Lord's Prayer

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Lord's Prayer
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{{Hatnote|For other uses, see Lord's Prayer (disambiguation), Our Father (disambiguation) and Pater Noster (disambiguation).}}{{short description|Christian prayer}}File:Brooklyn Museum - The Lord's Prayer (Le Pater Noster) - James Tissot.jpg|thumb|upright|James Tissot—The Lord's Prayer (Le Pater Noster)—Brooklyn MuseumBrooklyn MuseumThe Lord's Prayer, also called the Our Father (Latin, Pater Noster), is a venerated Christian prayer which, according to the New Testament, Jesus taught as the way to pray:
Pray then in this way ... ({{Bibleref2|Matthew 6:9}} NRSV) When you pray, say ... ({{Bibleref2|Luke 11:2||NRSV}} NRSV)
Two versions of this prayer are recorded in the gospels: a longer form within the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew, and a shorter form in the Gospel of Luke when "one of his disciples said to him, 'Lord, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples.'" ({{Bibleref2|Luke 11:1||NRSV}} NRSV). Lutheran theologian Harold Buls suggested that both were original, the Matthean version spoken by Jesus early in his ministry in Galilee, and the Lucan version one year later, "very likely in Judea".Buls, H. H., The Sermon Notes of Harold Buls: Easter V, accessed 15 June 2018The first three of the seven petitions in Matthew address God; the other four are related to human needs and concerns. The Matthew account alone includes the "Your will be done" and the "Rescue us from the evil one" (or "Deliver us from evil") petitions. Both original Greek texts contain the adjective epiousios, which does not appear in any other classical or Koine Greek literature; while controversial, "daily" has been the most common English-language translation of this word. Protestants usually conclude the prayer with a doxology, a later addendum appearing in some manuscripts of Matthew.{| class="wikitable"! {{bibleref2|Matthew|6:9-13|NRSV}} (NRSV) !!{{bibleref2|Luke|11:2-4|NRSV}} (NRSV)
| Father, [Other ancient authorities read Our father in heaven]
| hallowed be your name.
| Your kingdom come.
||[A few ancient authorities read Your Holy Spirit come upon us and cleanse us.]
|[Other ancient authorities add Your will be done, on earth as in heaven]
epiousios>daily bread. [Or our bread for tomorrow] Give us each day our daily bread. [Or our bread for tomorrow]
| and forgive us our sins, for we ourselves forgive everyone indebted to us.
us into temptation] but rescue us from the evil one. [Or from evil] >| And do not bring us to the time of trial. [Or us into temptation. Other ancient authorities add but rescue us from the evil one (or from evil)]
For the kingdom and the power and the glory are yours forever. Amen.] >|
Initial words on the topic from the Catechism of the Catholic Church teach that it "is truly the summary of the whole gospel".WEB,weblink Catechism of the Catholic Church - The summary of the whole Gospel, 14 October 2016, The prayer is used by most Christian churches in their worship; with few exceptions, the liturgical form is the Matthean. Although theological differences and various modes of worship divide Christians, according to Fuller Seminary professor Clayton Schmit, "there is a sense of solidarity in knowing that Christians around the globe are praying together ... and these words always unite us."Kang, K. Connie. "Across the globe, Christians are united by Lord's Prayer." Los Angeles Times, in Houston Chronicle, p. A13, April 8, 2007.In biblical criticism, the prayer's absence in the Gospel of Mark together with its occurrence in Matthew and Luke has caused scholars who accept the two-source hypothesis (against other document hypotheses) to conclude that it is probably a logion original to Q.Farmer, William R., The Gospel of Jesus: The Pastoral Relevance of the Synoptic Problem, Westminster John Knox Press (1994), p. 49, {{ISBN|978-0-664-25514-5}}


Original Greek text and Syriac and Latin translations

{{col-begin|width=70%}}{{col-3}}Standard edition of Greek textThe text given here is that of the latest edition of Greek New Testament of the United Bible Societies and in the Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece. Most modern translations use a text similar to this one. Most older translations are based on a Byzantine-type text with ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς in line 5 (verse 10) instead of ἐπὶ γῆς, and ἀφίεμεν in line 8 (verse 12) instead of ἀφήκαμεν, and adding at the end (verse 13) the doxology ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας. ἀμήν.(pater hēmōn ho en tois ouranois)(hagiasthētō to onoma sou)(elthetō hē basileia sou)(genēthētō to thelēma sou hōs en ouranō(i) kai epi gēs)(ton arton hēmōn ton epiousion dos hēmin sēmeron)(kai aphes hēmin ta opheilēmata hēmōn hōs kai hēmeis aphēkamen tois opheiletais hēmōn)(kai mē eisenegkēs hēmas eis peirasmon alla rhusai hēmas apo tou ponērou){{col-break}}
Standard edition of Syriac text of Peshitta
1. ܐܰܒ݂ܽܘܢ ܕ݁ܒ݂ܰܫܡܰܝܳܐ (abun dbashmayo)
2. ܢܶܬ݂ܩܰܕ݁ܰܫ ܫܡܳܟ݂ (nethqadash shmokh)
3. ܬ݁ܺܐܬ݂ܶܐ ܡܰܠܟ݁ܽܘܬ݂ܳܟ݂ (thithe malkuthokh)
4. ܢܶܗܘܶܐ ܨܶܒ݂ܝܳܢܳܟ݂ ܐܰܝܟ݁ܰܢܳܐ ܕ݁ܒ݂ܰܫܡܰܝܳܐ ܐܳܦ݂ ܒ݁ܰܐܪܥܳܐ (nehwe tsebyonokh aykano dbashmayo of baro)
5. ܗܰܒ݂ ܠܰܢ ܠܰܚܡܳܐ ܕ݁ܣܽܘܢܩܳܢܰܢ ܝܰܘܡܳܢܳܐ (hab lan lahmo dsunqonan yawmono)
6. ܘܰܫܒ݂ܽܘܩ ܠܰܢ ܚܰܘܒ݁ܰܝܢ ܐܰܝܟ݁ܰܢܳܐ ܕ݁ܳܐܦ݂ ܚܢܰܢ ܫܒ݂ܰܩܢ ܠܚܰܝܳܒ݂ܰܝܢ (washbuq lan hawbayn aykano dof hnan shbaqn lhayobayn)
7. ܘܠܳܐ ܬ݁ܰܥܠܰܢ ܠܢܶܣܝܽܘܢܳܐ ܐܶܠܳܐ ܦ݁ܰܨܳܢ ܡܶܢ ܒ݁ܺܝܫܳܐ (wlo talan lnesyuno elo fatson men bisho)
Vulgata Clementina (1692)Three editions of the Vulgate: the Clementine edition of the Vulgate, which varies from the Nova Vulgata only in punctuation and in having "ne nos inducas" in place of "ne inducas nos", and another edition of the Vulgate, which has "qui in caelis es" in place of "qui es in caelis"; "veniat" in place of "adveniat"; "dimisimus" in place of "dimittimus"; "temptationem" in place of "tentationem".
1. pater noster qui es in cælis ([pater noster kwi es in tʃelis])
2. sanctificetur nomen tuum ([sanktifitʃetur nomen tuum])
3. adveniat regnum tuum ([adveniat reɲum tuum])
4. fiat voluntas tua sicut in cælo et in terra ([fiat voluntas tua sikut in tʃelo et in terra])
5. panem nostrum supersubstantialem da nobis hodie ([panem nostrum supersubstantialem da nobis odie])
6. et dimitte nobis debita nostra sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris ([et dimitte nobis debita nostra sikut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris])
7. et ne nos inducas in tentationem sed libera nos a maloIn the Nova Vulgata, the official Latin Bible of the Catholic Church, the last word is capitalized, indicating that it is a reference to Malus (the Evil One), not to malum (abstract or generic evil).The doxology associated with the Lord's Prayer in Byzantine Greek texts is found in four Vetus Latina manuscripts, only two of which give it in its entirety. The other surviving manuscripts of the Vetus Latina Gospels do not have the doxology. The Vulgate translation also does not include it, thus agreeing with critical editions of the Greek text. ([et ne nos indukas in tentatsionem sed libera nos a malo])

