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List of people with epilepsy#Religious figures

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List of people with epilepsy#Religious figures
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{{short description|Wikimedia list article}}{{use dmy dates|date=April 2013}}{{Dynamic list}}File:Prince John of the United Kingdom 1913.jpg|thumb|alt=A picture of Prince John on a chair wearing a black glove.|Prince John had epilepsy. His story was told in the acclaimed TV drama The Lost PrinceThe Lost Prince
This is a list of notable people who have, or had, the medical condition epilepsy. Following from that, there is a short list of people who have received a speculative, retrospective diagnosis of epilepsy. Finally there is a substantial list of people who are often wrongly believed to have had epilepsy.

Epilepsy and greatness

A possible link between epilepsy and greatness has fascinated biographers and physicians for centuries. In his Treatise on Epilepsy, the French 17th century physician Jean Taxil refers to Aristotle's "famous epileptics". This list includes Heracles, Ajax, Bellerophon, Socrates, Plato, Empedocles, Maracus of Syracuse, and the Sibyls.WEB
,weblink
, Traicté de l'Epilepsie


, 22 August 2009
, Jean Taxil
, 1602
, However, historian of medicine Owsei Temkin argues that Aristotle had in fact made a list of melancholics and had only associated Heracles with the "Sacred Disease".BOOK
, Owsei Temkin
, The Falling Sickness : A History of Epilepsy from the Greeks to the Beginnings of Modern Neurology (Softshell Books)
, The Johns Hopkins University Press
, 1994
, 978-0-8018-4849-0
, 161
, Taxil goes on to add his own names: Roman Emperor Caligula, Drusus (tribune of the Roman people), Muhammad, and Petrarch. Neurologist John Hughes concluded that the majority of famous people alleged to have epilepsy did not in fact have this condition.JOURNAL
, Hughes JR
, Did all those famous people really have epilepsy?
, Epilepsy & Behavior
, 2005
, 115–39
, 6
, 2
, 15710295
, 10.1016/j.yebeh.2004.11.011, WEB
, Jenna Martin
,weblink
, Rewriting History: Did All Those Famous People Really Have Epilepsy?
, Epilepsy.com
, 22 August 2009
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090902150057weblink">weblink
, 2 September 2009
,
,

Certain diagnosis

The following categorized chronological list contains only those people for whom a firm and uncontested diagnosis was made during their lifetime.

Acting

{| class=wikitable! style="width:17%;"| Name! style="width:13%;"| Life! style="width:65%;"| Comments! style="width:5%;"| Reference
valign="top"| Bud Abbott| 1895–1974| Famous comedian (half of the "Abbot and Costello" duo) who had epilepsy all his life, but tried to control and hide it.|WEB
, Tom Raymond
,weblink
, Bud Abbott Biography
, Abbott and Costello - Who's on First


, 2 February 2006
,
valign="top"| Ward Bond| 1903–1960
actor. His epilepsy led to his exclusion from Conscription in the United States>the draft during World War II.|BOOK
, Randy W Roberts
, John Wayne: American
, University of Nebraska Press
, 1 October 1997
, 978-0-8032-8970-3
, Ward Bond, an epileptic 4-F, remained in the Hollywood
, 232
,
valign="top"| Danny Glover| born 1946| An actor and film director who had epilepsy from age 15 to age 35.|WEB
,weblink
, Famous Star of the Big Screen steps out from the Shadows
, International Bureau for Epilepsy
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071117042814weblink">weblink
, 2007-11-17


, 2 February 2006
,
valign="top"| Margaux Hemingway| 1955–1996| A film actress and model who had epilepsy from the age of seven. Her death was attributed to suicide by an intentional overdose of phenobarbital, which is an anticonvulsant, but see the footnoted article for an alternative explanation.|WEB
, Hara Estroff Marano
, 1996
,weblink
, What killed Margaux Hemingway?
, Psychology Today
, Sussex Publishers


, 22 August 2009
,
valign="top"| Martin Kemp| born 1961| Actor and former bassist with the pop band Spandau Ballet. He developed epilepsy after having two brain tumours in the 1990s.|WEB
,weblink
, Encephalitis Information Resource News
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070219052746weblink">weblink
, 19 February 2007
,
,
valign="top"| Pete Duel| 1940–1971| A television and film actor whose epilepsy is thought to have been brought on during adolescence by head injuries sustained in an automobile accident.|
valign="top"| Rik Mayall| 1958–2014
All-terrain vehicle>quad bike accident in 1998. Initially prescribed phenytoin prophylactically, he later had two seizures which were possibly caused by not taking his medication.|NEWS
, Lynn
, Barber
,weblink
, Forever young
, Observer
, 17 December 2000
, 8 February 2006
,
valign="top"| Hugo Weaving| born 1960| An actor who has taken anticonvulsants for epilepsy since his first seizure at age 13.|VIDEO
, Anna Spencer and Linda Ray (writers)
, 1995
, Portraits: People with Epilepsy
, Video
, Australia
, Epilepsy Queensland Inc
, VIDEO
, (writer)
, 2004
, Portraits: Epileptic pep talk
, Video
, USA
, Home & Garden Publications
,
valign="top"| Cameron Boyce| 1999-2019
Disney Channel series Jessie (2011 TV series)>Jessie and as Carlos on the tv film Descendants, previously diagnosed with epilepsy.

Leadership, politics and royalty

{| class=wikitable! style="width:17%;"| Name! style="width:13%;"| Life! style="width:65%;"| Comments! style="width:5%;"| Reference
valign="top"| Michael IV the Paphlagonian| 1010–1041| A Byzantine emperor who had frequent tonic-clonic seizures since adolescence. The seizures were interpreted at the time to be demonic possession as punishment for his sins. His royal entourage were alert to signs of an impending seizure and tried to hide the emperor when he was ill.|JOURNAL
, Lascaratos J, Zis P, The epilepsy of Emperor Michael IV, Paphlagon (1034-1041 A.D.): accounts of Byzantine historians and physicians.
, Epilepsia
, 41
, 7
, 913–7
, 2000
, 10897168
,weblink
, PDF
, 10.1111/j.1528-1157.2000.tb00264.x
, {{dead link|date=February 2019|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}
valign="top"| Hans Ulrik Gyldenløve| 1615–1645
Christian IV of Denmark>Christian IV, King of Denmark and Norway, Hans Ulrik was an officer in the Danish Royal Navy and the commander of a royal castle, the Kronborg. He was prone to epileptic incidents, and during a state visit to Spain with his father’s ambassador in 1640, he suffered a seizure shortly after a bullfight. He had to be sent home to Denmark.|BOOK
, J[ulius]. A[lbert].
, Fridericia
, 1892
, Gyldenløve, Hans Ulrik, Dansk biografisk Lexikon, Bind VI: Gerson - H. Hansen
, Gyldendal Boghandels
, 339–340
,weblink
, BOOK
, Asta
, Bredsdorff
, 2009
, The Trials and Travels of Willem Leyel: An Account of the Danish East India Company in Tranquebar, 1639–48
, Museum Tusculanum Press
, 978-87-635-3023-1
, 63
,weblink
,
valign="top"| Ivan V Alekseyevich| 1666–1696| Older half brother of Russian Tsar Peter the Great. Ivan V was feeble-minded, epileptic, and half-blind. Would have never become Tsar except for the support of his sister Sophia, who wanted to become regent over him. His sister, with the military backing of the Streltsy, made Ivan V rule as co-tsar with Peter I (Great) (who had already been tsar for a few weeks).|BOOK
, Miriam
, Greenblatt
, 2000
, Rulers and Their Times: Peter the Great and Tsarist Russia
, Benchmark Books
, 978-0-7614-0914-4
, 80
,weblink
,
valign="top"| Pope Pius IX| 1792–1878| Had childhood epilepsy.|WEB
, Terry H Jones
,weblink
, Pius IX
, Patron Saints Index
, 22 August 2009
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081230022520weblink">weblink
, 30 December 2008
,
, BOOK
, Owen
, Chadwick
, March 2003
, A History of the Popes 1830-1914
, Oxford University Press
, 978-0-19-926286-1
, 113
, WEB
, 2000
,weblink
, Pope Pius IX
, L'Osservatore Romano
, 2 February 2006
,
valign="top"| Francis Libermann| 1802–1852| A Jew who converted to Christianity and studied for priesthood. Epilepsy prevented his ordination for many years.|
valign="top"| Ida McKinley| 1847–1907| First Lady of the United States from 1897 to 1901. Her epilepsy started in adulthood and was to become quite disabling and inconvenient. As was normal for the time, great efforts were made to keep this secret. Her husband, William McKinley would cover her face with a napkin when she had symptoms at dinner parties.|WEB
, Anne Adams
,weblink
, Ida Saxton McKinley
, History's Women: The Unsung Heroines


