and Twin Cities List, hu, City of Székesfehérvár, 5 August 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121208035612weblink">weblink 8 December 2012, dmy,
  • {{flagicon|PRC}} Daqing, ChinaWEB,weblink 大庆市与乌克兰卢甘斯克市的往来纪实, 大庆市外事侨务网站,
  • {{flagicon|FRA}} Saint-Étienne, FranceBOOK, Sue Bridger, Frances Pine, Surviving Post-Socialism: Local Strategies and Regional Responses in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union,weblink 9 June 2015, 11 January 2013, Routledge, 978-1-135-10715-4, 190,
  • {{flagicon|BUL}} Pernik, Bulgaria

See also

References

{{reflist}}

External links

{{Wiktionary}} {{Luhansk Oblast}}{{Administrative divisions of Ukraine}}{{Cities in Ukraine}}{{2014 pro-Russian conflict in Ukraine}}{{Authority control}}

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