Liturgical texts: Greek, Syriac, Latin

File:Pater Noster in Cantus Planus.png|250px|thumb|The Lord's Prayer (Latin liturgical text) with Gregorian chant annotation{{listen|filename=Schola Gregoriana-Pater Noster.ogg|title=Pater Noster|description=The Lord's Prayer sung in Gregorian chant|format=(Ogg]]|embed = yes|style = float:left}}){{col-begin|width=70%}}{{col-2}}Patriarchal Edition 1904The Greek Orthodox Church uses a slightly different Greek version. which can be found in the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom (weblink Greek Orthodox Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom]), as presented in the weblink 1904 text of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople] and various Greek prayer books and liturgies. This is the Greek version of the Lord's Prayer most widely used for prayer and liturgy today, and is similar to other texts of the Byzantine text-type used in older English Bible translations, with ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς instead of ἐπὶ γῆς on line 5 and ἀφίεμεν instead of ἀφήκαμεν (present rather than aorist tense) in line 8. The last part, ὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας· ἀμήν, is said by the priest after the prayer.Matthew 6.11 and Luke 11.3 Curetonian Gospels used ܐܡܝܢܐ "constant bread" like Vulgata Clementina used "quotidianum" "daily bread" in Luke 11.3 see Epiousiosὅτι σοῦ ἐστιν ἡ βασιλεία καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας ἀμήνDidache finishes the prayer just with duality of words "for Thine is the Power and the Glory for ages" without any "amen" in the end. Old Syriac text of Curetonian Gospels finishes the prayer also with duality of words "for Thine is the Kingdom and the Glory for age ages. Amen"{{col-break}}
Syriac liturgical ܐܰܒ݂ܽܘܢ ܕ݁ܒ݂ܰܫܡܰܝܳܐ (our father which art in heaven) ܢܶܬ݂ܩܰܕ݁ܰܫ ܫܡܳܟ݂ (hallowed be thy name) ܬ݁ܺܐܬ݂ܶܐ ܡܰܠܟ݁ܽܘܬ݂ܳܟ݂ (thy kingdom come) ܢܶܗܘܶܐ ܨܶܒ݂ܝܳܢܳܟ݂ ܐܰܝܟ݁ܰܢܳܐ ܕ݁ܒ݂ܰܫܡܰܝܳܐ ܐܳܦ݂ ܒ݁ܰܐܪܥܳܐ (thy will be done as it is in heaven as in earth) ܗܰܒ݂ ܠܰܢ ܠܰܚܡܳܐ ܕ݁ܣܽܘܢܩܳܢܰܢ ܝܰܘܡܳܢܳܐ (give us this day our bread of need) ܘܰܫܒ݂ܽܘܩ ܠܰܢ ܚܰܘܒ݁ܰܝܢ ܘܰܚܛܳܗܰܝܢ ܐܰܝܟ݁ܰܢܳܐ ܕ݁ܳܐܦ݂ ܚܢܰܢ ܫܒ݂ܰܩܢ ܠܚܰܝܳܒ݂ܰܝܢ (and forgive us our debts and our sins as we have forgiven our debtors)Syriac liturgical text adds "and our sins" apparently to sum verses in prayers of Matthew 6.12 and Luke 11.4 ܘܠܳܐ ܬ݁ܰܥܠܰܢ ܠܢܶܣܝܽܘܢܳܐ ܐܶܠܳܐ ܦ݁ܰܨܳܢ ܡܶܢ ܒ݁ܺܝܫܳܐ (and bring us not into temptation but deliver us from evil)Syriac "deliver" relates with "Passover", thus Passover means "deliverance" Exodus 12.13Isaiah 45.7 ܡܶܛܽܠ ܕ݁ܕ݂ܺܝܠܳܟ݂ ܗ݈ܝ ܡܰܠܟ݁ܽܘܬ݂ܳܐ ܚܰܝܠܳܐ ܬ݂ܶܫܒ݁ܽܘܚܬ݁ܳܐ ܠܥܳܠܰܡ ܥܳܠܡܺܝܢ ܐܡܝܢ (for thine is the kingdom the power the glory for age ages amen)"and" are absent between "Kingdom, Power, Glory". Old Syriac Curetonian Gospels text writes different conclusion: "for Thine is the Kingdom and the Glory for age ages. Amen"
{{col-break}}Roman Missal2002 edition; 1962 edition, pp. 312−313The version of the Lord's Prayer most familiar to Western European Christians until the Protestant Reformation is that in the Roman Missal, which has had cultural and historical importance for most regions where English is spoken. The text is used in the Roman Rite liturgy (Mass, Liturgy of the Hours, etc.). It differs from the Vulgate in having cotidianum in place of supersubstantialem. It does not add the Byzantine doxology: this is never joined immediately to the Lord's Prayer in the Latin liturgy or the Latin Bible, but it appears, in the form quia tuum est regnum, et potestas, et gloria, in saecula, in the Mass of the Roman Rite, as revised in 1969, separated from the Lord's Prayer by the prayer, Libera nos, quaesumus... (the embolism), which elaborates on the final petition, libera nos a malo (deliver us from evil). Others have translated the Byzantine doxology into Latin as quia tuum est regnum; et potentia et gloria; per omnia saecula or in saecula saeculorum.
''Pater noster qui es in caelis ''sanctificetur nomen tuum ''adveniat regnum tuum ''fiat voluntas tua sicut in caelo et in terra Panem nostrum cotidianumIn editions of the Roman Missal prior to that of 1962 (the edition of Pope John XXIII) the word cotidianum was spelled quotidianum''. da nobis hodie ''et dimitte nobis debita nostra ''sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris ''et ne nos inducas in tentationem ''sed libera nos a malo