, 2 February 2006
,
valign="top"| Vladimir Lenin| 1870–1924| First Premier of the Soviet Union. Lenin's final year was characterized by neurological decline and loss of function. In his last few months, he developed epilepsy. His seizures worsened and he died in status epilepticus, which had lasted 50 minutes.|JOURNAL
, Lerner V, Finkelstein Y, Witztum E, The enigma of Lenin's (1870–1924) malady.
, Eur J Neurol
, 11
, 6
, 371–6
, 2004
, 15171732
, 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2004.00839.x
,
valign="top"| Caligula| 12–41
Postictal state>hardly able to walk, to stand up, to collect his thoughts, or to hold up his head." |WEB
, Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus (translation by James Loeb)
,weblink
, The Life of Gaius (Caligula)
, The Lives of the Twelve Caesars
, 13 February 2011
,
valign="top"
Harry H. Laughlin>Harry Laughlin| 1880–1943United States>American Eugenics Record Office from its inception in 1910 to its closing in 1939. In 1922, he drew up laws for the compulsory sterilization of various "degenerate" groups, which included those with epilepsy.|BOOK
, James D.
, Watson
, April 2004
, DNA: The Secret of Life
, Chapter One: Beginnings of Genetics: From Mendel to Hitler
,weblink
, Arrow
, 978-0-09-945184-6
, JOURNAL
, David
, Pfeiffer
, 1994
, Eugenics and Disability Discrimination
, Disability & Society
, 9
, 4
, 481–499
,weblink
, 10.1080/09687599466780471
,
valign="top"| Prince Erik, Duke of Västmanland| 1889–1918| The youngest son of Gustaf V of Sweden.|BOOK
, John Van der Kiste
, Northern crowns: the kings of modern Scandinavia
, Sutton Pub
, 1996
, 978-0-7509-1812-1
, 52,
valign="top"| Prince John of the United Kingdom| 1905–1919
George V of the United Kingdom>King George V, John had epilepsy from the age of 4 until his death after a seizure aged 13. John's epilepsy, along with intellectual disability and possibly autism, led to his living most of his life at York Cottage on the Sandringham Estate away from visitors who were not family members.|VIDEO
, Stephen Poliakoff (writer, director)
, 2005
, The Lost Prince
, TV-Drama
, UK
, BBC
,
valign="top"
Lionel Blue>Rabbi Lionel Blue| 1930–2016Thought for the Day" on BBC Radio 4's Today programme>Today program. His epilepsy was diagnosed when he was aged 57 and is successfully controlled with medication.|WEB
, Lionel Blue
,weblink
, Donation Appeal
, fundraisingdinner.com (Epilepsy Research Foundation)
, 10 February 2006
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070530095955weblink">weblink
, 30 May 2007
, dmy-all
, NEWS
, Celebrity Health - Rabbi Lionel Blue
,weblink
, BBC News
, 10 September 2006
, 21 November 2006
,
valign="top"| Dave Longaberger| 1934–1999| A businessman and founder of The Longaberger Company, makers of handcrafted maple wood baskets and accessories. He overcame epilepsy and a stutter, eventually graduating from high school aged 21.|WEB
, 2007
,weblink
, Longaberger: Our History
, The Longaberger Company
, 22 August 2009
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090312010640weblink">weblink
, 12 March 2009
, yes
, dmy-all
,
valign="top"| Joe Doyle| 1936–2009
Irish people>Irish Fine Gael politician. He was a long-standing public representative for the Dublin South-East (Dáil constituency) and served as a member of Dáil Éireann, Seanad Éireann and Dublin City Council before serving as Lord Mayor of Dublin from 1998-1999. He first developed epilepsy at the age of 16. He became one of Ireland's most prominent advocate's for epilepsy and was a member of the Board of Directors of Brainwave (Irish Epilepsy Association)>Brainwave, the Irish Epilepsy Association, at the time of his death. |WEB
,weblink
, Joe Doyle - epilepsy loses a true advocate
,
, 2012-06-30
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150112161751weblink">weblink
, 12 January 2015
, yes
, dmy-all
,
valign="top"| Neil Abercrombie| born 1937| The former Governor of Hawaii who campaigned for increased funding for epilepsy research. He was diagnosed with epilepsy in his early thirties.|WEB
, Natalie Frazin
,weblink
, White House-Initiated Conference on Epilepsy
, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


, 7 February 2006
, WEB
,weblink
, Congress Alerted to Critical Issues in Women's Health
, Epilepsy Foundation


, 7 February 2006
,
valign="top"| Rudi Dutschke| 1940–1979| A prominent spokesperson of the left-wingGerman student movement of the 1960s. An assassination attempt in 1968, when he was shot twice in the head, left him partially blind and with frequent epileptic attacks. He drowned in the bathtub after suffering a seizure.|NEWS
, This Miserable Little Case
,weblink
,weblink" title="archive.today/20130204085305weblink">weblink
, 4 February 2013
, Time Magazine
, 1 February 1971
, 5 September 2006
, yes
,
, NEWS, Milestones,weblink Time Magazine, 7 January 1980, 5 September 2006, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070930093016weblink">weblink 30 September 2007,
valign="top"| Tony Coelho| born 1942| A former United States congressman who developed epilepsy aged 16, possibly as a result of an earlier head injury. This would lead to rejection by his family and the Jesuits for "possession by the devil".BOOK
, B.T.
, McMahon
, L.R. Shaw
, September 1999
, Enabling Lives: Biographies of Six Prominent Americans with Disabilities
, Chapter Six: Tony Coelho
, CRC Press
, 978-0-8493-0351-7
, neurologist, Dr. John Doyle, Sr., explained to Tony that he had epilepsy, a recurrent seizure disorder. He stated that, "The good news is that you don't have to serve in Vietnam, but the bad news is that you won't be able to become a Catholic priest — more specifically, a Jesuit." A section of the Roman Catholic Church's 1917 Code of Canon Law stated that those with epilepsy, or "possessed by the devil," could not be considered for ordination. […rescinded in the early 1980s]
, He has campaigned as a congressman for disabled rights and chairs the Epilepsy Foundation's national board of directors.|
valign="top"| John Roberts| born 1955
Chief Justice of the United States. He was appointed to office by President of the United States>President George W. Bush on September 29, 2005. His first seizure occurred in 1993 which was disclosed to the Senate Judiciary Committee who confirmed him. His second seizure occurred in 2008 when he fell 5 to 10 feet onto a dock near his house. |John Roberts
valign="top"| Laura Sandys| born 1964
United Kingdom>British Conservative Party (UK) politician. She was elected at the 2010 United Kingdom general election>2010 general election as the Member of Parliament (MP) for South Thanet. She revealed in parliament in October 2010 that she had epilepsy, but had been seizure-free for seven years.|WEB
, UK Parliament
,weblink
, Official record of debate in Westminster Hall, 12 October 2010
, 13 October 2010
,
valign="top"| Paul Maynard| born 1975
United Kingdom>British Conservative Party (UK) politician. He was elected at the 2010 United Kingdom general election>2010 general election as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Blackpool North and Cleveleys. In 2010, he was appointed vice-president of the charity Epilepsy Action.|WEB
, Paul Maynard
,weblink
, Paul Maynard's biography
, Website of Paul Maynard MP
, 11 July 2010
,

Music

{| class=wikitable! style="width:17%;"| Name! style="width:13%;"| Life! style="width:65%;"| Comments! style="width:5%;"| Reference
valign="top"| Jimmy Reed| 1925–1976
United States>American blues singer. His epilepsy diagnosis in 1957 was delayed due to an assumption that he was suffering from attacks of delirium tremens. He died after an epileptic seizure aged 51.|BOOK
, Vladimir Bogdanov, Chris Woodstra, Stephen Thomas Erlewine, All Music Guide to the Blues
, 1 April 2003
, Backbeat Books
, 978-0-87930-736-3
, Mathis James Reed
,weblink
, 464
, WEB
,weblink
, Jimmy Reed: performer


, 23 August 2009
, 2005
, Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum
,
valign="top"| Neil Young| born 1945| Canadian singer-songwriter, formerly of bands Buffalo Springfield and Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young. Disliked the effects of his medication; seeking personal stability as an alternative means of control.|BOOK
, Young
, Scott
, Scott Young (writer)
, Neil and Me
, 30 July 1997
, Music Sales Distributed
, 978-0-9529540-2-6
, Chapter 8: Buffalo Springfield and Epilepsy
, he went on daily medication to control his epilepsy – and grew to dislike the medication's effect on him so much that a few years later he stopped using, feeling that in his case control had more to do with personal stability than medication.
, 68
,
valign="top"| Lil Wayne| born 1982
TITLE=LIL WAYNE CAN'T RECALL SEIZURES: 'I DON'T FEEL SICK'ACCESSDATE=10 MAY 2013DATE=10 MAY 2013, |NEWS
, Gil
, kaufman
,weblink
, Lil Wayne Hospitalized Again For Seizures
, MTV
, 1 May 2013
, 1 May 2013
,
valign="top"| Lindsey Buckingham| born 1949| The guitarist and singer in the music group Fleetwood Mac was taken to hospital after a seizure while on tour, aged 29. His epilepsy was successfully controlled by anticonvulsant drugs.|JOURNAL
, Daisann
, McLane
, 1980
, Five Not So Easy Pieces
, Rolling Stone
, 310
,weblink
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080116203855weblink">weblink
, 2008-01-16
, BOOK
, Bob
, Brunning
, January 2004
, The Fleetwood Mac Story: Rumours and Lies
, Omnibus Press
, 978-1-84449-011-0
, 139
,
valign="top"| Chris Knox| born 1952| New Zealand indie musician (Toy Love, Tall Dwarfs) has addressed his epilepsy in such songs as "Lapse", and it is also referenced in his album title "Seizure".|BOOK
, John
, Dix
, Stranded in Paradise: New Zealand Rock'n'Roll, 1955-1988
, 1988
, Paradise Publications
, 978-0-473-00638-9, Stranded in Paradise: New Zealand Rock'n'Roll, 1955-1988
,
valign="top"| Ian Curtis| 1956–1980
Joy Division was diagnosed with epilepsy aged 22. The cover of their album Unknown Pleasures resembles an electroencephalogram>EEG tracing, but is actually the tracings of the radio emissions of a pulsar. He would often suffer grandmal seizures while performing and his dancing would mimic the seizures he suffered. The condition was a primary cause of his suicide in 1980 aged 23.|WEB
,weblink
, Biography
, Ian Curtis and Joy Division Fan Club
, 2 February 2006
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060518105546weblink">weblink
, 18 May 2006
,
,
valign="top"
Richard Jobson (television presenter)>Richard Jobson| born 1960| Formerly the lead singer with the punk rock group The Skids, now a television presenter and film maker. He has absence seizures.|NEWS
, Ajay
, Close
,weblink
, Richard Jobson: Pop star, poet, poseur - and, at last, auteur
, The Independent
, 31 July 2004
, 22 August 2009
,
valign="top"| Susan Boyle| born 1961
Scotland>Scottish singer who came to international public attention when she appeared as a contestant on the TV programme Britain's Got Talent on 11 April 2011. She had epilepsy as a child.
|
valign="top"| Edith Bowman| born 1974
Scotland>Scottish television presenter and a radio D.J., who had epilepsy as a child.
valign="top"| Peter Jefferies| born ca.1961| New Zealand musician (Nocturnal Projections, This Kind of Punishment).|WEB
,weblink
, Electricity
, Radio New Zealand interview, 1998
, 11 January 2007
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091022084819weblink">weblink
, 22 October 2009
, yes
, dmy
,
valign="top"| Vusi Mahlasela| born 1965| A singer-songwriter whose work inspired those in the anti-apartheid movement.|WEB
,weblink
, Vusi Mahlasela
, Mondomix Portraits
, Daniel Brown
, October 2005
, 23 August 2009
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100106190932weblink">weblink
, 6 January 2010
,
,
valign="top"| Hikari Oe| born 1963| A Japanese composer who has autism, epilepsy and intellectual disability and has created two successful classical-music CDs. He is the son of Kenzaburō Ōe, the Japanese novelist who won the 1994 Nobel Prize in Literature.|BOOK
, Lindsley
, Cameron
, The Music Of Light: The Extraordinary Story of Hikari and Kenzaburo Oe
, 12 June 1998
, Free Press
, 978-0-684-82409-3
,weblink
,
valign="top"
Mike Nolan (singer)>Mike Nolan| born 1954Great Britain>British pop music band (music)>group Bucks Fizz. Developed epilepsy after a coach accident in 1985.|WEB
,weblink
, Making my mind up
, May 2011
, NHS Eastern and Coastal Kent
, 2011-06-06
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110524121539weblink">weblink
, 24 May 2011
,
,
valign="top"
Ad-Rock>Adam Horovitz| born 1966| Member of the music group Beastie Boys.|JOURNAL
, June 1994
, Interview with Adam Horovitz
, Details Magazine
, JOURNAL
, 1994
, Interview with Adam Horovitz
, Spin magazine, Spin Magazine
,
valign="top"
The Streets>Mike Skinner| born 1978| Also known as The Streets, he had epilepsy between the ages of 7 and 20.|NEWS
, Ben
, Thompson
,weblink
, Dead cert
, The Guardian
, 25 April 2004
, 23 August 2009
,
valign="top"| Geoff Rickly| born 1979
Thursday (band)>Thursday, who discovered he had epilepsy while on tour.|NEWS
, James
, Montgomery
,weblink
, Despite Everything They Said, Thursday Aren't Breaking Up
, VH1 Music News
, 10 November 2004
, 2 February 2006
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050416132734weblink">weblink
, 16 April 2005
,
, NEWS
, Chris
, Harris
,weblink
, Thursday Frontman Says He Doesn't Want To Exploit My Chemical Romance, But ...
, MTV News
, 27 September 2005
, 2 February 2006
,
valign="top"
Prince (musician)>Prince| 1958–2016United States>American singer, who had epilepsy as a child and sang about his condition in the song "The Sacrifice of Victor".|NEWS
,weblink
, Prince reveals childhood epilepsy
, BBC News Entertainment
, 29 April 2009
, 2 April 2010
,
valign="top"
Lauren Pritchard (singer)>Lauren Pritchard| born 1987Spring Awakening (musical)>Spring Awakening.|WEB
,weblink
, Lauren Pritchard on Spring Awakening and Living With the Presleys
, 10 April 2013
, 2011
,

Sport

{| class=wikitable! style="width:17%;"| Name! style="width:13%;"| Life! style="width:65%;"| Comments! style="width:5%;"| Reference
valign="top"| Grover Cleveland Alexander| 1887–1950| A major league baseball pitcher who tried to hide his epilepsy with alcohol, which was at the time considered to be a more socially acceptable problem. Ty Cobb said he "suffered hell on the field."|BOOK
, Rick
, Swaine
, March 2004
, Beating the Breaks: Major League Ballplayers Who Overcame Disabilities
, Chapter five: Neurological and Psychological Disorders
, 159–167
, McFarland & Company
, 978-0-7864-1828-2
,
valign="top"| Tony Lazzeri| 1903–1946| A major league baseball player who probably died after seizure that occurred when he was alone at home.|BOOK
, Rick
, Swaine
, March 2004
, Beating the Breaks: Major League Ballplayers Who Overcame Disabilities
, Chapter five: Neurological and Psychological Disorders
, 168–169
, McFarland & Company
, 978-0-7864-1828-2
,
valign="top"| Hal Lanier| born 1942| A major league baseball player and manager. He developed epilepsy after a severe beating.|BOOK
, Rick
, Swaine
, March 2004
, Beating the Breaks: Major League Ballplayers Who Overcame Disabilities
, Chapter six: Other Disabilities
, McFarland & Company
, 978-0-7864-1828-2
, 203
,
valign="top"| Lance Franklin| 30 January 1987| An Australian Football League player who has had Epilepsy since 2015.|WEB
,weblink
, Buddy Franklin health: Swans star hospitalised after suffering suspected seizure
, The Daily telegraph
, 19 November 2016, 9 September 2015
,
valign="top"| Tony Greig| 1946–2012| A former cricketer and commentator who was involved with Epilepsy Action Australia. He had his first seizure, aged 14, during a tennis game but has successfully controlled his epilepsy with medication.|WEB
,weblink
, Our Board
, Epilepsy Action (Australia)
, 2 February 2006
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050617121706weblink">weblink
, 17 June 2005
, dmy-all
,
valign="top"| Buddy Bell| born 1951| A major league baseball player and manager.|
valign="top"
Bobby Jones (basketball, born 1951)>Bobby Jones| born 1951| A former pro basketball player who developed epilepsy and a heart problem as an adult, but persevered with his game.|WEB
, David Friedman
, 2005
,weblink
, The ultimate team player
, Hoops Hype
, 2 February 2006
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060217175506weblink">weblink
, 17 February 2006
,
,
valign="top"
Terry Marsh (boxer)>Terry Marsh| born 1958boxing>boxer who was IBF world light-welterweight champion. His diagnosis of epilepsy in 1987, aged 29, forced him into retirement undefeated.|NEWS
, Phil
, Berger
,weblink
, Boxing Notebook; Marsh Finds Profitable Life Out of Ring
, New York Times
, October 7, 1987
, 23 August 2009
, BOOK
, Terry
, Marsh
, September 2005
, Undefeated
, Terry Marsh Publishing
, 978-0-9549999-0-2
,
valign="top"
Greg Walker (baseball)>Greg Walker| born 1959| A major league baseball player who collapsed on field with a tonic-clonic seizure. He had a further seizure in hospital that night and took anticonvulsant medication for the next two years. Walker had a childhood history of seizures until the age of 4.|NEWS
, Associated Press
,weblink
, Walker Suffers Second Seizure
, The New York Times
, 1 August 1988
, 23 August 2009
,
valign="top"| Florence Griffith Joyner| 1959–1998
Athletics (track and field)>athlete with world records in the 100 m and 200 m. She developed seizures in her thirties, possibly due to a cavernous angioma that was discovered on autopsy. She died from asphyxiation after a grand mal seizure while asleep.|NEWS
, Kristina Rebelo
, Anderson
,weblink
, The Uneasy Death of Florence Griffith Joyner
, Salon.com
, 4 December 1998
, 2 February 2006
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060207041128weblink">weblink
, 7 February 2006
,
,
valign="top"| Wally Lewis| born 1959| One of Australia's greatest rugby league players, national team captain 1984-89. After retirement from the sport, he became a television sports presenter, but became disoriented during a live-to-air broadcast in late 2006. Medical tests revealed that he had epilepsy.|NEWS
, not given
,weblink
, Wally Lewis reveals he has epilepsy
, The Age
, 1 December 2006
, 11 January 2007
,
valign="top"| Paul Wade| born 1962| Former Australian national Football (soccer) player and television sports commentator. Wade had epilepsy all his life but was only diagnosed as an adult. He kept it secret until he had a seizure on live television in 2001. Drugs weren't controlling the seizures so, in 2002, he had surgery to remove a scar in his brain. He is now seizure free.|NEWS
, Matthew Hall
,weblink
, Wade ready to kick on again
, The Age
, 22 September 2002
, 12 August 2006
, WEB
,weblink
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060829130107weblink">weblink
, 2006-08-29
, Coaching With Surgical Precision
, 12 August 2006
, 2004
, Australian Headlines (National Epilepsy Magazine)
, Epilepsy Action (Australia)
,
valign="top"| Marion Clignet| born 1964| A Franco-American cyclist who found that she has epilepsy at the age of 22. She was shunned by the U.S. cycling federation and subsequently rode in the colors of France. She has since won 6 world titles, 2 Olympic silver medals, as well as numerous races worldwide.|WEB
, James Raia
, 2007
,weblink
,weblink" title="archive.today/20071007010526weblink">weblink
, yes
, 7 October 2007
, Marion Clignet: The Life & Times Of An Epileptic Cycling Champion
, 20 November 2008
, WEB
,weblink
, Marion Clignet's Back
, 20 November 2008
,
valign="top"| Maggie McEleny| born 1965
Paralympic Games>Paralympic swimmer, winning 3 gold, 5 silver and 7 bronze. McEleny has paraplegia and epilepsy. In 2000, she was made an Order of the British Empire and awarded a Golden Jubilee Award by the Epilepsy Action>British Epilepsy Association.|WEB
,weblink
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061102130628weblink">weblink
, yes
, 2 November 2006
, Doug Gillon
, The Journey to Athens
, 23 August 2009
, 2004
, Scottish Institute of Sport
,
valign="top"| Jonty Rhodes| born 1969| A cricketer who is involved with Epilepsy South Africa.|WEB
,weblink
, "Epilepsy is not disabling", says Jonty
, Epilepsy South Africa, National Newsletter
, 2007


, 23 August 2009
,
valign="top"
Tom Smith (rugby union player born 1971)>Tom Smith| born 1971rugby football>rugby player. Has had epilepsy since the age of 18. His seizures occur only at night, during sleep. He is a patron of the Scottish epilepsy charity, Enlighten.|NEWS
, 2005
,weblink
, Survey Reveals Impact Of Epilepsy On Men
, Epilepsy Action
, 4 September 2007
, NEWS
, David Ferguson
,weblink
, Smith tries to put illness in perspective
, The Scotsman
, 24 October 2000
, 23 August 2009
,
valign="top"| Alan Faneca| born 1976
American football Guard (American football)>guard. The nine-time All-Pro was diagnosed with epilepsy at the age of 15 and takes the anticonvulsant carbamazepine, which successfully controls his seizures.|WEB
,weblink
, Epilepsy Foundation Salutes Steelers' Alan Faneca on Super Bowl Sunday
, Epilepsy Foundation