English versions

There are several different English translations of the Lord's Prayer from Greek or Latin, beginning around AD 650 with the Northumbrian translation. Of those in current liturgical use, the three best-known are: The square brackets in three of the texts below indicate the doxology often added at the end of the prayer by Protestants and, in a slightly different form, by the Byzantine Rite ("For thine is the kingdom and the power and the glory: of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, now and ever, and unto ages of ages. Amen."In Greek: ), among whom the prayer proper is usually recited by the cantors and congregation in unison, and the doxology by the priest as the conclusion of the prayer. The Anglican Book of Common Prayer adds it in some services but not in all. Older English translations of the Bible, based on late Byzantine Greek manuscripts, included it, but it is excluded in critical editions of the New Testament, such as that of the United Bible Societies. It is absent in the oldest manuscripts and is not considered to be part of the original text of (Matthew 6:9)–(Matthew 6:13|13). The Catholic Church has never attached it to the Lord's Prayer, but has included it in the Roman Rite Mass as revised in 1969, not as part of the Our Father but separated from it by a prayer called the embolism spoken or sung by the priest (in the official ICEL English translation: "Deliver us, Lord, we pray, from every evil, graciously grant peace in our days, that, by the help of your mercy, we may be always free from sin and safe from all distress, as we await the blessed hope and the coming of our Saviour, Jesus Christ.") that elaborates on the final petition, "Deliver us from evil." For more information on this doxology, see Doxology, below. When Reformers set out to translate the King James Bible, they assumed that a Greek manuscript they possessed was ancient and therefore adopted the phrase "For thine is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever" into the Lord's Prayer. Later scholarship demonstrated that the manuscript was actually a late addition based on Eastern liturgical tradition.{{col-begin}}{{col-3}}
1662 Anglican BCPWEB,weblink The Communion., 14 October 2016,
Our Father, which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy Name; Thy kingdom come; Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven: Give us this day our daily bread; And forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive them that trespass against us; And lead us not into temptation, But deliver us from evil: When before the Collect the priest alone recites the prayer, the people here respond: Amen. When after all have communicated the people repeat each petition after the priest, the prayer ends: For thine is the kingdom, the power, and the glory, For ever and ever. Amen.
Our Father who art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread, and forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us, and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil.
[The 1928 United States text sometimes adds: For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever and ever] Amen.
1988 ELLCweblink" title="">Praying Together
Our Father in heaven,
hallowed be your name, your kingdom come, your will be done,
on earth as in heaven.
Give us today our daily bread. Forgive us our sins
as we forgive those who sin against us.
Save us from the time of trial
and deliver us from evil.
For the kingdom, the power, and the glory are yours
now and for ever. Amen.
{{col-3}}{{col-end}}Other English translations are also used.Though (Matthew 6:12) uses the term debts, the older English versions of the Lord's Prayer uses the term trespasses, while ecumenical versions often use the term sins. The latter choice may be due to {{bibleref2|Luke|11:4}}, which uses the word sins, while the former may be due to (Matthew 6:14) (immediately after the text of the prayer), where Jesus speaks of trespasses. As early as the third century, Origen of Alexandria used the word trespasses () in the prayer. Although the Latin form that was traditionally used in Western Europe has debita (debts), most English-speaking Christians (except Scottish Presbyterians and some others of the Reformed tradition) use trespasses. The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), the Established Presbyterian Church of Scotland as well as the Congregational denomination follow the version found in Matthew 6 in the Authorized Version (known also as the King James Version), which in the prayer uses the words "debts" and "debtors".All these versions are based on the text in Matthew, rather than Luke, of the prayer given by Jesus:{{col-begin}}{{col-2}}{{bibleref2|Matthew|6:9–13|ESV}} (ESV)
"Pray then like this: 'Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name. Your kingdom come, your will be done, on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread, and forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil.'"
{{col-2}}{{bibleref2|Luke|11:2–4|ESV}} (ESV)
And he said to them, "When you pray, say: 'Father, hallowed be your name. Your kingdom come. Give us each day our daily bread, and forgive us our sins, for we ourselves forgive everyone who is indebted to us. And lead us not into temptation.'"