, 23 August 2009
, WEB
, Adam Modzelesky
,weblink
, Not Faster than a Speeding Bullet, but More Powerful than a Locomotive, this Man of Steel is an Inspiration for Everyone
, Epilepsy USA


, 15 January 2006
,
valign="top"| Samari Rolle| born 1976
American football Cornerback (American football)>cornerback who played for the Baltimore Ravens.|WEB
,weblink
, Ravens Cornerback Rolle Reveals He Has Epilepsy
, ESPN.com


, 22 November 2007, 21 November 2007
,
valign="top"| Chanda Gunn| born 1980
United States women's national ice hockey team>US 2006 Winter Olympic women's hockey team. Gunn was diagnosed with juvenile absence epilepsy at the age of 9, which was treated with valproic acid. Epilepsy meant that she had to give up her childhood sports of swimming and surfing, but these were soon replaced with hockey.|NEWS
, Peggy Peck
, 2006
,weblink
, Epilepsy can't stop U.S. Olympic goalie
, MedPageToday.com
, CNN.com


, 16 February 2006
,
valign="top"| Leon Legge| born 1985
England>English professional Association football, who currently plays for Brentford F.C.>Brentford as a central defender. His epilepsy is currently controlled.|NEWS
, Johnson
, Simon
, Epilepsy has not stopped Leon Legge achieving his
, Evening Standard
, 9 December 2010
,weblink
,weblink" title="archive.today/20130505071601weblink">weblink
, yes
, 5 May 2013
, 3 February 2011
,
valign="top"| Dai Greene| born 1986
Welsh people>Welsh hurdler who specialises in the 400 metres hurdles event. Greene is the current European, Commonwealth and World Champion.|NEWS
, Malone
, Sam
, Gold medal hero Dai Greene: Athletics freed me from my battle with epilepsy
, Western Mail (Wales), Western Mail
, 8 September 2011
,weblink
, 10 September 2011
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121015181338weblink">weblink
, 15 October 2012
,
,
valign="top"| Katharine Ford| born 1986| An Ultra-marathon cyclist and Indoor Track Cycling 4 time world record holder, who was diagnosed with epilepsy aged 9 before undergoing major transformative brain surgery to control her condition. weblink}}{{dead link>date=December 2017
fix-attempted=yes }}
valign="top"| Ronde Barber| born 1975| A former American football player who played cornerback with the Tampa Bay Buccaneers.|NEWS
,
, Tiki Barber: Epilepsy in the Family
, 13 December 2007
,weblink
, 19 February 2012
,
valign="top"| Tiki Barber| born 1975| A former American football player, who played running back for the New York Giants.|
valign="top"| Jason Snelling| born 1983| An American football player with the Atlanta Falcons.|NEWS
, Epilepsy Foundation
, Shedding Light On Epilepsy
, 19 February 2010
,weblink
, 24 March 2013
,
valign="top"| Davis Tarwater| born 1984| An Olympic swimmer for the United States who suffered from epilepsy as a child
DATE=JULY 7, 2012URL=HTTP://WWW.KNOXNEWS.COM/NEWS/2012/JUL/07/RICHMOND-FLOWERS-CAN-APPRECIATE-DAVIS-TARWATERS/, July 11, 2012,
valign="top"| Hervé Boussard| 1966–2013| An Olympic cyclist of France who won a bronze medal at the 1992 Summer Olympics. He died from an epileptic seizure.
TITLE=HERVé BOUSSARD OLYMPIC RESULTS, 28 July 2016,

Art and writing

{| class=wikitable! style="width:17%;"| Name! style="width:13%;"| Life! style="width:65%;"| Comments! style="width:5%;"| Reference
valign="top"| Edward Lear| 1812–1888| An artist, illustrator and writer known for his nonsensical poetry and limericks. His epilepsy, which he developed as a child, may have been inherited (his elder sister Jane had frequent seizures and died young). Lear was ashamed of his epilepsy and kept it a secret. He did, however, record each seizure in his diary.|WEB
,weblink
, Edward Lear
, Charge - The experience of Epilepsy
, 2 February 2006
,
valign="top"| Fyodor Dostoyevsky| 1821–1881
aura (symptom)>aura prior to a seizure, whereas most people experience unpleasant feelings.|WEB
,weblink
, Fyodor Dostoevsky
, Charge - The experience of Epilepsy
, 2 February 2006
, JOURNAL
, Hughes JR
, The idiosyncratic aspects of the epilepsy of Fyodor Dostoevsky
, Epilepsy & Behavior
, 2005
, 531–8
, 7
, 3
, 16194626
, 10.1016/j.yebeh.2005.07.021,
valign="top"| George Inness| 1825–1894| An American painter who had epilepsy from childhood.|WEB
,weblink
, George Inness
, 14 August 2006
, Stanley L. Klos
, 2001
, Virtualology.com
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070930184846weblink">weblink
, 30 September 2007
, dmy-all
,
valign="top"| R. D. Blackmore| 1825–1900| Author of Lorna Doone.|BOOK
, Dunn
, Waldo Hilary
, R. D. Blackmore: The Author of Lorna Doone, a Biography
, 1956
, R. Hale
, 19,74,253
,
valign="top"| Charles Altamont Doyle| 1832–1893| Artist and father of Arthur Conan Doyle. His alcoholism and a violent outburst led him to be detained in an asylum. Whilst there, he developed epilepsy and severe memory problems.|JOURNAL
, Beveridge
, Allan
, 2006
, What became of Arthur Conan Doyle's father? The last years of Charles Altamont Doyle.
, Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
, 36
, 264–270
,weblink
, 23 August 2009
, 17214131
, 3
,
valign="top"| Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson| 1832–1910
Norway>Norwegian writer and a 1903 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate. Developed focal epilepsy following a stroke in the final year of his life.|JOURNAL
, Aarli J
, [Medical treatment abroad. Why Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson died in Paris 1910]
, Tidsskr nor Laegeforen
, 115
, 30
, 3740–4
, 1995
, 8539743
,
valign="top"| Ion Creangă| 1837–1889
Romanian Children's literature>children's writer and memoirist who had epilepsy for the last six years of his life.|WEB
,weblink
, Ion Creangă
, National Institute For Research & Development In Informatics
, 28 November 2006
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061025064036weblink">weblink
, 25 October 2006
, yes
, dmy
,
valign="top"| Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis| 1839–1908
Brazilian Literary realism>realist novelist, poet and short-story writer. He had epilepsy all his life, but was ashamed to mention it, using euphemisms when writing to friends. It is believed he had complex partial seizures, with secondary generalisation.|JOURNAL
, Guerreiro C
, Machado de Assis's epilepsy.
, Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria
, 50
, 3
, 378–82
, 1992
, 1308419
, 10.1590/s0004-282x1992000300020
, JOURNAL
, Chapman A, Chapman-Santana M, Machado de Assis's own writings about his epilepsy: a brief clinical note.
, Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria
, 58
, 4
, 1153–4
, 2000
,weblink
, 11105089
, 10.1590/s0004-282x2000000600029
,
valign="top"| Dmitri Sinodi-Popov| 1855–1910| A Russian artist, whose epilepsy interrupted his studies at the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts.|WEB
,weblink
, Dmitri Sinodi-Popov
, Official Website of the City of Taganrog


, 21 November 2006
,
valign="top"| Minakata Kumagusu| 1867–1941
déjà vu. Postmortem MRI showed right Hippocampus>hippocampal atrophy, consistent with temporal lobe epilepsy.|JOURNAL
, Murai T, Hanakawa T, Sengoku A, Ban T, Yoneda Y, Fujita H, Fujita N, Temporal lobe epilepsy in a genius of natural history: MRI volumetric study of postmortem brain.
, Neurology
, 50
, 5
, 1373–6
, 1998
, 9595989
, 10.1212/wnl.50.5.1373
, JOURNAL
, Sengoku A
, [Kumagusu Minakata with temporal lobe epilepsy: a pathographic study]
, Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi
, 108
, 2
, 132–9
, 2006
, 16562514
,
valign="top"
valign="top"| Ash Lieb| born 1982| An Australian artist, comedian and writer who has had Temporal lobe epilepsy since his early twenties as a result of a brain tumour.|BOOK
, James
, Willow Jr
, September 2016
, The art and times of Ash Lieb
, University of Tasmania
, 978-1-8629587-5-3
, 17
,
valign="top"| Vachel Lindsay| 1879–1931| A poet who took phenobarbital for his epilepsy.|BOOK
, John Hall
, Wheelock
, May 2002
, The Last Romantic: A Poet Among Publishers: The Oral Autobiography of John Hall Wheelock
, Univ of South Carolina Press
, 978-1-57003-463-3
, 97
,
valign="top"| Laurie Lee| 1914–1997| A poet, novelist and screenwriter, most famous for his autobiographical trilogy (which includes Cider with Rosie). His epilepsy probably developed after he was knocked down by a bicycle at the age of 10. He kept it secret and it only surfaced when his papers were read by biographers after his death.|JOURNAL
, John
, Knight
, 2000
, Laurie Lee: Myth And Reality - Book Review
, Contemporary Review
, June 2000
,weblink
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060326235718weblink">weblink
, 26 March 2006
,
,
valign="top"| Kyffin Williams| 1918–2006| A landscape painter. His epilepsy ended his army career and may have prevented him marrying.|NEWS
, Rian
, Evans
, 4 September 2006
, Obituary: Sir Kyffin Williams
, The Guardian
,weblink


, 23 August 2009
,
valign="top"| Max Clifford| 1943–2017| A publicist known for representing controversial clients. He developed epilepsy at the age of 46.|WEB
,weblink
, What would they do now? - Max Clifford on how today's monarchy might handle Prince John
, BBC Worldwide Press Releases