File:Lord's Prayer - Greek.JPG|thumb|The Lord's Prayer in Greek ]]Subheadings use 1662 Book of Common Prayer (BCP) (see above)


"Our" indicates that the prayer is that of a group of people who consider themselves children of God and who call God their "Father". "In heaven" indicates that the Father who is addressed is distinct from human fathers on earth.BOOK, Scott Hahn, Hahn, Scott, Understanding "Our Father": Biblical Reflections on the Lord's Prayer, 2002, Emmaus Road Publishing, Steubenville, Ohio, OH, 978-1-93101815-9, Augustine interpreted "heaven" (coelum, sky) in this context as meaning "in the hearts of the righteous, as it were in His holy temple".Augustine, On the Sermon on the Mount, Book II, Chapter 5, 17–18; original text

First Petition

{{see also|Names of God in Christianity|Matthew 6:9}}Former Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams explains this phrase as a petition that people may look upon God's name as holy, as something that inspires awe and reverence, and that they may not trivialize it by making God a tool for their purposes, to "put other people down, or as a sort of magic to make themselves feel safe". He sums up the meaning of the phrase by saying: "Understand what you're talking about when you're talking about God, this is serious, this is the most wonderful and frightening reality that we could imagine, more wonderful and frightening than we can imagine."Rowan Williams, The Lord's Prayer

Second Petition

{{see also|Matthew 6:10}}"This petition has its parallel in the Jewish prayer, 'May he establish his Kingdom during your life and during your days.'G. Dalman, The Words of Jesus (1909), 99. As cited in G. E. Ladd, The Presence of the Future (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans 1974), 137 In the gospels Jesus speaks frequently of God's kingdom, but never defines the concept: "He assumed this was a concept so familiar that it did not require definition."George Eldon Ladd, The Presence of the Future: The Eschatology of Biblical Realism, Eerdmans (Grand Rapids: 1974), 45. Concerning how Jesus' audience in the gospels would have understood him, G. E. Ladd turns to the concept's Hebrew Biblical background: "The Hebrew word malkuth […] refers first to a reign, dominion, or rule and only secondarily to the realm over which a reign is exercised. […] When malkuth is used of God, it almost always refers to his authority or to his rule as the heavenly King."George Eldon Ladd, The Presence of the Future: The Eschatology of Biblical Realism, Eerdmans (Grand Rapids: 1974), 46–47. This petition looks to the perfect establishment of God's rule in the world in the future, an act of God resulting in the eschatological order of the new age.G. E. Ladd, The Presence of the Future (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans 1974), 136–37The request for God's kingdom to come is commonly interpreted at the most literal level: as a reference to the belief, common at the time, that a Messiah figure would bring about a kingdom of God.{{Citation needed |date= October 2013}} Traditionally, the coming of God's kingdom is seen as a divine gift to be prayed for, not a human achievement.{{Citation needed|date= October 2013}} This idea is frequently challenged by groups who believe that the Kingdom will come by the hands of those faithful who work for a better world. These believe that Jesus' commands to feed the hungry and clothe the needy are the kingdom to which he was referring.{{Citation needed |date= October 2013}}Hilda C. Graef notes that the operative Greek word, basileia, means both kingdom and kingship (i.e., reign, dominion, governing, etc.), but that the English word kingdom loses this double meaning.Hilda C. Graef, St. Gregory of Nyssa: The Lord's Prayer and the Beatitudes (Ancient Christin Writers, No. 18), Paulist Press (New York: 1954), n. 68, p. 187. Kingship adds a psychological meaning to the petition: one is also praying for the condition of soul where one follows God's will.

Third Petition

{{see also|Matthew 6:10}}According to William Barclay, this phrase is a couplet with the same meaning as "Thy kingdom come." Barclay argues: "The kingdom is a state of things on earth in which God's will is as perfectly done as it is in heaven... To do the will of God and to be in the Kingdom of God are one and the same thing."BOOK,weblink The Mind of Jesus, Barclay, William, 1976-01-28, Harper Collins, 978-0-06060451-6, John Ortberg interprets this phrase as follows: "Many people think our job is to get my afterlife destination taken care of, then tread water till we all get ejected and God comes back and torches this place. But Jesus never told anybody—neither his disciples nor us—to pray, 'Get me out of here so I can go up there.' His prayer was, 'Make up there come down here.' Make things down here run the way they do up there."Ortberg, John Ortberg. “God is Closer Than You Think”. Zondervan, 2005, p. 176. The request that "thy will be done" is God's invitation to "join him in making things down here the way they are up there."

Fourth Petition

{{see also|Matthew 6:11}}{{see also|Epiousios}}As mentioned earlier in this article, the original word (epiousios), commonly characterized as daily, is unique to the Lord's Prayer in all of ancient Greek literature. The word is almost a hapax legomenon, occurring only in Luke and Matthew's versions of the Lord's Prayer, and nowhere else in any other extant Greek texts. While epiousios is often substituted by the word "daily," all other New Testament translations from the Greek into "daily" otherwise reference hemeran (ἡμέραν, "the day"), which does not appear in this usage.WEB, Interlinear,weblink Matthew 6:11, Our appointed bread give us to-day, Bible hub, 14 October 2016, The New Greek-English Interlinear New Testament, 1993, The United Bible Societies, (basis: UBS4 Greek text), page x of IntroductionWEB, Interlinear,weblink Matthew 20:2, and having agreed with the workmen for a denary a day, he sent them into his vineyard., Bible hub, 14 October 2016, WEB, Interlinear,weblink Luke 9:23, And he said unto all, 'If any one doth will to come after me, let him disown himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow me;, Bible hub, 14 October 2016, WEB,weblink Acts 6:1, Interlinear, And in these days, the disciples multiplying, there came a murmuring of the Hellenists at the Hebrews, because their widows were being overlooked in the daily ministration,, Bible hub, 14 October 2016, WEB,weblink Acts 17:11 Interlinear: and these were more noble than those in Thessalonica, they received the word with all readiness of mind, every day examining the Writings whether those things were so;, 14 October 2016, WEB,weblink Acts 17:17 Interlinear: therefore, indeed, he was reasoning in the synagogue with the Jews, and with the worshipping persons, and in the market-place every day with those who met with him., 14 October 2016, WEB,weblink Acts 19:9 Interlinear: and when certain were hardened and were disbelieving, speaking evil of the way before the multitude, having departed from them, he did separate the disciples, every day reasoning in the school of a certain Tyrannus., 14 October 2016, WEB,weblink 2 Corinthians 11:28 Interlinear: apart from the things without -- the crowding upon me that is daily -- the care of all the assemblies., 14 October 2016, WEB,weblink Hebrews 3:13 Interlinear: but exhort ye one another every day, while the To-day is called, that none of you may be hardened by the deceitfulness of the sin,, 14 October 2016, WEB,weblink Hebrews 10:11 Interlinear: and every priest, indeed, hath stood daily serving, and the same sacrifices many times offering, that are never able to take away sins., 14 October 2016, Via linguistic parsing, Jerome translated "ἐπιούσιον" (epiousios) as "supersubstantialem" in the Gospel of Matthew, but chose "cotidianum" ("daily") in the Gospel of Luke. This wide-ranging difference with respect to meaning of epiousios is discussed in detail in the current Catechism of the Catholic Church by way of an inclusive approach toward tradition as well as a literal one for meaning: "Taken in a temporal sense, this word is a pedagogical repetition of "this day," to confirm us in trust "without reservation." Taken in the qualitative sense, it signifies what is necessary for life, and more broadly every good thing sufficient for subsistence. Taken literally (epi-ousios: "super-essential"), it refers directly to the Bread of Life, the Body of Christ, the "medicine of immortality," without which we have no life within us."WEB,weblink Catechism of the Catholic Church - The seven petitions, 14 October 2016, Epiousios is translated as supersubstantialem in the Vulgate ({{bibleverse||Matthew|6:11|4}}) and accordingly as supersubstantial in the Douay-Rheims Bible ({{bibleverse||Matthew|6:11|63}}).Barclay M. Newman's A Concise Greek-English Dictionary of the New Testament, published in a revised edition in 2010 by the United Bible Societies has the following entry:
ἐπι|ούσιος, ον (εἰμί) of doubtful meaning, for today; for the coming day; necessary for existenceCf. weblink Barclay M. Newman, A Concise Greek-English Dictionary of the New Testament, Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, United Bible Societies 2010 {{ISBN|978-3-438-06019-8}}. Partial preview] It thus derives the word from the preposition ἐπί (epi) and the verb εἰμί (eimi), from the latter of which are derived words such as οὐσία (ousia), the range of whose meanings is indicated in A Greek–English Lexicon.Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon: οὐσία

Fifth Petition

{{see also|Matthew 6:12}}The Presbyterian and other Reformed churches tend to use the rendering "forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors". Roman Catholics, Lutherans, Anglicans and Methodists are more likely to say "trespasses… those who trespass against us".Chaignot, Mary Jane. Questions and Answers. {{Webarchive |url=weblink" title="">weblink |date=2013-01-22}}. Accessed 11 Feb 2013 The "debts" form appears in the first English translation of the Bible, by John Wycliffe in 1395 (Wycliffe spelling "dettis"). The "trespasses" version appears in the 1526 translation by William Tyndale (Tyndale spelling "treaspases"). In 1549 the first Book of Common Prayer in English used a version of the prayer with "trespasses". This became the "official" version used in Anglican congregations. On the other hand, the 1611 King James Version, the version specifically authorized for the Church of England, has "forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors".After the request for bread, Matthew and Luke diverge slightly. Matthew continues with a request for debts to be forgiven in the same manner as people have forgiven those who have debts against them. Luke, on the other hand, makes a similar request about sins being forgiven in the manner of debts being forgiven between people. The word "debts" () does not necessarily mean financial obligations, as shown by the use of the verbal form of the same word () in passages such as {{bibleref2|Romans|13:8}}. The Aramaic word ḥôbâ can mean "debt" or "sin".Nathan Eubank 2013, Wages of Cross-Bearing and Debt of Sin (Walter de Gruyter {{ISBN |978-31-1030407-7}}), p. 2John S. Kloppenborg 2008, Q, the Earliest Gospel (Westminster John Knox Press {{ISBN|978-1-61164058-8}}), p. 58. This difference between Luke's and Matthew's wording could be explained by the original form of the prayer having been in Aramaic. The generally accepted interpretation is thus that the request is for forgiveness of sin, not of supposed loans granted by God.Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Kittel & Friedrich eds., abridged in one volume by Geoffrey W. Bromiley (Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Mich; 1985), pp. 746–50, gives use of ὸφείλω opheilo (to owe, be under obligation), ὸφειλή opheile (debt, obligation) and two other word forms used in the New Testament and outside the New Testament, including use in Judaism. Asking for forgiveness from God was a staple of Jewish prayers.{{Citation needed |date=March 2009}} It was also considered proper for individuals to be forgiving of others, so the sentiment expressed in the prayer would have been a common one of the time.{{Citation needed|date= March 2009}}Anthony C. Deane, Canon of Worcester Cathedral, suggested that the choice of the word "ὀφειλήματα" (debts), rather than "ἁμαρτίας" (sins), indicates a reference to failures to use opportunities of doing good. He linked this with the parable of the sheep and the goats (also in Matthew's Gospel), in which the grounds for condemnation are not wrongdoing in the ordinary sense, but failure to do right, missing opportunities for showing love to others.{{bibleref2c|Matt.|25:31–46}}{{Citation |last= Deane |first=Anthony C. |authorlink= Anthony C. Deane |title= Our Father: A Study of the Lord's Prayer | chapter = VI. Forgiveness |work=ABCOG |year= 1926 |accessdate=27 April 2018 |url=weblink |url-status=dead |archiveurl=weblink" title="">weblink |archivedate= 3 December 2011 |df= dmy-all}}"As we forgive ...". Divergence between Matthew's "debts" and Luke's "sins" is relatively trivial compared to the impact of the second half of this statement. The verses immediately following the Lord's Prayer,{{Bibleref2c |Matt.|6:14–15}} show Jesus teaching that the forgiveness of our sin/debt (by God) is linked with how we forgive others, as in the Parable of the Unforgiving Servant {{Bibleref2c |Matt.|18:23–35}}, which Matthew gives later. R. T. France comments: "The point is not so much that forgiving is a prior condition of being forgiven, but that forgiving cannot be a one-way process. Like all God's gifts it brings responsibility; it must be passed on. To ask for forgiveness on any other basis is hypocrisy. There can be question, of course, of our forgiving being in proportion to what we are forgiven, as 18:23–35 makes clear."R. T. France, The Gospel According to Matthew: An Introduction and Commentary (Eerdmans 1985), p. 135