, 23 August 2009
,
valign="top"| Karen Armstrong| born 1944| An author, feminist and writer on Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Buddhism. Her temporal lobe epilepsy went undiagnosed for many years. She wrote in her autobiography that when (in her early thirties) she was finally given the diagnosis, it was "an occasion of pure happiness".|NEWS
, Karen
, Armstrong
,weblink
, I'm no freak, so don't treat me like one
, The Guardian
, 20 May 2005
, 23 August 2009
, BOOK
, Karen
, Armstrong
, January 2005
, The Spiral Staircase
, Harper Perennial
, 978-0-00-712229-5
,
valign="top"| Thom Jones| born 1945| Author of short stories, many of which include characters with epilepsy.|NEWS
, Natalie Angier
,weblink
, In the Temporal Lobes, Seizures and Creativity
, The New York Times
, 12 October 1993
, 23 August 2009
,
valign="top"
Stephen Knight (author)>Stephen Knight| 1951–1985Freemasonry>Freemasons. He started having seizures in 1977 and in 1980, agreed to take part in a BBC documentary TV program Horizon on epilepsy. The producers arranged for a brain scan, which showed up a tumour. This was removed but returned in 1984 and despite further surgery he died in 1985.|JOURNAL
, Whittington-Egan
, Richard
, June 2002
, Stephen Knight
, Ripperologist
, 41
,weblink
, 24 November 2006
,
valign="top"| DeBarra Mayo| born 1953| Fitness and health author and writer.|NEWS
, Out of the Shadows
, Fayetteville Observer
, 29 November 1999
,
valign="top"| Jago Eliot| 1966–2006
Lord>Aristocrat, surfer and cyber artist. He died in his bath due to an epileptic seizure, which was recorded as a sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP).|NEWS
, Heathcote Williams
, Obituary: Jago Eliot
,weblink
, The Guardian
, 1 May 2006
, 23 August 2009
,
valign="top"| Kathy Sierra| born 1957
Computer programmer>programming instructor and game developer who co-created the Head First series of books on computer programming. She had her first tonic-clonic seizure at the age of four. These were frequent and severe but greatly diminished by adulthood and were always preceded by an aura.|WEB
, Kathy
, Sierra
, 11 April 2005
,weblink
, Who's in charge - you or your brain?
, Creating Passionate Users


, 21 November 2006
,
valign="top"| Joshua Kors| born 1978| An investigative reporter known for his coverage of veterans' issues. He had his first seizure in eighth grade.|WEB
, Joshua
, Kors
, May 2003
,weblink
, The Talking Treatment: Looking at a New Approach to Epilepsy
,

Miscellaneous

{| class=wikitable! style="width:17%;"| Name! style="width:13%;"| Life! style="width:65%;"| Comments! style="width:5%;"| Reference
valign="top"| Jean Clemens| 1880–1909| The youngest daughter of Mark Twain. She had epilepsy from age fifteen, which her father attributed to a childhood head injury. Her epilepsy was not successfully controlled and at one point she was sent to an epilepsy colony in Katonah, New York. She was found dead on Christmas Eve in her bath aged 29. The cause of death was reported as drowning due to epilepsy.|NEWS
, Miss Jean Clemens Found Dead in Bath
,weblink
, The New York Times
, 24 December 1909
, 21 November 2006
, WEB
, Laura Skandera
, Trombley
,weblink
, 'She Wanted to Kill': Jean Clemens and Postictal Psychosis
, Pitzer College
, 21 November 2006
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060902095940weblink">weblink
, 2 September 2006
, dmy-all
,
valign="top"| Derek Bentley| 1933–1953| Hanged, aged 19, for a crime his partner committed, Bentley had epilepsy and a mental age of 11. He was pardoned after a 45-year campaign, which included the film Let Him Have It, starring Christopher Eccleston.|NEWS
, Chris Taylor
,weblink
, Peace at Last for the Hanged Man
, Time Magazine
, 31 July 1998
, 23 August 2009
,
valign="top"
Dionne quintuplets>Emilie Dionne| 1934–1954| The third of the Dionne quintuplets, Emilie's epilepsy was only made public after her death at a convent in Sainte Agathe, Quebec. She died from complications caused by a series of epileptic seizures. These were recorded at noon the previous day, 11{{nbsp}}pm, 3{{nbsp}}am, and 5{{nbsp}}am, but no doctor was called until after her death. Her death from epilepsy caused alarm, leading H. Houston Merritt to inform the public that "the mortality rate among epileptics is no greater than among non-sufferers".|NEWS
, United Press
, Frailest Of 5 Dionnes Found Dead In Convent
, Statesville Record & Landmark
, 7 August 1954
, United Press International
, NEWS
, (unknown)
, Emilie Dionne Laid To Rest Amid Bitter Sobs Of Surviving Quintuplets
, The Newport Daily News
, 9 August 1954
,
valign="top"| Virginia Ridley| 1948–1997| A woman who had agoraphobia, hypergraphia and epilepsy. Her eccentric husband Alvin was charged with her murder but cleared after the jury accepted that she may have suffocated during a seizure. She had not been seen outside her home for 25 years.
TITLE=THE VILLAGE ECCENTRIC ON TRIAL PUBLISHER=ATLANTA JOURNAL-CONSTITUTION,
valign="top"| Don Craig Wiley| 1944–2001| A protein-structure biochemist. He kept his epilepsy secret, did not treat it, and died under mysterious circumstances, possibly owing to a seizure.|NEWS
, Thomas
, Jordan
, Scientist Don Wiley May Have Had Seizure
, The Commercial Appeal
, 15 January 2002
,
valign="top"| Barry George| born 1960
murdering the United Kingdom>British television presenter Jill Dando. Has epilepsy, mental health problems and is autistic.|NEWS
, Nick Hopkins
, Steven Morris
, Life and times of Barry George
,weblink
, The Guardian
, 2 July 2001
, 23 August 2009
,
valign="top"| Rick Harrison| born 1965
Las Vegas, Nevada and star of the History (U.S. TV channel)>History series Pawn Stars; had epilepsy when he was in his youth.License to Pawn: Deals, Steals, and My Life at the Gold & Silver . Hyperion. 2011. New York. {{ISBN>978-1-4013-2430-8}}
valign="top"| Katie Hopkins| born 1975
England>English reality television contestant (''The Apprentice (UK series three), I'm a Celebrity...Get Me Out of Here! (UK series 7)>I'm a Celebrity...Get Me Out of Here!)'' and businesswoman, who developed epilepsy as a teenager|
valign="top"| Daniel Tammet| born 1979| An autistic savant who is a talented mnemonist and language learner. He had temporal lobe epilepsy as a child.|WEB
,weblink
, Charity
, 28 November 2006
, Daniel Tammet
, Optimnem (official web site of Daniel Tammet)
, NEWS
, Richard Johnson
, A genius explains
,weblink
, The Guardian
, 12 February 2005
, 23 August 2009
,
valign="top"
The Cinema Snob>Brad Jones| born 1981| During his review of "Turkish Star Wars" The Cinema Snob mentions that he's been epileptic since 4th grade and takes Tegretol (carbamazepine).|WEB
,weblink
, Cinema Snob review of 'Turkish Star Wars'
, 4 August 2014
,
valign="top"
Keith Wallace (wine writer)>Keith Wallace| born 1969| During his interview on Philly Who, Keith revealed he been epileptic since a car crash that killed his fiancée and left him with severe injuries and in Baltimore, Maryland. He admitted to working as a winemaker in Napa Valley and Chianti for years without revealing his neurological disorder to his employers. |WEB
,weblink
, Keith Wallace: Creating The Wine School of Philadelphia
, 9 January 2019
, 10 October 2018
,

Retrospective diagnosis

The following people were not diagnosed with epilepsy during their lifetime. A retrospective diagnosis is speculative and, as detailed below, can be wrong.{| class=wikitable! style="width:17%;"| Name! style="width:13%;"| Life! style="width:65%;"| Comments! style="width:5%;"| Reference
valign="top"| Socrates| 470–399 BC
Ancient Greece>Ancient Greek Philosophy. It is speculated that his Daemon (mythology)>daimonion was a simple partial seizure and that he had temporal lobe epilepsy. JOURNAL = EPILEPSIA ISSUE = 3 YEAR = 2006 URL = HTTP://WWW3.INTERSCIENCE.WILEY.COM/CGI-BIN/FULLTEXT/118726036/HTMLSTART date=February 2019bot=medic}}
valign="top"| Julius Caesar| 100–44 BC| Roman military and political leader. There is documentation of symptoms experienced by Caesar beginning on his 50th birthday that some scholars believe were complex partial seizures. There is family history of epilepsy amongst his ancestors and descendants. The earliest accounts of these seizures were made by the biographer Suetonius who was born after Caesar's death.However, some scholars believe that Caesar's symptoms, as well as the deaths of his father and paternal grandfather, may be better explained by cardiovascular disease and stroke, and that the documentation of his epilepsy could be unreliable since certain symptoms were not described until after his death may. Epilepsy was considered a "sacred disease" and therefore may have been publicized by family members after his death to portray a specific public image.
JOURNAL = EPILEPSY BEHAV ISSUE = 5 YEAR = 2004 DOI = 10.1016/J.YEBEH.2004.05.006, GOMEZ J, KOTLER J, LONG J > TITLE = WAS JULIUS CAESAR'S EPILEPSY DUE TO A BRAIN TUMOR? VOLUME = 82 PAGES = 199–201 PMID = 7738524, {{citationlast1=Galassilast2=Ashrafianyear=2015volume=36pages=1521–1522pmid=25820216}}
valign="top"| Napoleon I of France| 1769–1821
William Osler in 1903 stated, "The slow pulse of Napoleon rests upon tradition; it has been suggested that his epilepsy and attacks of apathy may have been associated features in a chronic form of Stokes-Adams attack>Stokes-Adams disease", which implies the seizures were not epileptic in origin. However, in 2003, John Hughes concluded that Napoleon had both psychogenic attacks due to stress and epileptic seizures due to chronic uremia from a severe urethral stricture caused by gonorrhea. JOURNAL = THE LANCET ISSUE = 4173 YEAR = 1903 URL = HTTPS://ZENODO.ORG/RECORD/1997389, HUGHES J > TITLE = EMPEROR NAPOLEON BONAPARTE: DID HE HAVE SEIZURES? PSYCHOGENIC OR EPILEPTIC OR BOTH? VOLUME = 4 PAGES = 793–6 PMID = 14698723, 10.1016/j.yebeh.2003.09.005,
valign="top"| George Gershwin| 1898–1937| American composer. The first symptoms of his glioblastoma multiforme tumor were possibly olfactory-uncinate simple partial seizures. He noticed the smell of burnt rubber at the same time as dizziness or, occasionally, brief blackouts. His condition deteriorated and he died six months later, despite surgery to remove the tumor.
JOURNAL = ARQ NEUROPSIQUIATR ISSUE = 2–B YEAR = 2002 DOI = 10.1590/S0004-282X2002000300033,

Religious figures

There is a long-standing notion that epilepsy and religion are linked, and it has been speculated that many religious figures had temporal lobe epilepsy. The temporal lobes generate the feeling of "I", and give a sense of familiarity or strangeness to the perceptions of the senses. The temporal lobes and adjacent anterior insular cortex seem to be involved in mystical experiences,WEB
, 21 August 2006
,weblink
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160214151842weblink">weblink
, yes
, 14 February 2016
, The Neurophysiology of the Brain: Its Relationship to Altered States of Consciousness (With emphasis on the Mystical Experience)
, Peter Fenwick
, 1980
, Wrekin Trust
, and in the change in personality that may result from such experiences. Raymond Bucke's Cosmic Consciousness (1901) contains several case-studies of persons who have realized "cosmic consciousness". James Leuba's The psychology of religious mysticism noted that "among the dread diseases that afflict humanity there is only one that interests us quite particularly; that disease is epilepsy."{{Citation | last =Leuba | first =J.H. | year =1925 | title =The psychology of religious mysticism | publisher =Harcourt, Brace}} Several of Bucke's cases are also mentioned in J.E. Bryant's 1953 book, Genius and Epilepsy, which has a list of more than 20 people that combines the great and the mystical.BOOK
, Ernest J.
, Bryant
, Genius and Epilepsy. Brief sketches of Great Men Who Had Both
, 1953
, Ye Old Depot Press
, Concord, Massachusetts
, harv
,
Slater and Beard and renewed the interest in TLE and religious experience in the 1960s. Dewhurst and Beard (1970) described six cases of TLE-patients who underwent sudden religious conversions. They placed these cases in the context of several western saints who had a sudden conversion, who were or may have been epileptic. Dewhurst and Beard described several aspects of conversion experiences, and did not favor one specific mechanism.{{Citation | last =Devinsky | first =O. | year =2003 | title =Religious experiences and epilepsy | journal =Epilepsy & Behavior |volume=4 |pages=76–77 | doi=10.1016/s1525-5050(02)00680-7}} Norman Geschwind described behavioral changes related to temporal lobe epilepsy in the 1970s and 1980s.{{Citation
| last1 =Drvinsky
| first1 =Julie
| last2 =Schachter
| first2 =Steven
| year =2009
| title =Norman Geschwind's contribution to the understanding of behavioral changes in temporal lobe epilepsy: The February 1974 lecture
| journal =Epilepsy & Behavior |volume=15 | issue =4
|pages=417–424
| doi =10.1016/j.yebeh.2009.06.006 | pmid =19640791
}}
Now called Geschwind syndrome, he defined a cluster of specific personality characteristics often found in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, which include increased religiosity. Evidence of Geschwind syndrome has been identified in some religious figures, in particular pronounced religiosity and hypergraphia (excessive writing). However, critics note that these characteristics can be the result of any illness, and are not sufficiently descriptive for patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.WEB
, 23 August 2009
,weblink
, Is there an epileptic personality?
, William Barr
, 22 September 2003
, Neuropsychiatrist Peter Fenwick, in the 1980s and 1990s, also found a relationship between the right temporal lobe and mystical experience, but also found that pathology or brain damage is only one of many possible causal mechanisms for these experiences. He questioned the earlier accounts of religious figures with temporal lobe epilepsy, noticing that "very few true examples of the ecstatic aura and the temporal lobe seizure had been reported in the world scientific literature prior to 1980". According to Fenwick, "It is likely that the earlier accounts of temporal lobe epilepsy and temporal lobe pathology and the relation to mystic and religious states owes more to the enthusiasm of their authors than to a true scientific understanding of the nature of temporal lobe functioning."WEB
, 15 August 2006
,weblink
, Untitled
, Peter Fenwick
, 7 January 1994
, 4th International Science Symposium on Science and Consciousness.
,
The occurrence of intense religious feelings in persons with epilepsy in general is considered rare, with an incident rate of about 2–3%. Sudden religious conversion, together with visions, has been documented in only a small number of individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy.JOURNAL
, Dewhurst K, Beard A
, Sudden religious conversions in temporal lobe epilepsy. 1970.
, Epilepsy & Behavior
, 4
, 1
, 78–87
, 2003
, 12609232
,weblink
, 10.1016/S1525-5050(02)00688-1
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070930061342weblink">weblink
, 30 September 2007
, dmy
, The occurrence of religious experiences in TLE-patients may as well be explained by religious attribution, due to the background of these patients.{{citation | url=http://thepsychologist.bps.org.uk/volume-25/edition-7/neuroscience-soul | author=Aaen-Stockdale, Craig | title=Neuroscience for the soul | journal=The Psychologist | year=2012 | volume=25 | issue=7 | pages=520–523}} Nevertheless, the neurological research of mystical experiences is a growing field of research, searching for specific neurological explanations of mystical experiences. Study of ecstatic seizures may provide clues for the neurological mechanisms giving rise to mystical experiences, such as the anterior insular cortex, which is involved in self-awareness and subjective certainty.{{Citation| last1 =Picard
| first1 =Fabienne
| year =2013
| title =State of belief, subjective certainty and bliss as a product of cortical dysfuntion
| journal =Cortex |volume=49 | issue =9
|pages=2494–2500
| doi=10.1016/j.cortex.2013.01.006
| pmid=23415878}}
{{Citation
| last1 =Picard
| first1 =Fabienne
| last2 =Kurth
| first2 =Florian
| year =2014
| title =Ictal alterations of consciousness during ecstatic seizures
| journal =Epilepsy & Behavior |volume=30 |pages=58–61
| doi=10.1016/j.yebeh.2013.09.036
| pmid=24436968}}
{hide}Citation
| last1 =Gschwind
| first1 =Markus
| last2 =Picard
| first2 =Fabienne
| title =Ecstatic Epileptic Seizures - the Role of the Insual in Altered Self-Awareness
| journal =Epileptologie |year=2014 |volume=31{edih}
Persons listed below are not necessarily known to have epilepsy nor indicate a scholarly consensus in favour of epilepsy; merely that such a diagnosis has been suggested.{| class=wikitable! style="width:17%;"| Name! style="width:13%;"| Life! style="width:65%;"| Comments! style="width:5%;"| Reference
valign="top"
Priestly source>The Priestly source of the Pentateuch| c700 BC| According to one researcher, the writing has a pedantic and aggressive style, shows extreme religiosity, verbosity and redundant style. These are said to be evidence of Geschwind syndrome, though there is no evidence of any seizures since we have no personal information regarding the author.|JOURNAL
, Altschuler E
, Temporal lobe epilepsy in the priestly source of the Pentateuch.
, South African Medical Journal
, 94
, 11
, 870
, 2004
,weblink
,weblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20090320005316weblink">weblink
, yes
, 20 March 2009
, 15587438
, dmy-all
,
valign="top"| Ezekiel| 622BC–?| Fainting spells, periodic loss of speech, compulsive writing, extremely religious, pedantic speech.|JOURNAL
, Altschuler E
, Did Ezekiel have temporal lobe epilepsy?
, Archives of General Psychiatry
, 59
, 6
, 561–2
, 2002
, 12044200
, 10.1001/archpsyc.59.6.561
, NEWS
, Alison
, Motluk
,weblink
, Old Testament prophet showed epileptic symptoms
, New Scientist
, 17 November 2001
, 21 July 2006
,
valign="top"| Paul of Tarsus| 3-10 – 62-68| Epilepsy is one of many suggestions regarding his "thorn in the flesh". F.F. Bruce says, "Many guesses have been made about the identity of this "splinter in the flesh"; and their very variety proves the impossibility of a certain diagnosis. One favourite guess has been epilepsy ... but it is no more than a guess". Researchers disagree about the cause of his conversion and vision on the road to Damascus. In addition to a seizure, heat exhaustion, the voice of conscience together with a migraine, and even a bolt of lightning have been suggested.|BOOK
, Frederick Fyvie Bruce
, Paul Apostle of the Heart Set Free
, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company
, 2000
, 978-0-8028-4778-2
, JOURNAL
, Bullock J
, Was Saint Paul struck blind and converted by lightning?
, Survey of Ophthalmology
, 39
, 2
, 151–60
, 1994
, 7801224
, 10.1016/0039-6257(94)90161-9
,
valign="top"
Bridget of Sweden>Saint Birgitta| 1303–1373| Her skull shows evidence of a meningioma, which is a cause of epilepsy and may explain her visions. However, it is not in the temporal lobe and other researches suggest psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, or a combination.|JOURNAL
, Landtblom A
, Did St Birgitta suffer from epilepsy? A neuropathography.
, Seizure
, 13
, 3
, 161–7
, 2004
, 15010053
, 10.1016/S1059-1311(03)00160-2
, WEB
,weblink
, Was St. Birgitta suffering from epilepsy?
, 2001
, 21 August 2006
, Anne-Marie Landtblom
, Epigraph
, International League Against Epilepsy
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927015307weblink">weblink
, 27 September 2007
, dmy-all
,
valign="top"| Joan of Arc| 1412–1431
Vision (religion)>visions which she said others could sometimes experience simultaneously. Some researchers consider the visions to be ecstatic epileptic auras, though more recent research may implicate idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features. Epileptic seizures with clear auditory and visual hallucinations are very rare. This, together with the extreme length of her visions, lead some to reject epilepsy as a cause.|JOURNAL
, Foote-Smith E, Bayne L, Joan of Arc.
, Epilepsia
, 32
, 6
, 810–5
, 1991
, 1743152
, 10.1111/j.1528-1157.1991.tb05537.x
, JOURNAL
, d'Orsi G, Tinuper P, "I heard voices...": from semiology, a historical review, and a new hypothesis on the presumed epilepsy of Joan of Arc.
, Epilepsy & Behavior
, 9
, 1
, 152–7
, 2006
, 16750938
, 10.1016/j.yebeh.2006.04.020
,
valign="top"
Catherine of Genoa>Saint Catherine of Genoa| 1447–1510| "[A]bnormal mental states" diagnosed as hysteria by Leuba; according to Dewhurst and Beard the symptoms may also suggest temporal lobe epilepsy. According to Dewhurst and Beard, Saint Catherine of Genoa, Saint Marguerite Marie and Mme Guyon "had periodic attacks which included the following symptoms: sensations of extremes of heat and cold, trembling of the whole body, transient aphasia, automatisms, passivity feelings, hyperaesthesiae, childish regression, dissociation, somnambulism, transient paresis, increased suggestibility, and an inability to open the eyes."|
valign="top"
Teresa of Ávila>Saint Teresa of Ávila| 1515–1582| Visions, chronic headaches, transient loss of consciousness and also a four-day coma.|JOURNAL
, Garcia Albea E
, [The ecstatic epilepsy of Teresa of Jesus]
, Revista de Neurologia
, 37
, 9
, 879–87
, 2003
, 14606057, 10.33588/rn.3709.2003291
,
valign="top"
Catherine of Ricci>Saint Catherine of Ricci| 1522–1590| Visual hallucinations. Loss of consciousness for 28 hours.|
valign="top"
Marguerite Marie Alacoque>Saint Marguerite Marie| 1647–1690| "[A]bnormal mental states" diagnosed as hysteria by Leuba; according to Dewhurst and Beard the symptoms may also suggest temporal lobe epilepsy. According to Dewhurst and Beard, Saint Catherine of Genoa, Saint Marguerite Marie and Mme Guyon "had periodic attacks which included the following symptoms: sensations of extremes of heat and cold, trembling of the whole body, transient aphasia, automatisms, passivity feelings, hyperaesthesiae, childish regression, dissociation, somnambulism, transient paresis, increased suggestibility, and an inability to open the eyes."|
valign="top"
Jeanne Marie Bouvier de la Motte Guyon>Mme Guyon| 1648–1717| "[A]bnormal mental states" diagnosed as hysteria by Leuba; according to Dewhurst and Beard the symptoms may also suggest temporal lobe epilepsy. According to Dewhurst and Beard, Saint Catherine of Genoa, Saint Marguerite Marie and Mme Guyon "had periodic attacks which included the following symptoms: sensations of extremes of heat and cold, trembling of the whole body, transient aphasia, automatisms, passivity feelings, hyperaesthesiae, childish regression, dissociation, somnambulism, transient paresis, increased suggestibility, and an inability to open the eyes."|
valign="top"| Emanuel Swedenborg| 1688–1772| Swedish scientist, philosopher, seer, and theologian.|JOURNAL
, Foote-Smith E, Smith T, Emanuel Swedenborg.
, Epilepsia
, 37
, 2
, 211–8
, 1996
, 8635433
, 10.1111/j.1528-1157.1996.tb00014.x
,
valign="top"| Joseph Smith| 1805–1844| Seized with a strange power, rendered speechless, and fell on his back. Visions of darkness and light.|
valign="top"| Ellen G. White| 1827–1915| Severe head injury followed by three weeks of limited consciousness. Her visions involved loss of consciousness, upward eye deflection, visual hallucinations, affective changes, gestural automatisms, preservation of speech, a post-ictal-like period. Further, she meets several criteria for the Geschwind syndrome: extreme religiosity, hypergraphia (100,000 pages in 4,000 articles), repetitiveness, hypermoralism, and hyposexuality.|WEB
,weblink
, Ellen G. White and the Seventh-day Adventist Church: Visions or Partial-Complex Seizures?
, 10 August 2006
, Delbert H. Hodder
, Gregory Holmes
, Abstract of presentation at the American Academy of Neurology
, The Ellen White Research Project
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060617090958weblink">weblink
, 17 June 2006
, yes
, dmy
, Note: This web site may not be considered a neutral source.WEB
,weblink
, The Significance of Ellen White's Head Injury
, 10 August 2006
, Molleurus Couperus
, June 1985
, Adventist Currents
, The Ellen White Research Project
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060627142524weblink">weblink
, 27 June 2006
, yes
, dmy
, Note: This web site may not be considered a neutral source.Visions or Seizures: Was Ellen White the Victim of Epilepsy? by Donald I. Peterson, MD
valign="top"| Ramakrishna| 1836–1886
Neo-Vedanta, through his disciple Swami Vivekananda, who held that religious experience was a valid method of gaining knowledge. From the age of six onwards, he had ecstatic trances.{{Sfn>Zaleskipp=162–163}}{{Sfn2003}} From his 10th or 11th year on, the trances became common, and by the final years of his life, Ramakrishna's samadhisamādhi periods occurred almost daily.{{Sfn>BhawukTemporal lobe epilepsy>epileptic seizures,Bardwell L. Smith (1982), Hinduism: New Essays in the History of Religions, BRILL, p.70Vivekananda (Swami), Advaita Ashrama, Prabuddha Bharata: Or Awakened India, Volume 110, p.482Swami Adiswarananda (2005), The Spiritual Quest and the Way of Yoga: The Goal, the Journey and the Milestones p.65{{sfn2006}} an interpretation which was rejected by Ramakrishna himself.Zaleskipp=162–163}}{{Sfn2003}}
valign="top"
Thérèse de Lisieux>Saint Thérèse de Lisieux| 1873–1897| Seized with "strange and violent tremblings all over her body". Visual hallucinations and celestial visions.|
valign="top"| 'Ramana Maharshi| 1879–1950
avesam'', a "spirit," "current" or "force" that seemed to possess him. After this event, he lost his interest in the usual life-routines, and immersed himself in emotional worship of Shiva and of Tamil saints. He left home, to live at the holy mountain Arunachala for the rest of his life, where he was worshipped as an avatar, due to his prolonged trance. In 1912, a major fit took place, accompanied with Aura (symptom)>various sensations as a "white shield" over part of his vision, and "swimming in the head," and in which he lost consciousness. Ramana later stated that these fits appeared occasionally.David godman (7 may 2008), Bhagavan's death experience, The Mountain Path, 1981, pp. 67–69{{Citation > last =Narasimha Swami title =Self Realisation: The Life and Teachings of Sri Ramana Maharshi url =https://archive.org/details/SelfRealisation}}G.K. Pillai (2015), Monks are from Meditating Monkeys: Unravelling the Algorithm of True Spiritual Awakening, chapter six
valign="top"| Pio of Pietrelcina| 1887–1968| Had visions at an early age about God, Jesus and the Virgin Mary.|
valign="top"| Jiddu Krishnamurti| 1895–1986
Theosophic Society>Theosophians to become 'the world teacher.' In his 20s, he underwent an episode of severe pain in the neck accompanied by mystical experiences. Throughout his life "the process" occurred, accompanied by the presence of "the otherness." Sloss, daughter of Krishnamurti's long-term mistress, considered the process to be a purely physical event centred on sickness or trauma, and suggested the possibility of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.YEAR=1991PUBLISHER=BLOOMSBURY PUBLISHINGEDITION=1STTITLE-LINK=LIVES IN THE SHADOW WITH J. KRISHNAMURTI,