Sixth Petition

{{see also|Matthew 6:13}}Interpretations of the penultimate petition of the prayer—not to be led by God into peirasmos—vary considerably. The range of meanings of the Greek word "πειρασμός" (peirasmos) is illustrated in New Testament Greek lexicons.WEB,weblink Entry for Strong's #3986: πειρασμός, Study Light, In different contexts it can mean temptation, testing, trial, experiment. Although the traditional English translation uses the word "temptation" and Carl Jung saw God as actually leading people astray,Jung, Carl, "Answer to Job" Christians generally interpret the petition as not contradicting {{bibleref2 |James|1:13–14|ESV}}: "Let no one say when he is tempted, 'I am being tempted by God', for God cannot be tempted with evil, and he himself tempts no one. But each person is tempted when he is lured and enticed by his own desire." Some see the petition as an eschatological appeal against unfavourable Last Judgment, a theory supported by the use of the word "peirasmos" in this sense in {{Bibleref2 |Revelation|3:10}}. Others see it as a plea against hard tests described elsewhere in scripture, such as those of Job.{{Bibleref2|Psalm|26:2}} and {{Bibleref2|Psalm|139:23}} are respectful challenges for a test to prove the writer's innocence and integrity. It is also read as: "Do not let us be led (by ourselves, by others, by Satan) into temptations". Since it follows shortly after a plea for daily bread (i.e., material sustenance), it is also seen as referring to not being caught up in the material pleasures given. A similar phrase appears in {{bibleref2|Matthew|26:41}} and {{bibleref2|Luke|22:40}} in connection with the prayer of Jesus in Gethsemane.{{sfn |Clontz|Clontz|2008|pp = 451–52}}Joseph Smith, the founder of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, in a translation of the Holy Bible which was not completed before his death, used: "And suffer us not to be led into temptation".JST Matthew 6:14In a conversation on the Italian TV channel TV2000 on 6 December 2017, Pope Francis commented that the then Italian wording of this petition (similar to the traditional English) was a poor translation. He said "the French" (i.e., the Bishops' Conference of France) had changed the petition to "Do not let us fall in/into temptation". He was referring to the 2017 change to a new French version, Et ne nous laisse pas entrer en tentation ("Do not let us enter into temptation"), but spoke of it in terms of the Spanish translation, no nos dejes caer en la tentación ("do not let us fall in/into temptation"), that he was accustomed to recite in Argentina before his election as Pope. He explained: "I am the one who falls; it's not him [God] pushing me into temptation to then see how I have fallen".Padre Nostro - Settima puntata: 'Non ci indurre in tentazione' at 1:05.WEB,weblink Pope Francis suggests translation change to the ‘Our Father’, 8 December 2017, America, 5 June 2019, Sandro Magister, 'Pater Noster, No Peace. The Battle Begins Among the Translations' (7 March 2018). Anglican theologian Ian Paul said that such a proposal was "stepping into a theological debate about the nature of evil".NEWS, Harriet, Sherwood, Lead us not into mistranslation: pope wants Lord's Prayer changed,weblink The Guardian, December 8, 2017, April 30, 2018, In January 2018, the German Bishops' Conference rejected any rewording of their translation of the Lord's Prayer.WEB,weblink German hierarchy resists temptation to change Our Father translation, Greg, Daly, 26 January 2018, Irish Catholic, 7 June 2019,

2019 change in an Italian translation

{{Recentism|section|date=June 2019}}In November 2018, the Episcopal Conference of Italy adopted a new edition of the Messale Romano, the Italian translation of the Roman Missal, which received, a few months later, the confirmation by the Holy See that was required for publication. One of the changes made from the older (1983) edition was to render this petition as non abbandonarci alla tentazione ("do not abandon us to temptation").{{Citation | title = Pope Francis approves changes to the Lord’s prayer | URL =weblink}}weblink news reports in English gave the false impression that the Holy See's confirmation of the choice made by the Italian bishops was instead a decree by Pope Francis changing the Our Father for the whole of the Catholic Church.Hannah Brockhaus, "Holy See confirms changes to Italian liturgical translation of Our Father, Gloria" (Catholic News Agency, 7 June 2019). The Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales and the Bishops' Conference of Scotland denied this in response to a query from the British tabloid newspaper The Sun,{{Citation | title = Britain’s Catholic church refuses to change the Lord’s prayer despite Pope Francis’ dramatic ruling on Satan | URL =weblink}}.The Italian-speaking Waldensian Evangelical Church maintains its translation of the petition: non esporci alla tentazione ("do not expose us to temptation").Innario cristiano (Torino: Claudiana), p. 18

Seventh Petition

{{see also|Matthew 6:13}}Translations and scholars are divided over whether the final word here refers to "evil" in general or "the evil one" (the devil) in particular. In the original Greek, as well as in the Latin translation, the word could be either of neuter (evil in general) or masculine (the evil one) gender. Matthew's version of the prayer appears in the Sermon on the Mount, in earlier parts of which the term is used to refer to general evil. Later parts of Matthew refer to the devil when discussing similar issues. However, the devil is never referred to as the evil one in any known Aramaic sources. While John Calvin accepted the vagueness of the term's meaning, he considered that there is little real difference between the two interpretations, and that therefore the question is of no real consequence. Similar phrases are found in {{Bibleref2|John|17:15}} and {{Bibleref2|2Thess|3:3||2 Thessalonians 3:3}}.{{sfn|Clontz|Clontz|2008|p=452}}