Misdiagnosis

Many famous people are incorrectly recorded as having epilepsy. In some cases there is no evidence at all to justify a diagnosis of epilepsy. In others, the symptoms have been misinterpreted. In some, the seizures were provoked by other causes, such as acute illness or alcohol withdrawal.BOOK
, JW Sander, MC Walker, JE Smalls, 2007
, Fits, faints and funny turns – the differential diagnosis of epilepsy
,weblink
, Epilepsy 2007: From Cell to Community, A Practical Guide to Epilepsy. 11th ed (2007)
, 151–154
, International League Against Epilepsy (UK Chapter) and The National Society for Epilepsy.
, 29 October 2008
,

No evidence

The following people are often reported to have had epilepsy but there is no evidence that they had any attacks or illnesses that even resembled epilepsy.{| class=wikitable! style="width:17%;"| Name! style="width:13%;"| Life! style="width:65%;"| Comments! style="width:5%;"| Reference
valign="top"| Cambyses II| ?–521 BC| Herodotus, writing eighty years after the king's death, is responsible for repeating what are now regarded as slanderous remarks that Cambyses was mad and had epilepsy.|BOOK
, A. D. Godley (English Translation)
, Herodotus, The Histories
,weblink
, 3 September 2006
, 1920
, Harvard University Press
, 978-0-674-99133-0
, Book 3, Chapter 33
,weblink
, he is said to have been afflicted from his birth with that grievous disease which some call "sacred." (Epilepsy)
, {{dead link|date=September 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}JOURNAL
, York G, Steinberg D, The sacred disease of Cambyses II.
, Archives of Neurology
, 58
, 10
, 1702–4
, 2001
, 11594937
, 10.1001/archneur.58.10.1702
,
valign="top"| Pythagoras| 582–507 BC||
valign="top"| Aristotle| 384–322 BC||
valign="top"| Hannibal| 247–183 BC|Carthaginian military leader.|
valign="top"| Hermann von Helmholtz| 1821–1894||
valign="top"| Agatha Christie| 1890–1976||

Misdiagnosis by association

Many individuals have been mistakenly recorded as having epilepsy due to an association with someone (real or fictional) who did have epilepsy, or something similar.{| class=wikitable! style="width:17%;"| Name! style="width:13%;"| Life! style="width:65%;"| Comments! style="width:5%;"| Reference
valign="top"| Dante Alighieri| 1265–1321
The Divine Comedy>La Divina Commedia, he falls into a "dead faint".|
valign="top"| Isaac Newton| 1643–1727| In 2000, a paper was published comparing Newton's psychosis with that of a patient with psychosis, who additionally happened to have generalised tonic-clonic seizures. It is possible that ambiguities in the introduction to this paper led readers to associate the epilepsy with Newton rather than the patient.|JOURNAL
, Jeste D, Harless K, Palmer B, Chronic late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis that remitted: revisiting Newton's psychosis?
, Am J Psychiatry
, 157
, 3
, 444–9
, 2000
, 10698822
, 10.1176/appi.ajp.157.3.444
,
valign="top"| Ludwig van Beethoven| 1770–1827| His acquaintance Antonie Brentano had a son, Karl Joseph, who had epilepsy.|
valign="top"| Alfred, Lord Tennyson| 1809–1892| Close family had epilepsy and mental illness, which led Tennyson to fear this in himself.|
valign="top"| William Morris| 1834–1896| His daughter, May, had epilepsy and this caused Morris to question if his temper rages were related to this.|
valign="top"| Patrick Dempsey| born 1966
Disney Television movie>TV Movie "A Fighting Choice". He won an award from the Epilepsy Foundation for his convincing portrayal.|WEB
,weblink
, Patrick Dempsey Biography
, 13 August 2006
, 2006
, TV.com
, CNET
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080202121219weblink">weblink
, 2 February 2008
,
,

Provoked seizures

The following people may have had one or more epileptic seizures but since the seizures were provoked, they do not result in a diagnosis of epilepsy:{| class=wikitable! style="width:17%;"| Name! style="width:13%;"| Life! style="width:65%;"| Comments! style="width:5%;"| Reference
valign="top"| Edgar Allan Poe| 1809–1849| Poe abused drugs and alcohol. If he had any seizures, they were most likely due to alcohol withdrawal. One author has suggested Poe may have had complex partial seizures.|JOURNAL
, Bazil C
, Seizures in the life and works of Edgar Allan Poe.
, Archives of Neurology
, 56
, 6
, 740–3
, 1999
, 10369317
, 10.1001/archneur.56.6.740
,
valign="top"| Leo Tolstoy| 1828–1910| "Fits of spleen" and anguish attacks. Had seizures while dying of pneumonia.|
valign="top"| Algernon Charles Swinburne| 1837–1909| Alcohol withdrawal attacks.|
valign="top"| Lewis Carroll| 1832–1898| Migraine and a possible seizure that was probably due to the effects of drug withdrawal.|
valign="top"| Alfred Nobel| 1833–1896| Febrile seizures in infancy.|
valign="top"| Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky| 1840–1893| Seizures in the hours before death. Possible family history of epilepsy.|
valign="top"| Truman Capote| 1924–1984| Alcohol withdrawal seizures.|
valign="top"| Richard Burton| 1925–1984| Alcohol withdrawal seizures.|

Similar conditions

There are many conditions that produce paroxysmal attacks or events. These events (especially in historical, non-medical literature such as biographies) are often called fits, seizures or convulsions. Those terms do not exclusively apply to epilepsy and such events are sometimes categorised as non-epileptic seizures. When studied in detail, the attacks were more fully described as "fits of spleen", "seized by pain", "convulsed with anguish", etc.{| class=wikitable! style="width:17%;"| Name! style="width:13%;"| Life! style="width:65%;"| Comments! style="width:5%;"| Reference
valign="top"| Alexander the Great| 356–323 BC| Collapsed after taking strong medicine for pneumonia.|JOURNAL
, Hughes J
, Alexander of Macedon, the greatest warrior of all times: did he have seizures?
, Epilepsy & Behavior
, 5
, 5
, 765–7
, 2004
, 15380132
, 10.1016/j.yebeh.2004.06.002
,
valign="top"| Charles the Fat| c.839–888| Commonly regarded as a sickly king who had epilepsy, who had a "fit" in Frankfurt in 873. One author's recent detailed investigations cast doubt on the accuracy of certain reports, or their common interpretation. Instead, headache, malaria and a stroke are suggested.|BOOK
, Schutz
, Herbert
, The Carolingians in Central Europe, Their History, Arts, and Architecture
, 1 January 2004
, Brill Academic Publishers
, Charles suffered seriously from epilepsy
, 978-90-04-13149-1
, 129
, BOOK
, MacLean
, Simon
, Kingship and Politics in the Late Ninth Century: Charles the Fat and the End of the Carolingian Empire
, 25 September 2003
, Cambridge University Press
, 39–41
, 978-0-521-81945-9
,
valign="top"| Alfred the Great| 849–899| Acute pain.|
valign="top"| Leonardo da Vinci| 1452–1519| Nervous shaking and spasms when furious.|
valign="top"| Michelangelo| 1475–1564
fainting>faint due to working in very hot weather.|
valign="top"| Martin Luther| 1483–1546
John Osborne's play Luther (play)>Luther, his visions are the result of epileptic seizures. Luther had many documented illnesses, but any recurrent attacks were probably due to Ménière’s disease.|WEB
,weblink
, Epilepsy in Literature and Its Reflection in Society
, 28 August 2006
, Irma Jacqueline Ozer
, June 2006
, Breath & Shadow
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060810203849weblink">weblink
, 10 August 2006
, yes
, dmy
, JOURNAL
, Feldmann H
, [Martin Luther's seizure disorder]
, Sudhoffs Arch
, 73
, 1
, 26–44
, 1989
, 2529669
,
valign="top"| Cardinal Richelieu| 1585–1642| Bouts of tears.|
valign="top"| Louis XIII of France| 1601–1643| Episodes of violence, moodiness and fearfulness.|
valign="top"| Molière| 1622–1673| A coughing fit.|
valign="top"| Blaise Pascal| 1623–1662| Breath-holding spells as a child.|
valign="top"| William III of England| 1650–1702| Fainting and coughing fits.|
valign="top"| Jonathan Swift| 1667–1745| Severe fits of giddiness due to Ménière’s disease.|
valign="top"| George Frideric Handel| 1685–1759| A stroke.|
valign="top"
William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham>William Pitt the Elder| 1708–1778| Attacks of gout.|
valign="top"| Samuel Johnson| 1709–1784| Tourette syndrome.|
valign="top"| Jean-Jacques Rousseau| 1712–1778
Dizziness>Dizzy fits and agitation.|
valign="top"| James Madison| 1751–1836| Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.|
valign="top"| Walter Scott| 1771–1832| Seizures of cramp due to kidney stones and, later, a stroke.|
valign="top"| Niccolò Paganini| 1784–1840| Repeated collapsing due to weakness.|
valign="top"| Lord Byron| 1788–1824| Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.|
valign="top"| Percy Bysshe Shelley| 1792–1822| Fits of pain and nervous attacks.|
valign="top"| Hector Berlioz| 1803–1869| "Fits of spleen".|
valign="top"| Robert Schumann| 1810–1856
Clinical depression>Depression and hallucinations.|
valign="top"| Charles Dickens| 1812–1870| Renal colic.|
valign="top"| Søren Kierkegaard| 1813–1855| Collapsing due to weakness.|
valign="top"| Gustave Flaubert| 1821–1880| In 1984, Henri Gastaut proposed a very specific retrospective diagnosis of a particular form of complex partial epilepsy. More recent biographical information led John Hughes, in 2005, to conclude that Flaubert had psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and migraine.|JOURNAL
, Gastaut H, Gastaut Y, Broughton R, Gustave Flaubert's illness: a case report in evidence against the erroneous notion of psychogenic epilepsy.
, Epilepsia
, 25
, 5
, 622–37
, 1984
, 6383791
, 10.1111/j.1528-1157.1984.tb03472.x,
valign="top"| Guy de Maupassant| 1850–1893| Mental illness and hallucinations caused by inhaling ether.|JOURNAL
, Luis-Carlos Álvaro
, Hallucinations and pathological visual perceptions in Maupassant's fantastical short stories--a neurological approach.
, Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
, 14
, 2
, 100–15
, 2005
, 16019655
, 10.1080/096470490523399
,
valign="top"| Vincent van Gogh| 1853–1890
Vincent van Gogh's medical condition>van Gogh's illness. Henri Gastaut's posthumous diagnosis was "temporal lobe epilepsy precipitated by the use of absinthe in the presence of an early limbic lesion". This agrees with that of van Gogh's own doctor, Felix Rey, who prescribed potassium bromide. That van Gogh's personality closely matches the Geschwind syndrome is seen as further evidence by some. Not everyone agrees – a recent review by John Hughes concluded that van Gogh did not have epilepsy. He certainly was mentally ill at times and had "fainting fits" after heavy drinking.|JOURNAL
, Blumer D
, The illness of Vincent van Gogh.
, The American Journal of Psychiatry
, 159
, 4
, 519–26
, 2002
, 11925286
, 10.1176/appi.ajp.159.4.519
, JOURNAL
, Hughes J
, A reappraisal of the possible seizures of Vincent van Gogh.
, Epilepsy & Behavior
, 6
, 4
, 504–10
, 2005
, 15907745
, 10.1016/j.yebeh.2005.02.014,
valign="top"| Graham Greene| 1904–1991| Greene was diagnosed with epilepsy as a young man, after several incidents during which he lost consciousness. His impending marriage was at risk and he considered suicide. Treatment consisted of good walks and Kepler's Malt Extract. Greene eventually distrusted the diagnosis and it is now considered likely that the episodes were fainting spells.|JOURNAL
, Reynolds E
, The impact of epilepsy on Graham Greene.
, Epilepsia
, 42
, 8
, 1091–3
, 2001
, 11554900
, 10.1046/j.1528-1157.2001.0420081091.x
,
valign="top"| John Berryman| 1914–1972| Diagnosed with petit mal epilepsy, now estimated to have been nervous exhaustion. Berryman suffered from depression and alcoholism.|BOOK
, Mariani
, Paul L.
, Dream Song: Life of John Berryman
, 1 March 1996
, University of Massachusetts Press
, 978-1-55849-017-8
, Dr Gene Shafarman … told Berryman that he had been diagnosed as having a mild form of epilepsy called petit mal.
, 116
, WEB
,weblink
, John Berryman's Life and Career


, 31 August 2006
, Athey
, Joel
, 1999
, Modern American Poetry
, Department of English, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
,

Notes and references

{{Reflist|30em}}

Sources

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  • {{Citation | last =Katrak | first =Sarosh M | year =2006 | title =An eulogy for Prof. Anil D. Desai | journal =Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology |volume=9 |issue=4 |page=253 | url =http://www.annalsofian.org/article.asp?issn=0972-2327;year=2006;volume=9;issue=4;spage=253;epage=254;aulast=Katrak}}
  • BOOK, harv, Zaleski, Philip, Prayer: A History, Mariner Books, 2006, The Ecstatic,
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