{{see also|Matthew 6:13}}The doxology of the prayer is not contained in Luke's version, nor is it present in the earliest manuscripts of Matthew,Nicholas Ayo (1993), The Lord's Prayer: A Survey Theological and Literary, University of Notre Dame Press, p. 7, {{ISBN|978-0-268-01292-2}} representative of the Alexandrian text, although it is present in the manuscripts representative of the later Byzantine text.{{sfn|Clontz|Clontz|2008|p=8}} Most scholars do not consider it part of the original text of Matthew.David E. Aune 2010, The Blackwell Companion to the New Testament (Blackwell {{ISBN|978-1-4051-0825-6}}), p. 299.Kurt Aland and Barbara Aland 1998, The Text of the New Testament (Eerdmans {{ISBN|0-8028-4098-1}}), p. 306. New translations generally omit it.The doxology is not included in the following modern translations: American Standard Version Contemporary English Version English Standard Version GOD'S WORD Translation Good News Translation New International Reader's Version New International Version New Living Translation Today's New International Version, and the Jerusalem Bible. It is enclosed in square brackets in Holman Christian Standard Bible New American Standard Bible New Century Version. Two publications that are updates of the Authorized King James Version rather than new translations keep it: 21st Century King James Version and New King James Version; but the second of these adds a note: " "NU-Text omits For Yours through Amen."The first known use of the doxology, in a less lengthy form ("for yours is the power and the glory forever"),WEB,weblink Early Christian Fathers, Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 14 October 2016, as a conclusion for the Lord's Prayer (in a version slightly different from that of Matthew) is in the Didache, 8:2. It has similarities with {{Bibleref2|1Chron|29:11|ESV|1 Chronicles|29:11}}—"Yours, O LORD, is the greatness and the power and the glory and the victory and the majesty, for all that is in the heavens and in the earth is yours. Yours is the kingdom, O LORD, and you are exalted as head above all." In the Byzantine Rite, a similar doxology is sung within the context of the Divine Liturgy. Following the last line of the prayer, the priest sings "For thine is the kingdom and the power and the glory, of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, now and ever and unto ages of ages."Latin Church Roman Catholics do not use the doxology when reciting the Lord's Prayer, because it is not part of their received liturgical tradition and is not found in the Latin Vulgate of St. Jerome. Since 1970 it is included in the Roman Rite Mass as an independent item, not as part of the Lord's Prayer. The Anglican Book of Common Prayer sometimes gives the Lord's Prayer with the doxology, sometimes without.For instance, in Morning Prayer the doxology is included in the Lord's Prayer in the Introduction, but not in the Prayers after the Apostles' Creed. Most Protestants append it to the Lord's Prayer.

Use as a language comparison tool

File:Lithuanian language in European language map 1741.jpg|thumb|220 px|Detail of the Europa Polyglotta published with Synopsis Universae Philologiae in 1741; the map gives the first phrase of the Lord's Prayer in 33 different languages of Europelanguages of EuropeIn the course of Christianization, one of the first texts to be translated between many languages has historically been the Lord's Prayer, long before the full Bible would be translated into the respective languages.Since the 16th century, collections of translations of the prayer have often been used for a quick comparison of languages.The first such collection, with 22 versions, was Mithridates, de differentiis linguarum by Conrad Gessner (1555; the title refers to Mithridates VI of Pontus who according to Pliny the Elder was an exceptional polyglot).Gessner's idea of collecting translations of the prayer was taken up by authors of the 17th century, including Hieronymus Megiserus (1603) and Georg Pistorius (1621).Thomas Lüdeken in 1680 published an enlarged collection of 83 versions of the prayer,Orationis dominicae versiones praeter authenticam fere centum..., Thomas Lüdeken, Officina Rungiana, 1680. of which three were in fictional philosophical languages.Lüdeken quotes as a Barnum Hagius as his source for the exotic scripts used, while their true (anonymous) author was Andreas Müller.In 1700, Lüdeken's collection was re-edited by B. Mottus as Oratio dominica plus centum linguis versionibus aut characteribus reddita et expressa.This edition was comparatively inferior, but a second, revised edition was published in 1715 by John Chamberlain.This 1715 edition was used by Gottfried Hensel in his Synopsis Universae Philologiae (1741) to compile "geographico-polyglot maps" where the beginning of the prayer was shown in the geographical area where the respective languages were spoken.Johann Ulrich Kraus also published a collection with more than 100 entries.Augustin Backer, Alois Backer, Bibliothèque des écrivains de la compagnie de Jésus ou notices bibliographiques, vol. 5, 1839, 304f.File:Lords Prayer in Chinese.jpg|thumb|150px|left|Lord's Prayer in Classical ChineseClassical ChineseThese collections continued to be improved and expanded well into the 19th century; Johann Christoph Adelung and Johann Severin Vater in 1806–1817 published the prayer in "well-nigh five hundred languages and dialects".Mithridates oder allgemeine Sprachenkunde mit dem Vater Unser als Sprachprobe in bey nahe fünf hundert Sprachen und Mundarten, 1806–1817, Berlin, Vossische Buchlandlung, 4 volumes. Facsimile edition, Hildesheim-Nueva York, Georg Olms Verlag, 1970.Samples of scripture, including the Lord's Prayer, were published in 52 oriental languages, most of them not previously found in such collections, translated by the brethren of the Serampore Mission and printed at the mission press there in 1818.

Relation to Jewish prayer

There are similarities between the Lord's Prayer and both biblical and post-biblical material in Jewish prayer especially Kiddushin 81a (Babylonian).{{sfn|Clontz|Clontz|2008|p=451}} "Our Father which art in heaven" (אבינו שבשמים, Avinu shebashamayim) is the beginning of many Hebrew prayers.BOOK, David H. Stern, Jewish New Testament Commentary, 1992, 978-9653590113, 32, "Hallowed be thy name" is reflected in the Kaddish. "Lead us not into sin" is echoed in the "morning blessings" of Jewish prayer. A blessing said by some Jewish communities after the evening Shema includes a phrase quite similar to the opening of the Lord's Prayer: "Our God in heaven, hallow thy name, and establish thy kingdom forever, and rule over us for ever and ever. Amen." There are parallels also in {{Bibleref2|1Chr|29:10-18||1 Chronicles 29:10–18}}.{{sfn|Clontz|Clontz|2008|p=8}}{{sfn|Clontz|Clontz|2008|p=451}}Rabbi Aron Mendes Chumaceiro has saidVerdediging is geen aanval pp. 121–122 that nearly all the elements of the prayer have counterparts in the Jewish Bible and Deuterocanonical books: the first part in {{Bibleref2|Isaiah|63:15–16}} ("Look down from heaven and see, from your holy and beautiful habitation ... For you are our Father ...") and {{Bibleref2|Ezekiel|36:23}} ("I will vindicate the holiness of my great name ...") and {{Bibleref2|Ezekiel|38:23}} ("I will show my greatness and my holiness and make myself known in the eyes of many nations ..."), the second part in {{Bibleref2|Obadiah|1:21}} ("Saviours shall go up to Mount Zion to rule Mount Esau, and the kingdom shall be the LORD's") and {{Bibleref2|1Sam|3:18||1 Samuel 3:18}} ("... It is the LORD. Let him do what seems good to him."), the third part in {{Bibleref2|Proverbs|30:8}} ("... feed me with my apportioned bread..."), the fourth part in {{bibleverse||Sirach|28:2}} ("Forgive your neighbour the wrong he has done, and then your sins will be pardoned when you pray."). "Deliver us from evil" can be compared with {{Bibleref2|Psalm|119:133}} ("... let no iniquity get dominion over me."). Chumaceiro says that, because the idea of God leading a human into temptation contradicts the righteousness and love of God, "Lead us not into temptation" has no counterpart in the Jewish Bible/Christian Old Testament.The word "πειρασμός", which is translated as "temptation", could also be translated as "test" or "trial", making evident the attitude of someone's heart. Well-known examples in the Old Testament are God's test of Abraham ({{Bibleref2|Genesis|22:1}}); his "moving" (the Hebrew word means basically "to prick, as by weeds, thorns") David to do (numbering Israel) what David later acknowledged as sin ({{Bibleref2|2Sam|24:1–10||2 Samuel 24:1–10}}; see also {{Bibleref2|1Chr|21:1-7||1 Chronicles 21:1–7}}); and the testing of Job in the Book of Job.

Musical settings

In modern times, various composers have incorporated The Lord's Prayer into a musical setting for utilization during liturgical services for a variety of religious traditions as well as interfaith ceremonies. Included among them are:

In popular culture

As with other prayers, the Lord's Prayer was used by cooks to time their recipes before the spread of clocks.For example, a step could be "simmer the broth for three Lord's Prayers".Consider the Fork: A History of How We Cook and Eat, Bee Wilson, 2012, Penguin Books {{ISBN|978-0-141-04908-3}}.American songwriter and arranger Brian Wilson set the text of the Lord's Prayer to an elaborate close-harmony arrangement loosely based on Malotte's melody. Wilson's group, The Beach Boys, would return to the piece several times throughout their recording career, most notably as the B-side to their 1964 single "Little Saint Nick."BOOK,weblink The Beach Boys : the definitive diary of America's greatest band, on stage and in the studio, Keith, Badman, 2004, Backbeat Books, Bacon, Tony, 1954-, 0879308184, 1st, San Francisco, Calif., 56611695, The band Yazoo used the prayer interspersed with the lyrics of "In My Room" on the album Upstairs at Eric's.WEB,weblink A Yaz song proved that electronic pop could have soul, Ihnat, Gwen, 30 June 2015, A.V. Club, en-US, 11 March 2019, The 2005 game Civilization IV uses a Swahili-language version of the prayer as its main theme.


File:St Mary's Church, Mundon, Lord's Prayer.jpg|18th century painting of the Lord's Prayer, on the north side of the chancel of St Mary's Church, Mundon, Essex.File:No prayer book needed here, for the Lord's Prayer - - 227246.jpg|The Lord's Prayer (left) on the Prayer board behind the Altar in St Ninian's ChurchFile:The Lord's prayer LCCN2004662429.jpg|The Lord's prayer, ink and watercolor by John Morgan Coaley, 1889. Library of Congress.File:Lord's prayer fragment from Lindisfarne Gorpels.png|Lord's prayer fragment from Lindisfarne Gospels, f. 37r, Latin text, translated in Northumbrian dialect of the Old EnglishFile:Lord's Prayer Ohlone Santa Clara.png|Lord's Prayer in Santa Clara Ohlone, San Juan Bautista.File:Bodleian Libraries, Lord's Prayer.jpg|Writing blank entitled The Lord's Prayer. Dean & Munday [author]. 1814. Bodleian LibrariesFile:Dog Tag Lord's Prayer.jpg|Lord's Prayer miniature medallion, used on same chain as military ID tag (dog tag). 2011.File:Teeline-Lords-prayer.png|The text of the English Language Liturgical Consultation version of the Lord's Prayer, written in Teeline Shorthand and in Latin script for comparison.

See also





  • Clark, D. The Lord's Prayer. Origins and Early Interpretations (Studia Traditionis Theologiae, 21) Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, 2016, {{ISBN|978-2-503-56537-8}}
  • Albright, W.F. and C.S. Mann. "Matthew." The Anchor Bible Series. New York: Doubleday & Co., 1971.
  • Augsburger, Myron. Matthew. Waco, Texas: Word Books, 1982.
  • Barclay, William. The Gospel of Matthew: Volume 1 Chapters 1–10. Edinburgh: Saint Andrew Press, 1975.
  • Beare, Francis Wright. The Gospel According to Matthew. Oxford: B. Blackwell, 1981.
  • Brown, Raymond E. The Pater Noster as an Eschatological Prayer, article in Theological Studies (1961) Vol. 22, pp. 175–208: from the website of Marquette University; also reprinted in New Testament Essays (1965)
  • BOOK, harv, Clontz, T.E., Clontz, Jerry, The Comprehensive New Testament with complete textual variant mapping and references for the Dead Sea Scrolls, Philo, Josephus, Nag Hammadi Library, Pseudepigrapha, Apocrypha, Plato, Egyptian Book of the Dead, Talmud, Old Testament, Patristic Writings, Dhammapada, Tacitus, Epic of Gilgamesh, Cornerstone, 2008, 978-0-9778737-1-5,
  • Filson, Floyd V. A Commentary on the Gospel According to St. Matthew. London: A. & C. Black, 1960.
  • Fowler, Harold. The Gospel of Matthew: Volume One. Joplin: College Press, 1968
  • France, R.T. The Gospel According to Matthew: an Introduction and Commentary. Leicester: Inter-Varsity, 1985.
  • Hendriksen, William. The Gospel of Matthew. Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 1976
  • Hill, David. The Gospel of Matthew. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981
  • "Lilies in the Field." A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature. David Lyle Jeffrey, general editor. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 1992.
  • Lewis, Jack P. The Gospel According to Matthew. Austin, Texas: R.B. Sweet, 1976..
  • Luz, Ulrich. Matthew 1–7: A Commentary. trans. Wilhlem C. Linss. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1989.
  • Morris, Leon. The Gospel According to Matthew. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 1992.
  • Schweizer, Eduard. The Good News According to Matthew. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1975
  • Underhill, Evelyn, Abba. A meditation on the Lord's Prayer (1940); reprint 2003.

External links

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